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Title:
WEAR-RESISTANT DISCRETE COMPOSITE COVERING, METHOD AND DEVICE FORITS APPLICATION ONTO WORKING SURFACE OF ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE DETAIL
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2002/101111
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
The invention concerns the wear-proof coatings application by means of electric discharges and can be used for risen wear-proof and strength coatings application on the electric conductive parts working surfaces. Here is proposed a composite coating, applied on the electric conductive part working surface and consisting of the wear-proof fragments, plastic deformation-proof fragments and electric conductive part working surface fragments, free of coating, wherein the wear-proof and plastic deformation-proof fragments mentioned above have been fabricated of the material with low friction factor, containing non-ferrous metal, of the viscous metalline material, and also of the solid material, containing ferrous metal: by this the fragments pointed out form a discrete mosaic coating in their combination. Here are also disclosed a method for a composite coating application and a facility for its application, including a generator for electric impulses, the electrode, fabricated of the material, containing non-ferrous metal, with low friction factor, the electrode, fabricated of the solid material, containing ferrous metal, and the electrode, fabricated of the viscous mettaline material mentioned above, mounted on the holder for the electrodes with rotational movement and translation possibility. The invention provides the coating formation on the working part, which is susceptible to tribotechnical wear.

Inventors:
Digam, Marko Semenovytch (ul. Lunatcharsky, 24-429 Kiev, 02002, UA)
Lopatin, Igor Petrovytch (ul. Enthusiasts, 3/1-107 Kiev, 02157, UA)
Kopnov, Mykhailo Oleksandrovytch (ul. Podvojsky, 9-A-97 Kiev, 04060, UA)
Mokeyev, Yuriy Gennadijovytch (ul. Strajesko, 5-69 Kiev, 03126, UA)
Nemchin, Oleksander Fedorovytch (ul. Oles Gontchar, 6-33 Kiev, 01025, UA)
Vojtenko, Volodimir Fedorovytch (ul. Dragomanov, 5-344 Kiev, 02068, UA)
Yakovlev, Vitaliy Vasyliovytch (Tbilisi Lane, 10-24 Kiev, 03055, UA)
Application Number:
PCT/UA2002/000018
Publication Date:
December 19, 2002
Filing Date:
May 07, 2002
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
Digam, Marko Semenovytch (ul. Lunatcharsky, 24-429 Kiev, 02002, UA)
Lopatin, Igor Petrovytch (ul. Enthusiasts, 3/1-107 Kiev, 02157, UA)
Kopnov, Mykhailo Oleksandrovytch (ul. Podvojsky, 9-A-97 Kiev, 04060, UA)
Mokeyev, Yuriy Gennadijovytch (ul. Strajesko, 5-69 Kiev, 03126, UA)
Nemchin, Oleksander Fedorovytch (ul. Oles Gontchar, 6-33 Kiev, 01025, UA)
Vojtenko, Volodimir Fedorovytch (ul. Dragomanov, 5-344 Kiev, 02068, UA)
Yakovlev, Vitaliy Vasyliovytch (Tbilisi Lane, 10-24 Kiev, 03055, UA)
International Classes:
B23H9/00; C23C26/00; C23C30/00; (IPC1-7): C23C/
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Claims:
Claims
1. A composite covering applied onto a working surface of an electrically conductive detail, comprising fragments of : wear resistance; plastic deformations resistance; and also fragments on said working surface of said electrically conductive detail, free from covering, characterizing continuousness of the covering applied; wherein said fragments of resistance to deterioration and resistance to plastic deformations made from : a material with low factor of friction, containing nonferrous metal ; a viscous metalcontaining material; and a hard material, containing ferrous metal; said fragments in a combination forming a discrete mosaic covering on said working surface of said electrically conductive detail.
2. The composite covering, as claimed in claim 1, applied onto said working surface of said electrically conductive detail, wherein : said fragments of low friction factor material, containing nonferrous metal, having depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.05 0, 5 mm and continuousness 2550%, said fragments from viscous metalcontaining material having depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.050.5 mm, and continuousness 520 %, and said fragments from hard material, containing ferrous metal, having depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.051.5 mm and continuousness 1045 %.
3. The composite covering, as claimed in claim 2, applied onto said working surface of said electrically conductive detail, wherein : said fragments from a material containing nonferrous metal, with low factor of friction, having depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.20.5 mm and continuousness 2530%, said fragments from viscous metalcontaining material having depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.20.5 mm and continuousness 1520%, and said fragments from hard material, containing ferrous metal, having depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0. 31. 5 mm and continuousness 4045%, at working loadings 2050 kg/mml on said surface of said electrically conductive detail, including executed as a railway rail.
4. The composite covering, as claimed in claim 2, applied onto said working surface of said electrically conductive detail, wherein: said fragments from a material with low factor of friction, containing nonferrous metal, having depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.10.4 mm and continuousness 3540 %; said fragments from viscous metalcontaining material having depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.10.4 mm and continuousness 1015%; said fragments from hard material, containing ferrous metal, having depth of penetration into said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail 0.10.4 mm and continuousness 3540 %; at working loadings 1020 kg/mm2 on said working surface of said electrically conductive detail.
5. The composite covering, as claimed in claim 2, applied onto said working surface of said electrically conductive detail, wherein: said fragments from a material with low factor of friction, containing nonferrous metal. having depth of penetration into said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail 0.050.1 mm and continuousness 3540 %; said fragments from viscous metalcontaining material having depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.050.2 mm and continuousness 510 %; and said fragments from hard material, containing ferrous metal, having depth of penetration into said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail 0. 050. 9 mm and continuousness 3035% ; at working loadings 510 kg,/mm'on said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail.
6. The composite covering, as claimed in claim 2, applied onto said working surface of said electrically conductive detail, wherein: said fragments from a material with low factor of friction, containing nonferrous metal, having depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0. 050. 1mm and continuousness 4550%; said fragments from viscous metalcontaining material having depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.050.2 mm and continuousness 510 %; and also said fragments from hard material containing ferrous metal having depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.050.2 mm and continuousness 2025%; at working loadings 0.15.0 kg/mm"on said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail.
7. A method of application of composite covering onto a working surface of said electrically conductive detail, comprising imposing in any sequence fragments of : wear resistance; plastic deformations resistance, and also formation of fragments, free from covering.
8. The method of application of composite covering, as claimed in claim 7, onto said working surface of said electrically conductive detail, together with formation of said fragment of resistance to plastic deformations by means of an electrode from a material with the parameter of hardness exceeding the same for a material of a working surface of said electrically conductive detail.
9. The method of application of composite covering, as claimed in claim 7, onto said working surface of said electrically conductive detail, together with formation of said fragments of wear resistance by means of an electrode of a material with low factor of friction, containing nonferrous metal, and also an electrode of viscous metal containing material.
10. The method of application of composite covering, as claimed in claim 7, onto said working surface of said electrically conductive detail, together with. formation of said covering in the presence of graphite.
11. A device for application a composite covering onto a working surface of said electrically conductive detail, comprising: a generator of electric pulses, and also: an electrode from a material containing nonferrous metal, with low factor of friction, an electrode made of said hard material, containing ferrous metal, and an electrode made of said viscous metalcontaining material, mounted on an electrode holder with capability of rotaryprogressive movement.
12. The device for application said composite covering, as claimed in claim 11, onto said working surface of said electrically conductive detail together with installation of all said electrodes on the axes placed on said electrode holder.
13. The device for application said composite covering, as claimed in claim 11, onto said working surface of said electrically conductive detail together with a means of fixing of electrodes on said electrode holder on separate electrode cappings.
14. The device for application said composite covering, as claimed in claim 11, onto said working surface of said electrically conductive detail together with association of said electrodes, said detail and said generator of current pulses into an electric circuit.
15. The device for application said composite covering, as claimed in claim 12, onto said working surface of said electrically conductive detail together with a vessel with cooling liquid, hydraulically connected with said electrode cappings.
16. The device for application said composite covering, as claimed in claim 12, onto said working surface of said electrically conductive detail together with a means of cross moving and an inclination of said electrodes.
Description:
WEAR-RESISTANT DISCRETE COMPOSITE COVERING, METHOD AND DEVICE FOR ITS APPLICATION ONTO WORKING SURFACE OF ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE DETAIL TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION The invention concerns to application of wear-resistant coverings with electric discharges and may be used for applying coverings of increased wear resistance and durability on working surfaces of electrically conductive details.

BACKGROUND ART The method is known for processing aluminum surfaces which provide connection of a detail to an electric discharge circuit of the equipment, giving to alloying electrode vibrating movement along a surface of a detail with simultaneous passing discrete electric pulses between alloying copper electrode and a detail, which surface is a subject for covering. The corresponding device contains the generator of electric pulses and an electrode. (SU # 1 035 903, IPC B23H 9/00,1983).

The method is also known for applying wear resistant coverings on a working surface of electrically conductive detail, providing inclusion of the detail which surface is subject to hardening, and electrode through the generator into an electric circuit, giving to an electrode rotary-progressive movement along a working surface of a product with simultaneous passing discrete electric pulses through an electrode and formation of discrete sites of a covering. The device for applying coverings on a working surface of electrically conductive details consists of an electrode executed from nonfemous metal, and the generator, incorporated together with said electrically conductive detail into an electric circuit. (SU # 1 780 952, IPC B23H 9/00. 1992).

The common essential fault of these decisions is covering low wear resistance. connected, basically, with realization of intense condition reduction of a surface and insufficient use of tribotechnical wear mechan : snts.

In a basement of the given invention a problem is put of advanced covering creation, and also of method and device for its applying on a working surface of electrically conductive details, which technical result is, in particular, producing coverings with increased wear resistance on working surfaces of friction for variety of implementations: for details of devices of heavy mechanical engineering, including railway rails, for details of devices of the exact mechanics, and also for details, made of nonferrous metals and their alloys. Other problems, goals and advantages of the invention will be obvious from its detailed description, claims and drawings.

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION The composite covering is proposed, applied onto a working surface of said electrically conductive detail, comprises fragments of wear resistance, of plastic deformations resistance and of fragments on a working surface of said electrically conductive detail, free from covering (characterizing covering continuousness), in which said fragments of wear resistance and of plastic deformations resistance are made: from. a low friction factor material, containing nonferrous metal, from a viscous metal- containing material, and also from hard material, containing ferrous metal; said fragments in combination form a discrete mosaic covering on said working surface of said electrically conductive detail.

In the composite covering applied onto said working surface of said electrically conductive detail, said fragments of low friction factor material, containing nonferrous metal, have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.05-0,5 mm and continuousness 25-50%, said fragments from viscous metal-containing material have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.05-0.5 mm and continuousness 5-20%, and said fragments from hard material containing ferrous metal have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.05-1.5 mm and continuousness 10-45%.

In the composite covering applied onto said working surface of said electrically conductive detail said fragments from a material with low factor of friction. containing

nonferrous metal, have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.2-0.5mm and continuousness 25-30%, said fragments from viscous metal-containing material have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.2-0.5 mm and continuousness 15-20%, and said fragments from hard material, containing ferrous metal, have depth of penetration into said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail 0. 3-1. 5 mm and continuousness 40-45 %, at working loadings 20-50 kg/mm2 on said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail, including executed as a railway rail.

In the composite covering applied on a working surface of said electrically conductive detail, said fragments from a material with low factor of friction, containing nonferrous metal, have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.1-0.4 mm and continuousness 35-40 %; said fragments from viscous metal-containing material have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.1-0.4 mm and continuousness 10-15 %; said fragments from hard material, containing ferrous metal, have depth of penetration into said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail 0.1-0.4 mm and - continuousness 35-40 %; at working loadings 10-20 kg/mm2 on said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail.

In the composite covering applied on a working surface of said electrically conductive detail, said fragments from a material with low factor of friction, containing nonferrous metal, have depth of penetration into said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail 0.05-0.1 mm and continuousness 35-40 %; said fragments from viscous metal-containing material have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.05-0.2 mm and continuousness 5-10 % ; and said fragments from hard material, containing ferrous metal. have depth of penetration into said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail 0.05-0.2 mm and continuousness 30-35% ; at working loadings 5-10 kg/mm2 on said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail.

In the composite covering applied onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail, said fragments from a material with low factor of friction, containing nonferrous metal, have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.05-0.1 mm and continuousness 45-50 %; said

fragments from viscous metal-containing material have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.05-0.2 mm and continuousness 5-10 %; and also said fragments from hard material containing ferrous metal have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.05-0.2 mm and continuousness 20-25 %; at working loadings 0.1-5.0 kg/mm2 on said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail.

A method of application of composite covering onto said working surface of said electrically conductive detail contains imposing in any sequence fragments of : wear resistance; plastic deformation resistance and also formation of fragments, free from covering.

The method of application of said composite covering onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail is used together with formation of said fragments of plastic deformation resistance by means of an electrode of a material with the parameter of hardness exceeding the same for a material of said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail.

The method of application of said composite covering onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail is used together with formation of said fragments of wear resistance by means of an electrode of a material containing nonferrous metal. with low factor of friction, and also an electrode of viscous metal- containing material.

The method of application of said composite covering onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail is used together with formation of a covering in the presence of graphite.

A device for application of said composite covering onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail contains a generator of electric pulses, an electrode, made of said material containing nonferrous metal, with low factor of friction, an electrode made of said hard material containing ferrous metal and an electrode made of said viscous metal-containing material, mounted on an electrode holder with capability of rotary-progressive movement.

Said device for application of said composite covering onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail in addition contains installation of said electrodes on the axes mounted on said electrode holder.

Said device for application of said composite covering onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail in addition contains means of fixing of electrodes on said electrode holder on separate electrode cappings.

Said device for application of said composite covering onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail in addition contains association of said electrodes, said detail and said generator of current pulses into an electric circuit.

Said device for application of said composite covering onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail in addition contains a vessel with cooling liquid, hydraulically connected with said electrode cappings.

Besides said device for application of said composite covering onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail in addition contains a means for cross moving and inclination of said electrodes.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS On the drawings there is given the general view of the device for applying coverings on a working surface of an electrically conductive detail, wherein: fig. 1-is a front view of the device; and fig. 2-the same, the top view.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Formation of a discrete composite covering may be submitted as follows. A current pulse developed by generator forms breakdown in a place of contact of a detail and an electrode. During rotary-progressive movement of electrodes along a detail the generator develops electric pulses of constant frequency, amplitude and duration.

Passing of an electric pulse through a line of contact of electrode and detail results in occurrence of a channel of through conductivity. The density of a stream achieves 10'- 106 A/sm7. and the temperature in the channel of discharge achieves 83-103 °C. In the channel of through conductivity a beam of electrons, reflected from a surface of a detail) bombards a surface of an electrode owing to what metal of an electrode is locally warmed up to 4-5 l 0'°C, in part melts, and as drops, diffuse vapors, and also due to a

shock wave will penetrate into surface of the detail on the given depth, thus the covering of a surface looks like a mosaic. Besides as a result of a shock wave droplets of an electrode are transferred. In result the discrete covering fragment formed, mechanical properties of which considerably differ from properties, both of a material of a detail, and a material of an electrode. Dependently on electric pulse power and a material of electrode discrete fragments of wear resistance, of resistance to plastic deformations, together with fragment of absence of a covering on a surface of the detail are formed.

Covering continuousness of a working surface with mosaic layer is controlled due to change of frequency of pulses on each electrode and speed of movement of electrodes along a surface of detail. In case of performance of electrodes from hard and/or viscous material during covering application high-temperature tempering occurs.

As it was already specified above, the composite covering applying onto a working surface of said electrically conductive detail, comprises fragments of wear resistance, of resistance to plastic deformations, and also of fragments on a working surface of said electrically conductive detail, free from covering, characterizing covering continuousness : in which said fragments of wear resistance and resistance to plastic deformations are made from: a material with low friction factor containing nonferrous metal, viscous metal-containing material with additive up to 0.2% of carbon and hard material containing ferrous metal with additive 0.4-0.7% of carbon; said fragments in combination form a discrete mosaic covering on said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail.

In the composite covering applied onto said working surface of said electrically conductive detail, said fragments of low friction factor material, containing nonferrous metal, have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.05-0,5 mm and continuousness 25-50%, said fragments from viscous metal-containing material have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.05-0.5 mm and continuousness 5-20%, and said fragments from hard material containing ferrous metal have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.05-1.5 mm and continuousness 10-45%.

In the composite covering applied onto said working surface of said electrically conductive detail said fragments from a material with low factor of friction, containing

nonferrous metal. have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.2-0.5mm and continuousness 25-30 % said fragments from viscous metal-containing material have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.2-0.5 mm and continuousness 15-20 %, and said fragments from hard material, containing ferrous metal, have depth of penetration into said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail 0. 3-1. 5 mm and continuousness 40-45 %, at working loadings 20-50 kg/mm2 on said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail, including executed as a railway rail.

In the composite covering applied on a working surface of said electrically conductive detail, said fragments from a material with low factor of friction, containing nonferrous metal, have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.1-0.4 mm and continuousness 35-40 %; said fragments from viscous metal-containing material have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.1-0.4 mm and continuousness 10-15 %; said fragments from hard material, containing ferrous metal, have depth of penetration into said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail 0.1-0.4 mm and continuousness 35-40 %; at working loadings 10-20 kg/mm2 on said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail.

In the composite covering applied on a working surface of said electrically conductive detail, said fragments from a material with low factor of friction, containing nonferrous metal, have depth of penetration into said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail 0.05-0.1 mm and continuousness 35-40 %; said fragments from viscous metal-containing material have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.05-0.2 mm and continuousness 5-10 % ; said fragments from hard material, containing ferrous metal, have depth of penetration into said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail 0.05-0.2 mm and continuousness 30-35% ; at working loadings 5-10 kg/mm'on said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail.

In the composite covering applied onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail, said fragments from a material with low factor of friction, containing nonferrous metal, have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.05-0.1 mm and continuousness 45-50 %; said

fragments from viscous metal-containing material have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0. 05-0.2 mm and continuousness 5-10 %; and also said fragments from hard material containing ferrous metal have depth of penetration into said working surface of said electrically conductive detail 0.05-0.2 mm and continuousness 20-25 %; at working loadings 0.1-5.0 kg/mm2 on said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail.

The method of application of composite covering onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail contains imposing in any sequence fragments of: wear resistance; plastic deformation resistance and also formation of fragments, free from covering.

The method of application of said composite covering onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail is used together with formation of said fragments of plastic deformation resistance by means of an electrode of a material with the parameter of hardness exceeding the same for a material of said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail.

The method of application of said composite covering onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail is used together with formation of said fragments of wear resistance by means of an electrode from a material containing nonferrous metal, with low factor of friction, and also an electrode from viscous metal- containing material.

The method of application of said composite covering onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail is used together with formation of a covering at the presence of graphite.

A device for application of said composite covering onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail contains the generator of electric pulses, an electrode made of said material containing nonferrous metal, with low factor of friction, an electrode made of said hard material containing ferrous metal and an electrode made of said viscous metal-containing material, mounted on an electrode holder with capability of rotary-progressive movement.

Said device for application of said composite covering onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail in addition contains installation of said electrodes on the axes mounted on said electrode holder.

Said device for application of said composite covering onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail in addition contains means of fixing of electrodes on said electrode holder on separate electrode cappings.

Said device for application of said composite covering onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail in addition contains association of said electrodes, said detail and said generator of current pulses into an electric circuit.

Said device for application of said composite covering onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail in addition contains a vessel with cooling liquid, hydraulically connected with said electrode cappings.

Besides said device for application of said composite covering onto said working surface of friction of said electrically conductive detail in addition contains a means for cross moving and inclination of said electrodes.

Specifications of concrete use of the invention are given in Table 1.

According to accompanying drawings the device comprises an electrode 1 made of hard material containing ferrous metal, an electrode 2 of viscous metal-containing material, an electrode 3 of a material with low friction factor containing nonferrous metal, and unit 4 for fastening a graphite rod, providing its contact to a surface of detail when covering applying. All the electrodes are fixed on the axes placed on electrode holder 5 with capability of rotation around the axes and progressive moving along a surface of said electrically conductive detail 6. The generator 7 of electric current pulses is electrically connected with electrodes 1-3 and electrically conductive detail 6 into an electric discharge circuit supplied from a power supply unit 8. Vessel 9 with cooling liquid is placed near the electrodes, and is hydraulically connected by the pipeline 10 with separate electrode cappings 11 of electrodes 1-3 and mounted on the basement 12.

The electrode holder 5 is incorporated with unit 13 for cross moving and inclination of electrodes I-3* mounted on the basement 12, that provides an opportunity of its step cross moving and change of an inclination of electrodes concerning a working surface of detail 6. The unit 4 is also fixed on electrode holder 5 for maintenance contact of graphite with a surface of a detail, but without electric pulses supply to graphite.

The device works as follows. Before covering applying onto a working surface of detail 6 said detail 6 is cleared for maintenance of stable electric contact between electrodes 1-3 and a detail 6. Basement 12 is disposed on a detail 6 (for lengthy

details). or a detail 6 is disposed on basement 12 (in the other case). The generator 7 of electric pulses submits electric pulses on electrodes, and to base 12 constant speed of moving is given. To electrodes 1-3 rotary movement around the axes is given, simultaneously submitting electric pulses with frequency, which provides necessary discrete fragments continuousness, and with power, which determines penetration depth of a covering on fragments of wear resistance and plastic deformation resistance. Unit 4 with graphite mounted behind nearby electrode 1 provides graphite friction, applying graphite on a working surface of a detail. From a vessel 9 electrode cooling liquid (water) in pipeline 10 moves to electrode cappings 11.

During movement of base 12 along a detail covering application is carried out.

With the help of unit 13 for cross moving and inclination of electrodes I-3, electrode holder 5 together with electrodes 1-3 and unit 4 moves crosswise surface of a detail on the distance equal to thickness of electrodes, and process of applying of a fragments of covering is repeated, up to full covering application on a working surface of a detail. An inclination of electrodes to detail 13 is changed also with the help of unit 13 for cross moving and inclination of electrodes 1-3.

The invention is illustrated by concrete examples of its embodiment.

Example 1. Tests for definition of wear resistance of samples with length 200mm were carried out of a material of the following composition, %: C-0.5, Mn-0.5, Si-0. 5, Fe-the rest, On necks of length 20 mm put wear resistant discrete composite coverings were applied.

Tests were carried out on three samples, necks of which were applied with coverings of different continuousness (20-35% ; 50-65% ; 70-80%). Electrodes were applied of the following compositions, %: 1. C-0.6, Mn-0.6, Si-0.5, Fe-the rest ; 2. C-0.1. Si-0. 1, Mn-1. 0, Cr-19.0, Ni-11.0, Fe-therest ; 3. Al-9 0. Mn-2, Cu-the rest.

During testing of wear resistance each covered sample was compared to a sample, on neck of which covering was not applied. Results of tests are given in Table 2.

Example 2. Comparative tests were carried out of wear resistance for connction

ring-flute of pistons made of an alloy of following composition, %: Si-11.0, Mg-0.8, Cu-1.5, Mn-0. 3, Al-the rest.

Wear resistance of connection a ring-flute in pistons of internal-combustion engine with the top flute strengthened by discrete composite covering with a different continuousness (20-30%, 50-60%, 80-90%) with application of the electrode, of following composition, %: Al-9.0, Fe-4.0, Cu-the rest - was compared to wear resistance of a flute without covering. Results of tests are given in Table 3.

Example 3. Comparative tests were carried out of wear resistance for the samples cut out from radial necks of a steel cranked shaft of a diesel locomotive, made of a material of the following composition, %: C-0.45, Mn-0.6, Fe-the rest.

Electrodes were applied of the following compositions, %: 1. C-0.5, Mn-0.5, Si-0. 3, Fe-the rest ; 2. C-0.08, Si-0.08, Mn-2.0, Cr-17.0, Ni-9.0, Fe-the rest ; 3. Al-10. 0, Mn-2.0, Cu-the rest ; On a surface of samples strengthening composite discrete coverings were applied with a different continuousness (25-30% ; 50-60%; 75-90%). Results of the tests are given in Table 4.

Example 4. Fragments of resistance to plastic deformations on a working surface of a railway rail were formed with the help of an electrode which hardness exceeds the same of a material of a rail, at the presence of alloying material-graphite.

Composition of material of the rail, %: C-0.6, Mn-0.6, Si-0.05, Fe-the rest.

Electrodes applied were of the following compositions, %: i. C-0.6, Mn-0.6, Si-0. 05, Fe-the rest ; 2. C-0.1, Si-0.1, Mn-1.0, Cr-19.0, Ni-11.0, Fe-therest ; 3. Al-9. 0, Mn-2.0, Cu-the rest.

The fragments had depth of penetration hz = 0.8 mm and continuousness 43 %.

Further fragments of wear resistance were formed, applying an electrode of nonferrous

metal containing material with low factor of friction 0. 3 mm, providing depth of penetration hl = 0. 3 mm, and continuousness was 27 %. An electrode-was made of viscous steel, provide the same depth of penetration, and continuousness was 17 %.

Results of researches of wear of frictional pairs railway rail-wheel at operational loadings P = 50 kg/mm within 12 months having discrete coverings, and without coverings, are given in table 5.

INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY The present invention provides formation of a covering on a working surface of a detail which wear takes place as tribotechnical.

Presence of the complete set of electrodes of various structures allows to change in a wide spectrum physical and mechanical properties of a working surface of a detail due to formation of a discrete-mosaic covering.

The discrete coverings applied by the offered device guarantee the increased wear resistance of a detail and preservation constant value of factor of superficial friction.

The use of the invention allows to render optimally discrete coverings of the increased durability on a working surface of electrically conductive details, taking into account continiousness and depth of a covering with the electrodes made of materials with various mechanical properties, and continiousness and depth of discrete covering are determined by conditions of operation and necessary value of friction factor.

Table 1 Operational Characteristics of Discrete Covering Operational Technological Disk electrodes: loading on material: fragments penetration parameters: parameters: # - diameter@ covered detail continuousness: depth into H - thickness surface # - viscosity, #1 - wear discrete V1 - speed of I - current, amperes; #F-friction factor resistance; fragments of: movement on friction U - voltage, volts; of nonferrous metal #2 - plastic h1 - wear, and surface, m/sec; V2 - speed of moving of containing material deformation h2 - plastic T - temperature, °C base (detail), m/sec (low), resistance deformation HRc - hardness on resistance kg/cm2 Rockwell % mm V1 T I U V2 mm #1 = 25 - 30 h1 = 0.2-0.5 # 80 - 100, H = 5 - 7 20-50 #2 = 40 - 45 h2 = 0.3-1.5 0.5-1.0 -45° - +45° 20-100 25-40 0.7-1.0 # 80 - 100, H = 6 - 8 #1 = 15 - 20 h1 = 0.2 - 0.5 # 80 - 100, H = 5 - 7 #1 = 35 - 40 h1 = 0.1 - 0.4 # 40 - 50, H = 4 - 5 10-20 #F = 0.1-0.2 #2 = 35 - 40 h2 = 0.1 - 0.4 0.2-0.5 -45° - +45° 15-20 10-200 0.5-0.7 # 40 - 50, H = 5 - 6 HRc = 55 - 65 #1 = 10 - 15 h1 = 0.1 - 0.4 # 40 - 50, H = 4 - 5 #1 = 45 - 50 h1 = 0.01 - 0.1 # 40, H = 1.5 - 2 5=10 # = 10 - 15 joule/cm2 #2 = 30 - 35 h2 = 0.05 - 0.2 0.1-0.2 -45° - +45° 3-10 5-10 0.3-0.5 # 40, H = 3 - 5 #1 = 5 - 10 h1 = 0.05 - 0.2 # 40, H = 1.5 - 2 #1 = 45 - 50 h1 = 0.05 - 0.1 # 40, H =1.5 - 2 0.1-5.0 #2 = 20 - 25 h2 = 0.05 - 0.2 0.1-0.2 -45° - +45° 3-10 5-10 0.3-0.5 # 40, h = 1.5 - 2 #1 = 5 - 10 h1 = 0,05 - 0,2 # 40, H = 1.5 - 2 Table 2 Covering Covering continuousness, % Sample wear without 20 30 35 50 60 65 70 75 80 covering Relative wear 0. 8 0. 8 0.8 0. 6 0.6 0.65 0.75 0.75 0.75 1.0 Table 3 Covering wear Sample of connection Covering continuousness, % without ring-flute covering 20 25 30 50 55 60 80 85 90 Relativewear 0. 8 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.5 0. 5 0.7 0.7 0.7 1. 0 Table 4 Covering wear Sample Covering continuousness, % without covering 20 25 30 50 55 60 75 85 90 Relative wear 0. 8 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.6 0. 7 0. 7 0. 8 1. 0 Table 5 Time, months 2 4 6 8 10 12 Area of wear of detail with discrete 0 0 1 10 26 42 mosaic covering, mm' Area of wear of detail without 34 70 102 120 132 145 covering, mm'