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Title:
WHEAT-BASED PRODUCTS IN FOODS FOR THE WHEAT INTOLERANT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2015/117181
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour is disclosed for use in producing a food product suitable for consumption by a wheat intolerant consumer without development of associated defining symptoms of wheat intolerance The reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour includes as a constituent a proportion of wheat gluten protein recovered from a source wheat flour and additional constituents of types which have been recovered from wheat flour or other non-wheat source and which have been substantially depleted of FODMAPS content.

Inventors:
PEARCE, Robert John (1 James Lane, Kiama, New South Wales 2533, AU)
BARRIE, Amy Lee (5 Hanover Close, South Nowra, New South Wales 2541, AU)
Application Number:
AU2014/000822
Publication Date:
August 13, 2015
Filing Date:
August 20, 2014
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
SHOALHAVEN STARCHES PTY LTD (36 Bolong Road, Bomaderry, New South Wales 2541, AU)
PEARCE, Robert John (1 James Lane, Kiama, New South Wales 2533, AU)
BARRIE, Amy Lee (5 Hanover Close, South Nowra, New South Wales 2541, AU)
International Classes:
A21D2/00; A21D6/00; A21D13/06
Domestic Patent References:
WO2005046347A22005-05-26
WO2006017212A12006-02-16
Other References:
GIBSON ET AL.: "Personal view: food for thought - western lifestyle and susceptibility to Crohn's disease. The FODMAP hypothesis'.", ALIMENTARY PHARMOCOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS, vol. 21, no. 12, 2005, pages 1399 - 1409, XP055218816
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ANDERSON-TAYLOR, Michael (P.O. Box 710, Cronulla, New South Wales 2230, AU)
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Claims:
The claims

1 , A reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour for use in

producing a food product suitable for consumption by a wheat intolerant consumer without deve lopment of associated defining symptoms of wheat intolerance, said reduced FODM APS wheat gluten protein-based flour including as a constituent a proportion of wheat gluten protei recovered from a source wheat flour and additional constituents of types which have been recovered from wheat floor or ofher non-wheat source and which have been substantially depleted of FODMAPS content.

2. The reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour as claimed in claim 1 wherein said additional constituents include one or more insoluble suspended materials which have been substantially depleted of FODMAPS content.

3. The reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour as claimed in claim 2 wherein said additional constituents further include one or more soluble materials which have been substantially depleted of FODMAPS content.

4. The reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour as claimed in claim 3 wherein said one or more insoluble suspended materials includes a washed low FODMAPS commercial food grade Vital Wheat Gluten.

5. The reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour as claimed in claim 4 wherein said one or more insoluble suspended materials fiirther includes a washed reduced FODMAPS starch.

6. The reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour as claimed in claim 5 wherein said Vital Wheat Gluten. contains protein on a N% x 6.25 dry solids basis in a range of about 80% to 90%.

7. The reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour as claimed in claim 3 wherein said one or more soluble materials includes a reduced FODMAPS Wheat Albumin Concentrate.

8. The reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour as claimed in claim 7 wherein said Wheat Albumin Concentrate contains soluble wheat protein in a range of about 40% to 90% on a N% x 6.25 dry solids basis.

9. The reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein- based flour as claimed in claim 2 wherein said reduced FODMAPS

wheat gluten protein-based flour further includes a modified wheat

protein.

10. The reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein- based flour as claimed in claim 9 wherein said modified wheat

protein contains about 30% to 90% soluble wheat protein and

peptides.

3 1. The reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein- based flour as claimed in claim 2 wherein said one or more

insoluble suspended materials includes a washed reduced

FODMAPS wheat fibre food-grade ingredient or a low FODMAP

food-grade fibre ingredient.

12. The reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein- based flour as claimed in claim 2 wherein said additional

constituents further include a low FODMAPS food ingredient

suitable for the achievement of desirable texture, appearance or

other property when utilised as an ingredient in a food type.

13. A process of producing a reconstituted reduced FOD APS wheat

gluten protein-based flour suitable for use in a food product for a

wheat intolerant consumer, said process including the steps of dispersing a source wheat flour in an aqueous solution at a temperature at which starch particles in said source flour are not hydrated or dissolved, recovering a wheat gluten protein from said dispersion.. washing said wheat gluten protein whereby the FODMAPS content thereof is substantially depleted, combining said wheat gluten protein with one or more insoluble suspended materials which have been recovered either from wheat flour or other non-wheat source and have been substantially depleted of FODMAPS.

The process of producing a reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein- based flour as claimed in claim 13 wherein said wheat gluten protein is further combined with one or more soluble materials which have been recovered either from wheat flour or other lion- heat source and have been substantially depleted of FODMAPS.

The process as claimed in claim 13 wherein said temperature is within a range of about 10 degrees C to about 60 degrees C.

The process as claimed in claim 1.5 wherein said insoluble suspended materials are recovered by means which include settling, screening, filtration or centrifugation.

The process as claimed in claim 1 and including a further step wherein said one or more insoluble suspended materials are separated into component types before washing and drying.

18. The process as claimed in. claim 17 wherein said component types include wheat gluten protein, A-, B- and C- starches and fibre materials.

19. The process as claimed in claim 18 wherein said process includes a ftirther step by which said component types are collected, washed and dried by type before combining with said one or more soluble materials.

20. The process as claimed in claim 9 wherein said one or more soluble materials are recovered by ultrafiltration of a liquor remaining after recovery of said insoluble materials.

21. The process as claimed in claim 20 wherein said ultrafiltration is assisted by

diafiltration to further reduce FODMAPS content of said one or more soluble materials.

22. The process as claimed in claim 18 wherein said washed wheat

gluten protein and said one or more insoluble suspended materials that have been recovered but not dried are combined in a wet state then dried, milled and sieved to form said reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour.

23. The process as claimed in c laim 22 wherein said washed wheat gluten protein and said one or more insoluble materials are further combined in said wet state with said one or more soluble materials then dried, milled and sieved to form said reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour.

24. The process as claimed in claim 1.9 wherein said washed wheat gluten protein and said one or more insoluble suspended materials are combined through mixing in a dry state to form said reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour.

25. The process as claimed in claim 24 wherein said washed wheat gluten protein and said one or more insoluble suspended materials are further combined through mixing in said dry state with said one or more soluble materials to form said reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour.

26. The process as claimed in claim 25 wherein said one or more soluble materials are produced by enzymatic or chemical modification of wheat gluten.

27. The process as claimed in claim 22 wherein said one or more insoluble materials are in the for m of starch, recovered from said non-wheat source.

28. The process as claimed i claim 23 wherein said one or more insoluble materials and one or more soluble materials are in the form of modified starch.

29. A food product which includes the reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour as claimed in any one of claim 1. to 12.

30. The food product as claimed in claim 29 wherein said food product type is a

leavened or unleavened bread product, a bakery product, a doughnut product, a pastry product, a biscuit product, a pasta product, a noodle product or other food product normally containing predominantly wheat flour.

31. The food product as claimed in claim 29 wherein said food product type normally contains wheat flour in a substantial proportion and in conjunction with other food ingredients having low FODMAPS content including a pastry-encased pie or tart, a battered or crumbed or coated food item, a blended or extruded snack food product, a blended or extruded breakfast cereal product.

Description:
Wheat-Based Products in Foods For The Wheat Intolerant

Field Of The Invention

The present invention relates to food products that are produced from materials whic include wheat gluten protein derived from wheat flours that may be consumed by those affected by wheat intolerance without development of the associated defining symptoms.

Background To The invention

Wheat-based products especially wheat flours and deri vatives from w heat flours cause adverse health conditions in a minor but significant proportion of the human population.

Wheat allergy is well documented, less severe tha allergies to several other food allergens and mediated via an IgE-mediated response to wheat protein. Wheat-based products can neither be consumed or applied topically to avoid a allergic response.

Coeiiac Disease has been recognised in children failing to thrive and persists through adulthood. It has been shown to be a genetically-determined autoimmune condition stimulated by the consumption of wheat protein ( gluten) causing the lining of the small intestine to be eroded and lose its digestive and nutrient absorptive capacity. A gluten-free diet for persons so affected is necessary throughout life.

Less-well-defined food intolerance has been attributed to wheat-based foods amongst others. Symptoms include feelings of abdominal discomfort, bloating and flatus are often referred to as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS); these have been attributed to abnormal response to fermentation of ingested foods in the large intestinal region of the gastrointestinal tract. Avoidance of certain foods including wheat -based products may remedy the physiological condition. Recently, this fermentation has been attributed to a group of substances referred to as Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And PolyolS (FODMAPS) found widely in foods. In healthy individuals such fermentation may indeed be advantageous to gut health but. to those with I BS, fermentation of FODM APS should be avoided to the greatest extent possible by careful diet selection; the quantity present may vary greatly between different food sources. The list of foods with a high content of FODMAPS includes wheat flour and products made with it, which has led to popular recognition of a health condition referred to as wheat intolerance or more specifically Non- Coeliac Gluten Sensitivity ( CGS),

A diet with increasing evidence of efficacy for the management of IBS is the low FODMAPS diet as described by Gibson, PJl and Shepherd, S.J. (2010) Evidence- based dietary management of functional gastrointestinal symptoms; the FODMAPS approach.. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 25: 252-258.

Understanding of FODMAPS encompasses mechanisms of action , being luminal distension from their osmotic effect as described by Barrett, J.S, Gearry, R.B, Muir, J.G, Irving, P.M, Rose, R, Rosella, O, Haines, M ' .L, Shepherd, SJ, and Gibson, P.R, (2010) Dietary poorly absorbed , short-chain carbohydrates increase delivery of water and fermentable substrates to the proximal colon. Alimeni Pharmacol ' liter 31 :874- 882. together with rapid fermentation preferentially to hydrogen as described by Qiig, D.K, Mitchell, S.B, Barrett, J.S, Shepherd, S.J, Irving, P.M, Biesiekierski, J.R, Smith, S, Gibson, P.R. and Muir, J.G. (2010) Manipulation of dietary short chain

carbohydrates alters the pattern of gas production and genesis of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome L Gastroenerol HepatoL 25: 1366 - 1373.

These findings together with support of continually expanding food compositional analysis, have led to widespread application of the low r FODMAPS diet to manage IBS symptoms throughout Australia and New Zealand and in some parts of Europe and North America. In a controlled, cross-over study of patients with IBS by Emma. P Halmos et al ( Emma P.Halmos, Victoria .4. Power, Susan J Shepherd, Peter R Gibson and Jane G. Muir (2014) A diet low in FODMAPS reduces symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Gastroenterol 146; 67 - 75.), a diet low in FODMAPS effectively reduced functional gastrointestinal symptoms. According to a recent multi-authored review by Carlo Catassi et al available as an open access article w^vjrcbi,nltn nih.gov/pmc articles/PMC3820047, Non Coeliac Gluten Sensitivity: The New Frontier of Gluten Related Disorders, the frequency of NCGS is still unclear and an overlap between ' NCGS and IBS has been detected, ' Lack of bioraarkers is still a major limitation of clinical studies making it difficult to differentiate NCGS from other gluten related disorders.

Patients with NCGS do not have celiac disease but their symptoms improve when the are placed on a gluten-free diet and so the condition is also referred to as gluten intolerance. Recently, Biesiekierski, JR, Peters, S.L,, Newnham, B.D., Roseila, 0„ Muir, J.G. and Gibson P.R. (2013) Gastroenterology 145(2) 320-328 showed no effects of gluten intolerance in patients with self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivit y after dietary reduction of fermentable, poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates. In a placebo-controlled . cross-over rechailenge study, they found no evidence of specific or dose-dependent effects of gluten in pat ients with NCGS placed on diets lo w in FODMAPS.

Consequently we ha ve recognised a significant opportunity that could provide benefit commercially and socially, it is estimated that approximately 14% of western consumers used to eating bread and other wheat-based products exhibit or develop NCGS. By the present invention, products containing wheat gluten protein are made tolerable for those normally wheat intolerant by provision of ingredients that are extensively reduced in FODMAPS content.

Wheat flour is unique amongst widel consumed cereal flours in that it contains protein which when mixed with water in a dough or batter or when extracted from the flour with abundance of water forms a complex known as wheat gluten. This wheat gluten protein (WGP) complex has unique physical and chemical properties that are demonstrated as well-documented, characteristic visco-elastic properties. These protein properties of viscous strength combined with elasticity independent of other components of flour uniquely allow a cohesive dough or batter to be formed which can be expanded by inclusion of a gas usually carbon dioxide generated by a fermentation process or a chemical reaction or can be processed into various non- expanded cohesive forms. When such doughs or batters containing wheat gluten protein in various formulations as have been prepared over thousands of years and documented in cookery and recipe books in many languages through recent history are cooked by a variet y of means in a range of configurations, products arising are often deemed highly desirable as food items.

The composition of wheat flour has been modified or augmented for purposes of changing the functional performance of dough made from it or for improving the nutritional value. For such purposes wholly o partially reconstituted and recombmed flours have been described. US Patent Application 2009252844 discloses the formation of a partially reconstituted high fibre wheat flour by dry combining a low- moisture-content fibre source into the host/carrier in an amount which, provides a substantially homogeneous mixture throughout and dry blending into a homogeneo s mixture one grain- based binder and a grain-based tenderiser. The rise of such partial ly reconstituted wheat, flour in pasta is disclosed,

US Patent No 8.372,466 discloses a recombmed whole grain flour for use in preparing whole grain products such that the whole grain particulates provide minimum visual impact to the whole grai product. By selectively controlling the particle size of the milled bran and germ constituents used in the recombmed whole grain flour the visual and colour impact associated with bran and germ particulates can be substantially eliminated from the whole grain product.

US Patent Application No 20120196013 discloses a combined stabilised bran component and stabilised whole grain wheat flour produced by subjecting a bran enriched coarse fraction which contains bran, germ and starch to grinding or milling to reduce grittiness of the coarse fraction without substantially damaging the starch due to abrasion.

The exceptional difference provided by the present invention relative to prior invention is that by selecting WGP for its unique physical chemical and functional properties as the core junctional food ingredient with a low FODMAPS content and combining it with other constituent types found in flour but not unique to wheat flour that also have a low FODMAPS content and are well tolerated by persons affected by wheat intolerance is so provided a reconstituted WGP-based flour (WGPF) in which those components of a normal wheat flour that cause wheat intolerance are omitted and the said reconstituted WGPF is tolerated by persons affected by wheat intolerance:

Summary Of The Invention

It is an o bject of the invention to ameliorate the aforementioned disadvantages and accordingly a reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour is disclosed for use in producing a food product suitable for consumption, by a wheat oitoierant consumer without development of associated defining symptoms of wheat intolerance, said reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour including as a constituent a proportion of wheat gluten protein recovered from a source wheat flour and additional constituents of types which have been recovered from wheat flour or other non-wheat source and which have been substantially depleted of FODM APS content.

In furtherance of said object the invention also discloses a process of producing a reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour suitable for use in a food product for a wheat intolerant consumer, said process including the steps of:- dispersing a source wheat flour in an aqueous solution at a temperature at which starch particles in said source flour are not hydrated or dissolved, recovering a wheat gluten protein from said dispersion, washing said wheat gluten protein whereby the FOD APS content thereof is substantially depleted, combining said wheat gluten protein with one or more insoluble suspended materials which have been recovered either from wheat flour or other non-wheat source and have been substantially depleted of FODMAPS. The term " " other non-wheat source" may (without limitation) include for exampie soy, oat, barley, pea, lentils, pulses, potato, tapioca, com, and any other new sources that provide low FODMAPS which may be consumed by those intolerant

In still furtherance of said object, the invention also discloses a food product which includes the reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour as referred to above.

In another aspect the present invention further relates to novel WGPF products adapted for consumption by persons affected by wheat intolerance including CGS, said products containing WGP as the core functional food ingredient with, a low FODMAPS content and combined with other constituent types found in flour but not unique to wheat flour that also have a low FODMAPS content whereby said WGPF products may be consumed by those affected by wheat intolerance without development of the associated defining symptoms.

Another aspect of the invention further relates to the process of producing WGPF products containing WGP as the core functional food ingredient with a low

FODMAPS content and combined with other constituent types found in flour but not unique to wheat flour that also have a low FODMAPS content that may be consumed by those affected by wheat intolerance without development of the associated defining symptoms.

A further aspect of the invention further relates to applications in foods of WGPF products that contain WGP as the core functional food ingredient with a low

FODMAPS content and combined with other constituent types found in flour but not unique to wheat flour that also have a low FODM APS content that may be consumed by those affected by wheat intolerance without development of the associated defining symptoms. By a process of the present invention WGPF materials are produced which are depleted substantially of FODM APS thereby when consu med not resulting in the defining symptoms of wheat intolerance.

By a process o f the present invention WGP is produced that is depleted substantially of FODM APS and is combined with starch and optionally other constituents of flour derived from wheat flour or other sources also depleted substantially of FODMAPS thereby when consumed not resulting in the defining symptoms of wheat intolerance.

By a process of the present inventio a reconst ituted WGPF is produced in which the constituent WGP provides unique physical chemical and functional properties and when combined with starch and optionally other constituents of flour derived from wheat flour or other sources also depleted substantially of FODMAPS so enables food products normally and traditionally prepared with wheat flour to be similarly prepared but substantially depleted of FODMAPS thereb when consumed not resulting in the defining symptoms of wheat intolerance.

In accordance with the invention a process is further disclosed for producing said WGP and WGPF materials, said method preferably including the steps of;-

- dispersing a wheat flour in an aqueous solution such as water at a temperature in the range of about IOC to about 60C whereby starch particles are not irydrated or dissolved,

- from this dispersion the suspended solids are recovered and separated into well-recognised major component types by processes including settling, screening, filtration or centrifugation.

- the WGP component is extensively washed, enriched in protein content, depleted substantially of water soluble materials including FODMAPS and collected

- optionally the collected WGP is dried in the well-documented manner of wheat gluten manufacture

from the aforesaid dispersion depleted of WG P, A- B- and C-starches and fibre materials are separated, extensivel washed, purified, collected and optionally dried in the well-documented manner of starch manufacture said starches and fibre materials being depleted substantially of FOD APS - the aforesaid A- B- and C- starches and fibre materials being depleted

substantially of FODMAPS are used optionally in a reduced FODMAPS WGPF of this invention.

the residual water-soluble material including the FODMAPS are separated from insoluble materials and further processed preferably using membrane technology to separate and recover the soluble proteins, dextrms and soluble fibre away from the FODMAPS.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention wheat flour is dispersed in water at any temperature less than about 60C so that starch particles are not hydrated and dissolved by any suitable means. From this dispersion the great majority of the suspended solids are recovered and possibly fractionated according to the well-documented maimer of starch and gluten manufacture as aforesaid. The water-soluble materials including the low molecular weight FODMAPS are further processed to separate them from larger molecular species including proteins, dextrine and soluble non-starch polysaccharides.. Any suitable means ma be used for the separation according to the possible usage of each of the higher molecular weight components, especially preferred is the process of ultrafiltration whereby proteins, dextrms and non-starch polysaccharides are retained by a perforated membrane and smaller FODMAP species and other low molecular weight components filter with water through the perforated membrane. By the process of diafiltration, additional water may be added to the retained species to enable more of the permeable species to traverse the membrane and so further deplete the FODMAP content of the retained spec ies. The concentrated liquid product so obtained by retention of the high molecular weight components by the filter may be dried by any suitable means and utilised in the preparation of a reconstituted WGPF having reduced FODMAPS content

It is further preferred that by a process of the present in vention WGP having reduced FODMAPS content is combined with proportions of non-gluten constituents of flour from wheat or other source with FODMAPS content depleted to produce a reconstituted reduced FODM APS WGPF. It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention materials having reduced FOD APS content are combined to produce a reconstituted WGPF product including a proportion of washed low FODM APS WGP as freshly recovered and washed wet gluten or as commercial food grade Vital Wheat Gluten with the FODMAPS content depleted the said reconstituted WGPF product having a gluten content in the range 5 - 20% on a dry basis, more preferably in the range 8-14% on a dry basis. Said Vital Wheat Gluten should contain protein on a N% x 6.25 dry solids basis in a range of about 80 - 90%

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention materials including WGP having reduced FODMAPS content are combined to produce a reconstituted WGPF product including a proportion of washed low FODMAPS starch as f eshly recovered and washed wet starch or as commercial dry food grade starch from wheat flour or other sources with the FODMAPS content depleted the said reconstituted WGPF product having a starch content in the range 50 - 95% on a dry basis, more preferably in the range 80 - 92% o a dry basis.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention materials including WGP having reduced FODMAPS content are combined to produce a reconstituted WGPF product including a proportion of washed low FODMAPS fibre as freshly recovered and washed wet fibre or as commercial dry food grade fibre from wheat or other source with the FODM APS content depleted the said reconstituted WGPF product having a fibre content in the range 1 - 10% on a dry basis.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention proportions of materials including WGP that are insoluble in water are combined with a proportion of materials that are soluble in water but depleted of FODMAPS to produce a WGPF product containing proportions of constituents from wheat flour or other source but with the FODMAPS content depleted. i t is further preferred that by a process of the present invention proportions of materials including WGP that are insoluble in water are combined with a proportion of one o more materials that are soluble in water but depleted of FODMAPS including a reduced FODMAPS Wheat Albumin Concentrate constituted by

proportions of soluble wheat protein, wheat dextrin and soluble wheat fibre to produce a reconstituted WGPF product containing WGP and a proportion of constituents of flour from wheat or other source with FODMAPS content depleted. Said Wheat Albumin Concentrate should contain soluble wheat protein in a range of about 40 - 90% on a N% x 6.25 dry solids basis.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention WGP as dried vital wheat gluten and other preferred and selected materials ha ving low FODM APS content that have been dried, milled and sieved are combined with thorough mixing in the dry state to produce a reconstituted WGPF product containing proportions of the constituents with FODMAPS co tent depleted.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention WGP as freshly recovered and washed wet gluten with FODMAPS content substantially depleted and other preferred and selected materials with low FODMAPS content that have been recovered but not dried are combined in the wet state and then dried, milled and sieved to produce a reconstituted WGPF product containing proportions of the constituents with FODMAPS content depleted.

It is further preferred tbat by a process of the present invention reconstituted WGPF products having low FODMAPS content are produced containing proportions of WGP with low FODMAPS content and other preferred and selected materials with low FODMAPS content from a wheat flour source or other source which possess and display physical and chemical characteristics due to the WGP content desirable for the preparation of various food types.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention reconstituted WGPF products are produced containing proportions of WGP ha ving low FODMAPS content and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with the FODM APS content depleted together with modified forms of the types of constituents from a wheat flour source or other source also with FODMAPS content depleted and which possess and display physical and chemical characteristics due to the WGP content desirable for the preparation of various food types. It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention reconstituted WGPF products are produced containing proportions of WGP having low FODMAPS content and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with

FODMAPS content depleted together with modified forms of the types of constituents from a wheat flour or other source also with the FODMAPS content depleted especially forms of WGP chemically modified to enable solubilisation of a portion of the gluten protein, and that such WGPF products possess and display physical and chemical characteristics due to the WGP content desirable for the preparation of various food types.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present inventio reconstituted WGPF products are produced containing proportions of WGP having low FODMAPS content and other constituents of a source wheat flo ur or ot her source with

FODMAPS content depleted together with modified forms of the types of constituents from a wheat flour or other source also with the FODMAPS content depleted especially forms of WGP modified by proteolytic enzymes resulting in fragmentation and solubilisation of a major portion of the glute protein as gluten-derived peptides, and that such WGPF products possess and display physical and chemical

characteristics due to the WGP content desirable for the preparation of various food types.

I t is further preferred that said forms of WGP modified by proteolytic enzymes being thus referred to as wheat protein hydrolysates and being thus constituted

predominantly by gluten-derived peptides should contain about 30 - 90% soluble wheat protein and peptides.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention reconstituted WGPF products are produced containing proportions of WGP having low FODMAPS content and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with the FODMAPS content depleted together with modified forms of the types of constituents .from a wheat flour source or other source with the FODMAPS content depleted which possess and displa physical and chemical characteristics desirable for the preparation of a range of food types normally and traditionally produced from normal wheat flour.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention reconstituted WGPF products are produced containing proportions of WGP having lo FODMAPS content and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with the FODMAPS content depleted together with modified forms of the types of constituents from a wheat flour source or other source with FODMAPS content depleted which possess and display physical and chemical characteristics desirable for the preparation of bread and other forms of bakery items normally and traditionally produced from normal, wheat flour. ft is further preferred that by a process of the present invention reconstituted WGPF products are produced containing proportions of WG P having low FODMAPS content and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with

FODMAPS content depleted together with modified forms of the types of constituents from a wheat flour source or other source with FODMAPS content depleted which possess and dis lay physical and chemical chatactetistics desirable for the preparation of pastry and biscuit products normally and traditionally produced from normal wheat flour. ft is further preferred that by a process of the present invention reconstituted WGPF products are produced containing proportions of WGP having low FODMAPS content and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with the FODMAPS content depleted together with modified forms of the types of constituents from a wheat flour source or other source with FODMAPS content depleted which possess and display physical and chemical characteristics desirable for the preparation of pasta products normally and traditionally produced from normal wheat flour.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present in vention reconst ituted WGPF products are produced containing proportions of WGP having low FODMAPS content and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with

FODMAPS content depleted together with modified forms of the types of constituents from a wheat flou source or other source with FODMAPS content depleted which possess and display physical and chemical characteristics desirable for the preparation of noodle products normally and traditionally produced from normal wheat flour.

It is farther preferred that by a process of the present invention reconstituted WG F products are produced containing proportions of WGP having lo FODMAPS content and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with the FODMAPS content depleted together with modified forms of the types of constituents from a wheat flour source or other source with the FODMAPS content depleted which possess and display physical and chemical characteristics desirable for the preparation of bread and other forms of baker items normally and traditionally produced from normal wheat flour but which when consumed do not result in defined symptoms of wheat intolerance.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention reconstituted WGPF products are produced containing proportions of WGP having low FODMAPS content and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with the FODMAPS content depleted together with modified forms of the types of constituents .from a wheat flour source or other source with the FODMAPS content depleted which possess and display physical and chemical characteristics desirable for the preparation of pastry and biscuit products such as normally and traditionally produced from normal wheat flour but which when consumed do not result in defined symptoms of wheat intolerance.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invent ion reconstituted wheat WGPF products are produced containing proportions of WGP having low FODMAPS content and other constituents of a sourc e w heat flour or other source with the FODM APS content depleted together with modified forms of the types of constituents from a wheat flou source or other source with the FODMAPS content depleted which possess and display physical and chemical characteristics desirable for the preparation of pasta products such as normally and traditionally produced from normal wheat flour hut which when consumed do not result in defined symptoms of wheat intolerance. it is further preferred that by a process of the present invention reconstituted WGPF products are produced containing proportions of WGP having low FODM APS content and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with the FODMAPS content depleted together with modified forms of the types of constituents .from a wheat flour source or other source with the FODMAPS content depleted which posses and display physical and chemical characteristics desirable for the preparation of noodle products such as normally and traditionally produced from normal wheat flour but which when consumed do not result in defined symptoms of wheat intolerance.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention food materials and reconstituted WGPF products are produced with low and depleted levels of

FODMAPS as determined by an accepted and published chemical test procedure.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention, food materials and reconstituted WGPF products are produced with low and depleted levels of

FODMAPS determined to be suitable for persons displaying wheat intolerance by an established in vivo method relying upon the analysis of exhaled breath gases following consumption of said food materials or reconstituted WGPF products.

Utilising a reconstituted WGPF product of the present invention that has reduced FODMAPS content as an ingredient in a food formulation, a food product is prepared having a reduced FODM APS content. The food product may be of any type normally prepared with a normal wheat flour as the major ingredient and with minor ingredients that also have a low FODMAPS content such that the final combined food product also has reduced FODMAPS content.

Utilising a reconstituted WGPF product of the present invention that has reduced FODMAPS content as the major ingredient in a food formulation, a food product of a bakery-type is prepared having a reduced FODMAPS content such products including leavened and unlea vened breads of various compositions.

U tilising a reconstit uted WGPF product of the present in vention that has reduced FODMAPS content as the major ingredient in a food formulation, a food product of a bakery-type is prepared having a reduced FODMAPS content such products including scones and muffins of various compositions.

Utilising a reconstituted WGPF product of the present invention that has reduced FODMAPS content as the major ingredient in a food formulation and including as minor ingredients food materials having a low FODMAPS content, a food product of a doughnut -type is prepared having a reduced FODM APS content

Utilising a reconstituted WGPF product of the present invention that has reduced FODMAPS content as the major ingredient in a food formulation and including as minor ingredients food materials having a. low FODMAPS content, a food product of a pastry-type is prepared having a reduced FODMAPS content.

Utilising a reconstituted WGPF product of the present invention that has reduced FODMAPS content as the major ingredient in a food formulation and including as minor ingredients food materials having a low FODMAPS content, a food product of a biSCuit-type is prepared having a reduced FODMAPS content

Utilising a reconstituted WGPF product of the present invention that has reduced FODMAPS content as the major ingredient in a food formulation and including as minor ingredients food materials having a low FODMAPS content, a food product of a pasta-type is prepared having a reduced FODMAPS content.

Utilising a reconstituted WGPF product of the present invention that has reduced FODMAPS content as the major ingredient in a food formulation and including as minor ingredients food materials having a low FODMAPS content, a food product of noodle-type is prepared having a reduced FODMAPS content.

U tilising a reconstituted WGPF product of the present invention that has reduced FODMAPS content as the major ingredient in a food formulation and including as minor ingredients food materials having a low FODM APS content, an extruded food product is prepared having a reduced FOD APS content suitable for consumption as a breakfast cereal-type product or snack- food-type product. Detailed Description Of Non-Limiting Examples Of The Invention

Example 1. Preparation of reconstituted redueed-FODM APS WGPF products suitable for reduced-FODMAPS bread and other food types that depend on the unique visco-elastic properties of wheat gluten protein.

Bread making requires a strong flour with wheat gluten (WGP) content typically greater than 10%,

(i) To SOOg of commerc ial A-grade food-grade wheat starch that had been extensively washed with water prior to drying and deemed to be greatly reduced of FODMAPS Content was added 120g of Vital Wheat Gluten (VWG) containing 80% protein on a N x 6,25 and dry solids basis. The VWG was commercial food-grade gluten that had been extensively washed with water prior to drying and deemed to have a very low FODMAPS content. The ingredients were well-blended as dry mix and formed the basic reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF product.

(ii) To 830g of commercial A-grade food-grade wheat starch as in Example 1 (i) was added 120g V WG as used in Example l(i) and 50g of reduced- FODMAPS Wheat Albumin Concentrate (WAC) containing 40% soluble wheat protein obtained after recovery using ultrafiltration technology from the aqueous washings from starch and gluten manufacture. During preparation the liquid protein concentrate being retained by the ultrafiltration membrane was extensively diafiltered with water to greatly reduce the content of all low molecular weight substances and so after drying resulted in a reduced-FODMAPS WAC. The dry ingredients were well blended as in Example ! (i) and resulted in a more-complex reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF product.

(iii) To 780g of commercial A-grade food-grade wheat starch as in Example l(i) was added 120g V WG as used in Example 1 i ), 50g of reduced- FODMAPS Wheat Albumin Concentrate (WAC) as in Example l(ii) and 50g of washed wheat fibre recovered from the starch-gliiten manufacturing process as a by-product subsequently then dried and milled and deemed to be a reduced-FOD APS wheat fibre food-grade ingredient. The dry ingredients were well blended as in Example 1 (i) and resulted in an even- more-complex reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF product.

To 830g of commercial A-grade food-grade wheat starch as in Example 1 (1) was added 120g VWG as used in Example l(i) and 50g of enzyme- hydro lysed wheat gluten containing at least 67% of soluble peptides. The dry ingredients were well blended as in Example 1 (i) and resulted in a more-functional reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF product.

To 830g of commercial A-grade food-grade wheat starch as in Example was added I20g VWG as used in Example l (i) and 50g of enzyme- hydro lysed wheat gluten containing at least 90% of soluble peptides. The dry ingredients were well blended as in Example l(i) and resulted in a more- mnctionai reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF product.

(vt) To 830g of commercial A-grade food-grade wheat starch as in Example

1(i) was added 120g V WG as used in Example l(t) and 50g of enzyme- hydro lysed wheat gluten containing at least 67% of soluble peptides. The dry ingredients were well blended as in Example l (i) and to which was added Ig sunflower oil so resulting in a more-functional reconstituted reduced-FODM APS WGPF product;

(vii) To 830g of commercial A-grade food-grade wheat starch as in Exa mple was added 120g VWG as used in Example l(i) and 50g of enzyme- hydro lysed wheat gluten containing at least 67% of soluble peptides. The dry ingredients were well blended as in Example l(i) and to which was added Ig sunflower oil and 0.2g lecithin so resulting in a more-functional reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF product.

(viii) 415g of commercial A-grade food-grade wheat starch was mixed with 415g of com (maize ) starch. To t his was added 120g VWG as used i Example l(i) and 50g of enzyme-hydrolysed wheat gluten containing at least 67% of soluble peptides. The dry ingredients were well blended as in Example I (i) resulting in a more-functional reconstituted reduced- FODMAPS WGPF product.

Analysis of reconstituted WGPF products for FODMAPS content.

FODMAPS (Total Fructan) content of reconstituted WGPF products was estimated using the method of Biesiekierski et l.(201 1). ( J.R. Biesiekierski, 0. Rosella, R.Rose, K. Leis, IS. Barrett, S J. Shepherd, P.R. Gibson and J.G. Muir (201 1) Quant ification of fhictans, gaiacto-oiigosaccharides and other short-chain

carbohydrates in processed grains and cereals. J Hum Nittr Diet 24: 154 -176 )

To be considered a low FODMAPS food item, a typical serve according to

Biesiekierski et ai(201 1 ) should contain less than 35mg FODMAPS.

Accurately about I g of reconstituted WGPF product was dispersed in l OOrnL of hot deionised water (80C) and stirred while maintaining the temperature for ISminutes. Each sample was filtered through Whatman No 1 filter paper and then a small portion was micro filtered through a 0.22micron syringe filter.

Normal all-purpose wheat flour and rice flour were also analysed in the same manner as flours that are respectively not tolerated and tolerated by IBS/ NCOS patients.

Total Fructan content was determined by the commercially available enzymatic kit ( Megazyme Fructan HK Assay Kit, Megazyme International Ireland ltd, Wick!ow Ireland; AOAC Method 999.03 and AACC Method 32.32) as directed by the manufacturer.

FODMAPS content of reconstituted WGPF products and flours is shown in Table 1.

Table 1.

Example 2 Preparation of reduced-FODMAPS wheat bread

For initial tr ials to develop formulations and identify the importance of flour components in bread made from reconstituted WGPF products, an automated bread- making machine was used in a Rapid-bake mode resulting in bread being made in 2 hours from start of the baking process.

(i) Bread preparation using regular "strong" wheat flour suitable for bread making

Into the bread-maker chamber were added 400g bakers flour, 8g salt g compressed yeast, 4g of soft impro ver, 2g shortening and 244g of water. The bread-maker bake cycle was started and after 2 hours the baked bread was removed and allowed to cool prior to evaluation of loaf volume, crust colour and crumb texture.

Results Loaf volume 2800 ml.

Crust colour golden brown

Crumb texture open and light

( ii) Bread preparation using reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF product as in Example

Into the bread-maker chamber were added 400g reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF as in Exam le 1 (i) together with, other non- flour ingredients as in Exam le 2(i) and baked and evaluated as in Example 2(1)

Results

Loaf volume 1500 mL

Crust colour pale brown

Crumb texture tightly closed and heavy

(in) Bread preparation using reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF product as in Example l (ii )

Into the bread-maker chamber were added 400g reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF as in Example l(ii) together with other non-flour ingredients as in

Example 2(i) and baked and evaluated as in Example 2(i.)

Results

Loaf volume 2400 mL

Crust colour light brown

Crumb texture open and quite light (iv) Bread preparation using reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF product as in Example l.(iii)

Into the bread-maker chamber were added 400g reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF as ia Example l(iii) together with other non-flour ingredients as in

Example 2(1) and baked and evaluated as in Example 2(i)

Results

Loaf volume 2300 nil.

Crust colour light brown

Crumb texture open and quite light

(v) Bread preparation using reconstituted reduced- .FODM APS WGPF product as in Example l(iv)

Into the bread-maker ciiamber were added 400g reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF as in Example ! (iv) together with other non-flour ingredients as in

Example 2(1) and baked and evaluated as in Example 2(1)

Results

Loaf vo lume 2400 ml,

Crust colour light brown

Crumb texture open and quite light

(vi) Bread preparation using reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF product as in Example l (v)

Into the bread-maker chamber were added 400g reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGP F as in Example l (v) together with other non-flour ingredients as in Example 2(i) and baked and evaluated as in Example 2(1) Results

Loaf volume 2500 niL

C rust colour light brown

Crumb texture open and quite light

Analysis of breads for Total Fructan content

Total Fructan content of bread was essentially by the method in E.xaraple I . A portion of bread from inside of the crust, and not including any of the crust, was crumbed in a kitchen coffee grinder to a fine crumb consistency. The dry solids content of this was determined using standard oven drying and gravimetric analysis method. Accurately about 1 g of crumbed bread was used for Total Fructan analysis.

FODMAPS content of bread samples is shown in Table 2.

Table 2.

[ Bread sample Total fructan content (mg FODMAFS/iOOg dried bread)

[ Example 2(i) 2180

[ Example 2(it) 420

J Example 2(iil) 420

J Example 2(iv) 430

Example 2(v) 400 ~

Example 2(vi) 400 Example 3 Preparation of redueed-FODMAPS doughnuts

Non-flour ingredients for doughnuts were selected to be free of or contain only low levels of FODMAPS

Ingredients

1 OGOg all purpose wheat flour ( control)

or

lOOOg reconstituted WGPF as in Example l(v)

50g sugar

lOg salt

500g lukewarm water

20g active dry yeast

1 Og soft bread improve

80ir canola oil

Method

All ingredients were mixed in a dough processor until the dough temperature reached 26C. After resting for 15 minutes , the dough was rolled out into a sheet

approximately 2cm thick. Ring doughnut shapes were cut from the dough sheet and prooied for 30 mmutes. The puffed dough rings were then deep fried at 190C then drained and cooled.

Total Fructan content of doughnuts

Doughnuts were made to commercially acceptable quality based on appearance, texture and flavour. A cross-section portion of doughnut, was crumbed when cold as in Example 2 and Total Fructan content estimated as in Example 2. FODMAP content of doughnut made with preferred reconstituted reduced -FQ DM APS WGPF is compared to that of doughnut made from normal all-purpose wheat flour in Table 3. Table 3.

Example 4 Preparation of reduced- FO DM APS croissants

Non-flour ingredients for croissants were selected to be free of or contain only low levels of FODMAPS. The recipe and method were adapted from a public home cookery source.

Ingredients

375g all-purpose wheat flour ( control)

or

375g reconstituted WGPF as hi Example l(v)

23 Og sugar

3g salt

250g lukewarm water

lOg active dry yeast

225g cold unsalted butter

Method

Working in a room cool enough for the butter not to melt, yeast was mixed into warm water and allowed to stand until foamy. The flour ( all-purpose wheat flour or reconstituted WGPF) was mixed with sugar and salt. The yeast mixture was added and mixed. The mixture was kneaded until it was not sticky. The dough was wrapped and chilled for 15 mm. The butter was sliced into thin slices. The dough was unwrapped and rolled out into a square. Slices of butter were laid on the centre of the dough square. The doug was folded over and sealed. The folded dough was rolled out and folded again, and then again. The roil and fold steps were repeated twice more. The dough was allowed to rest between each roll and fold. Finally, the dough was rolled into a rectangle and cut into triangles. Each triangle was stretched and rolled up. The rolled triangles of dough were allowed to rise for about 2 hours until puffy and baked in a hot oven, 245C, until golden brown approximately 20 minutes.

Total Fructan content of croissants

Croissants were made to commercially acceptable quality based on appear ance, texture and flavour. A cross-section portion of croissant was crumbed when cold as in Example 2 and Total Fructan content estimated as in Example 2, FODMAP content of croissant made with preferred reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF is compared to that of croissant made from normal all-purpose wheat flo ur in Table 4,

Table 4.

Example 5 Preparation of reduced-FODMAPS muffins

Non-flour ingredients for muffins were selected to be free of or contain only low levels of FODMAPS. The recipe and method were adapted from a public home cookery source. The Hour contained starches from both wheat and com (maize) to improve the texture.

Ingredients SOOg aJl-purpose wheat flour ( control)

or

SOOg reconstituted WGPF as in Example L( viti)

580g caster sugar

15g salt

20g baking powder

I40g egg

20g Pre-Gel wheat starch,

140g canola oii

400g water

Ig vanilla essence

Method

AJl dr y ingredients were blended thoroughly. All liquids and oil were added and mixed until smooth for 2 minutes. Portions of batter were filled into paper muffin cases and baked at 1 0C for approximately 15 minutes or until golden brown.

Total Fructan content of muffins

Muffins were made to commercially acceptable quality based on appearance, texture and flavour, A cross-section portion of muffin was crumbed when cold as in

Example 2 and Total Fructan content estimated as in Exam le 2, FODMAP content of muffin made with preferred reconstituted rednced-FOD APS WGPF is compared to that of muffin made from normal all-purpose wheat flour in Table 5.

Table 5.

Flour type in muffin formulation (mg FQDJVf APS/ lOOg dried muffin)

AJI-purpose wheat flour 1 180

Reconstituted WGPF, Example 1 (viii) 240 Example 6. Preparation of reduced-FODMAPS scones

Non-flour ingredients for scones were selected to be free of or contain only low levels ofFOD APS.

Ingredients

2000g all-purpose wheat flow ( control)

or

2000g reconstituted WGPF as in. Example i(y)

380g caster sugar

6g salt

140g baking powder

55g milk protein concentrate 85,

290g cake fat

I 00g water

Method

All the dry ingredients were mixed thoroughly and sieved. The fat was rubbed through the dry ingredients mix. The water was added slowly and mixed to a smooth thick paste. Portions were cut out onto scone trays and baked at 220C for

approximately 20minutes or until a light golden brown colour.

Total Fructan content of scones

Scones were made to commercially acceptable quality based on appearance, texture and flavour. A cross-section portion of scone was crumbed when cold as in Example 2 and Total Fructan. content estimated as in Example 2. FOD AP content, of scone made with preferred reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF is compared to that of scone made from normal all-purpose wheat flour in Table 6. Table 6.

Example 7 Preparation of reduced -POD MAPS tortilla

Non-flo ur ingredients for tort i llas were selected to be free of or contain only low levels of FQDMAPS.

Ingredients

250g all-purpose wheat flour ( control)

or

250g reconstituted WGPF as in Example i(v)

20g shortening

3.75g salt

5g water

1 g baking powder

1.25g Improver

Method

The flour, baking powder, improver and salt were combmed and the shortening and water added while stirring continuously. The dough was kneaded gently, rested for 10 minutes then divided into 50g pieces and rolled out to 1 mm thick. Tortillas were cooked in a hot pan for 30 seconds on each side until patches of golden brown appeared.

Total Fructan content of tortilla Tortillas were made to commercially acceptable quality based on appearance, texture and flavour. A central portion of tortilla was cnimbed when cold as in Example 2 and Total Fructan content estimated as in Example 2. FODMAP content of tortilla made with preferred reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF is compared to that of tort illa made from normal all-purpose wheat flour in Table 7.

Table 7.

Example 8 Preparation of reduced-FODMAPS biscuit

Non-flour ingredients for biscuits were selected to be free of or contain only lo w levels of FOD APS.

Ingredients

!OOOg all-purpose wheat flour ( control)

or

1 OOOg reconstituted WGPF as in Example l(v) lOOg egg

700g uiisaited butter

340g caster sugar

8g salt

Method The butter and sugar were beaten until pale and creamy. Gradually the eggs were added white mixing and then the wheat flour or WGPF and salt were added and mixed for 2 minutes. Approximately 40g portions of mix were placed onto flat baking trays and baked at 180C for 12 minutes or until light golden brown colour.

Total Fructan content of biscuits

Biscuits were made to commercially acceptable quality based on appearance, texture and flavour. A portion of biscu it was crumbed when cold as in Example 2 and Total Fructan content estimated as in Example 2. FODMAP content of biscuit made with preferred reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF is compared to that of biscuit made from normal all-purpose wheat flour in Table 8,

Table 8.

Example 9 Preparation of redueed-FOD APS shortcrust pastry cases.

Non-flour mgredients for shortcrust pastry were selected to be free of or contain only low levels of FODMAPS. The recipe and method were adapted from a public home cookery source. ingredients

250g all-purpose wheat flour ( control)

or

250g reconstituted WGPF as in Example I (v)

125g unsalted butter 60g egg

0.5g salt

Method

The flour or WGPF, butter and salt were processed in a food processor until, crumbed. Beaten egg was added to the mix with the processor running and processed until large clumps formed. The dough was formed into a ball and kneaded gently to combine, it was then wrapped and refrigerated for 2 hours. The dough was rolled out and cut into the desired size and baked blind in preferred baking pans at 180C until golden brown.

Total Fructan content of shortcrust pastry

Shortcrost pastry cases were made to commercially acceptable quality based on appearance, texture and flavour, A portion of shortcrost pastry case was crumbed when cold as in Example 2 and Total Fructan content estimated as in Example 2. FODMAP content of shortcrust pastry case made with preferred reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF is compared to that of shortcrust pastry case made from normal all-purpose wheat flour in Table 9.

Table 9.

Flour type in pastry formulation (mg FOD PS/ lOOg dried shortcrust pastry) Ail-purpose wheat flour 1430

Reconstituted WGPF Example 1 (v) 270

Example 10 Preparation of reduced-FODMAPS white noodles. Ingredients

2000g ail-purpose wheat flour (control)

or 2000g reconstituted WGPF , Example 1 (vi)

40g salt

750s water

Method

The selected flour type was placed in a food processor. The salt was dissolved in the water and trickled in while mixing the .flour in the food processo and mi ed until a crumb was formed. The loose crumbs were compressed and formed into a rectangular block then rolled through a roller press at its widest setting. The resulting dough sheet was fo lded in half and the step repeated six times then rested for 30 minutes. Rolling the dough was continued with progressively thinner spacing down to the required noodle thickness. The sheet was cut into strands with the cutting rollers and cooked immediately in boiling water for 20 minutes, drained and cooled.

Total Fructan content of white noodles

White noodles were made to commercially acceptable quality based on appearance, texture and flavour. A portion of white noodles was crumbed when cold as in Exam le 2 and Total Fructan content estimated as in Exam le 2. FODMAP content of white noodles made with preferred reconstituted reduced-FOD APS WGPF is compared to that of white noodles made from normal all-purpose wheat H ur in Table

10.

Table 10

Flour type in white noodles (mg FODMAPS/lOOg dried white noodles)

All-purpose wheat flour 2300

Reconstituted WGPF, Example l(vi) 440 Example 11 Preparation of reduced-FODMAPS yellow alkaline noodles.

Ingredients

2000g all-purpose wheat flour (control)

or

20G0g reconstituted WGPF , Example !(vii) sodium carbonate

water

Method

The selected flour type was placed in a food processor. The salt was dissolved in the water trickled in while mixing the flour in the food processor and mi ed until a crumb was formed. The loose crumbs were compressed, formed into a. rectangular block and rolled through a roller press at its widest setting. The resulting dough sheet was folded in half and this step repeated six times. The dough was rested for 30 minutes. Rolling the dough continued with progressively thinner spacing down to the required noodle thickness. The sheet was cut into strands with the cutting rollers and cooked immediately in boiling water for 20 minutes, drained and cooled.

Total Fructan content of yellow alkaline noodles

Yellow alkaline noodles were made to commercially acceptable quality based on appearance, texture and flavour. A portion of yell ow alkaline noodles was crumbed when cold as in Example 2 and Total Fructan content estimated as in Example 2. FODMAP content of yellow alkaline noodles made with preferred reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF is compared to that of yellow alkaline noodles made from normal all-purpose wheat flour in Table 1 1.

Table 1 3. Flour type in yellow noodles (mg FO DM APS/1 OOg dried yellow noodles

All-purpose wheat flour 2300

Reconstituted WGPF, Example l (vii) 440

Example 12 Preparation of reduced-FODMAPS dried instant noodles

Ingredients

2()00g all-purpose wheat flour (control)

or

2000g reconstituted WGPF , Example l(vii)

40g salt

4g sodium carbonate

75 Og water

Method

The selected flour type was placed in a food processor. The salt was dissolved in the water and trickled in while mixing the flour in the food processor and mixed until a crumb was formed. The loose crumbs were compressed and formed into a rectangular block then rolled through a roller press at its widest setting. The resulting dough sheet was folded in half and the step repeated six times then rested for 30 minutes. Roiling the dough was continued with progressively thinner spacing down to the required noodle thickness. The sheet was cut into strands with the cutting rollers and cooked in a steamer for 20minutes. The cooked strands were then deep tried briefly to dehydrate and then drained and cooled.

Fruetan. content of dried instant noodles Dried instant noodles were made to commercially acceptable quality based on appearance, texture and fla vour. A portion of instant noodles was crumbed as in Example 2 and Total Fractan content estimated as in Exam le 2. FQDMAP content of dried instant noodles made with preferred reconstituted reduced-FODMAPS WGPF is compared to that of dried instant noodles made from normal all-purpose wheat flour in Table 12.

Table 1 .

Example 13 Preparation of reduced-FODMAPS pasta ingredients

2000g all-purpose wheat flour (control)

or

2000g reconstituted WGPF , Example l(vii)

40g salt

750g water

Method

Each of the selected flour types were placed in a food processor. The salt was dissolved in the water and trickled in while mixing the floor in the food processor and mixed until a crumb was formed. The ioose crumbs were compressed and formed into a rectangular block then rolled through a roller press at its widest setting. The resulting dough sheet was folded in half and the step repeated six times then rested for 30 minutes. Rolling the dough was continued with progressively thinner spacing down to the required pasta thickness. The sheet was cut into strands with the cutting rollers and refrigerated or dried for preservation.

Total Fructan content of pasta

Pasta was nmde to commercially acceptable quality based on appearance, texture and flavour. A. portion of pasta was crumbed when cold as in Example 2 and Total Fructan content estimated as in Example 2. FODMAP content of pasta made with preferred reconstituted reduced- FO DM APS WGPF is compared to that of pasta made from normal all-purpose wheat flour in Table 13,

Tab!e 13.

Example 14 Preparation of a reduced-FODMAPS extruded expanded breakfast cereal product ngredients for reduced-FODM APS extruded expanded breakfast cereal were selected to be free of or contain only low levels of FQDJV!APS.

Ingredients

32kg all-purpose wheat flour (control)

or

32kg reconstituted WGPF , Example l(i)

10kg reduced-FODMAPS wheat fibre

10kg maize flour

20kg rice flour wheat protein hydrolysate (82% protein)

sugar

salt

Method

All dry ingredients were thoroughly mixed in a ribbon blender. The ingredient mix was introduced into the barrel together with enough water to achieve the desired extruded product. Product was extruded through a Clextral twin screw extruder with barrel diameter of 33mm and length of 768mm in 6 consecutive heating zones.

Product was extruded through a die having 2mm diameter and 5mm length.

Total Fructan content of extruded expanded breakfast cereal

Extruded expanded breakfast cereal product was made to commercially acceptable quality based on appearance, texture and flavour. A portion of extruded breakfast cereal was crumbed when cold as in Example 2 and Total Fructan content estimated as in Example 2. FODSV1 AP content of extruded breakfast cereal made with preferred reconstituted reduced-FQDMAPS WGPF is compared to that of extruded breakfast cereal made from normal all-purpose wheat flour in Table 14.

Table 14.

Reconstituted WGPF, Example l(i) 160

It will thus be appreciated that this invention at least hi the forms of the examples described provides novel and improved food products for wheat intolerant persons as well as methods and processes for producing such products. The examples disclosed herein are however only the currently preferred forms of the invention and additional .modifications may be made within the scope of said invention as defined by the following claims. Prior Art US Patents Cited 8,372,466

Prior Art US Patent Applications Cited

2009252844

20120196013

Other Prior Art Publications Cited

Barrett, I.S, Gearry, R.B, Muir, JG, Irving, P.M, Rose, R, Rosella, O, Haines, MX, Shepherd, S.J, and Gibson, P.R. (2010) Aliment- Pharmacol Ther 31 ;874-882 Dietary poorly absorbed , short-chain carbohydrat es increase delivery of water and

fermentable substrates to the proximal colon.

Biesiekierski, J.R., O. Rosella, R.Rose, . Leis, IS. Barrett, S.J.Shepherd, P.R.

Gibson and J.G. Muir (201 1) J Hum Niur D t 24:154 -176 Quantificat ion of fi uctans, galacto-oiigosaccharides and other short-chain carbohydrates in processed grains and cereals.

Biesiekierski, IR, Peters, SX., Newnham, E D., Rosella, O,, Muir, J.G. and Gibson P.R. (2013) Gastroenterology 145(2) 320-328 No .Effects of Gluten k Patterns With Self-Reported on-Coeliae Gluten Sensitivity After Dietary Reduction of

Fermentable, Poorly Absorbed, Short-Chain Carbohydrates

Carlo Catassi et a! www. e .n^ Non Coeliac

Glut en Sensitivit y: The New Frontier of Gluten Related Disorders Gibson, P.R and Shepherd, S.J. (2010) J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 25; 252-258 Evidence-based dietary management of functional gastrointestinal symptoms: the FODMAPS approach.

Hahnos, Emma P., Victoria A. Power, Susan J. Shepherd, Peter R. Gibson and Jane G. Muir (2014) Gastroenterol 1.46: 67 - 75. A diet low in FODMAPS reduces symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Ong, D.K, Mitchell, S.B, Barrett, J.S, Shepherd, Si, Irving, P.M, Biesiekierski, J.R, Smith, S, Gibson, P.R. and Muir, J.G. (2010) L G stroenerol Hepatol. 25: 1366 - 1373. .Manipulation of dietary short chain carbohydrates alters the pattern of gas production and genesis of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome.