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Title:
WHEAT-BASED PRODUCTS IN FOODS FOR THE WHEAT INTOLERANT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2015/117182
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A reconstituted reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour is disclosed for use in producing a food product suitable for consumption by a wheat intolerant consumer without development of associated defining symptoms of wheat intolerance The reduced FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour includes as a constituent a proportion of wheat gluten protein recovered from a source wheat flour and additional constituents of types which have been recovered from wheat flour or other non-wheat source and which have been substantially depleted of FODMAPS content.

Inventors:
PEARCE, Robert John (1 James Lane, Kiama, NSW 2533, AU)
BARRIE, Amy Lee (5 Hanover Close, South Nowra, NSW 2541, AU)
Application Number:
AU2014/001160
Publication Date:
August 13, 2015
Filing Date:
December 23, 2014
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
SHOALHAVEN STARCHES PTY LTD (36 Bolong Road, Bomaderry, NSW 2541, AU)
PEARCE, Robert John (1 James Lane, Kiama, NSW 2533, AU)
BARRIE, Amy Lee (5 Hanover Close, South Nowra, NSW 2541, AU)
International Classes:
A21D2/00; A21D6/00; A21D13/06
Domestic Patent References:
2005-05-26
2006-02-16
Other References:
GIBSON ET AL.: "Personal view: food for thought - western lifestyle and susceptibility to Chron's disease. The FODMAP hypothesis.", ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS, vol. 21, 2005, pages 1399 - 1409, XP055218816
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ANDERSON-TAYLOR, Michael (P.O. Box 710, Cronulla, NSW 2230, AU)
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Claims:
The claims

A reconstituted low-FODMAPS wheat gluten protein-based flour (WGPF) for use in producing a food product suitable tor consumption by a wheat intolerant consumer without development of associated defining symptoms of wheat intolerance, said low-FODM APS W GPF including as a constituent a proportion of wheat gluten protein recovered from a source wheat flour, starch and additionaj constituents of types which have been recovered from wheat flour or other non-wheat source and all of which have been depleted sufficiently of FODMAPS content whereby said low-FODMAPS WGPF contains less than or equal to 1200mg FODM APS per lOOg low-FODMAPS WGPF on a dry solids basis.

The reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF as claimed in claim 1 whereby said low-FODMAPS WGPF contains less than or equal to lOOOmg

FODMAPS per lOOg low-FODMAPS WGPF on a dry solids basis

The reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF as claimed in claim I whereby said low-FODMAPS WGPF contains less than or equal to 800mg

FODM APS per lOOg low-FODMAPS WGPF on a dry solids basis.

The reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF' as claimed, in claim 1 whereby said low-FODMAPS WGPF contains less than or equal to 600rag

FODMAPS per lOOg low-FODMAPS WGPF on a dry solids basis The reconstituted low-FODM APS WGPF as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 4 wherein said additional constituents include one or more insoluble suspended materials .

The reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF as claimed in claim 5 wherein said additional constituents further include one or more soluble materials.

The reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF as claimed in claim 5 or 6 wherein said one or more insoluble suspended materials mcludes a washed low FODM APS commercial food grade Vital Wheat Gluten.

The reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF as claimed in claim 7 wherein said one or more insoluble suspended materials further includes a washed low-FODMAPS starch.

9. The reconstituted low-FODM APS WGPF as claimed in claim 8 wherein said Vital Wheat Gluten contains protein on a N% x 6.25 dry solids basis in a range of about: 80% to 90%.

10. The reconstituted low-FODM APS WGPF as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 9 wherein said one or more soluble materials includes a low-FODMAPS Wheat Albumin Concentrate.

1 1. The reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF as claimed in claim 10 wherein said Wheat Albumin Concentrate contains soluble wheat protein in a range of abo ut 40% to 90% on a N% x 6.25 dry solids basis.

1 . The reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF as claimed in any one of claim 1 to I I wherein said low-FODMAPS WGPF further includes a modified wheat protein.

13. The reconstituted low-FODMAPS wheat WGPF as claimed in claim 12 wherein said modified wheat protein contains about 30% to 90% soluble wheat protein and peptides.

14. The reconstituted low-FODM APS WGPF as claimed in any one of claims 5 to 13 wherein said one or more insoluble suspended materials includes a washed low-FODM APS wheat fibre food-grade ingredient or a low

FODMAP food-grade fibre ingredient from other source.

15. The reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 14 wherein said additional constituents further include a low FODMAPS food ingredient suitable for the achievement of desirable texture, appearance or other property when utilised as an ingredient in a food type.

16. A process of producing a reconstituted low-FODM APS WGPF

containing less than or equal to 1200mg FODMAPS per lOOmg low- FODMAPS WGPF on a dry solids basis suitable for use in a food product for a wheat intolerant consumer, said process including the steps of dispersing a source wheat flour in an aqueous solution at a temperature at which starch particles in said source flou are not hydrated or dissolved. recovering a wheat gluten protein from said dispersion, washing said wheat gluten protein whereby the FOD.M APS content thereof is depleted sufficiently for use in said low-FODMAPS WGPF, combining said wheal: gluten protein with one or more insoluble suspended materials which have been recovered either from wheat flour or other non- wheat source and have been depleted of FODM APS sufficiently for use in said low-FODMAPS WGPF.:

17. The process of producing a reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF as

claimed in claim .16 wherein said wheat gluten protein is further combined with one or more soluble materials which have been recovered either from wheat flour or other non-wheat source and have been depleted of FODM APS sufficiently for use in said low-FODM APS WGPF.

1 8. The process as claimed in claim J 6 wherein said temperature is within a range of about 10 degrees C to about 60 degrees C.

1 . The process as claimed in any one of claims 16 to 18 wherein said insoluble suspended materials are recovered by means which include settling, screening, filtration or centrifugation.

20. The process as claimed in claim 19 and including a further step wherein said one or more insoluble suspended materials are separated into component types before washing and drying.

2 L The process as claimed in claim 20 wherein said component types include wheat gluten protein, A-, B- and C- starches and fibre materials. The process as claimed, in claim 21 wherein said process includes a farther step by which said component types are collected, washed and dried by type before combining with said one or snore soluble materials.

The process as claimed in claim 22 wherein said on or more soluble materials are reco vered by ultrafiltration, of a Hqoor remaining after recovery of said insoluble materials.

The process as claimed in claim 23 wherein said ultrafiltration is assisted by diafiltration to further deplete FODMAPS content of said one or more soluble materials.

The process as claimed in claim 21 wherein said washed wheat gluten protein and said one Of more insoluble suspended materials that have been recovered but not dried are combined in a wet state then dried, milled and sieved to form said reconstituted lovv-FO.DMA.PS· WGPF.

The process as claimed in claim 25 wherein said washed wheat gluten protein and said one or more insoluble materials are further combined in said wet state with said one or more soluble materials then dried, milled and sieved to form said reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF.

The process as claimed in claim 24 wherein said washed wheat gluten protein and said one or more insoluble suspended materials are combined through mixing in a dry state to form said reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF.

28. The process as claimed in claim 27 wherein said washed wheat gluten protein and said one or more insoluble suspended materials are further combined through mixing in said dry state with said one or more soluble materials to form said reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF.

29. The process as claimed in claim 28 wherein said one or more soluble

materials are produced by enzymatic or chemical modification of wheat gluten.

30. The process as claimed in claim 25 wherein said one or more insoluble materials are in the form of starch recovered from said non-wheat source.

31. The process as claimed in claim 26 wherein said one or more insoluble materials and one or more soluble materials are in the form of modified starch.

32. A food product which includes the reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF as claimed in any one of claim .1 to 15.

33. The food product as claimed in claim 32 wherein said food product type is a leavened or unleavened bread product, a bakery product, a doughnut product, a pastry product, a biscuit product, a pasta product, a noodle product or other food product normally containing predominantly wheat flour.

34. The food product as claimed in claim 32 wherein said food product: type normally contains wheat flour in a. substantial proportion and in conjunction with, other food ingredients having low FODM APS content including a pastry-encased pie or tart, a battered or cmmbed or coated food item, a blended or extruded snack food product, a blended or extruded breakfast cereal product.

Description:
Wheat-Based Products in Foods For The Wheat intolerant

Field Of The Invention

The present invention relates to food products that are produced from materials which include wheat gluten protein derived from wheat flours that may be consumed by those affected by wheat intolerance without development of the associated defining symptoms.

Background To The Invention

Wheat-based products especially wheat flours and der ivatives from wheat flours cause adverse health conditions in a minor but significant proportion o f the human population.

Wheat allergy is well documented, less severe than allergies to several other food allergens and mediated via an IgE-mediated response to wheat protein. Wheat-based products can neither be consumed or applied topically to avoid an allergic response.

Coeiiac Disease has been recognised in children failing to thrive and persists through adulthood. It has been shown to be a genetically-determined autoimmune condition stimu lated by the consumption of wheat protei ( gluten) causing the lin ing of the small intestine to be eroded and lose its digestive and nutrient absorptive capacity. A gluten- free diet for persons so affected is necessary throughout life and many such gluten-free foods are now available suitable for persons with Coeiiac Disease.

Less-well-defined food intolerance has been attributed to wheat-based foods amongst others. Symptoms include feelings of abdominal discomfort, bloating and flatus are often referred to as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS); these have been attributed to abnormal response to fermentation of ingested foods in the distil part of the small intestine and proximal region of the large intestine of the gastrointestinal tract.

Avoidance of certain foods including wheat-based products often remedies the physiological condition. Desirable foods without -wheat derived ingredients such as gluten- free breads have been formulated with flours f om rice, corn, (maize) and cassava as described in Lopex et a! (2004) (ACB Lopez, AJG Pereira and RG

Junqueira (2004) Flour mixture of Rice Flour, Corn and Cassav starch in the production of gluten-free bread. Brazilian Arch Biol Technol 47; 63-70.)

In 2005 Gibson and Shepherd ( R.R. Gibson & S.J. Shepherd (2005) Personal view: food for thought - western lifestyle and susceptibility to Crohn's disease. The

FODMAPS hypothesis. Aliment. Pharmacol. 21, J 399-1409.) proposed a new hypothesis by which excessive delivery of highly fermentable but poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates and polyois which they designated FODMAPS - Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And PolyolS - to the distil small intestinal lumen induced abnormal conditions in the bowel.

A diet with increasing evidence of efficacy for the management of IBS is the low FODMAPS diet described by Gibson & Shepherd (2010) (Gibson, P.R and Shepherd, S.J. (2010) Evidence-based dietary management, of functional gastrointestinal symptoms: the FODM APS approach. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 25 ; 252-258), in healthy individuals such fermentation may indeed be advantageous to gut health but to those with IBS. fermentation of FODM APS should be av ided to the greatest extent possible by careful diet selection; the quantity present may vary greatly between different food sources. The list of foods with a high content of FODMAPS includes wheat flour and products made with it, which has led to popular recognition, of a health condition referred to as wheat intolerance or more specifically n- Coeiiac Gluten Sensitivit (NCOS).

Biesiekierski et al (201 1.) ( Biesiekierski, J.R., Newnham, E.D., Irving, P.M., Barrett, J.S., Haines, M, Doe-eke, ID., Shepherd, S.J., Muir., J.G. and Gibson, P.R. (201 1) Gluten causes gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects without celiac disease: a double blind randomised placebo-controlled trial Am. J. Gaslroenierol 106, 508-514) reported that after many dietary tests that some non-coeliacs experienced pain and bloating after eating foods containing gluten and concluded that Non-Coeliae Gluten ntolerance (Sensitivity) may exist. This prompted a proliferation in gluten-free foods in the market lace.

According to a recent multi-authored review by Carlo Catassi et al available as an open access article■ www-ncbi-nlm- ih- ov/ n^c/articles^MCB lOCM-?. Non Coeliac Gluten Sensitivity: The New Frontier of Gluten Related Disorders, the frequenc of NCGS is still unclear and an overlap between NCGS and IBS has been detected. Lack of bio markers is still a major limitation of clinical studies making it difficult to differentiate NCGS from other gluten related disorders.

However, in a complete reversal of their conclusions in Biersiekierski et al (201 1 ), more recently Biesiekierski et al (2013) ( Biesiekierski, JR, Peters, S.L., Newnham, E.D., Rosella, 0„ Muir, J.G. and Gibson P.R. (2013) Gastroenterology 145(2) 320- 328) sho wed no effects of gluten intolerance in patients with se lf-reported non-cebac gluten sensitivity after dietary reduction of fermentable, poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates. In a placeb -controlled , cross-over rechallenge study, they found no evidence of specific or dose-dependent effects of glute in patients with NCGS placed on diets low in FODMAPS.

Understanding of FODMAPS encompasses mechanisms of action , being luminal distension from their osmotic effect as described by Barrett et al (2010) (Barrett, J.S, Gearry, R.B, Muir, J.G, Irving, P.M, Rose, R, Rosella, O, Haines, M , Shepherd, S.J, and Gibson, P.R . (2010) Dietary poorly absorbed , short-chain carbohydrates mcrease delivery of water and fermentable substrates to the proximal colon. Aliment

Pharmacol Tker 31 :874-882) together with rapid fermentation preferentially to hydrogen as described by Ong et al (2010) (Ong, D.K, Mitchell, S.B, Barrett, J.S, Shepherd, S.J, Irving, P.M, Biesiekierski, J.R, Smith, S, Gibson, P.R. and Muir, J.G. ( 2010) Manipulation of dietary short chain carbohydrates alters the pattern of gas production and genesis of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome L Gastroeneral Hepatol. 25: 1366 - 1373). These findings together with support of continually expanding food compositional analysis, have led to widespread application of the low-FODMAPS diet to manage IBS symptoms throughout Australia and New Zealand and in some parts of Europe and North America. In a controlled, cross-over study of patients with IBS by Halmos et a (2014) f Emma P. Halmos, Victoria A. Power, Susan J Shepherd, Peter R. Gibson and Jane G. Muir (2014) A diet low in FODMAPS reduces symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Gastroenterol 146; 67 - 75,), demonstrated that a diet low in FODMAPS effectivel reduced functional gastrointestinal symptoms.

Consequently, we have recognised significant opportunity that could provide benefit commercially and socially. It is estimated that approximately 14% of western consumers used to eating bread and other wheat-based products exhibit or develop wheat intolerance. By the present invention, food products containing wheat gluten protein are made tolerable for those normally wheat intolerant by provision of ingredients that meet medicall established criteria fo low-FODMAPS content.

Understanding of what low-FODM APS in a food means analytically appears not to be precise and may relate to individual response to dietary FODM APS intake.

Shepherd et al (2008) (Shepherd S.J., Parker, FC, Muir JG and Gibson PR Dietary triggers of abdominal symptons in patients with Irritable Bo wel S ynd rome ;

randomised placebo-controlled, evidence. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 6, 765- 711) established baseline (low-FODMAPS) diets with daily quantities of fractans

(FODMAPS) in the range U -2Jg.

Gibson & Shepherd (2010) (Gibson, PR and Shepherd SJ (2010) Evidence-based dietary management of functional gastrointestinal symptoms: the FODMAP approach. J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 25, 252-268) considered >0.2g of fructans (FODMAPS) per serve at risk of inducing symptoms.

Halmos et al(2014) (Halmos EP, Power, VA, Shepherd SJ, Gibson PR & Muir JG A diet low in FOD APS reduces symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Gastoenterol 146, 67-75) described low FODMAP as < 0.5g FODMAPS per sitting and in the Mea Daily Nutrition Information tabulated therein for the Low FODMAP diet the Total FODMAPS were reported as 3.05 ( L86-4.2S)g. Monash University Department of Gastroenterology and Traiislationai Nutrition have set a level of less than or equal to 0.3g FODMAPS per serve for Low-FODMAPS foods (Monash University Analytical Report 2014.) however, a defining level for FODMAPS content in floors and ingredients has not been published.

The fructan content of breads varies considerably according to Whelan et. al (201 1), (Wfaeian, K, Abrahmsohn, O, David, GJ, Staudac er FL Irving, P, Lower MC and E llis, PR (2011) Fructan content of commonly consumed wheat, rye and gluten-free breads, fni ' J Food Sci Nufr 62(5), 498-501} with a range of 0.61 - 1.94 g fructan / OOg bread.

As aforesaid, gluten-free foods have proliferated recently in response to

predominantl self-diagnosed wheat intolerance such foods being substantially formulated using flours from rice or corn (maize). Consequently low-FODMAPS WGPF should preferably have a FODMAPS content less tlian or equal to that of corn or rice flours to be sufficiently low so as not to result in wheat intolerance. The fructan ( FODM APS) content of maize is reported as 0.6g/100g by Knudsen (1997 ) ( KEB Knudsen (1997) Carbohydrate and lignin contents of plant materials used in animal feeding. Animal Feed Set Technol 67; 319-338) which is a little higher than that for rice flour ( see Example 1, Tablei).

Modem methods of food technology combined with advanced food analysis enable components of food source materials to be separated or isolated and used either directly as food ingredients or nutriceuticals or combined as required to prepare special foods to meet particular dietary or health outcomes.

Processing liquid food source materials such as milk into its multiple components at high purity for nutriceutical application is greatly advanced through developments in separation technologies especially centrifugation, membrane technologies and ion exc hange processes. By comparison, separation and purification of components from cereal sources such as wheat flour has been slower for dietary and health advantage due to the complexity of the composition and the physical and chemical properties of the components that render them difficult to separate from each other and purify to the extent required for nutriceutical purposes.

Wheat flour is unique amongst widely consumed cereal flours in that it contains protein which when mixed with water in a dough or batter or when extracted from the flour with abundance of water forms a complex known as wheat gluten. This wheat gluten protein (WGP) complex has unique physical and chemical properties that are demonstrated as well-documented, characteristic visco-elastic properties. These protein properties of visco us strength combined with elasticity independent of other components of flour uniquely allow a cohesive dough or batter to be formed which can be expanded b inclusion of a gas usuall carbon dioxide generated by a fermentation process or a chemical reaction or can be processed into various non- expanded cohesive forms. When such doughs or batters containing wheat gluten protein in various formulations as have been prepared over thousands of years and documented in cookery and recipe books in many languages through recent history are cooked by a variet y of means in a range of configurations, products arising are often deemed highly desirable as food items.

The composition of wheat flour has been modified or augmented for purposes of changing the functional performance of dough made from it or for improving the nutritional value. For such purposes wholly or partially reconstituted and recombined floors have been described but these purposes are different from the purpose of the present invention.

US Patent Application 2009252844 discloses the formation of a partially reconstituted high fibre wheat flour by dry combining a low- moisture-content fibre source into the host/carrier in an amount which provides a substantially homogeneous mixture throughout and dry blending into a homogeneous mixture one grain-based binder and a grain-based tenderiser. The use of such partially reconstituted wheat flour in pasta is disclosed. The invention provides for nutritionally improved reconstituted wheat flour with higher fibre content but does not consider the FODMAP content of the flour or teach reconstituted wheat flour for the wheat intolerant,

US Patent No 8,372,46(5 discloses a recorabmed whole grain flour for use in preparing whole grain products such that the whole grain particulates provide minimum visual impact to the whole grain product. By selectively controlling the partic le size of the milled bran and germ constituents used in the recombined whole grain flour the visual and colour impact associated with bran and germ particulates can be substantially eliminated from the whole grain product. The invention provides a process for a more visually acceptable whole grain reconstituted flour but does not consider the

FODMAP content of the flour or teach reconstituted wheat flo ur for the w heat intolerant.

US Patent Application No 20120196013 discloses a combined stabilised bran component and stabilised whole grain wheat flour produced by subjecting a bran en iched coarse fr ction which contains bran, germ and starch to grinding or milling to reduce griftiness of the coarse fraction without substantially damaging the starch due to abrasion.The invention provides a process for improving the texture of a reconstituted high fibre wheat, flour but does not consider the FODMAP content of the flour or teach reconstituted wheat flour for the wheat intolerant.

The increase in incidence of obesity particularly in western populations has driven progress towards foods considered less likely to promote weight gain and obesity. Higher protein content and lower carbohydrate content in foods and in the diet have been advocated for such health benefit and inventions have been disclosed for this purpose which is different from the purpos of the present invention.

US Patent Application 200501:29823 discloses the composition and method for making high-protein and low carbohydrate food products. This is achieved for advantage in baked goods and extruded food products b substituting wheat flour wholly or in part by a combination of starch that is resistant to amylase digestion and proportions of various protein-rich ingredients selected from wheat gluten, devitalised wheat gluten, deamidated wheat gluten, and hydro lysed wheat gluten. Additionally fibre-rich and other ingredients were utilised to prepare a wide range of foods demonstrated in 54 Examples. Of these, all except four contained in their formulations a proportion of wheat flou ; of the four, two contained no starch, a third contained soy products and a fourth product contained a polyol. However, the invention predates the FODMAP hypothesis and is directed towards a different purpose. No consideration is given to the FODMAP content of the individual ingredients or to total FODM APS content of food fomiutations exemplified or their suitability for wheat intolerant persons. FGDMAPS contents would be considerable due to the contents of wheat flour or other FODMAP -containing ingredients. Consequently, food products made by the process of the invention would not be suitable for persons with, wheat intolerance nor does the invention lead or direct one skilled in the art towards the product and process of the present invention.

US Patent 4255518 discloses a process of water recycling in the wet milling of cereal relating to the recovery of starch from com, wheat, rice, mi ' lo and the like.

US Patent 4412867A discloses wet milling of starch bearing materials including com wheat and potatoes with water recycle after reverse osmosis or ultrafiltratio in order to reduce the water requirement of the milling process.

US Patent Application 2006008568 discloses a low carbohydrate bread product prepared by using a bread dough substantially free of wheat flour. A wheat starch, a wheat protein isolate and a soluble fibre are mixed into a dough and baked. The purpose of the in vention was to produce a low carbohydrate content in a bread product to meet a dietary perception that less carbohydrate and more protein and fibre provided dietary advantage. The objects of this invention are thus completely different issue and addressed a different health problem than the issue addressed in the present invention. US Patent Application 2006008568 predates the FODMAP hypothesis and consequently does not consider the FODMAP content of the ingredients and the suitability of the bread product for wheat intolerant persons. Further in US Patent Application 2006008568 the principal ingredients are (1) a commercial wheat starch product separated from a wheat flour which within comraercial separation limitations according to modem manufacturing practice would be substantially washed free of gluten and (2) a commercial gluten product separated from a wheat flour which within commercial separation limitations according to modern manufacturing practice would be substantially reduced in starch content relative to the ratio of starch to gluten in the parent flour. Such starch and gluten products however have not been analysed in this disclosure for FODMAPS content and in any event could not be inherently low-FODMAPS because of tire limitations of said known commercial manufacturing practices.

Gluten protein product, commercially as vital, wheat gluten, is typically manufactured at 75% protein content (N% x 5,7) and sometimes , after more vigorous separation processes, at 80% protein, these compositions reflecting the degree of difficulty in removing fine particles of starch and fibre from a visco-elastic gluten mass.

Consequently, 20-25% of the gluten product is not protein but residual fat, starch, fibre and other components of flour entrapped within the vtsco-elastic mass. Because of the difficulty of separatin the gluten protein from non-gluten components of flour known commercial manufacturing adopts procedures that utili se recycling of aqueous extracts within the manufacturing plant to conserve total water usage. This however would not produce sufficiently low FODMAPS products to meet the specific dietary needs of wheat intolerant persons.

Consequently there is no information in any of the above prior art documents either singly or in combination which discloses, suggests or teaches the current invention of the applicant. Summary Of The Invention

It is a object of the inventio to ameliorate the aforementioned disadvantages and accordingly a reconstituted low-FODM APS wheat gluten protein-based flour (WGPF) is disclosed for use in producing a food product suitable for consumption by a wheat intolerant consumer without development of associated defining symptoms of wheat intolerance, said low-FODM APS WGPF including as a constituent a proportion of wheat gluten protein recovered from a source wheat flour and additional constituents of types which Imve been recovered from wheat flour or other non-wheat source and all of which Imve been sufficiently depleted of FODMAPS content whereby such low- FODMAPS WGPF is defined as containing preferably less than or equal to 1200mg FODMAPS per lOOg low-FODM APS WGPF on a dry solids basis. More preferably the low-FODM APS WGPF may contain less than or equal to IGOOmg FODAPS per l OOg low-FODMAPS WGPF on a dry soHds basis. Yet more preferably the low- FODMAPS WGPF may contain less than or equal to SOOmg FODMAPS per lOOg low-FODMAPS WGPF on a dry solids basis. Most preferably the low-FODMAPS WGPF may contai less than or equal to 600mg FODAPS per lOOg low-FODMAPS WGPF on a dry solids basis.

One element of novelty of the present invention relative to prior invention is that, by selecting WGP for its unique physical chemical and functional properties as the core functional food ingredient and manufacturing it in a manner resulting in sufficiently low FODMAPS content that when combined with other constituent types found in flour but not unique to wheat flo r that have also been man factured in ways resulting in sufficiently depleted FODMAPS content, so providing a reconstituted WGP-based flour (WGPF) that is a low-FODMAPS product the said reconstituted low- FODMAPS WGPF being tolerated by persons affected by wheat intolerance.

In furtherance of said object the invention also discloses a process of producing said reconstituted low-FODM APS WGPF suitable for use in a food product for a wheat intolerant consumer, said process including the steps of- dispersing a source wheat flour in an aqueous solution at a

temperature at which starch particles in said source flour are not hydrated or dissolved, recovering a wheat gluten protein from said dispersion, washing said wheat gluten protein whereby the FODMAPS content thereof is depleted- sufficiently for use in said low- FODMAPS WGPF, combining said wheat gluten protein with one or more insoluble suspended materials which have been recovered either from wheat flour or other non-wheat source and have been depleted of FODMAPS sufficiently for use in said low-FODMAPS WGPF.:

The term " " Other non-wheat source" may (without limitation) include for example soy, oat, barley, pea, lentils, pulses, potato, tapioca, com, and any other new sources that provide sufficiently low FODMAPS content for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF which may be consumed by wheat intolerant consumers.

In still, furtherance of said object the invention also discloses a food product which includes the reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF as referred to above.

in another aspect the present invention further relates to novel low-FODMAPS WGPF products adapted for consumption b persons affected by wheat intolerance including NCOS, said products containing WGP as the core functional food ingredient with a FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF and combined with other constituent types found in flour but not unique to wheat flour that also have a FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF whereby said low-FODMAPS WGPF products may be consumed by those affected by wheat intolerance without development of the associated defining symptoms.

Another aspect of the Invention further relates to the process of producing low- FODMAPS WGPF products containing WGP as the core functional food ingredient with a FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF and combined with other constituent types found in flour but not unique to wheat flour that also have a FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF whereby said low-FODMAPS WGPF products may be consumed by those affected by wheat intoleranc without development of the associated defining symptoms.

A further aspect of the invention further relates to applications in foods of low- FODMAPS WGPF products that contam WGP as the core functional food ingredient with a FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF and combined with other constituent types found in flour but not unique to wheat flour that also have a FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF whereby said low-FODMAPS WGPF products may be consumed by those affected by wheat intolerance without development of the associated defining symptoms.

By a process of the present invention low-FODMAPS WGPF materials are produced which are depleted sufficiently of FODMAPS to meet medically established criteria for low-FODM APS content in foods as afore defined thereby when consumed not resulting in the defining symptoms of wheat intolerance.

By a process of the present invention WGP is produced that is depleted sufficiently of FODMAPS for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF and is combined with starch and optionally other constituents of flour derived from wheat flour or other sources also depleted sufficiently of FODM APS for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF thereby when consumed not resulting in the defining symptoms of wheat intolerance. By a process of the present invention a reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF is produced in which the constituent WGP provides unique physical chemical and functional properties and when corabmed with starch and optionally other constituents of flour derived from wheat flour or other sources also depleted sufficiently of

FODMAPS for use i a iow-FODMAPS WGPF so enables food products normally and traditionally prepared with wheat flour to be similarly prepared but sufficiently depleted of FODMAPS to meet medically established criteria for low-FODMAPS content in foods as afore defined thereby when consumed not resulting in the defining symptoms of wheat intolerance.

In accordance with th invention a process is further disclosed for producing said WGP and iow-FODMAPS WGPF materials, said method preferably including the steps of;- dispersing a wheat flour in an aqueous solution such as water at a temperature in the range of about IOC to about 60C whereby starch particles are not liydrated or dissolved,

from this dispersion the suspended solids are recovered and separated into well-recognised major component types by processes including settling, screening, filtration o centrifugation.

the WGP component is extensi vely washed w ith water, enriched in protein content, depleted of water soluble materials including FODMAPS sufficiently for use in low-FOD APS WGPF to meet medically established criteria for low-FODMAPS content in foods as afore defined and collected

optionally the collected WGP is dried in the well -documented manner of wheat gluten manufacture

- from the aforesaid dispersion depleted of WGP, A- B- and C-starches and fibre materials are separated, extensively washed with water, purified, collected and optionally dried in the well -documented manner of starch manufacture said starches and fibre materials being depleted of FODM APS sufficiently for use in low-FODMAPS WGPF to meet medically established criteria for low-FODMAPS content in foods as afore defined. the aforesaid A- B- and C- starches and fibre materials being depleted of FODMAPS sufficiently for use in low-FODMAPS WGPF to meet medically established criteria for low-FODMAPS content in foods as afore defined are used optionally in a low-FODMAPS WGPF of this invention,

the residual water-soluble materials including the FODM APS are separated torn insoluble materials and further processed preferably using membrane technology to separate and recover the soluble proteins, dextrins and soluble fibre away from the FODMAPS.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention wheat flour is dispersed in wate at any temperature less than about 60C so that starch particles are not hydrated and dissolved by any suitable means. From this dispersion th great majority of the suspended solids are recovered and possibly fractionated according to the well-documented maimer of starch and gluten manufacture as aforesaid. The water-soluble materials including the low molecular weight FODMAPS are further processed to separate them from larger molecular species including proteins, dextrins and soluble non-starch polysaccharides. Any suitable means ma be used for the separation according to the possible usage of each of the higher molecular weight components, especially preferred is the process of ultrafiltration whereby proteins, dextrins and non-starch polysaccharides ai"e retained by a perforated membrane and smaller FODMAP species and other low molecular weight components filter with water through the perforated membrane. By the process of diafiltration, additional water may be added to the retained species to enable more of the permeable species to traverse the membrane and so further deplete the FODMAP content of the retained species sufficiently for use in low-FODMAPS WGPF to meet medically established criteria for low-FODMAPS content in foods as afore defined. The concentrated liquid product so obtained by retention of the high molecular weight components by the filter may be dried by any suitable means and utilised in the preparation of a reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF . i t is further preferred that by a process of the present invention WGP having

FODMAPS content sufficiently depleted for use in low-FODMAPS WGPF to meet medically established criteria for low-FODMAPS content in foods as afore defined is combined with proportions of non-gluten constituents of flour .from wheat or other source with FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in low-FODMAPS WGPF to meet medically established criteria for low-FODMAPS content in foods as afore defined to produce a reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention materials having

FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF as afore defined are combined to produce a reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product including a proportion of washed WGP with FODMAPS content sufficientl low for use in low-FODMAPS WGPF as freshly recovered and washed wet gluten or as commercial food grade Vital Wheat Gluten with the FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in low-FODMAPS WGPF as afore defined the said reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product having a gluten content in the range 5 - 20% on a dry basis, more preferably in the range 8-14% on a dry basis. Said Vital Wheat Gluten should contain protein on a N% x 6.25 dry solids basis in a range of about 80 - 90%

I t is further preferred that by a process of the present in vention materials inc luding WGP having FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF as afore defined are combined to produce a reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product including a proportion of washed starch with FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in low-FODMAPS WGPF as freshly recovered and washed wet starch or as commercial dry food grade starch from wheat flour or other sources with the FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF as afore defined the said reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product having a starch content in the range 50 - 95% on a dry basis, more preferably in the range 80 - 92% on a dry basis.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention ma terials including WGP having FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF as afore defined are combined to produce a reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product including a proportion of washed fibre having FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF as freshly recovered and washed wet fibre or as commercial dry food grade fibre from wheat or other source having FODM APS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF the said reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product having a fibre content in the range 1 - 10% on a dry basis.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention proportions of materials including WGP that are Insoluble in water are combined with a proportion of materia s that are soluble in water but depleted of FODMAPS sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF as afore defined to produce a low-FODMAPS WGPF product containing proportions of constituents from wheat flour or other source but with the FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF.

It is further preferred that by a process o the present invention proportions of materials including WGP that are insoluble in wate are combined with a proportion of one or more materials that are soluble in water but depleted of FODMAPS including a Wheat Albumin Concentrate with FOD APS content reduced sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF constituted fay proportions of soluble wheat protein, wheat dextrin and soluble wheat fibre to produce a reconstituted low- FODMAPS WGPF product containing WGP and a proportion of constituents of flour from wheat or other source with FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF as afore defined. Said Wheat Albumin Concentrate should contain soluble wheat protein in a range of about 40 - 90% on a N% x 6.25 dry solids basis

I t is further preferred that by a process of the present in vention WGP as dried vital wheat gluten and other preferred and selected materials having FODM APS content sufficiently low for use in. a low-FODMAPS WGPF that have been dried, milled and sieved are combined with thorough mixing in the dry state to produce a reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product as afore defined containing proportions of the constituents with FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low- FODMAPS WGPF. I t is further preferred that by a process of the present invention WGP as freshly recovered and washed wet gluten with FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF and other preferred and selected materials with FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF that have been recovered but not dried are combined in the wet state and then dried, milled and sieved to produce a reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product as afore defined containin proportions of the constituents with FODM APS content depleted sufficiently for use in low-FODMAPS .

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention reconstituted low- FODMAPS WGPF products as afore defined are produced containing proportions of WGP with FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODM APS WGPF and other preferred and selected materials with FODM APS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF from a wheat flour source or other source which possess and display physical and chemical characteristics due to the WGP content desirable for the preparation of various food types.

It is further preferred that by a. process of the present in vention reconstituted low- FODMAPS WGPF products as afore defined are produced containing proportions of WGP having FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with the FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF together with modified forms of the types of constituents from a wheat flour source or other source also with FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF and which possess and display physical and chemical, characteristics due to the WGP content desirable for the preparation of various food types.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention reconstituted low- FODMAPS WGPF products as afore defined are produced containing proportions of WGP having FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODM APS WGPF together with modified forms of the types of constituents from a wheat flour or other source also with the FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in 8 low-FODMAPS WGPF especiaiiy forms of WGP chemically modified to enable soliibilisation of a portion of the gluten protein, and that suc reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF products possess and display physical and chemical characteristics due to the WGP content desirable for the preparation of various food types.

It is further preferred that by a. process of the present invention reconstituted low- FODMAPS WGPF products as afore defined are produced containing proportions of WGP having FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with FODM APS content depleted sufficientl for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF together with modified forms of the types of constituents from a wheat flour or other source also with the FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODM APS WGPF especially forms of WGP modified by proteolytic enzymes resulting in fragmentation and solubilisation of a major port ion of t he gluten protein as gluten-derived peptides, and that such low-FODMAPS WGPF products possess and display physical and chemical characteristics due to the WGP content desirable for the preparation of various food types.

It is further preferred that said forms of WGP modified by proteolytic enzymes being thus referred to as wheat protein hydrolysates and being thus constituted

predominantly by gluten-derived peptides should contain about 30 - 90% soluble wheat protein and peptides.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention reconstituted low- FODMAPS WGPF products as afore defined are produced containing proportions of WGP having FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with the FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF together with modified forms of the types of constit uents from a wheat flour source or other source with the FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF which possess and display physical and chemical characteristics desirable for the preparation of a range of rood types normally and traditionally produced from normal wheat flour.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention reconstituted low- FODMAPS WGPF products as afore defined are produced containing proportions of WGP having FODMAPS content sufficientl low tor use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with the FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF together with modified forms of the types of constituents from a wheat flour source or other source with FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF which possess and display physical and chemical characteristics desirable for the preparation of bread and other forms of bakery items normally and tradit ionaliy produced from normal wheat flour.

It is further preferred that fay a process of the present in vention reconstituted low- FODMAPS WGPF products as afore defined are produced containing proportions of WGP having FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF together with modified forms of the types of constituents .from a wheat flour source or other source with FODM APS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGP which possess and display physical and chemical characteristics desirable for the preparation of pastry and biscuit products normally and traditionally produced from normal wheat flour.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention reconstituted low- FODMAPS WGPF products as afore defined are produced containing proportions of WGP having FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with the FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF together with modified forms of the types of constituents from a wheat flour source or other source with FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF which possess and display physical and chemical characteristics desirable for the preparation of pasta products normally and traditionally produced from normal wheat flour.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention reconstituted low- FODMAPS WGPF products as afore defined are produced containing proportions of WGP having FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODM APS WGPF and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with. FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF together with modified forms of the types of constituents from a wheat flour source or other source with FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF which possess and display physical and chemical characteristics desirable for the preparation of .noodle products normally and traditionally produced from normal wheat flour.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention reconstituted low- FODMAPS WGPF products as afore defined are produced containing proportions of WGP having FODM APS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with the FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF together with modified forms of the types of const ituents from a wheat flour source or other source with the FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF which possess and display physical and chemical characteristics desirable for the preparation of bread and other forms of bakery items normally and traditionally produced from normal wheat flour but which when consumed do not result in defined symptoms of wheat intolerance.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention reconstituted low- FODMAPS WGPF products as afore defined are produced containing proportions of WGP having FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with the FODM APS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF together with modified forms of the types of constituents from a wheat flour source or other sourc with the FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF which possess and display physical and. chemical characteristics desirable for the preparation of pastry and biscuit products such as normally and traditionally produced from normal wheat flour but which when consumed do not result in defined symptoms of wheat intolerance.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invent ion reconst ituted low- FODMAPS WGPF products as afore defined are produced containing proportions of WGP having FODMAPS content sufficientl low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with the FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODM APS WGPF together with modified forms of the types of constituents from a wheat flour source or other source wit the FODMAPS content depleted sufficiently fo use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF which possess and display physical and chemical characteristics desirable for the preparation of pasta products such as normally and traditionally produced from normal wheat flour but which when consumed do not result in defined symptoms of wheat intolerance.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention reconstituted low- FODMAPS WGPF products as afore defined are produced containing proportions of WGP having FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF and other constituents of a source wheat flour or other source with the FODM APS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF together with modified forms of the types of constituents from a wheat flour source or other source with the FODM APS content depleted sufficiently for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF which possess and display physical and chemical characteristics desirable for the preparation of noodle products such as normally and traditionally produced from normal wheat flour but which when consumed do not result in defined symptoms of wheat intolerance. It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention food materials and reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF products as atore defined are produced with low and depleted levels of FODMAPS as determined by an accepted and published chemical test procedure.

It is further preferred that by a process of the present invention food mater ials and reconstituted low-FODM APS WGPF prodacts as afore defined are produced with low and depleted levels of FODM APS determined to be suitable for persons displaying wheat intolerance by an established in vivo method relying upon the analysis of exhaled breath gases following consumption of said food materials or reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF products.

Utilising a reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product as afore defined of the present invention that has FODM APS content sufficiently low to meet medically established criteria for low-FODMAPS content in foods as an ingredient in a food formulation, a low-FODMAPS food product is prepared . The food product may be of any type normally prepared with a normal wheat flour as the major ingredient and with minor ingredients that also have FODMAPS content sufficiently low to meet medically established criteria for low-FODMAPS content in foods such that the final combined food product is also a low-FODMAPSfood,.

Utilising a reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product as afore defined of the present invention that has FODMAPS content sufficiently low to meet medically established criteria for low-FODMAPS content in foods as the major ingredient in a food formulation, a low-FODMAPS food product of a bakery-type is prepared suc products including leavened and unleavened breads of various compositions.

Utilising a reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product as afore defined of the present invention that has FODMAPS content sufficiently low to meet medically established criteria for low-FOD APS content in foods as the major ingredient in a food formulation, a low-FODMAPS food product of a bakery-type is prepared such products including scones and muffins of various compositions. Utilising a reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product as afore defined of the present invention that has FODMAPS content sufficiently low to meet medically established criteria for low-FODMAPS content in foods as the major ingredient in a food formulation and including as minor ingredients food materials having

FODMAPS content sufficiently low to meet medically established criteria for iow- FODMAPS content in foods , a low-FODMAPS food product of doughnut-type is prepared.

Utilising a reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product as afore defined of the present invention that has FODMAPS content sufficiently !ow to meet medically established criteria for low-FODMAPS content in foods as the major ingredient in a food formulation and including as minor ingredients food materials having

FODMAPS content sufficiently low to meet medically established criteria for low- FODMAPS content in foods , a low-FODMAPS food product of a pastry-type is prepared.

Utilising a reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product as afore defined of the present invention that has FODMAPS content sufficiently lo to meet medically established criteria for low-FODMAPS content in foods as the major ingredient in a food formulation and including as minor ingredients food materials having

FODMAPS content sufficiently low to meet medically established criteria for low- FODMAPS content in foods , a low-FODMAPS food product of a biscuit-type is prepared

Utilising a reconst ituted low- FODM APS WGPF product as afore defined of the present invention that has FODMAPS content sufficiently low to meet medically estabhshed criteria for low-FODMAPS content in foods as the major ingredient in a food formulation and including as minor ingredients food materials having

FODMAPS content sufficiently low to meet medically established criteria for low- FODMAPS content in foods , a low-FODMAPS food product of a pasta-type is prepared Utilising a reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product as afore defined of the present invention that has FODMAPS content sufficiently low to meet medically established criteria for low-FODMAPS content in foods as the major ingredient in a food formulation and including as minor ingredients food materials having

FODMAPS content sufficiently low to meet medically established criteria for low- FODMAPS content in foods , a low-FODMAPS food product of a noodle-type is prepared

Utilising a reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product as afore defined of the present invention that has FODMAPS content sufficiently low to meet medically established criteria for low-FOD APS content in foods as the major ingredient in a food formulation and including as minor ingredients food materials having

FODMAPS content sufficiently low to meet medically established criteria for low- FODMAPS content in foods , a low-FODMAPS extruded food product is prepared suitable for consumption as a breakfast cereal-type product or a snack-food-type product.

Detailed Description Of Non-Limiting Examples Of The invention

Example L Preparation of reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF products as afore defined suitable for low-FODMAPS bread and other food types that depend on the unique visco-elastie properties of wheat gluten protein.

Bread making requires a strong flour with wheat gluten (WGP) content typically greater than 10%.

(i) To 800g of commercial A-grade food-grade wheat starch that had been extensively washed with water prior to drying and shown by analysis to have FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF was added 120g of Vital Wheat Gluten (VWG) containing 80% protein on a N x 6.25 and dry solids basis. The VWG was commercial food-grade gluten that had been extensively washed with water prior to drying and shown by analysis to hav FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF. The ingredients were well-blended as a dry mix and formed the basic reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product as afore defined.

To 830g of commerc ial A-grade food-grade wheat starch as in Example I(i) was added 120g VWG as used in Example l(i) and 50g of Wheat Albumin Concentrate (WAC) containing 40% soluble wheat protein obtained after recovery using ultrafiltration technology from the aqueous washings torn starch and gluten manufacture. During preparation the liquid protein concentrate being retained by the ultrafiltration membrane was extensively diaflltered with water to greatly reduce the content of all low molecular weight substances and so after drying resulted in a WAC shown by analysis to have FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF, The dry ingredients were well blended as in Example l (i) and resulted in a more -complex reconstituted low- FODMAPS WGPF product as afore defined.

To 780g of commercial A-grade food-grade wheat starch as in Example 1(5) was added 120g V WG as used in Example l(i), 50g of Wheat Albumin Concentrate (WAC) as in Example l ( ii) and 50g of extensively washed wheat fibre recovered from the starch-gluten manufacturing process a a by-product subsequently then dried and milled and shown by analysis to be a wheat fibre food-grade ingredient having FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF. The dry ingredients were well blended as in Example 1(1} and resulted in an even- more-complex reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product as afore defined.

To 8.30g of commercial A-grade food-grade wheat starch as in Example l(i) was added 120g VWG as used in Example and 50g of enzyme- >6-

hydrolysed wheat glute show by analysis to have FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use in a low-FODMAPS WGPF containing at least 67% of soluble peptides. The dry ingredients were well blended as in Example l(i) and resulted in a more-futictional reconstituted low- FODMAPS WGPF product as afore defined.

To 830g of commercial A-grade food-grade wheat starch as in Example l(i) was added 120g VWG as used in Example l (i) and 50g of enzyrne- hydrolysed wheat gluten shown by analysis to have FODMAPS content sufficiently low for use i a low-FODMAPS WGPF containing at least 90% of soluble peptides. The dry ingredients were well blended as in Example l(i) and resulted in a more-functional reconstituted low- FODMAPS WGPF product as afore defined.

To 830g of commercial A-grade food-grade wheat starch as in Example l(i) was added I20g VWG as used, in Example l(i) and 50g of enzyme- hydrolysed wheat gluten containing at least 67% of soluble peptides as used in Example l (iv). The dry ingredients were well blended as in Example l (i) and to which was added l g sunflower oil so resulting i a more- functional reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product as afore defined.

To 830g of commercial A-grade food-grade wheat starch as in Example t(i) was added 12Qg VWG as used in Example 3 (i) and 50g of enzyme- hydro lysed wheat gluten containing at least 67% of soluble peptides as used in Example 1 (iv). The dr y ingredients were well blended as in Example 1 ( i) and to which was added 1 g sunflower oil and 0.2g lecithin resulting in a more- functional reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product as afore defined. (x) 415g of commercial A-grade food-grade wheat starch as used in Example was mixed with 415g of corn (maize) starch. To this was added I20g VWG as used in Example 1 (i) and 50g of enzyme -hydro lysed wheat gluten containing at least 67% of soluble peptides as used in Example 1 (iv). The dry ingredients were well blended as in Example lit) resulting in a more- functional reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product as afore defined.

Analysis of reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF products for FODMAPS content.

FODMAPS (Total Fritctan) content of reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF products was estimated using the method of Biesiekierski et al.(201.1). ( J.R. Biesiekierski, O. Rosella, R.Rose, . Leis, j.S. Barrett, SJ.Shepherd, P.R, Gibson and J.G. Muir (201 1) Quantification offruetam, galacto-oligosaceharides and other short-chain carbohydrates in processed grains and cereals. J Hum Nutr Diat 24:154 -176 )

To be considered a low-FODMAPS food item, a standard serve according to

????????Biesiekierski et. a!(201. l) should contain less than 30rag FODMAPS.

Accurately about 1 g of reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product was dispersed in lOQmL of hot deionised water (80C) and stirred while maintaining the temperature for 15minutes. Each sample was filtered through Whatman No 1 filter paper and then a small portion was mierofiltered through a 0.22micron syringe filter.

Normal aii-purpose wheat flour and rice flour were also analysed in the same manner as flours that are respectively not tolerated and tolerated by IBS/ NCOS patients.

Total Fructan content was determined by the commercially available enzymatic kit ( Megazyme Fructan HK. Assay Kit, egazyme International Ireland ltd, Wicklow Ireland; AOAC Method 999.03 and AACC Method 32,32) as directed by the manufacturer. FODMAPS content of reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF products and flours is shown in Table I .

Table L

Rice flour 1 550

Example 2 Preparation of low-FODMAPS wheat bread

For initial trials to de velop formulations and identify the importance of flour components in bread made from reconstituted iow-FODMAPS WGPF products, an automated bread-making machine was used in a Rapid-bake mode resulting in bread being made in 2 hours from, start of the baking process.

(i) Bread preparation using re ular "strong" wheat flour suitable for bread making into the bread- maker chamber were added 400g bakers flour, 8g salt 5 12g compressed yeast, 4g of soft improver, 2g shortening and 244g of water. Th bread-maker bake cycle was started and after 2 hours the baked bread was removed and allowed to cool prior to evaluation of loaf volume, crust colour and crumb texture.

Results

Loaf volume 2800 iriL

Crust colour golden brown

Crumb texture open and light

(ii) Bread preparation using reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product as in Example 1 (i)

Into the bread-maker chamber were added 400g reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF as in Example 1 (i) together with other non-flour ingredients as in Example 2(i) and baked and evaluated as in Example 2(1)

Results

Loaf volume 1500 niL

Crust colour pale brown

Crumb texture tightly closed and heavy

(tii) Bread preparation using reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product as in Example 1 (ii) Into the bread-maker chamber were added 400g reconstituted low-FODM APS WGPF as in Example l(ii) together with other non-flour ingredients as in

Example 2(i) and baked and evaluated as in Example 2(i)

Results

Loaf volume 2400 ml .

Crust colour light brown

Crumb texture open and quite light

(iv) Bread preparation using reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product as in Example I (Hi)

Into the bread-maker ciiamber were added 400g reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF as in Example l (iii) together with other non-flour ingredients as in Example 2(i) and baked and evaluated as in Example 2(1)

Results

Loaf vo lume 2300 «iL

Crust colour light brown

Crumb texture open and quite light

(v) Bread preparation using reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF product as in Example l (iv) into the bread- maker chamber were added 400g reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF as in Example l(iv) together with other non- flour ingredients as in Example 2( 0 and baked and evaluated as in Example 2(1)

Results Loaf volume 2400 ml ,

Crust colour light brown

Crumb texture open and quite light

(vi) Bread preparation using reconstituted low-FQDMAPS WGPF product as in Exam le l (v) into the bread- maker chamber were added 400g reconstituted low- FO DM APS WGPF as in Example l(y) together with other non-flour ingredients as in Example 2(i) and baked and evaluated as in Example 2(i)

Results

Loaf vo lume 2500 ml.

Crust colour light brown

Crumb texture open and quite light

Analysis of breads for Total Fructan content

Total Fructan content of bread was essentially by the method in Example . A portion of bread from inside of the crust, and not including any of the crust, was crumbed in a kitchen coffee grinder to a fine erumb consistency. The dry solids content of this was determined using standard oven drying and gravimetric analysis method. Accurately about g of crumbed bread was used for Total Fructan analysis.

FODMAPS content of bread samples is shown in Table 2. Table 2.

Example 3 Preparation of low-FODM APS doughnuts

Non-flour ingredients for doughnuts were selected to be tree of or contain levels of FODMAPS

Ingredients

1 OOOg all purpose wheat flour ( control)

or

I OOOg reconstituted low-FODM APS WGPF as in Example 1 ( v)

SOg sugar

lOg salt

500g lukewarm water

20g active dry yeast

l Og soft bread improver

SOg canola oil Method

All ingredients were mixed in a dough processor until the dough temperature reached .26C. After resting for 15 minutes , the dough was rolled out into a sheet

approximately 2c«i thick. Ring doughnut shapes were cut from the dough sheet and proofed for 30 minutes. The puffed dough rings were then deep fried at 390C then drained and cooled.

Total Fructan content of doughnuts

Doughnuts were made to commercially acceptable quality based on appearance, texture and flavour. A cross-section portion of doughnut was crumbed when cold as in Example 2 and Total Fructan content estimated as in Example 2. FOD AP content of doughnut made with preferred reconstituted Iow-FODMAPS WGPF is compared to that of doughnut made from normal all-purpose wheat flour in Table 3.

Table 3.

I Flour type in doughnut formulation (nig FODMAPS/100g dried doughnut) i All-purpose wheat flour I 960

Reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF, 380

i Example l (v)

Example 4 Preparation of low-FODMAPS croissants

Non-flour ingredients for croissants were selected to be free of or contain only low levels of FODMAPS. The recipe and method were adapted from a public home cookery source. Ingredients

375g ail-purpose wheat flour ( control)

or

375g reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF as in Example 1 (v)

230g sugar

3g salt

250g lukewarm water

lOg active dry yeast

225g cold unsalted butter

Method

Working in a room cool enough for the butter not to melt, yeast was mixed into warm water and allowed to stand until foamy. The flour ( all-purpose wheat flour or reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF) was mixed with sugar and salt. The yeast mixture was added and mixed. The mixture was kneaded until it was not sticky. The dough was wrapped and chilled for 15 min. The butter was sliced into thin slices. The dough was unwrapped and rolled o ut into a square. Slices of butter were laid on the centre of the dough square. The dough was folded over and sealed. The folded dough was rolled out and folded again, and then again. The roll and fold steps were repeated twice more. The dough was allowed to rest between each roll and fold. Finally, the dough was roiled into a rectangle and cut into triangles. Each triangle was stretched and rolled up. The rolled triangles of dough were allowed to rise for about 2 hours until puffy and baked in a hot oven.. 245C, until golden brown approximately 20 minutes.

Total Fryctan content of croissants

Croissants were made to commercially acceptable quality based on appearance, text tire and flavour. A cross-section portio of croissant was crumbed when cold as in Example 2 and Total Fmctan content estimated as in Example 2. FODMAP content of croissant made with preferred reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF is compared to that of croissant made from normal all-purpose wheat flour in Table 4.

Table 4.

Example 5 Preparation of reduced-FOD APS muffins

Non-flour ingredients for muffins were selected to be free of or contain only low levels of FQDMAPS. The recipe and method were adapted from a public home cookery source. The flour contained starches from both wheat and corn (maize) to improve the texture.

Ingredients

800g all-purpose wheat flour ( control)

or

SOOg reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF as in Example 1 ( viii)

580g caster sugar

15g salt

20g baking powder

I40g egg

20g Pre-Gel wheat starch. I40g canola oil

400g water

vanilla essence

Method

All dry ingredients were blended thoroughly. All liquids and oil were added and mixed until smooth for 2 minutes. Portions of batter were filled into paper muffin cases and baked at 190C for approximately 15 minutes or until golden brown.

Total ructan content of muffins

Muffins were made to commercially acceptabie quality based o appearance, texture and flavour. A cross-section portion of muffin was crumbed when cold as in

Example 2 and Total Fructan content estimated as in Example 2. FODMAP content of muffin made w th preferred reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF is compared to that of muffin made from normal all-purpose wheat flo ur in Table 5.

Table 5.

Exam le 6. Preparation of low-FODMAPS scones

Non-flo ur ingredients tor scones were selec ted to be free of or contain only low levels of FODMAPS. Ingredients

2000g ail-purpose wheat flour ( control)

or

2000g reconstituted low-FODM APS WGPF as in Example l (v)

380g caster sugar

6g salt

140g baking powder

55g milk protein concentrate 85.

2 0g cake fat

I 00g water

Method

AH the dry ingredients were mixed thoroughly and sieved. The fat was rubbed through the dry ingredients mix. The water was added slowly and mixed to a smooth thick paste. Portions were cut out onto scone trays and baked at 220C for

approximately 20n inutes or until a light golden brown colour.

Total Fructan content of scones

Scones were made to commercially acceptable quality based on appearance, texture and flavour. A cross-section portion of scone was crumbed when cold as in Example 2 and Total Fructan content estimated as in Example 2. FGDMA content of scone made with preferred reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF is compared to that of scone made from normal ail-purpose wheat flour in Table 6. Tabl 6.

Example 7 Preparation of low-FODMAPS tortilla

Non-flour ingredients for tortillas were selected to be free of or contain only low levels of FODMAPS.

Ingredients

250g all-purpose wheat, flour ( control)

or

2.5 Og reconstituted low-FODMAPS GPF as in Example! (v)

20g shortening

3.75g salt

95 g water

1 g baking powder

1.25g improver

Method

The flour, baking powder, improver and salt were combined and the shortening and water added while stirring continuously. The dough was kneaded gently, rested for 10 minutes then divided into 50g pieces and rolled out to 3 mm thick. Tortil las were cooked in a hot pan for 30 seconds on each side unti l patches of golden brown appeared.

Total Fructan content of tortilla

Tortillas were made to commercially acceptable quality based on appearance, texture and flavour. A central portion of tortilla was crumbed when cold as in Example 2 and Total Fructan content estimated as in Example.2. FOD AP content of tortilla made with preferred reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF is compared to that of tortilla made from normal all-purpose wheat flour in Table 7.

Table 7.

Example 8 Preparation of low-FODM APS biscuit

Non-flour ingredients for biscuits were selected to be free of or contain only low levels of FODMAPS. ingredients l OOOg all-purpose wheat flour ( control)

or

lOOOg reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF as in Example (V) lOOg egg 700g unsalted butter

340g caster sugar

8g salt

Method

The butter and sugar were beaten until pale and creamy. Gradually the eggs were added while mixing and then the wheat flour or low-FODMAPS WGPF and salt were added and mixed for 2 minutes. Approximately 40g portions of mix were placed onto flat baking trays and baked at 180C for 12 minutes or until light golden brown colour.

Total Fruetan content of biscuits

Biscuits were made to commercially acceptabie quality based on appearance, texture and flavour. A portion of biscuit was crumbed when cold as in Example 2 and Total Fruetan content estimated as in Example 2. FODMAP content of biscuit made with preferred reconstituted low-FOD APS WGPF is compared to that of biscuit made from normal all-purpose wheat flour in Table 8.

Table 8.

Flour type in biscuit, formulation (m¾ FOBMAPS/lOOs dried biscuit)

All-purpose wheat Hour 1020

Reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF, 190

Example i(v)

Example 9 Preparation of low-FODMAFS shortcrust pastry cases.

Non-flour ingredients for shortcmst pastry were selected to be tree of or contain only low levels of FODM APS. The recipe and method, were adapted from a public home cookery source. ingredients

250g all-purpose wheat flour ( control)

or

250g reconstituted iow-FODMAPS WGPF as in Example! (v)

125g unsaited butter

60g egg

0.5g salt

Method

The flour or low-FODMAPS WGPF, butter and salt were processed in a food processor until crumbed. Beaten egg was added to the mi with the processor running and processed until large clumps formed. The dough was formed into a ball and kneaded gently to combine. It was then wrapped and refrigerated for 2 hours. The dough was rolled out and cut into the desired size and baked blind in preferred baking pans at 180C until golden brown.

Total Fructan content of shortcrust pastry

Shortcrust pastry cases were made to commercially acceptable quality based on appearance, texture and flavour. A portion of shortcrust pastry case was crumbed when cold as in Exam le 2 and Total Fructan content estimated as in Example 2. FODMAP content of shortcrust pastry case made with preferred reconstituted low- FGDMAPS WGPF is compared to that of shortcrust pastry case made from normal all-purpose wheat flour in Table 9.

Table 9.

Floor type in pastry formulation j (mg FODMAPS/lOOg dried shortcrust pastry)

Alt-purpose wheat .flour 1 .1430

Reconstituted low-FODMAPS I 270

WGPF, Example 1 (v)

Example 10 Preparation of low-FOD APS white noodles.

Ingredients

2000g all-purpose wheat, flour (control)

or

2.000g reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF , Example 1 (vi)

40g salt

750g water

Method

The selected flour type was placed in a food processor. The salt was dissolved in the water and trickled in while mixing the flour in the food processor and mixed until a crumb was formed. The loose crumbs were compressed and formed into a rectangular block then rolled through a roller press at its widest setting. The resulting dough sheet was folded in hal f and the step repeated six times then rested for 3.0 minutes. Rolling the dough was continued with progressively thinner spacing down to the required noodle thickness. The sheet was cut into strands with the cutting rollers and cooked immediately in boiling water for 20 minutes, drained and cooled.

Total Fructan content of white noodles

White noodles were made to commercially acceptable quality based on appearance, text ure and flavour. A portion of white noodles was crumbed when cold as in

Example 2 and Total Fructan content estimated as in Example 2. FODMAP content of white noodles made with preferred reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF is compared to that of white noodles made from normal, all-purpose wheat flour in Table 10.

Table 10

Example 1 1 Preparation of low-FODM APS yellow alkaline noodles.

Ingredients

2000g all-purpose wheat flour (control)

or

2000g reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF , Example l (vti)

20g sodium carbonate

750g water Method

The selected flour type was placed in a food processor. The salt was dissolved in the water trickled in white mixing the flour in the food processor and mixed tmtil a crumb was formed. The loose crumbs were compressed, formed into a rectangular block and rolled through a roller press at its widest setting. The resulting dough sheet was folded in half and this step repeated six times. The dough was rested for 30 minutes. Rolling the dough continued with progressively thinner spacing down to the required noodle thickness. The sheet was cut into strands with the cutting rollers and cooked immediately in boiling water for 20 minutes, drained and cooled.

Total Fructan content of yellow alkaline noodles

Yellow alkaline noodles were made to commercially acceptable qualit based on appearance, texture and flavour, A portion of yel low alkaline noodles was crumbed when cold as in Example 2 and Total Fructan content estimated as in Example 2. FODMAP content of yellow alkaline noodles made with preferred reconstituted low- FODMAPS WGPF is compared to that of yellow alkaline noodles made from normal all-purpose wheat flour in Table 1 1.

Table 11.

Flour type in yellow noodles (mg FODMAPS/ lOOg dried yellow noodles

All-purpose wheat flour 2300

Reconstituted low-FGDMAPS 440

WGPF, Example l (vii) Example 12 Preparation of low-FODMAPS dried instant noodles

Ingredients

20G0g all-purpose wheat flour (control)

or

2000g reconstituted low-FOD APS WGPF , Example l(vii)

40g salt

4g sodium carbonate

75 Qg water

Method

The selected flour type was placed in a food processor. The salt was dissolved in the water and trickled in while mixing the flour in the food processor and mixed until a crumb was formed. The loose crumbs were compressed and formed into a rectangular block then rolled through roller press at its widest setting. The resulting dough sheet was folded in half and the step repeated six times then rested for 30 minutes. Rolling the dough was continued with progressively thinner spacing down to the required noodle thickness. The sheet was cut into strands with the cutting rollers and cooked in a steamer for 20minutes. The cooked strands were then deep fried briefly to dehydrate and then drained and cooled.

Fructan content of dried instant noodles

Dried instant noodles were made to commercially acceptable quality based on appearance, texture and flavour. A portion of instant noodles was crumbed as in Example 2 and Total Fructan content estimated as in Example 2. FODMAP content of dried instant noodles made with preferred reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF is compared to that of dried instant noodles made from normal all-purpose wheat flour in Table 12.

Table 12.

Example 13 Preparation of low-FQDMAPS pasta

Ingredients

2000g all-purpose wheat flour (control)

or

2000g reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF , Example 1 (vii)

40g salt

75 Og water

Method

Each of the se lected flour types were placed in a food processor . The salt was dissolved in the water and trickled in while mixing the flour in the food processor and mixed until a crumb was formed. The loose crumbs were compressed and formed into a rectangular block then rolled through a roller press at its widest setting. The resulting dough sheet was folded in half and the step repeated six times then rested for 30 minutes. Rolling the dough, was continued with progressively thinner spacing dow to the required pasta thickness. The sheet was cut into strands with the cutting rollers and refrigerated or dried for preservation.

Total Fructan content of pasta

Pasta was made to commercially acceptable quality based on appearance, texture and .flavour. A portion of pasta was crumbed when cold as in Example 2 and Total Fructan content estimated as in Example 2. FODMAP content of pasta made with preferred reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF is compared to that of pasta made from normal all-purpose wheat flour in Table 13.

Table 13.

Example 14 Preparation of a low-FODM APS extruded expanded breakfast

cereal product

Ingredients for low-FODMAPS extruded expanded breakfast cereal were selected to be free of or contain only low levels of FO DM AP S.

Ingredients

32kg all-purpose wheat flour (control)

or

32kg reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF , Example 1 (i) 10kg washed wheat fibre as used in Example L(iii)

10kg maize flour

20kg rice flour

18kg wheat protein hydro lysate (82% protein) as used in Example 1 (iv)

9kg sugar

lkg salt

Method

All dry ingredients were thoroughly mixed in a ribbon blender. The ingredient mix was introduced into the barrel together with enough water to achieve th desired extruded product. Product was extruded through a Clextral twin screw extruder with barrel diameter of 33mm and length of 768mm in.6 consecutive heating zones.

Product was extruded through a die having 2mm diameter and 5mm length.

Total Fractan content of extruded expanded breakfast cereal

Extruded expanded breakfast cereal product was made to commercially acceptable quality based on appearance, texture and flavour. A portion of extruded brea fast cereal was crumbed when cold as in Example 2 and Total Fructan content estimated as in Example 2. PODMAP content of extruded breakfast cereal made with preferred reconstituted low-FODMAPS WGPF is compared to that of extraded breakfast cereal made from normal all-purpose wheat flour in Table 14.

Table 14.

Flour type in extruded cereal j (mg FODMAPS/lOOg dried extruded cereal)

All-purpose wheat flour 770

Reconstituted low-FODMAPS 160

WGPF, Example I t will thus be appreciated that this invention at least in the forms of the examples described provides novel and improved food products for wheat intolerant persons as well as methods and processes for producing such products. The examples disclosed herein are however only the currently preferred forms of the in vention and additional modifications may he made wit in the scope of said invention as defined by the following claims.

Prior Art US Patents Cited

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4,412,867

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20050129823

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Other Prior Art Publications' Cited

Barrett, IS, Gearry, R. B, Miitr, JG, Irving, P.M, Rose, , Rosella, O, Haines, MX, Shepherd, S.J, and Gibson, P.R. (2010) Aliment Pharmacol Ther 31 :874-882 Dietary poorly absorbed , short-chain carbohydrates increase delivery of water and fermentable substrates to the proximal colon. http:// ww.gastrojouimLorg article S0016-5085(13)00702 -6/abste - article- footnote- 1 Particle- footnote- 1 http://w\\^\gasmjjoumal.org ' ' article/S 016- 5QS5( 1.3 )0Q702-6/abstract - article-footnote-2#artic le- footnote-2

Biesiekierski, J.R., Newnham, E.D., Irving, P.M., Barrett, J.S., Haines, M., Doecfce, J.D., Shepherd, S.J., Muir, J.G. and Gibson, P.R. (2013) Am. J. Gastroenterol 106, 508-514. Gluten causes gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects without celiac disease: a double blind randomised placebo-controlled trial

Biesiekierski, J.R.,. O. Roselia, R.Rose, K. Lets, J.S. Barrett, S J. Shepherd, P.R.

Gibson and J.G. Muir (201 .1 ) J Hum Nulr Diet 24: 154 - 176 Quantification of fructans, galaeto-oligosaecharides and other short-chain carbohydrates in processed grains and cereals,

Biesiekierski, J.R, Peters, S.L., Newnham, E.D., Roselia, 0„ Muir, J.G. and Gibson P.R. (2013) Gastroenterology 145(2) 320-328 No Effects of Gluten in Patients With Self-Reported Non-Coeltac Gluten Sensitivity After Dietary Reduction of

Fermentable, Poorly Absorbed, Short-Cham Carbohydrates

Carlo Catassi et al wvvw.ncbt.nlm.mh.gov/pmc/artictes/PMC3820047. Non Coeliac Gluten Sensitivity; The New Frontier of G luten Related Disorders

R.R. Gibson & S J. Shepherd (2005) Aliment Pharmacol, fl ' ier. 21, 1399-1409.

Personal view: food for thought - western lifestyle and susceptibility to Crohn's disease. The FODMAPS hypothesis

Gibson, P.R. and Shepherd, S.J . (2010) J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 25: 252-258

Evidence-based dietary management of functional gastrointestinal symptoms: the FODMAPS approach. Halmos, Emma P., Victoria A. Power, Susan J. Shepherd, Peter R. Gibson and Jane G. uir (2014) Gastroenterol 146: 67 - 75. A diet low in FODMAPS reduces symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Knudsen, K.E.B. (1997) Animal Feed Set Techno! 67; 319-338. Carbohydrate and iignin contents of plant materials used in animal feeding.

Lopez, A.C.B, Pereira, A.S.G. and Junqueira R.G. (2004) . Brazilian Arch Biol Tecimol 47; 63-70. Flour mixture of Rice Flour, Corn and Cassava starch in the pro duction of g lu ten- free bread

Ong. D. , Mitchell, S.B, Barrett, IS, Shepherd, SJ, Irving, P.M, Biesiekierski, J. , Smith, S, Gibson, P.R. and Muir, J.G. (2010) L Gastroemrol Hepatol 25: 1366 - 1373. Manipulation of dietary short chain carboliydrates alters the pattern of gas productio and genesis of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome.

Shepherd S.J,, Parker, FC, Muir JG and Gibson PR Clin Gastroenterol. Hepatol 6, 765-711. Dietary triggers of abdominal symptom in patients with irritable Bowel Syndrome; randomised placebo-controlled evidence.

Wl elan, K, Abrahmsohn, 0\ David, GJ, Staudacher H, Irving, P, Lower MC and Ellis, PR (201 1 ) hit J Food Sci Nvtr 62(5), 498-503, Fractan content of commonly consumed wheat, rye and gluten-free breads.