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Title:
WHEAT HAVING HIGH LEVELS OF BETA-GLUCAN
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2015/017901
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention provides wheat grain comprising (1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucan (BG). The wheat grain is characterised by one or more of the following features; a BG content of at least 3% (w/w); the BG of the grain has a DP3/DP4 ratio between about 1.0 and about 2.0 or between about 1.0 and 2.3; and the BG is partially water soluble such that between 8.0% and about 25% or between about 10% and about 25% of the BG of the grain is water soluble. The present invention also provides uses of this grain.

Inventors:
JOBLING, Stephen Alan (18 Fleetwood Smith Street, Nicholls, Australian Capital Territory 2913, AU)
BELOBRAJDIC, Damien Paul (20 Redgum Drive, Pasadena, South Australia 5042, AU)
BIRD, Anthony Richard (2 Quandong Street, North Brighton, South Australia 5048, AU)
Application Number:
AU2014/050173
Publication Date:
February 12, 2015
Filing Date:
August 06, 2014
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
COMMONWEALTH SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH ORGANISATION (Limestone Avenue, Campbell, Australian Capital Territory 2612, AU)
International Classes:
H01H1/00; A61K31/716; A61K36/899; C12N9/42; C12N15/29; H01H5/00
Other References:
CSEH, A. ET AL.: "Expression of HvCslF9 and HvCslF6 barley genes in the genetic background of wheat and their influence on the wheat beta-glucan content", ANNALS OF APPLIED BIOLOGY, vol. 163, 2013, pages 142 - 150, XP055318439
NEMETH, C. ET AL.: "Down-regulation of the CSLF6 gene results in decreased (1,3;1,4)- beta-D-glucan in endosperm of wheat", PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, vol. 152, 2010, pages 1209 - 1218, XP055318443
See also references of EP 3031061A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
DAVIES COLLISON CAVE (1 Nicholson Street, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, AU)
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Claims:
1. Wheal grain comprising (1,3;i,4 - -gl can (BG), which is characterised by one or .more oi all of: a) wlierein the 30 content of the grain is at least 3% (w/w); b) wherein the 3G of the grain has a DP3/DP4 ratio between about 1.0 and about 2.0 or between about 1.0 and 2.3; and c) wherein the BO is partially water soluble such that between 8.0% and about 25% or between about 10% and about 25% of the BG of the grain is water soluble. 2. The grain of claim I , wherein the BG content of the wheat grain is at least 4% (w/w), at least S% (w/w), at least 6% (w/w), between 3% (w/w) and about 8% (w/w), between about 4% (w/w) and about 8% (w w), between about 5% (w/w) and about 8% (w w), about 4% (w w), about 5% (w/w), about 6% (w/w), about 7% (w w), cr about 8% (w/w). 3. The grain of claim 1 or claim 2, wherein the BG comprises an increased

proportion of water-soluble BG relative to a corresponding wild-type grain, as determined by treatment of a sample of wholemeal flour obtained from the grain with (i) 80% ethanol for 1 hour at 80°C, followed by (ii) solubilization of BG in aqueous buffer for 2 hours at 37°€, and (iii) determination of the level of BG solubilised from the sample. 4. The grain of claim 3, wherein at least 6%, preferably at least 8%, at least 10%, at least 12%, at least 1 %, at least 16%, at least 18%, about 6%, about 8%, about 10%, about 12%, about 14%, about 16%, about 18% or between 6% and about 20% of the BG content of die grain is water-soluble. 5. The grain of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the BG of the grain has a DP3/DP4 ratio of less than about 2.5, preferably less than about 2.4, less than about 2.3, less than about 2.2, less than about 2.1 , less than about 2.0, less than about 1.9, less than about ! «8, about 2.5, about 2.4, about 2.3, about 2.2, about 2.1, about 2.0» about 1.9, about 1.8, or between about 1.6 and about 2.5. 6. The grain of any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the grain comprises BO which predominantly has a molecular weight of at least about !OOk a, preferably at least about SOOkDa. 7. The grain of any one of claims 1 to 6. which is transgenic, such as comprising one or more exogenous polynucleotides which encode one or more CslF polypeptides and/or a Cs1H polypeptide, a herbicide tolerance gene, or a polynucleotide which encodes a silencing RNA molecule. 8. The grain of claim 7, which comprises an exogenous CslF6 polypeptide. 9. The grain of claim 8, wherein the CslF6 polypeptide comprises amino acids

whose sequence is at least 95% identical to the amino acid sequence of a CslF6 polypeptide from a plant, preferably a cereal plant or a plant in the family

Poaceae. 10. The grain cf claim 9, wherein the CslF6 polypeptide from a plant is (i) an oat, maize, sorghum or rice CslF6 polypeptide or (ii) a C&1F6 polypeptide from a plant whose native grain BG has a DP3 DP4 ratio of less than 2.3. 11. The grain of any one of claims 1 to 10. further comprising an exogenous CslH polypeptide. 12. The grain of any one of claims 1 to 11 which is Don-shnmken and/or has a weight of at least 25 mg, preferably at least about 30mg or at least about 35mg, or between about 30mg and about 50mg. 13. The grain of any one of claims 1 to 12 which is capable of producing a wheat plant which is male and female fertile, or a wheat plant which is essentially the same in morphology and or growth rate as a corresponding wild-type plant.

14. The grain of any one of claims 1 to 14, wherein the grain has a germination rate of about 70% to about 90%, or about 90% to about 100%, relative to the germination rate of a corresponding wild-type grain. 15. The grain of any one of claims 1 to 14 comprising sea ch, wherein the starch of the grain has an amylose content of at least 60% (w w), or at least 67% (w/w) or at least 70% (w w) as a proportion of die extractable starch of the grain. 16. The grain of any one of claims 1 to IS which is free of any exogenous nucleic acid thai encodes an RMA which reduces expression of an endogenous CslF gene. 17. The grain of any one of claims 1 (o 1 , wherein the starch content of the grain is at least 30%, preferably at least 35%, at least 40% or at least 45% as a percentage of the total grain weight. 18. The grain of any one of claims 1 to 17, wherein the plant is hexaploid wheat, preferably Triticum aestivum. 19. The grain of any one of claims I to IS, wherein the starch of the grain is

characterised by one or more of properties selected from the group consisting of: comprising at least 2% resistant starch; b. comprising a giycaemic index (Oi) of less than 55; c. comprising less than 20% amylopectin as a proportion of the starch content of the grain; comprised in starch granules which have an altered morphology relative to wild-type wheat starch granules; comprised in starch granules that exhibit reduced granule birefringence under polarised light relative to wild-type wheat starch granules; f. when the grain is milled to flour, such flour exhibits reduced swelling

volume; g. modified chain length distribution and/or branching frequency relative to wild-type whe t starch; h. delayed end of gelaunisation temperature and higher peak temperature; i. reduced viscosity (peak viscosity, pasting temperature); j. increased molecular weight of arnylopectin; and k. modified % crystailinity or % A-type or B-type starch, relative to wild-type wheat starch granules or starch. 20. The gram of any one of claims 1 to 20 which is recess d so that it is no longer capable of germinating, such as kibbled, cracked, par-boiled, rolled, pearled, milled or ground grain. 21. The grain of any one of claims 1 to 1 which is comprised in a wheat plant. 22. A wheat plant which is capable of producing the grain of any one of claims 1 to 19, preferably which comprises one or more exogenous polynucleotides which encode a CslF6 polypeptide and/or a CslH polypeptide. 23. The wheat plant of claim 22 which is male and female fertile. 24. Flour such as wholemeal flour or endosperm flour produced from the gram of any one of claims 1 to 20. 25. Wheat endosperm or wheat endosperm flour comprising BO and one or more exogenous Csl polypeptides, wherein the BG content of the endosperm or endosperm flour is at least 0.3% or at least 0.4% by weight if the one or more Csl polypeptides comprise a C&IF6 polypeptide, or at least 1.2% if the one or more Csl polypeptides comprise a Cs1H polypeptide 26. The wheat endosperm or wheat endosperm flour of claim 25, which comprises a CslF6 polypeptide.

27. A composition comprising isolated wheat BG and arabinoxylan (AX) produced from the grain of any one of claims 1 to 20, the BG and AX being soluble in aqueous media* and the BG having a DP3 DP4 ratio of less than 2.0 and predominantly a molecular weight of at least about lOOkDa. 28. The wheat grain of any one of claims 1 to 20, or the flour of any one of claims 24 to 26, or the composition of claim 27, when used in, or for use in, the production of a product to increase the level of BG in said product 29. A food ingredient that comprises the grain of any one of claims 1 to 20» or which is or comprises the flour, preferably wholemeal flour, of any one of claims 24 to 26, or which is or comprises the composition of claim 27, preferably which is packaged ready for sale. 30. The food ingredient of claim 29 wherein the grain is processed so it is no longer able to germinate, such as cooked, kibbled, cracked, par-boiled, rolled, pearled, milled or ground grain or any combination of these. 31. A food product comprising a food ingredient at a level of at least 1% on a dry weight basis, or a drink product comprising a drink ingredient at a level of at least 0.1% on a weight basis, wherein the food ingredient is wheat grain of any one of claims 1 to 20, the flour of any one of claims 24 to 26, the composition of claim 27 or the ingredient of claim 29 or 30, and wherein the drink ingredient is the composition of claim 27. 32. The food or drink product of claim 31 for use in altering one or more

physiological parameters in an animal, preferably of metabolic health, bowel health or cardiovascular health, or of preventing or reducing the severity or incidence of metabolic, bowel or cardiovascular disease in an animal. 33. The food or drink product of claim 32, wherein the animal is a human. 34. A composition comprising the grain of any one of claims 1 to 20, or the flour of any one of claims 24 to 26, and wheat grain whose BG content is less than 2% (w w) or flour obtained therefrom, wherein the grain of any one of claims 1 to 20, or the flour of any one of claims 24 to 26, comprises at least 1% by weight of the composition. 35. A method of producing a wheat plant that produces grain according to any one of claims t to 19, the method comprising the steps of (i) introducing one or more exogenous polynucleotides which encode one or more CslF polypeptides or a CslF polypeptide and a CslH polypeptide into a progenitor wheat cell, and (ii) producing a wheat plant from the wheat cell of (i). 36. The method of claim 35, further comprising steps of (iii) oblainirig grain from the wheat plant and (iv) testing the grain to determine the level or type of BG in the grain. 37. A method of producing a wheat plant mat produces grain according to any one of claims 1 to 1 , the method comprising the steps of (i) crossing a first wheat plant which comprises one or more exogenous polynucleotides which encodes one or more CslF polypeptides with a second wheat plant, and (ii) selecting a progeny wheat plant from the cross of (i) which produces grain according to any one of claims 1 to 19. 38. A method of selecting a wheat plant, the method comprising (i) determining the amount of BO in grain obtained from each of at least two wheat plants, and (ii) selecting a plant from (i) which produces grain according to any one of claims 1 to 19.

A method of producing grain according to any one of claims 1 to 20, comprising the step of harvesting wheat grain from the wheat plant of claim 23, preferably from a population of at least 1000 such wheat plants with a mechanical harvester, and ii) optionally, processing the grain. 40. A method of producing bins of wheat grain comprising: a. reaping wheat stalks comprising wheat grain as defined in any one of claims 1 to 19; b. threshing and/or winnowing the stalks to separate the grain from the chaff; and c. sitting and/or sorting the grain separated in step b), and loading the sifted and/or sorted grain into bins, thereby producing bins of wheat grain. 41. A method of trading wheat grain, comprising obtaining the wheat grain of any one of claims 1 to 20, and trading the obtained wheat grain for pecuniary gain. 42. The method of claim 41, wherein obtaining the wheat grain comprises cultivating a wheat plant according to claim 23, preferably cultivating a population of at least 1000 such wheal plants and harvesting wheat grain from the plant(s). 43. The method of claim 4 i > which further comprises a step of storing the wheat grain. 44. The method of any one of claims 40 to 43, which further comprises transporting the wheat grain to a different location. 45. A method of identifying a container comprising wheat grain according to any one of claims 1 to 19, the method comprising (i) determining the amount and/or properties of 30 in a sample of wheat grain from a container comprising wheat grain, or determining the amount of a Csl polypeptide present in the sample, or determining the presence of a polynucleotide which encodes a Csl polypeptide in the sample, and (ii) if the amount and or properties of the BG in the sample is as defined in any one of claims 1 to 19, or the Csl polypeptide or polynucleotide is present in a desired amount, thereby having identified the container of wheat grain according to any one of claims 1 to 19. 46. A method of producing a milled wheat product, comprising the steps of (i) milling grain according to any one of claims 1 to 20 to produce wholemeal, flour or bran, and (ii) optionally, separating any bran from the wholemeal or flour, or sieving, bleaching or stabilizing the wholemeal or flour.

47. A method of producing al least partially purified BO or starch, comprising the steps of i) obtaining wheat grain according to any one of claims 1 to 20, and ii) extracting the BO or starch from the grain, thereby producing the BO or starch. 48. A method of producing a product comprising BO, wherein the method comprises a step of (i) processing wheat grain according to any one of claims 1 to 20 or wholemeal or flour therefrom, thereby producing the product. 49. Ί Tie method of claim 48, further comprising a step of assessing the level or type of BO in the wheat grain or flour of step (i) or in the product, or a step of adding a processed wheat grain, wholemeal or flour from step (i) to another food ingredient, thereby producing the product comprising BO. 50. The method of claim 48 or claim 49, wherein the product is a food or drink

product or a pharmaceutical composition, or isolated BG. 51. The method of any one of claims 45 to 50, wherein the wheat grain comprises one or more exogenous Csl polypeptides, preferably comprising a CslF6 polypeptide. 52. The food product of any one of claims 31 to 33, or the method of claim 50,

wherein the food product is a bread, breakfast cereal such as a ready to eat cereal, biscuit, muffin such as an English muffin, muesli bar, noodle, bagel, bun, croissant, dumpling, pita bread, quickbread, refrigerated or frozen dough product, dough, baked beans, burrito, chili, taco, tamak, tortilla, pot pie, stuffing, micro waveable meal, brownie, cake such as a cheesecake or coffee cake, cookie, dessert, pastry, sweet roll, candy bar, pie crust, pie filling, baby food, baking mix, batter, breading, gravy mix, meat extender, meat substitute, seasoning mix, soup mix, gravy, roux, salad dressing, soup, sour cream, pasta, ramen noodles, chow mein noodles, lo mein noodles, an ice cream inclusion, an ice cream bar, an ice cream cone, an ice cream sandwich, cracker, crouton, doughnut, an egg roll, an extruded snack, fruit and grain bar, microwaveable snack product, nutritional bar, pancake, par-baked bakery product, pretzel, pudding, granola-based product, snack chip, snack food, snack mix, waffle, pizza crust, animal food such as a pet food

53. The use of 3G isolated from wheat grain according to any one of claims 1 to 20 as a tow calorie food additive, a bulking agent, a dietary fibre, a texturizing agent, a preservative, a probiotic agent or any combination of these.

54. A method of altering one or more physiological parameters- in an animal, or of preventing or reducing the severity or incidence of a disease, the method comprising providing to the animal, preferably a human, the grain of any one of claim 1 to 21 , a wheal plant of claim 22 or 23, the composition of claim 27 or claim 34, a product of claim 31 or 32 or produced by a method according to any one of claims 46 to 52, wherein the altered physiological parameter or reduced severity or incidence of disease is relative to providing to the animal the same amount of corresponding wild-type wheat grain, wheat plant, or composition or product made therefrom.

55. The method of claim 55, wherein the physiological parameter is a parameter of metabolic health, bowel health or cardiovascular health, such as a reduced incidence or severity of diabetes, bowel disease, obesity, hypertension, constipation, osteoporosis, cancer or cardiovascular disease.

56. The method of claim 55 or 56, wherein the physiological parameter is one or more of: an increased number of beneficial intestinal bacteria, a reduced number of aberrant crypt foci in the bowel, an increased mineral absorption from the bowel, a reduced level of insulin in the blood, a reduced glycaemic index response, a reduced glycaemic load response, a reduced blood glucose level, a reduced blood pressure, a reduced body weight, a reduced blood cholesterol level or LDL cholesterol level, increased blood HDL cholesterol level, an increased bone density, or more frequent bowel movement 57. The method of claim 57, wherein the physiological parameter is selected from the group consisting of reduced glycaemic index response, a reduced level of insulin in the blood, a reduced glycaemic load response, a reduced blood glucose level, a reduced blood cholesterol level or LDL cholesterol level, and increased blood HDL cholesterol level.

58. The method of any one of claims 55 to 58, wherein the animal is a human, and the amount of grain, or food or drink produced therefrom, provided to the human is al least lO per day of the grain or grain equivalent.

Description:
WHEAT HAVING HIGH LEVELS OF BBTA-GLUCAN

FILING DATA

This application is associated with and claims priority from Australian patent application no.2013902937 filed on 6 August 2013 and Australian patent application no. 2014902241 filed on 12 June 2014, the entire contents of each of these applications are incorporated herein by reference.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0001] The present invention relates to transformed wheat having high levels of beta-giucan and the use of this wheat.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The cell wall polysaccharides of cereal grains are an important dietary component in human nutrition, being a significant source of dietary fibre (Topping, 2007). Consumption of whole grain cereals, of which cell wall polysaccharides comprise about 10% by dry weight, is associated with a reduced risk of developing diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer, as well as with other health benefits such as improved gastrointestinal health (reviewed in Jonrtalagadda et al., 2011). Whole grains also have a relatively low glycaemic index and are a rich source of other dietary components including vitamins, antioxidants and minerals, as well as starch as an energy source.

[0003] The cell walls of grasses (Poaceae) induding cereal grains are characterised by the presence of mixed linkage (13;1,4)-β-D-ghican (hereinafter abbreviated as BG) (Trethewey et al., 2005). BG is found in cereals predominantly in cell walls along with other polysaccharides such as arabino-( 1 ,4)-β-D-xylan (hereinafter AX). The structure of BG is unique among cell wall polymers in that it consists of a linear polymer of glucose residues linked covalently by 1-3 and 1-4 linkages, arranged in a non repeating but non random fashion (Fincher, 2009a, b). It can be considered to be a polymer of mainly β-1-4 linked cellotriosyl (each with 3 glucose residues) and cellotetrosyl (each with 4 glucose residues) units linked by single (M-3 linkages. The polysaccharide from barley grain also has approximately 10% longer β-1-4 linked cellodextrin units (Fincher and Stone, 2004). The conformational asymmetry of the molecule enables the polymer to form a viscous porous gel like struck of the plant cell wall BGs are found at low levels in most vegetative tissues (Trethewey and Harris, 2002) and at higher levels in elongating cells such as the growing coleoptile (Carpita el al., 2001; Gibeaut et al ^ 2005). In contrast to cells of vegetative tissues, the endosperm cell walls of most cereal grains contain very little cellulose and the major cell wall components are AX and/or BG, although rice and other cereal grains also wotam other cdl wallp^ (Stone, 2006).

[0004] The BG content of grains varies omsiderably amongst the cereals, with barley, oats and rye liaving the highest amounts and wheat, maize and rice having relatively low levels (Fincher and Stone, 2004). In wheat endosperm, cell walls comprise about 70% AX and 15-25% BG, along with about 4% cellulose ((1,4)-p-D- gtucan) and about 7% ( 1 ,4)-p-D-giuconaani}ans. In contrast, barley endosperm cell walls have about 20% AX and 70% BG. Rice grain cell walls also have significant levels of cellulose (20%). The higher levels of BG in barley and oats have benefits in reducing coronary heart disease, but it is not known if wheat BG provides the same benefits. It is clear, therefore, that the properties of cell wall polysaccharides in one cereal cannot be generalized readily to other cereals.

[0005] The water solubility of BG also varies within cereals. Oat BG is more soluble than BG from barley and wheat which have relatively low water solubility (Aman and Graham, 1987; Beresford and Stone, 1983; Lazaridou and Biliaderis, 2007). BG from each cereal grain has a characteristic and different fine structure as indicated by digestion with lichenase and separation of the otigosaccharides by HPLC (Lazaridou and Biliaderis, 2007). Lichenase specifically cleaves BG at a (β,Ι-4) Unkage after a (β,1-3) linkage releasing mainly otigosaccharides of degree of polymerisation (DP3 and DP4, having 3 and 4 ghicosyl units, respectively). Oat BG has the lowest DP3/DP4 ratio amongst cereal grain BGs, generally being in the range of 1.5-2.3, while barley BG has a DP3 DP4 ratio in the range of 2.3-32 (Lazaridou and Biliaderis, 2007). As BG levels in wheat grain are very low (< 1.0%) and in wheat endosperm even lower, the BG structure has not been characterised in detail. Wheat bran BG has been reported as having a DP3/DP4 ratio of 3.7-4.5 (Cui et al., 2000; Li et at, 2006) whereas BG from wheat wholemeal has aDP3 DP4 ratio of 3.0- 3.8 (Wood et al., 1991) when measured with a lichenase assay. A more recent report, using a different method, gave tower values of 2.3 to 2.5 for wheat flour BG (Nemeth et al., 2010). [0006] The biosynthesis of the individual cell wall polymers is not well understood. The enzymes involved are integral membrane proteins and while some can be assayed biochemically (Buckeridge et al., 2004; Tsucbiya et al., 2005) none have been purified to homogeneity and isolation of the encoded genes has involved a genetic approach or heterologous expression. Thus the cellulose synthase (CesA) and cellulose synthase-like (Csl) gene families have been shown to encode enzymes that make p inked polysacctaridcs. The CesA genes encode cellulose synthase enzymes and there are nine Csl gene families designated CslA-J (Fincher, 2009a; Hazen et al., 2002). Some members of the CslA genes encode β-mannan and glucomannan synthases, (Dhugga et al., 2004; Liepman et al., 2007) and the CslC genes encode an enzyme that is believed to synthesise the (1,4H*-D-glucan backbone of xyloglucan (Cocuron et al., 2007). The CslB and CslO families are restricted to dicotyledenous plants whereas the CslF and Cs1H families have so far been reported only in graminaceoiis monocotyledons, In the fully sequenced genome of rice there are nine CslF genes and three Cs1H genes, whereas in barley at least seven CslF genes and a single Cs1H gene have been cnaracterised (Burton et al., 2008; DoWin et al., 2009).

[0007] Some of the genes involved in BG biosynthesis have recently been identified as belonging to the celldose-synthase-like CslF and Cs1H gene families. Heterologous expression of rice OsCslF2, or OsCslF4 in transgenic Arabkbpsis plants produced BG which could be detected immunologically although the absolute amounts produced were very low (Burton et al., 2006). In other work, oblin et al.,

[0009] showed that overexpression of barley CslH led to low levels of BG synthesis in transgenic Arabidopsis. This indicated that multiple Csl genes might encode BG synthesizing enzymes, and perhaps that different cereals used different, or multiple, Csl activities to synthesize BG. EST counts from cDNA libraries indicate that, in wheat, mere are at least seven expressed CslF genes, ccfies jonding to rice CslFl, CslF2, CslB, CsJF4, CslF6, CslF8 and CslF9 genes (Nemeth et al., 2010).

[0008] Overexpression of the endogenous barley HvCslF6 gene in an endosperm specific manner was shown to increase BG levels by up to 80% in transgenic barley (Burton et al., 2011). In contrast, endosperm specific overaqpression of HvCslF3, HvCslF4, HvCslF8 or HvCslF9 genes had no noticeable effect on BG levels. These results suggested that, in barley, individual CslF or Cs1H genes could have different effects on the level of BG synthestsed in endosperm. Nemeth et al., (2010) showed that the down-regulation of CslF6 gene expression in wheat by RNAi methods reduced the BG levels in endosperm by between 30% and 52%, indicating that CslF6 was expressed in wheat grain and contributed to BG synthesis in that cereal. That is, wheat contains an endogenous Cs!F6 gene that is ftmctional. However, it is not known which genes might be needed to be expressed in order to increase BG levels in wheat Additionally, it is unknown which gene or combinations of genes might provide sufficient levels of BG with an optimum structure r¼nutrinonai functionality.

[0009] The reasons why wheat grain has relatively low BG levels, much lower man barley or oats, and why wheat BG has a different structure than other cereal BGs are unknown. This could be due to the lack of one or more Csl genes or to some other class of gene, the presence of other structural features, or any combination thereof.

[0010] There is need for wheat with increased levels of BG, in particular with increased levels of waXer-extractable (soluble) BG, for improved nutritional functionality.

SUMMARY Or THE INVENTION

[0011] In a first aspect, the present invention provides wheat grain comprising (U;1,4)-p >-g1ucan (BG), which is characterised by one or more or all of the features:

(a) wherein the BG content of the grain is at least 3% (w/w);

(b) wherein the BG of the grain has a DP3 DP4 ratio between about 1.0 and about 2.0 or between about 1.0 and 2.3; and

(c) wherein the BG is partially water soluble such that between 8.0% and about 25%, between 8.0% and about 50%, between about 10% and 50%, or between about 10% and about 25% of the BG of the gram is water soluble.

[0012] In embodiments, the wheat grain comprises features (a) and (b), or features (a) and (c), or (b) and (c). In these embodiments, the third feature is optionally present In an embodiment when the BG content is less than 3% (w w), the BG content is increased relative to a wild-type wheat grain, and/or the solubility of the BO is increased relative to wild-type wheat grain. The grain may also comprise additional features as described below. 30012] In a second aspect, the present invention provides wheat grain comprising (U;1,4)-p glucan (BG) and a CslF6 polypeptide which comprises an amino acid other than isoleucine (I) at position 756 with reference to SEQ ID NO: 18 or the corresponding amino acid position in other CsiF6 polypeptides, and more preferably has a leucine (L) at that position. In an embodiment, the BG has a water solubility winch is increased relative to the water solubility of the BG in a wild-type wheat grain, such as, for example, between 8.0% and about 25%, between 8.0% and about 50%, between about 10% and 50%, or between about 10% and about 25% of the BG that is water soluble. In a preferred embodiment, the BG content of the grain is at least 3% (w w) and/or the BG of the grain has a DP3/DP4 ratio between about 1.0 and about 2.0 or between about 1.0 and 23.

[0014] In onbodimerits of these aspects, the wheat grain comprises features (a) and (b), or features (a) and (c), or (b) and (c). In these embodiments, the third feature is optionally present In an embodiment when the BG content is less than 3% (w/w), the BG content is increased relative to a wild-type wheat grain, and or the solubility of the BG is increased relative to wild-type wheat grain. The grain may also comprise additional features as described below.

[0015] In certain embodiments of the present invention, the BG content of the wheat grain (feature (a)) is at least 4% (w w), at least 5% (w/w), or at least 6% (w/w). In combination with these minimum levels, the BG content of the wheat grain of the mvetmon may have a maximum of about 10% (w w) or 12% (w w). In embodiments, the BG content is between between 3% (w/w) and about 8% (w w), between about 4% (w w) and about 8% (w w), between about 5% (w/w) and about 8% (w w), about 3% (w/w), about 4% (w/w), about 5% (w/w), about 6 (w/w), about 7% (w/w), or about 8% (w w). The BG content of the grain is typically measured on wholemeal flour obtained from the grain, which wholemeal flour is representative of the entire grain with regard to BG content and other components such as grain proteins, starch and DNA. Preferably, the BG content is measured as described in Example 1.

[0016] In embodiments, the BG of the grain has a DP3 DP4 ratio (feature (b)) of less than about 2.5, preferably less than about 2.4, less man about 2.3, less than about 2.2, less man about 2.1, less than about 2.0, less than about 1.9, less than about 1.8, about 2.5, about 2.4, about 2.3, about 2.2, about 2,1, about 2.0, about 1.9, about 1.8, or between about 1.8 and about 2.5. In these embodiments, the DP3/DP4 ratio may have a minimum of about 1.0. Preferably, the DP3 DP4 ratio is measured as described in Example 1.

[0017] fa anbodiments, the BG of the wheat grain comprises an increased proportion of water-soluble BG (feature (c)) relative to a coiresponding wild-type grain as determined by, or detenninable by, a method that comprises treatment of a sample of wholemeal flour obtained from the grain with (i) 80% ethanol for 1 hour at 80°C, followed by (ii) solubilisation of BG in aqueous buffer for about 2 hours at 37°C, and (iii) (fetennination of the level of BG sohibilised from the sample. It is preferred that at least 6%, preferably at least 8%, at least 10%, at least 12% » at least 14%, at least 16%, at least 18% » about 6%, about 8%, about 10%, about 12%, about 14%, about 16% or about 18% of the BG content of the grain is water-soluble as determined by, or determinable by, such a method. In these embodiments, the proportion of water-soluble BG may have a maximum value of about 30% or about 40% or about 50%. It would be understood that Ihe proportion of water-soluble BG is relative to the total BG content of the grain which is defined in the preceding paragraph.

[0018] In embodiments, the BG is characterised by having a molecular weight of at feast 10kDa, preferably at least l00kDa or S00kDa, or between about 500kDa and S000kDa, as determined by the position of the peak molecular weight following size- exclusion chromatography. The peak molecular weight may be, or not less man, about 0.5 x 10 6 Da, or about 1.0 x 10* Da, or about 2.0 x 10 Da. In preferred embodiments, the molecular weight is of the BG is predominantly (i.e. at least 50% of the BG) in the range of about 0.5 x 10* to about 2.0 x 10*Da.

[0019] to a preferred form of the invention, the grain is transgenic i.e. comprises one or more exogenous polynucleotides. In embodiments, the polynucleotides encode one or more Csl polypeptides, preferably iiicluding a CslF6 polypeptide, more preferably a CslF6 polypeptide other than a barley CsIF6 polypeptide, and or encode an exogenous polypeptide other man a Csl polypeptide such as a herbicide tolerance polypeptide, or a silencing RNA molecule. In an embodiment, the silencing RNA molecule is capable of reducing expression of one or more endogenous wheat genes in wheat plants of the invention, such as in the aeveioping seed or endosperm of the plant. The exogenous polynucleotide may be operaWy linked to a promoter that is preferentially expressed in the o^elo ing seed or endosperm of the plant [0020] In on embodiment, the wheat grain comprises CslF6 genes in their native positions in the A, B and D genomes and is lacking exogenous CslF6 genes elsewhere in the genome. In a preferred embodiment, one or more of 1he OtlF6 genes in their native positions each encode a variant CslF6 polypeptide which comprises an amino add substitution relative to the corresponding wUdkype CslF6 polypeptide. In a more preferred embodiment, the amino acid substitution is at amino acid position 756 with reference to SEQ ID NO: 18 or the corresponding amino acid position in other CslF6 polypeptides. In a most preferred embodiment, the amino acid substitution is an I756X sobstitution with reference to SEQ ID NO: 18 or an identical amino acid substtoition at the corresponding amino acid in other CsIF6 polypeptides.

[0021] In preferred forms, the grain comprises an exogenous CslF6 polypeptide. The amino acid sequence of the exogenous CsIF6 polypeptide is preferably at least 95% identical, more preferably at least 99% identical, to the amino acid sequence of a CslF6 polypeptide from a plant, i.e. to a naturally occurring CslF6 polypeptide. Said plant may be a cereal plant or a plant in the family Poaceae. In an embodiment, the exogenous polypeptide is a CslF6 polypeptide other man a barley CslF6 polypeptide, HvCslF6, which corresponds to amino acids 12-958 of SEQ ID NO: 43 or a polypeptide which is at least 99% identical to annuo acids 12-958 of SEQ ID NO: 43. In preferred embodiments, the exogenous CsJF6 polypeptide is an oat (AsCslF6), maize (ZmCslF6), sorghum (SbCslF6) or rice (OsCslF6) CslF6 polypeptide. The exogenous CslF6 polypeptide may also be from a plant whose grain BG has a DP3/DP4 ratio of less than 2.3, or less than 2.1, or be a CslF6 polypeptide which is expressed in a plant most highly in a tissue other man grain. The amino acid sequence of the CslF6 polypeptide may be identical to the amino acid sequence of a naturally occurring plant CslF6 polypeptide such as an oat, maize, sorghum or rice CslF6 polypeptide, or may differ therefrom by no more man 10 conservative amino acids substHutkms, preferably no more than 5 conservative amino acid substitutions, such as when compared to an oat, maize, sorghum or rice CslF6 polypeptide. See for example SEQ ID NOs 18 - 20, 55 -57, 59 and 61. In a preferred embodiment, the CslF6 polypeptide comprises an amino acid other man isoleucine (I) at position 756 with reference to SEQ ID NO: 18 or the corresponding amino acid position in other CslF6 polypeptides, and more preferably has a leucine (L) at that position.

[0022] In embodiments, the grain further comprises an exogenous CslH polypeptide. The amino acid sequence of the exogenous CslH polypeptide is preferably at least 95% identical to the amino acid sequence of a CslH polypeptide from a plant, preferably a cereal plant or a plant in the family Poaceae. Sec for example SEQ ID NOs 37 - 39, and 50.

[0023] The grain of the present invention may be further characterised by one or more of the following features, and all of the possible combinations of these features are contemplated. The grain is preferably nonH^hrunken and/or has a weight of at least 25 mg or at least 28 mg, preferably at least 30mg, at least 35mg, or at least 40mg. Typically, the grain weight is between 25mg and 40rag, between 25mg and 45mg, between 25mg and 50mg, between 25mg and 55mg, between 25mg and 60tag, beween 35mg and 55mg, between 35mg and 60mg, about 30mg, about 35mg, about 40mg, about 45mg, about 50mg, or about 55mg. Grain weight is preferably measured on a sample of at least 100 grains, in which case the grain weight is expressed as an average grain weight The grain preferably has a moisture content of between about 8% and about 14%, more preferably about 10%. In embodiments, the grain is capable of producing a wheat plant which is male and female fertile, or a wheat plant which is essentially the same in morphology as a oonesportding wild-type plant For example, the wheat plant produced from the grain is green in colour, has the same seedling vigour, andor produces pollen which has the same viability as a conesporKiing wild- type plant It is desired that the germination rate of the grain is similar to, or essentially the same as, that of wild-type grain. In certain embodiments, the grain of the present invention has a gennination rate of about 70% to about 90%, or about 90% to about 100%, relative to the gennination rate of a corresponding wild-type grain. Typically mis is measured at 7-10 days after imbibition at room temperature under low light conditions (e.g. in the dark), or as the percentage of grains that give rise to emerged seedlings after sowing in the field.

[0024] the wheat grain of the invention further comprises starch. It is preferred that the starch content of the grain is at least 30%, more preferably at least 35%, or at least 40% as a percentage of the total grain weight In combination with these minimums, the maximum starch content of the grain may be about 60% or even 70%, as for wild- type grain. In an embodiment, the amylose content of the starch of the grain is at least 50% (w/w), at least 60% (w w), at least 67% (w/w), or at least 70% (w w) as a proportion of the extractable starch of the grain. The starch of the grain of the present invention is typically characterised by one or more of properties selected from the group consisting of;

• ccfflmrising at least 2% resistant starch

• comprising a glycaemic index (GI) of less than 55; • ccmprising less than 20% amylopectin as a proportion of the starch content of the grain

• comprised in starch grannies which have an altered morphology relative to wild-ty e wheat starch granules;

• comprised in starch granules that exhibit reduced granule birefringence under polarised light relative to wild-type wheat starch granules;

• when the grain is milled to flour, such flour exhibits reduced swelling volume;

• modified chain length distribution and/or branching frequency relative to wild- type wl eat starch;

• delayed end of gelafJLnisation temperature and higher peak temperature;

• reduced viscosity (peak viscosity, pasting temperature);

• increased molecular weight of amylopectin;

• modified percentage of crystalline starch; and

• modified percentage of A-type or B-type crystalline starch, in each case relative to wild-type wheat starch granules, flour or starch.

[0025] In an embodiment, the grain is also r/rrferabiy free of any exogenous nucleic acid that encodes an RNA which reduces expression of an endogenous CslF gene.

[0026] Preferably the grain is from hexaploid wheat, preferably Triticum aesttvum , or from tetraploid wheat such as T. durum.

[0027] In certain forms of the present invention, the grain is processed so that it is no longer capable of germinating. Such processed grain includes kibbled, cracked, roasted, boiled, par-boiled, rolled, pearled, milled or ground grain.

[0028] The present invention is also directed to a wheat plant, preferably Triticum aesttvum L or T. durum, comprising the grain or that is capable of producing the grain of the present invention, and to plants produced from such grain. It is preferred mat the wheat plant is male and female fertile. In an embodiment, the wheat plant is of a cultivar other than Bob White 26. The wheat plant may be of a winter or spring type, and is preferably semi-dwarf in height, such as a wheat plant comprising a mutant allele of an Rht gene that provides for a semi-dwarf height The plant may be growing in a glasshouse or in the field. The plant may be one of a population of at least 1000 genetically identical or essentially identical wheat plants growing in the field. [0029] The present invention also extends to wheat flour, such as wholemeal wheat flour, or other processed products obtained from the grain such as semolina, isolated wheat starch granules, isolated wheat starch or wheat bran produced from the grain of the invention. The BG content of the wholemeal flour is essentially the same as for the wheat grain, as described above, in an embodiment, the flour or other processed product comprises one or more exogenous CslF polypeptides, preferably including a CsIF6 polypeptide, more preferably an oat, maize, sorghum or rice CslF6 polypeptide, which polypeptide is derived from the grain of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, the CslF6 polypeptide in the flour or processed product comprises an amino add other than isoleucine (I) at position 756 with reference to SEQ ID NO: 18 or the corresponding amino acid position in other CslF6 polypeptides, and more preferably has a leucine (JL) a/ that position. The porypeptide is detectable by any method known in the art such as an immunological method e.g. ELISA or Western blot analysis, or mass spectrometry. The flour or processed product may also comprise one or more exogenous polynucleotides encoding the CslF poIypeptide(s), derived from the grain. Said polynucleotides may be detectable by PCR. In an embodiment, the flour is wheat endosperm flour (white flour) comprising BG and one or more exogenous Csl polypeptides, wherein the BG content of the flour is between 03% and about 3% (w/w). The white flour has a lower bran content than the wholemeal flour from which it is obtained. The flour or bran may have been stabilised by heat treatment.

[0030] The present invention provides a variant CslF6 polypeptide which comprises an amino acid substitution at position 756 with reference to SEQ ID NO:18 or the corresponding amino acid position in other CslF6 polypeptides, wherein the amino acid present at position 756 is other than isoleucine (I) and more preferably is leucine (L). Such a polypeptide is preferably iion-naturally occurring andor is present in a cell which does not naturally comprise the polypeptide. In an embodiment, the polypeptide comprises amino acids whose sequence is set form as SEQ ID NO: 178. In a preferred embodiment, the variant CslF6 polypeptide is capable of producing an increased amount of BG or producing BG which has a water solubility which is increased relative to BG produced by the wild-type CslF6 polypeptide, such as, for example, having a water solubility of between 8.0% and about 25%, between 8.0% and about 50%, between about 10% and 50%, or between about 10% and about 25% of the BG that is water soluble. In a preferred embodiment, the BG produced by the variant CslF6 polypeptide has a DP3/DP4 ratio between about 1.0 and about 2.0 or between about 1.0 and 2.3. The variant polypeptide may be an isolated polypeptide or it may be in a cell such as a wheat cell. The present invention also provides a CslF6 polynucleotide which encodes the variant CslF6 polypeptide and cells comprising such CslF6 polynucleotides, and methods of producing or using these.

[0031] The present invention also extends to isolated wheat BG produced from die grain of the present invention. Typically the BG is isolated together with wheat AX, and the invention therefore provides a composition comprising the BG and AX. In an embodiment, less than 50% of the AX in the composition is feniloylated. Preferably, at least 50% of the carbohydrate in the composition on a weight basis is BG or AX or the combination thereof. In an embodiment, the isolated BG has one or more of the features of the BG as defined above in the context of the wheat grain.

[0032] The present invention also provides for the use of the wheat grain, or the flour, or the BG of the present invention for use in the production of a product to increase the level of BG in said product, to decrease the DP3/DP4 ratio of the total BG in the product and/or to increase the solubility of the total BG in the product. The increased level of BG, or decreased DP3 DP4 ratio or solubility, is relative to use of an equivalent amount of wild-type wheat grain, flour or BG therefrom, respectively.

[0033] The present invention also provides a food ingredient that comprises the grain, flour, isolated BG or composition comprising BG and AX of the invention, or a drink ingredient comprising the isolated BG or composition comprising BG and AX of the invention. It is preferred that the food or drink ingredient is packaged ready for sale. The food or drink ingredient may be incorporated into a mixture with another food or chink ingredient, such as, for example, a cake mix, a pancake mix or a dough. The food ingredient may be used in a food product at a level of at least 1%, preferably at least 10%, on a dry weight basis, and the drink ingredient may be used in a drink product at a level of at least 0.1% on a weight basis. If the food product is a breakfast cereal, bread, cake or other farinaceous product, higher incorporation rates are preferred, such as at a level of at least 20% or at least 30%. Up to 100% of the ingredient (grain, flour such as wholemeal flour etc) in the food product may be an ingredient of the invention. Preferably, the food or drink product, when ready for consumption, comprises the BG derived from the food or drink ingredient in essentially unaltered form. [0034] The food or drink product of the invention may be used in altering one or more physiological parameters in an animal, preferably a human. The physiological parameter may be, for example, of metabolic health, bowel health or cardiovescular health, or of preventing or reducing the severity or incideace of metabolic, bowel or cardiovascular disease in an animal. The human may be a child or an adult human, male or female. Alternatively, the animal may be a livestock animal such as pigs, cattle or sheep, a pet animal such as dogs or cats, or farmed animals such as fish, poultry such as chickens, ducks or turkeys.

[0035] The grain of the present invention and the ingredients obtained therefrom may be blended with essentially wild-type grain or other ingredients. The invention therefore provides a composition comprising non-nKxfified wheat grain or an ingredient obtained therefrom, the non-modified wheat grain having a level of BG of less man 2% (w w), in addition to the wheat grain of the invention or an ingredient obtained therefrom. In such compositions, it is preferred that the grain of the present invention and/or the ingredient obtained therefrom comprises at least 10% by weight of the composition. The non-modified ingredient may be, for example, flour such as wholemeal flour, semolina, a starch-contai ng ingredient, purified starch or bran.

[0036] The present invention also provides a method of producing a wheat plant that produces grain of the present invention. In an embodiment, the method comprises the steps of (i) introducing one or more exogenous polynucleotides which encode one or more Csl polypeptides, preferably including a CslF polypeptide such as a CslF6 polypeptide, into a progenitor wheat cell, and (it) producing a transgenic wheat plant from the wheat cell of (i). Prefered CslF6 polypeptides are oat, maize, sorghum or rice CslF6 polypeptides or variants thereof. In a preferred embodiment, the CslF6 polypeptide in the cell comprises an amino acid other man isoleucine (I) at position 756 with reference to SEQ ID NO: 18 or the corresponding amino acid position in other CslF6 polypeptides, and more preferably has a leucine (L) at that position. The exogenous polynucleotide may be operably linked to a promoter sequence which is preferentially expressed in the developing seed of a wheat plant relative to another tissue or organ of the wheat plant, such as in the leaves. The promoter sequence may be preferentially expressed in the endosperm of the wheat plant. The method may further comprise a step of obtaining grain from the transgenic wheat plant produced in step (ii), or additionally of producing progeny plants from the transgenic wheat plant or crossing a transgenic wheat plant with a second wheat plant Progeny plants to the third or subsequent generations may be produced. The method wilt also typically involve a step of determining the expression level of the exogenous polynucleotide in the transgenic wheat plant or its progeny, the level of theCsl polypeptide in the grain of the wheat plant or its progeny, or the amount or type of the BG in the grain of the wheat plant or its progeny. The method may include a step of identifying a transgenic wheat plant with a desirable level of BG in its grain, from a plurality of wheat piants produced according to steps (i) and (ii), and/or of identifying a progeny plant which is homozygous for the exogenous polynucleotide(8). The method may comprise a selection step in which a transgenic wheat plant producing grain having the desired properties is selected from a phiralhy of candidates The detennination, identification or selection step may be carried out occur after growing one or more progeny transgenic wheat plants in a glasshouse or in the field (field trial).

[0037] In an embodiment, invention provides a method which comprises the steps of (i) introducing into a CslF6 gene of a progenitor wheat cell a nucleotide variation such that the variant gene encodes a variant CslF6 polypeptide, and (ii) producing a wheat plant from the wheat cell of (i). In a preferred embodiment, the variant CslF6 polypeptide comprises an amino acid other than isoleucine (I) at position 756 with reference to SEQ ID NO: 18 or the corresponding amino acid position in other CslF6 polypeptides, and more preferably has a leucine (L) at that position. The method may further comprise a step of obtaining grain from the wheat plant produced in step (ii), or additionally of producing progeny plants from the wheat plant or crossing the wheat plant with a second wheat plant Progeny piants to the third or subsequent generations may be produced. The method will also typically involve a step of determining the expression level of the polynucleotide in the wheat plant or its progeny, the level of the CslF6 polypeptide in the grain of the wheat plant or hs progeny, or the amount or type of the BG in the grain of the wheat plant or its progeny, such as measuring the water solubility of the BG. The method may include a step of identifying a wheat cell or plant derived theref om with a desirable level of BG in its grain, from a plurality of wheat cells or plants produced according to steps CO and (ii), and/or of identifying a progeny plant which is homozygous for the variant CsIF6 gene. The method may comprise a selection step in which a wheat plant pnxhicing grain having the desired properties is selected from a plurality of candidates. The detennination, identification or selection step may be carried out occur after growing one or more progeny wheat plants in a glasshouse or in the field (field trial). [0038] The present invention also provides a xnethod of pro^icing a wheat plant that produces grain of the present invention, the method comprising the steps of (i) crossing a first wheat plant which comprises one or more exogenous polynucleotides or variant CslF6 genes which encode one or more Csl polypeptides, preferably inchuiirig a CslF polypeptide such as a CslP6 polypeptide, with a second wheat plant, and (H) selecting a progeny wheat plant from the cross of (i) which produces the grain of the present invention. The method may comprise a detemrination, identification or selection step as described in the previous paragraph.

[003 ] The present invention also provides a method of identifying or selecting a wheat plant, the method comprising (i) determining the amount of BG in grain obtained from each of at least two wheat plants, and (u) selecting a plant from (i) which produces grain ap rising BG, wherein the grain is grain of the invention, preferably grain having a BG content of at least 3% (w/w). The method may comprise a determination step as described in the previous paragraphs.

[0040] The present invention further provides a method of producing grain of the present invention, comprising the steps of i) harvesting wheat grain from a plant of the invention, and ii) optionally, processing the grain. The method may further comprise a step of cultivating the wheat plant prior to step i), thereby obtaining the wheat plant The wheat plant may be growing in a field, preferably as part of a population of at least 1000 wheat plants which are essentially the same genetically. Preferably, the grain is harvested using a mechanical harvester.

[0041] The present invention also provides a method of producing bins of wheat grain comprising:

a) reaping wheat stalks comprising wheat grain of the invention;

b) threshing and/or winnowing the stalks to separate the grain from the chaff; and c) sifting and/or sorting the grain separated in step b), and loading the sifted and/or sorted grain into bins, thereby producing bins of wheat grain.

[0042] As will be understood, the wheat grain of the present invention may be traded for pecuniary gain. In addition, the methods of the present invention will generally involve cultivating a wheat plant of the invention, or harvesting the wheat grain, storing the wheat grain and or traiispcffting the wheat grain to a different location. [0043] the present invention also provides a method of identifying a container comprising wheat grain of the present invention, the method comprising (0 (feteraiining the amount andor properties of BG in a sample of wheat grain from the container, or determining the amount of a Csl polypeptide present n the sample, or deteniwing the presence of a polynucleotide which encodes a Csl polypeptide in the sample, and (ii) if the amount and/or properties of the BG in the sample is as described above, or the Csl polypeptide or polynucleotide is present in a desired amount, thereby having identified the container from which the grain sample came.

[0044] The grain of the present mvention may also be milled to produce a milled wheat product This will typically involve obtaining wheat grain, milling the grain to produce flour, and optionally, separating any bran from the flour. Milling the grain may be by dry nulling or wet mining. The grain may be coixlrrkmed to having a (!esirable moisture content prior to miUing, preferably about 10% or about 14% on a weight basis, or the milled product such as flour or bran may be processed by treatment with heat to stabilize the milled product As will be understood, the BG content of the milled product corresponds to the BG content in the wheat grain or the component of the wheat grain which is represented in the milled product.

[0045] BG, a composition comprising BG plus AX, starch granules or starch may also be extracted from the grain of the present invention to produce BG, BG plus AX, starch granules or starch, and the invention therefore provides a method of producing these. The extraction process typically comprises obtaining a milled product from die grain, and may comprise a water-soluble extraction of the milled product, which extraction may be under neutral (pH about 6-8) or alkaline conditions. The extracted product may comprise AX. The starch may be characterized by one or more properties as described for the starch in the grain of the invention. The BG, starch granules or starch produced by the method are preferably at least 60% pure, more preferably at least 90% pure on a dry weight basis. If BG is extracted by water- sohibilisation, the extracted composition preferably comprises at least 60% BG plus AX, incrc preferably at least 90% pure BG plus AX on a dry weight basis. The BG or BG phis AX may be extracted from the grain of the invention as a secondary product in a process to extract gluten or starch from the grain.

[0046] The present invention also provides a method of producing a product comprising BG, or BG phis AX, wherein the method comprises (i) obtaining or piodDcing a wheat grain of the present mvention, or flour therefrom, and (ii) processing the wheat grain or flour therefrom to produce the product This method may further wanprise a step of assessing the level or type of BG in the wheat grain or flour of step (i) or in the product of step (ii), or a step of adding a processed wheat grain or Hour from step (ii) to another food or drink ingredient, thereby producing the product comprising BG. The product may be a rood or drink product or a pharmaceutical composition, or isolated BG, or isolated BG plus AX. Prdferredfbod products include btead, breakfast cereals, biscuits, muffins, muesli bars, noodles.

[0047] In additional embodiments, the whole grain flour, the coarse fraction, or the refined flour may be a component (ingredient) of a food product and may be used to product a food product For example, the food product may be a bagel, a biscuit, a bread, a bun, a croissant, a dumpling, an English muffin, a muffin, a pita bread, a quickbread, a refrigciated frozen dough product, dough, baked beans, a burrito, chili, ataco, a tamalc, a tortilla, a pot pie, a ready to eat cereal, a ready to eat meal, stuffing, a microwaveable meal, a brownie, a cake, a cheesecake, a coffee cake, a cookie, a dessert, a pastry, a sweet roll, a candy bar, a pie crust, pie filling, baby food, a baking mix, a batter, a breading, a gravy mix, a meat extender, a meat substitute, a seasoning mix, a soup mix, a gravy, a roux, a salad dressing, a soup, sour cream, a noodle, a pasta, ramen noodles, chow mein noodles, lo mein noodles, an ice cream inclusion, an ice cream bar, an ice cream cone, an ice cream sandwich, a cracker, a crouton, a doughnut, an egg roll, an extruded snack, a fruit and groin bar, a microwaveable snack product, a nutritional bar, a pancake, a par-baked bakery product, a pretzel, a pudding, a granola-based product, a snack chip, a snack food, a snack mix, a waffle, a pizza crust, animal food or pet food.

[0048] The present mveation also provides a use of the BG or BG phis AX compositions isolated from wheat grain of the invention, which may be used as a low calorie food additive, a bulking agent, a dietary fibre, a texturizing agent, a preservative, a probiotic agent or any combination of these uses. Preferably, these uses are embodied in rood products of the mvention, by incorporating the BG or BG plus AX in the rood product The present invention therefore also provides a product, preferably a food product, which comprises the BG or BG phis AX which has been incorporated forme aforesaid use.

[0049] The present invention also provides a method of altering one or more physiological parameters in an animal, or of preventing or reducing the severity or incidence of a disease, the method comprising providing to the animal the grain of the present invention, or a food or drink product made therefrom, wherein the altered physiological parameter or reduced severity or incidence of disease is relative to providing to the animal the same amount of a corresponding wild-type grain or food or drink product made therefrom. It is preferred that the physiological parameter is a parameter of metabolic health, bowel health or cardiovascular health, such as a reduced incidence or severity of diabetes, bowel disease, obesity, hypertension, constipation, osteoporosis, cancer or cardiovascular disease. The physiological parameter may be one or more of: an increased number of beneficial intestinal bacteria, a reduced number of aberrant crypt foci in the bowel, an increased mineral absorption from the bowel, a reduced level of insulin in the blood, a reduced gtycaemic index response, a reduced glycaemic load response, a reduced blood glucose level, a reduced blood pressure, a reduced body weight, a reduced blood cholesterol level or LDL cholesterol level, increased blood HDL cholesterol level, an increased bone density, or more frequent bowel movement

[0050] It is preferred that the animal is a human, and the amount of grain, or food or drink produced therefrom, provided to the human is at least 10g per day of the grain or grain equivalent.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES

[0051] Figure 1. Schematic representation of the structure of wheat TaCslF and TaCslH gene open reading frames. The long bars represent the open reading frames of the TaCslF and TaCslH genes from the ATG translation start codons to the stop codons, and the short black bars indicate the positions of the sequences encoding the predicted tnmsmembrane domains in the proteins. The approximate positions of the sequences encoding the conserved D, DxD, ED and QxxRW motifs in the proteins are indicated only in the large central domain of CsH*3 although they occur in all of the Ulustrated open reading frames. The triangles show the position of the introns with die length in nucleotides of each of the three wheat genomes (A, B and D) shown above (a question mark indicates the intron has not been isolated or determined). The length of the corresponding intron from barley is shown in brackets.

[0052] Figure 2. Expression profiles of endogenous wheat TaCslF6 (panel A), TaCslF9 (panel B) and TaCslH (panel Q genes in coleoptUe and leaf tissues. Expression was analysed by Red-time PCR in the indicated tissues (Col3, coleoptile 3 days post gpnnination etc, ColM mature coleoptile. L0-1 leaf tissue 0-1 cm from base, E0 wheat endosperm 0 DPA). E0 samples were not analysed for CslH in this experiment but in other experiments the expression of Cs1H in B0 was approximately 0.25 the level in the Col3 sample. Expression is shown relevant to the first sample (E0 or CoB). Error bars show standard deviation of triplicate measuranents.

[0*53] Figure 3. Expression profiles of CslF6 (panel A), CslF9 (panel B) and CslH (panel C) genes In developing wheat and barley endosperm tissues. Expression was analysed by Real-time PCR in the indicated tissues (Ta~ wheat; Hv - barky; TaE0 = wheat endosperm at 0 DPA etc, HvE0 = barley endosperm at 0 DPA etc). Expression is shown relative to the first sample (TaE0) in each panel. Error bars show standard deviation of triplicate measurements.

(00S J Figure 4. BG content of single T3 wheat grains expressing a chimeric gene encoding HvCslH. The BG content of wholemeal flour from single T3 seeds of lines H1-6A5, H1-10B1, H1-10B3 and H1-10B7 was detemined using the Megazyme kit Lines are identified with the relative expression level of the HvCslH transgene in pooled T3 mid-dc^lopment grain, normalised against a-tubuiin shown in brackets. A plus or a minus indicates a PCR positive or PCR negative screen of the T2 seedling leaf stage. Gray filled triangles represent PCR negative lines, black filled triangles are potentially homozygous lines and unfilled triangles are segregating lines (mixed homczygcles/heterozygDtes).

[0055] Figure 5. Total BG content and soluble BG content in endosperm flour of T4 homozygous wheat HvCs1H lines. The BG content of endosperm flour from three homozygous T4 lines H1-10B7.4, H1-10B7.6 and HI-10B1.9 and a negative segregant line HI-10B7.3 was determined using the Megazyme kit (first four bars). The amount of BG solubUised by an aqueous wash for 2 hours at 40°C is also shown, hxheated by an S after the sample name (bars S-O). Error bars show standard deviation of triplicate measurements.

[0056] Figure i. BG levels in individual wheat T2 grains transformed with a chimeric gene for expression of HvCslF6. BG was determined in flour from five mature grains from each line as indicated. Expression of the HvCslF6 gene was measured by real time PCR from cDNA made from three pooled grain at approximately 15 DPA and is shown relative to the endogenous beta tubulin expression (in brackets after the line number). Lines F6-1D1 and F6-1D2 were PCR negative Tl plants (null segregants = wild-type). All other lines were expressing die HvCslF6transgene.

[0057] Figure 7. BG levels in individual wheat T3 grains transformed with a chimeric gene for expression of HvCslF6. BG was determined in flour from five mature grains from each line as indicated. Expression of the HvCslF6 gene was measured by real time PCR from cDNA made from three pooled grain at approximately IS DPA and is shown relative to the endogenous beta tubulin expression m brackets after the line number). Lines F6-106.13 and F6-1K5.13 were PCR negative Tl plants and all other lines are expressing the HvCsIF6 transgene.

[0058] Figure & Average Tl grain weights of T0 wheat lines with HvCslF6T7 and AsCslF6T7 genes. Average Tl grain weights of T0 lines. Lines F6-74 to F6-119 were transformed with HvCslF6T7 and lines F6-121 to F6-151 with AsCstF6T7. Lines showing increased BG in individual Tl grains are shown with a + after the line number. line F6-121 is a PCR negative plant.

[0059] Figure 9. Solubility of BG from N. b nthamkma leaves expressing chimeric genes encoding exogenous cereal CslF6 polypeptides. Solubility was determined by a 2 hour aqueous extraction at 37°C. The graph shows the percentage of the total BG which was solubilised. The exogenous CslF6 polypctides were: Hv (barley), Ta (wheatX As (oat), Bd (Brachypodium) and Os (rice).

[0060] Figure 10. DP3 DP4 ratio of BG in individual Tl wheat grain tratisf nned witii the chimeric gene for expression of exogenous AsCslF6. The DP3/DP4 ratio of BG extracted from individual mature grains of two lines (142 and 151) is shown. The BG content of each grain is shown below each bar. Grain from line 142d was a negative segregant (wild type) having BG with a high DP3 DP4 ratio. All of the other grains had increased BG content with reduced DP3/DP4 ratios.

[0061] Fi ur 11. Giy nic impact (OL which is the area under the curve to 120 min after feeding) in rats fed either test muffins (TesT) made from either refined or wholemeal flours compared to rats fed muffins made with control, wild-type refined or wholemeal flours ("Control") as described in Example 17. 1 -tailed t-fests were used to compare treatment effects; 11=7-9 for each muffin type.

[0062] Figure 12. Gastric emptylng rate for rats fed the test or control muffins as described in Example 17. iHJ-10 for each type of muffin. [0063] Figure 13. Water-solubility of BG from wild-type flouts fiom different grains, as determined by the method described in Example 21 (No heat-inactivation step).

[0964] figure 14. Plasrmd map of pSJ226 showing relevant restriction sites.

[0065] Figir* 15. Plasmid map of pSJ195 showing relevant restriction sites.

[0066] F!gmr* 16. Schematic of HvCslF6 and 2mCslF6-2 ciiirneric genes. H vCslF6 tegions are shown in filled bars and ZraCslF6-2 regions in open bars. Restriction sites used in ckniing are indicated. The HindM and JECORI sites are upstream and downstream of the CaMV 35S promoter and Nos polyA sites in the vector. The DP3/DP4 ratio of the BG produced by these constructs in the N. benthamiana leaves is shown on the right hand side

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0067] Throughout this specification the word "comprise", or variations such as "comprises" or "comprising", will be uwkxstood to imply the inclusion of a stated clement, integer or step, or group of elements, integers or steps, but not the exclusion of any other element, integer or step, or group of elements, integers or steps.

[0068] All publications mentioned in this specification are herein mcorporated by reference. Any discussion of documents, acts, materials, devices, articles or the like which has been included in the present specification is solely for the purpose of providing a context for the present invention. It is not to be taken as an admission that any or all of these matters form part of the prior art base or were common general knowledge in the field relevant to the present invention as it existed in Australia or elsewhere before the priority date of each claim of this application.

[0069] As used in the subject specification, the singular forms "a", "an" and "the" include plural aspects unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to V includes a single as well as two or more; reference to "an" includes a single as well as two or more; reference to "the" includes a single as well as two or more and so forth.

[0070] The present invention is based on the experiments described herein mat demonstrate that substantially increased BG levels can be produced in wheat grain, to much higher levels than could have been expected from experiments in other cereals, and that increased levels of DO can be produced having modified properties relative to the BG produced in wild-type wheat. Preferably the BG is modified relative to native wheat grain BG by having greater solubility in aqueous medium and or a decreased DP3 DP4 ratio.

[0071] The cell walls of grasses (Poaceae) including cereals are complex and dynamic structures composed of a variety of polysaccharides such as cellulose, xyloglucans, pectin (rich in galacturonic acid residues), callose (1 -N ^lucan), arabinoxylans (arabino-(l ,4)- -D-xylan, hereinafter AX) and BG, as well as polyphenolics such as lignin. In cell walls of the grasses and some other monocot plants, glucuronoarabinoxylans and BG predominate and the levels of pectic polysaccharides, glucomannans and xyloglucans are relatively low (Carpita et al., 1993). These polysaccharides are synthesized by a large number of diverse polysaccharide synthases and glycosyltranferases, with at least 70 gene families present in plants and in many cases, multiple members of gene families.

[0072] As used herein, the term l 1,3;1,4>P-I>¾luean'\ also rdferred to as "β- ghjcan" and abbreviated herein as "BG", refers to an essentially linear polymer of utwubstituted and essentially unbranched fHducopyranosyl monomers covalently linked mostly through (1,4>4inkages with some (U)- linkages. The glucopyranosyl residues, joined by (1-3)- and (1-4)- linkages, are arranged in a non repeating but non random fashion- ie. the (1,4)- and (13)- linkages are not arranged randomly, but equally they are not arranged in regular, repeating sequences (Fincher, 2009a, b). Most (about 90%) of the (1-3)- linked residues Mow 2 or 3 (l-4> linked residues in oat and barley BG. BG can therefore be considered to be a chain of mainly β-1-4 linked cellotriosyi (each with 3 glucopyranosyl residues) and cellotetrosyl (each with 4 ghicopyranosyl residues) units linked together by single β-1-3 linkages with approximately 10% longer p -4 linked cdlodextrin units of 4 to about 10 (1-4)- I inked glucopyranosyl residues (Fincher and Stone, 2004). Typically, the BG polymers have at least 1000 glycosyl residues and adopt an extended conformation in aqueous media. The ratio of hi- to tetra-saccharide units (DP3 DP4 ratio) varies among species and therefore is characteristic of BG from a species. However, it should be noted that most of the structural studies were done with barley grain or oat grain BG, not with BG from other cereals.

[0073] In wild-type cereal grains, BG levels are greater in the whole grain than in the endosperm, except in barley grain in which BG is present in similar concentrations in whole grain and endosperm (Henry, 1987). BG content of wild-type whole wheat grain was about 0.6% on a weight basis, compared to about 4 % tor barley, 3.9% for oats and 2.5% for rye (Henry 1987).It would be understood that there is natural variation in the sequences of CslF and CslH genes from different wheat varieties. The homologous genes are readily recognizable by the skilled artisan on the basis of sequence identity. The degree of sequence identity between homologous CslF genes or the proteins is thought to be at (east 90%, similarly for C^H genes or proteins.

[0074] As used herein, the term "by weight" or "on a weight basis" refers to the weight of a substance, for example, BG, as a percentage of the weight of the material or item con-prising the substance. This is abbreviated herein as "w/w*. Typically, the weight of BG is determined as a percentage of the weight of the wheat wholemeal Hour, assuming that wholemeal flour has a moisture content of 10%. This fcteraiinatkm is according to the Mcgazyme kit for measuring BG.

[0075] Unto The terms "plants)* and "wheat plants)* as used herein as a noun generally refer to whole plants, but when "plant* or "wheat" is used as an adjective, the terms refer to any substance which is present in, obtained from, derived from, or related to a plant or a wheat plant, such as for example, plant organs (e.g. leaves, stems, roots, flowers), single cells (eg. pollen), seeds or grain, plant cells including for example tissue cultured cells, products produced from the plant such as "wheat flour", "wheat gram'', "wheat starch", "wheat starch granules" and the like. Plantlets and germinated seeds from which roots and shoots have emerged are also included within the meaning of "plant". The term "plant parts" as used herein refers to one or more plant tissues or organs which are obtained from a whole plant, preferably a wheat plant. Plant parts include vegetative structures (for example, leaves, stems), roots, floral organs structures, seed (including embryo, endosperm, and seed coat), plant tissue (for example, vascular tissue, ground tissue, and the Kke), cells and progeny of the same. The term "plant cell" as used herein refers to a cell obtained from a plant or in a plant, preferably a wheat plant, and includes protoplasts or other cells derived from plants, gamete-producing cells, and cells which regenerate into whole plants. Plant cells may be cells in culture. By "plant tissue" is meant (iiffereotiated tissue in a plant or obtained from a plant ("explant") or undifterentiated tissue derived from immature or mature embryos, seeds, roots, shoots, fruits, pollen, and various forms of aggregations of plant cells in culture, such as calli. Plant tissues in or from seeds such as wheat grain are seed coat, endosperm, scutethrm, aleurone layer and embryo. Wheat bran is the seed coat, aleurone layer and embryo, mixed together, when removed from the grain.

[0076] As used herein, the term "wheat" refers to any species of the Oenus Triticum, including progenitors thereof, as well as progeny thereof produced by crosses with other species. Wheat includes "hexaploid wheat" which has genome organization of AABBDD, con-prised of 42 diromosomes, and "tetraploid wheat" which has genome organization of AABB, comprised of 28 chromosomes. Hexaploid wheat includes T. aestivum, T. speh , T. macha, T. compactum * T. sphaerococcum, T. v vilovii, and interspecies cross thereof. Terraploid wheat includes T. durum (also referred to as durum wheat or Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), T. dicoccoides, T. dkoccum, T. polonicum, and interspecies cross thereof. In addition, the term "wheat" includes possible progenitors of hexaploid or tetraploid Triticum sp. such as T. uartu, T. monococcum or T. boeoticum for the A genome, Aegilops speltoldes for the B genome, and T. tawtchii (also known as Aegilops squamosa or Aegilops tauschO) for the D genome. A wheat plant or grain of the present invention may belong to, but is not limited to, any of the above-listed species. Also encompassed are plants that are produced by conventional techniques using Triticum sp. as a parent in a sexual cross with a non-7Wtfcwm species, such as rye Secale cereale, including but not limited to Triticale. Preferably the wheat plant is suitable for commercial production of grain, such as commercial varieties of hexaploid wheat or durum wheat, having suitable agronomic dhanKteristics which are known to those skilled in the art. More preferably the wheat is Triticum aesttvum ssp. aestivum or Triticum turgidum ssp. durum and most preferably the wheat is Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum, herein also referred to as "breadwheat".

[0077] As is understood in the art, hexaploid wheats such as bread wheat comprise three genomes which are commonly designated the A, B and D genomes, while tetraploid wheats such as durum wheat comprise two genomes commonly designated the A and B genomes. Each genome comprises 7 oairs of chromosomes which may be observed by cytological methods during meiosis and thus identified, as is well known in the art.

[0078] The wheat plants of the invention may be crossed with other wheat plants containing a more desirable genetic background. Further rounds of back-crossing to a recurrent parent variety with selection for the high BG phenotype may be carried out to recover the desired genetic background, as is known in the art The desired genetic background may include a suitable combination of genes providing commercial yield and other characteristics such as agronomic perfbmiance or abiotic stress resistance. The genetic background might also include other altered starch biosynthesis or modification genes, for example genes from other wheat lines. The genetic background may comprise one or more transgenes such as, for example, a gene that confers tolerance to a herbicide such as glyphosate. The desired genetic background of the wheat plant will include considerations of agronomic yield and other characteristics. Such characteristics might include whether it is desired to have a winter or spring types, agronomic performance, disease resistance and abiotic stress resistance. For Australian use, one might want to cross the altered starch tra of the wheat plant of the invention into wheat cuhivars such as Baxter, Kennedy, Janz, Frame, Rosella, Cadoux, Diamondbird or other conunonly grown varieties. Other varieties will be suited for other growing regions. [0079] It is preferred that the wheat plant of the invention provide a grain yield of at least 70% or at least 80% relative to the yield of the corresponding wild-type variety in at least some growing regions, more preferably a grain yield of at least 85% or at least 90%, and even more preferably at least 95% relative to a wild-type variety having about the same genetic background, grown under the same coalitions. Most preferably, the grain yield of the wheat plant of the invention is at least as great as the yield of the wild-type wheat plant having about the same genetic background, grown under the same conditions. "Same conditions" as used herein in mis context includes growing the plants at the same planting density as well as water availability, temperature, light conditions etc. The yield can readily be measured in controlled field trials, or in simulated field trials in the greenhouse, preferably in the field. Grain yield is typically expressed as tonnes/bectare or as grams plant

[0980] Marker assisted selection is a well recogwsed method of selecting for heterozygous plants obtained when backcrossing with a recurrent parent in a classical breeding program. The population of plants in each backcross generation will be heterozygous for the gene(s) of interest normally present in a 1:1 ratio in a backcross population, and the molecular marker can be used to distinguish the two alleles of the gene. By extracting DNA from, for example, young shoots and testing with a specific marker for the introgressed desirable trait, early selection of plants for urther bsckcrossing is made whilst energy and resources are concentrated on fewer plants.

[0081] Procedures such as crossing wheat plants, self-fertilising wheat plants or marker-assisted selection are standard procedures and well known in the art Transferring alleles from tetraploid wheat such as durum wheat to a hexaploid, or other forms of hybridisation, is more difficult but is also known in the art

[0082] To identify the desired phenotypic characteristic, wheat plants that are transformed with CslF and or CslH genes and possess other desired genes are typically compared to control plants. When evaluating a phenotypic characteristic associated with enzyme activity such as BG content hi the grain, the plants to be tested and control plants are grown under growth chamber, greenhouse, open top chamber and or field conditions. Identification of a particular phenotypic trait and comparison to controls is based on routine statistical analysis and scoring. Statistical differences between plants lines can be assessed by comparing enzyme activity between plant lines whlnn each tissue type expressing the enzyme. Expression and activity are compared to growth, development and yield parameters which include plant pert morphology, colour, number of heads, tillers or grains, grain weight, size, dimensions, dry and wet plant weight, ripening duration, above- and below-grouod biomass ratios, and tuning, rates and duration of various stages of growth through senescence, indwhng vegetative growth, fruiting, flowering, and soluble carbohydrate content including sucrose, glucose, fiuctose and starch levels as well as endogenous starch levels. Preferably, the wheat plants of the invention differ from wild-type plants in one or more of these parameters by less man 50%, more preferably less than 40%, less than 30%, less than 20%, less than 15%, less than 1096, less than 5%, less than 2% or less man 1% when grown under the same conditions.

[0083] As used herein, the term "linked" refers to a marker locus and a second locus being sufficiently close on a chromosome that they will be inherited together in more than 50% of meioses, e.g., not randomly. This definition includes the situation where the marker locus and second locus form part of the same gene. Furthermore, this definition includes the situation where the marker locus comprises a polymorphism that is responsible for the trait of interest (in other words the marker locus is directly "linked" to the phenotype). The term "genetically linked" as used herein is narrower, only used in relation to where a marker locus and a second locus being sufficiently close on a chromosome that they will be inherited together in more than 50% of meioses. Thus, the percent of rewmbiitation observed between the loci per generation (cenfimorgans (cM)), will be less man 50. In particular embodiments of the invention, genetically linked loci may be 45, 35, 25, 15, 10, 5, , 3, 2, or 1 or less cM apart on a chromosome. Preferably, the markers are less than 5 cM or 2c apart and most preferably about 0 cM apart

[0084] As used herein, the "other genetic markers' 1 may be any molecules which are linked to a desired trait in the wheat plants of the mvention. Such markers are well known to those skilled in the art and include molecular markers linked to genes deternmiing traits such disease resistance, yield, plant morphology, grain quality, other dormancy traits such as grain colour, gibberetlic acid content in the seed, plant height, flour colour and the tike. Examples of such genes are stem-rust resistance genes Sr2 or Sr38 t the stripe rust resistance genes YrlO or Yrl7, the nematode resistance genes such as Ore/ and Cre3, alleles at glutenin loci that detennine dough strength such as Ax, Bx, Dx, Ay, By and Dy alleles, the Rht genes that determine a semi-dwarf growth habit and therefore lodging resistance (Eagles et al., 2001; Langridge etaJ., 2001; Sharp et al., 2001). [0085] The terms "transgenic plant" and "transgenic wheat plant" as used herein refer to a plant that contains a gene construct ("transgene") not found in a wild-type plant of the same species, variety or cuhivar, and includes the so-called intragenic and cisgenic plants. That is, transgenic plants (transformed plants) contain genetic material that they did not contain prior to the transformation. A tt toantgene n as referred to herein has the normal meaning in the art of biotechnology and refers to a genetic sequence which has been produced or altered by recombinant DNA or RNA technology and which has been introduced into the plant cell. The transgene may include genetic sequences obtained from or derived from a plant cell, or plant cell other than wheat, or a non-plant source, or a synthetic sequence. Typically, the transgene has been introduced into the wheat plant by human riumipulation such as, for example, by transformation but any method can be used as one of skill in the art recognizes. The genetic material is typically stably integrated into the genome of die plant The introduced genetic material may comprise sequences that naturally occur in the same species but in a rearranged order or in a different arrangement of dements, for example an anti sense sequence. Plants containing such sequences are included herein in "transgenic plants". Transgenic plants as defined herein include all progeny of an initial transformed and regenerated plant (designated herein as a T0 plant) which has been genetically modified using recombinant techrtiques, where the progeny comprise the transgene. Such progeny may be obtained by self-fertilisation of the primary transgenic plant or by crossing such plants with another plant of the same species. In an embodiment, the transgenic plants are homozygous for each and every gene that has been introduced (transgene) so that their progeny do not segregate for the desired phenotype. Preferably, the transgene(s) in the transgenic plant are present at only a single genetic locus so that they are inherited together in all progeny. Transgenic plant parts include all parts and cells of said plants which comprise the transgenics) such as, for example, grain, cultured tissues, callus and protoplasts. A "noortransgenic plant", preferably a non-transgenic wheat plant, is one which has not been genetically modified by the introduction of genetic material by recombinant DNA techniques.

[0086] As used herein, the term "conespotiding non-transgenic plant" refers to a plant which is the same or similar in most characteristics, which is preferably an isogenic or near-isogenic relative of the transgenic plant, but without the transgene(s) of interest Preferably, the corresponding non-transgenic plant is of the same cultivar or variety as the progenitor of the transgenic plant of interest, or a sibling plant line which lacks the construct, often termed a "null segrcganT, or a plant of the same cukivar or variety traxisforracd with an "empty vector" construct, and may be anon- transgenic plant "Wild-type*, as used herein, refers to a celt, tissue, grain or plant that has not been modified according to the invention, or products derived therefrom such as flour etc. Wild-type wheat cells, tissue, grain or plants known in the art may be used as controls to compare levels of expression of an exogenous nucleic acid or the extent and nature of trait modification with wheat cells, tissue, grain or plants modified as described herein. As used herein, "wild-type wheat grain" means a corresponding non-mutagenized, nori-transgenic wheat grain, and a "wild-type wheat plant" means a corresponding non-mutagenized, non-transgenic wheat plant Specific wild-type wheat grams or plants as used herein include but are not limited to those of cuhivars Westonia, Sunstate and Cadoux, each of which is coinrnercially available.

[0087] Any of several methods may be employed to detennine the presence of a transgenc in a transfbrmed plant For example, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may be used to amplify sequences that are unique to the transformed plant, with detection of the amplified products by gel electrophoresis or other methods. DNA may be extracted from the plants using conventional methods and the PCR reaction carried out using primers that will distinguish the transfbrmed and non-transformed plants. An alternative method to confirm a positive transformant is by Southern blot hybridization, welt known in the art. Wheat plants which are transformed may also be identified i.e. distinguished from non-timsformed or wild-type wheat plants by their phenotype, for example conferred by the presence of a selectable marker gene, or by immunoassays that detect or quantify the expression of an enzyme encoded by the transgene, or any other phenotype conrcrred by the transgene(s).

[0088] The wheat plants of the present invention may be grown or harvested for grain, primarily for use as food for human consumption or as animal feed, or for fermentation or iiKhistrial feedstock production such as ethanol production, among other uses. Preferably, the wheat grain is processed into a food ingredient such as, for example, flour (including wholemeal) or wheat bran that may be used as an ingredient in food manufacture. Alternatively, the wheat plants may be used directly as feed such as, for example, to be grazed by animals, or to produce hay or straw as feed. The plant and grain of the present invention is preferably useful for food production and in particular for commercial food production. Such food production might include the making of flour, dough, semolina or other products from the grain that might be an ingredient in commercial food production. The wheat plants or grain of the invention have uses other than uses for food or animal feed, for example uses in research or breeding.

[0089] In seed propagated crops such as wheat, the plants can be self-crossed to produce a plant which is homozygous for the desired genes, or haplotd tissues such as developing germ cells can be induced to double the chromosome complement to produce a homozygous plant These seeds can be grown to produce plants that would have the selected phenotype such as, for example, high levels of BG.

[0090] As used herein, the phrase "which is capable of producing a plant which produces grain whose BG content comprises" or variations thereof means that the wheat plant produced from the grain of the invention has the capacity to produce the BG in its grain whh the defined components when grown under optimal conditions, for instance in greenhouse conditions such as those referred to in the Examples. When in possession of grain from a plant, it is routine to grow a progeny plant from at least one of the grains under suitable greenhouse conditions and test the BG content in the progeny grain using standard procedures such as those described herein. Accordingly, as the skilled person would utrierstartd whilst grain grown in a field may not meet all of the requirements defined herein due to unfavourable conditions in a particular year such heat, cold, drought, flooding, frost, pest stresses etc, such grain are nonetheless encompassed by the present invention if the grain comprises the transgerje(s) according to the irrvention and is capable of producing a progeny plant which produces the defined BG content or composition when grown under more favourable conditions.

[0091] Gram As used herein, the term N grain N generally refers to mature, harvested seed of a plant but can also refer to grain after imbibition or germination, or after processing such as by grinding or milling, according to the context Wheat grain is typically harvested when the wheat plant has senesced and lost all green colour and the grain has dried and hardened. Mature cereal grain such as wheat commonly has a moisture content of less man about 18% by weight. In an embodiment, grain of the invention has a moisture content of between about 8% and about 14%, and is preferably about 10% or about 12%. As used herein, the term "seed" means harvested seed as well as seed which is developing in the plant post anthesis and mature seed comprised in the plant prior to harvest [0092] As used herein, "gennhiation" refers to the emergence of the root tip from the seed coat after imbibition, "Gennination rate" refers to the percentage of seeds in a population which have germinated over a period of time, for example 7 or 10 days, after imbibition. Gentiination rates can be calculated using techniques known in the art. For example, a population of seeds can be assessed daily over several days to detennine the germination percentage over time. Germination is typically measured at room temperature and in the dark by placing the grain between moistened filter papers. With regard to grain of the present invention, as used herein the term "germination rate which is substantially the same" means that the gennination rate of the grain is at least 70% relative to the germination rate of a coiresponding wild-type grain. This may be determined at a tune point between 4 and 7 days. In an embodiment, the grain of the invention has been processed so that it is no longer able to germinate, such as, for example, that the embryo has been removed by milling, or by heat treatment to stablise the grain.

[0093] The invention also provides flour, meal or other products produced from me wheat grain. These may be unprocessed or processed, for example by fractionation or bleaching, or heat treated to stabilise the product such as flour. The invention includes methods of producing flour, meal, starch granules, starch or isolated BG from the grain or from an intermediate product such as flour. Such methods include, for example, milling, grinding, rolling, flaking or crocking the grain. The invention also provides starch from grain of the exemplified wheat plants comprising increased amounts of dietary fibre, which may be measured by the methods described herein. In preferred embodiments, these products comprise an elevated level of BG such as at least 3%, at least 4%, or between about 4% to about 10% by weight In an embodiment, the soluble fibre content in the flour is increased by at least 50%, preferably by at least 100%, relative to wild-type flour produced in the same manner. Alternatively, or in combination with the increased soluble fibre, the insoluble fibre content is increased by at least 20%, preferably by at least 40%, relative to the wild- type flour. Furthermore, each of the soluble NNSP and insoluble NNSP contents may be increased by at least 20%, preferably at least 40% relative to the wild-type flour.

[0094] The term "dietary fibre" as used herein includes the carbohydrate and carbohydrate digestion products which are not absorbed in the small intestine of healthy humans but which enter the large bowel. This includes resistant starch and other soluble and insoluble carbohydrate polymers. It is intended to comprise that portion of carbohydrates that are fermentable, at least partially, in the large bowel by the resident microflora. The dietary fibre content may be measured as described herein.

[0095] The wheat grain or other plant parts of the invention can be processed to produce a food ingredient, food or non-food product using any technique known in the art In one embodiment, the product is whole grain flour (wholemeal) such as, for example, an ultrafine-milled whole grain flour, or a flour made from about 100% of the grain. The whole grain flour includes a refined flour constituent (refined flour or refined flour) and a coarse fraction (an uhrafinennilled coarse fraction).

[0096] Refined flour may be flour which is prepared, for example, by grinding and bolting cleaned grain. The particle size of refined flour is described as flour in which not less than 98% passes through a cloth having openings not larger than those of woven wire cloth designated "212 micrometers (U.S. Wire 70)". The coarse fraction includes at least one of: bran and germ. For instance, the germ is an embryonic plant found within the grain kernel The germ includes lipids, fiber, vitamins, protein, minerals and phytonutrients, such as flavonoids. The bran includes several cell layers and has a significant amount of lipids, fiber, vitamins, protein, minerals and phytonutrients, such as flavonoids. Further, the coarse fraction may include an aleurone layer which also includes lipids, fiber, vitamins, protein, minerals and phytonutrients, such as flavonoids. The aleurone layer, while technically considered part of the endosperm, exhibits many of the same characteristics as the bran and therefore is typically removed with the bran and germ during the milling process. The aleurone layer contains proteins, vitamins and phytonutrients, such as fenilic acid.

[0097] Further, the coarse fraction may be Mended with the refined flour constituent The coarse fraction may be mixed with the refined flour constituent to form the whole grain flour, thus providing a whole grain flour with increased nutritional value, fiber content, and antioxidant capacity as compared to refined flour. For example, the coarse fraction or whole grain flour may be used in various amounts to replace refined or whole grain flour in baked goods, snack products, and food products. The whole grain flour of the present mverriion (i.e.-ultrafine-milled whole grain flour) may also be marketed directly to consumers for use in their homemade baked products. In an exemplary embodiment, a granulation profile of the whole grain flour is such that 98% of particles by weight of the whole grain flour are less than 212 micrometers. [0098] In further embodiments, enzymes found within the bran and germ of the whole grain flour and/or coarse fraction are inactivated in order to stabilize the whole grain flour and/or coarse fraction. Stabilization is a process that uses steam, heat, radiation, or other treatments to inactivate the enzymes found in the bran and germ layer. Flour that has been stabilized retains its cooking characteristics and has a longer shelf life.

[0099] In additional embodiments, the whole grain flour, the coarse fraction, or the refined flour may be a cornponent (ingredient) of a food product and may be used to product a food product For example, the food product may be a bagel, a biscuit, a bread, a bun, a croissant, a dumpling, an English muffin, a muffin, a pita bread, a quickbread, a reMgerated frozen dough product, dough, baked beans, a burrito, chili, a taco, a tamale, a tortilla, a pot pie, a ready to eat cereal, a ready to eat meal, sniffing, a microwaveable meal, a brownie, a cake, a cheesecake, a coffee cake, a cookie, a dessert, a pastry, a sweet roll, a candy bar, a pie crust, pie filling, baby food, a baking mix, a batter, a breading, a gravy mix, a meat extender, a meat substitute, a seasoning mix, a soup mix, a gravy, a roux, a salad dressing, a soup, sour cream, a noodle, a pasta, ramen noodles, chow mein noodles, lo mein noodles, an ice cream inclusion, an ice cream bar, an ice cream cone, an ice cream sandwich, a cracker, a crouton, a doughnut, an egg roll, an extruded snack, a fruit and grain bar, a microwaveable snack product, a nutritional bar, a pancake, a par-baked bakery product, a pretzel, a pudding, a granola-based product, a snack chip, a snack food, a snack mix, a waffle, a pizza crust, anhnal food or pet food.

[0100] In alternative embodiments, the whole grain flour, refined flour, or coarse fraction may be a cornponent of a nutritional supplement For instance, the nutritional supplement may be a product that is added to the diet containing one or more additional ingredients, typically inchiding: vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, enzymes, antioxidants, herbs, spices, probioncs, extracts, prebiotics and fiber. The whole grain flour, refined flour or coarse fraction of the present invention includes vitamins, minerals, amino acids, enzymes, and fiber. For instance, the coarse fraction contains a concentrated amount of dietary fiber as well as other essential nutrients, such as B-vitamins, selenium, chromium, manganese, magnesium, and antioxidants, winch are essential for a healthy diet. For example 22 grams of the coarse fraction of die present invention delivers 33% of an individual's daily recommend consumption of fiber. The nutritional supplement may include any known nutritional ingredients that will aid in the overall health of an individual, examples include but ate sot limited to vitamins, minerals, other fiber components, fatty acids, antioxidants, amino acids, peptides, proteins, lutein, ribose, omega-3 fatty acids, and or other nutritional ingredients. The supplement may be delivered in, but is not limited to the following forms: instant beverage mixes, itady o-drink beverages, nutritional bars, wafers, cookies, crackers, gel shots, capsules, chews, chewable tablets, and pills. One embcKiiment delivers the fiber supplement in the form of a flavored shake or mah type beverage, this embodiment may be particularly attractive as a fiber supplement for children.

[0101] In an additional embodiment, a milling process may be used to make a multi-grain flour or a multi-grain coarse f action. For example, bran and germ from one type of grain may be ground and blended with ground endosperm or whole grain cereal flour of another type of cereal Alternatively bran and germ of one type of grain may be ground and blended with ground endosperm or 'whole grain flour of another type of grain. It is contemplated that the present invention encompasses mixing any combination of one or more of bran, germ, endosperm, and whole grain flour of one or more grains. This multi-grain approach may be used to make custom flour and capitalize on the qualities and nutritional contents of multiple types of cereal grains to make one flour.

[0102] It is contemplated that the whole grain flour, coarse fraction and/or grain products of the present invention may be produced by any milling process known in the art An exemplary embc liment involves grinding grain in a single stream without separating endosperm, bran, and germ of the grain into separate streams. Clean and tempered grain is conveyed to a first passage grinder, such as a hammennill, roller null, pin mill, impact mill, disc mill, air attrition mill, gap mill, or the like. After grinding, the gram is discharged and conveyed to a sifter. Further, it is contemplated that the whole grain flour, coarse fraction and/or grain products of the present invention may be modified or enhanced by way of numerous other processes such as: fermentation, instantizing, extrusion, encapsulation, toasting, roasting, or the like. [0103] Whilst the invention may be particularly useful in the treatment or prophylaxis of humans, it is to be undexstDod that the invention is also applicable to noo-human subjects including but not limited to agricultural animals such as cows, sheep, pigs, poultry such as chickens and the like, domestic animals such as dogs or cats, laboratory animals such as rabbits or rodents such as mice, rats, hamsters, or animals that might be used &r sport such as horses.

[0104] Tlie method of treating to

step of administering altered wheat grain, flour, starch, isolated BG or a composition comprising BG and AX, or a food or drink product as defined herein to the subject, in one or more doses, in an amount and for a period of time whereby a physiological parameter is modified. For example, the level of cholesterol uptake in the large intestine of the subject is reduced, which leads to decreased cholesterol levels in the bloodstream of the subject

[0105] Dosages may vary depending on the condition being treated or prevented but are envisaged for bumans as being the BG in at least Ig of wheat grain or flour of the invention per day, more preferably at least 2g per day, preferably at least lug or at least 20g per day. Administration of greater than about 100 grams of grain or flour per day may require considerable volumes of delivery and reduce compliance. Most preferably the dosage for a human is between 0 g and 5gof BG, which may be in the form of a mod product containing grain or flour of the mvention, which is equivalent to between about 5g and about 60g of wheat grain or flour per day, or for adults between about 5g and 10% per day.

[0106] It will be understood that one benefit of the present invention is that it provides for products such as bread that are of particular nutritional benefit, and moreover it does so without the need to poet-harvest modify the constituents of the wheat grain.

[0107] Polypeptides The terms "polypeptide" and "protein" are generally used interchangeably herein. The terms "proteins" and "polypeptides" as used herein also include variants, mutants, modifications and/or derivatives of the polypeptides of the ivention as described herein. As used herein, "substantially purified, polypeptide" refers to a polypeptide that has been separated from the lipids, nucleic acids, other peptides and other molecules with which it is associated in its native state. Preferably, die substantially purified polypeptide is at least 60% free, more preferably at least 75% free, and more preferably at least 90% free from other components with which it is naturally associated. By "recombinant polypeptide" is meant a polypeptide made using recombinant techniques, i.e., through the expression of a recombinant polynucleotide in a cell, preferably a plant cell and more preferably a wheat cell. The terms "foreign polypeptide" or "exogenous polypeptide" or heterologous polypeptide" and the like refer to any polypeptide which is produced In a cell, preferably a wheat cell, by expression (transcription and translation) of an exogenous polynucleotide in that cell. In a preferred embodiment, the exogenous polypeptide is a β-ghican synthase such as a CslF or Cs1H polypeptide, more preferably an exogenous CslF6 polypeptide, most preferably a CslF6 polypeptide from a plant species other than wheat. In an embodiment, the wheat cell comprises two or more exogenous polypeptides such as, for example, an exogneous CsIF6 polypeptide and an exogenous Cs1H polypeptide.

[0108] As used herein a "biologically active" fragment is a portion of a polypeptide of the mvention which maintains a defined activity of the foil-length polypeptide. In a particularly preferred embodiment, the biologically active fragment has β-glucan synthase (BG synthesizing) enzyme activity. Biologically active fragments can be any size as long as they maintain the defined activity, but are preferably at least 700 or 800 amino acid residues long, such as for CslH and CslF polypeptides, respectively.

[0109] The % identity of a polypeptide relative to another polypeptide can be determined by GAP (Needleman and Wunsch, 1970) analysis (OCG program) with a gap creation penalty^, and a gap extension penaltjH)J. The query sequence is at least 50 amino acids in length, and the GAP analysis aligns the two sequences over a region of at least 50 amino acids. More preferably, the query sequence is at least 100 amino acids in length and the GAP analysis aligns the two sequences over a region of at least 100 amino adds. Even more preferably, the query sequence is at least 250 amino acids in length and the GAP analysis aligns the two sequences over a region of at least 250 amino acids. When coinparing amino acid sequences to determine the percentage identity for example by Blastp, the full length sequences should be compared, and gaps in a sequence counted as amino acid differences.

[0110] With regard to a defined polypeptide, it will be 8{>preciated that % identity figures higher man those provided above will encompass preferred embodiments. Thus, where applicable, in light of the minimum % identity figures, it is preferred that the polypeptide comprises an amino acid sequence which is at least 75%, more preferably at least 80%, more preferably at least 85%, more preferably at least 90%, more preferably at least 91%, more preferably at least 92%, more preferably at least 93%, more preferably at least 94%, more preferably at least 95%, more preferably at least 96%, more preferably at least 97%, more preferably at least 98%, more preferably at least 99%, more preferably at least 99.1%, more preferably at least 992%, more preferably at least 99.3%, more preferably at least 99.4%, more preferably at least 99.5%, more preferably at least 99.6%, more preferably at least 99.7%, more preferably at least 99.8%, and even more preferably at least 99.9% identical to the relevant ruminated SEQ ID NO.

[0111] Amino acid sequence mutants of the polypeptides of the present invention can be prepared by introducing appropriate nucleotide changes into a nucleic acid of the present invention or by mutagenesis in vivo such as by chemical or radiation treatment, provided they retain β-glucan synthase enzyme activity. Such mutants include, for example, deletions, insertions or substitutions of residues within the amino acid sequence. The polynucleotides of the invention may be subjected to DN A shuffling techniques as described by Harayama, 1998 or other in vitro methods to produce altered polynucleotides which encode polypeptide variants. The enzyme activity can readily be tested in a system such as the AT. benthamicma leaf transient expression system described herein. [0112] Amino acid sequence deletions generally range from about 1 to 15 residues, more preferably about 1 to 10 residues and typically about 1 to S contiguous residues.

[0113] Substitution mutants have at least one amino acid residue in die polypeptide molecule removed and a different residue inserted in its place. The sites of greatest interest for substitutional mutagenesis include sites other than those identified as the active site(s). To retain activity, residues in Csl polypeptides obtained from various strains or species which are identical i.e. conserved amino acids, are generally to be retained. These positions may be important for biological activity. Other residues may be substituted, preferably with conservative amino acid substitutions.

[0114] Polypeptide variants may be generated by a process of directed evolution. In directed evolution, random mutagenesis is applied to a protein, and a selection regime is used to pick out variants that have the desired qualities, for example, increased β-glucan synthase enzyme activity. Further rounds of mutation and selection are men applied. A typical directed evolution strategy involves three steps:

[0115] Diversification. The gene encoding the protein of interest is mutated and or recombined at random to create a large library of gene variants. Variant gene libraries can be coristructed through error prone PCR (see, for example, Leung, 1989; Cadwell and Joyce, 1992), from pools of DNasel digested fragments prepared from parental templates (Stemmer, 1994a; Stemmer, 1994b; Crameri et al., 1998; Coco et al., 2001) from degenerate oligonucleotides (Ness et al., 2002, Coco, 2002) or from mixtures of both, or even from undigested parental templates (Zhao et al., 1998; Eggert et al., 2005; Jezequel et al., 2008) and are usually assembled tiirough PCR. Libraries can also be made from parental sequences recombined in vivo or in vitro by either homologous or non-homologous recombination (Ostermeier et al., 1999; Voflcov et al, 1999; Sieber et al., 2001). Variant gene Hbraries can also be constructed by sub- clomng a gene of interest into a suitable vector, transforming the vector into a "mutator" strain such as the £ coll XL-1 red (Stratagene) and propagating the transformed bacteria for a suitable number of generations. Variant gene libraries can also be constructed by subjecting the gene of interest to DNA shuffling (i.e., in vitro homologous recombination of pools of selected mutant genes by random fiagmentation and reassembly) as broadly described by Harayama (1998).

[0116] Selection. The library is tested for the presence of mutants (variants) possessing the desired property using a screen or selection. Screens enable the identification and isolation of Mgh-performing mutants by hand * while selections automatically eliminate all nom inctional mutants. A screen may involve screening for the presence of known conserved amino acid motifs. Alternatively, or in addition, a screen may involve expressing the mutated polynucleotide in a host organsim or part thereof and assaying the level of activity.

[0117] Amplification. The variants identified in the selection or screen are replicated many ibid, enabling researchers to sequence their DNA in order to understand what mutations have occurred.

[0118] Together, these three steps are termed a "round" of directed evolution. Most experiments will entail more than one round. In these experiments, the "winners*' of the previous round are diversified in the next round to create a new library. At the end of the experiment, all evolved protein or polynucleotide mutants are characterized using biocheirucal irtemods.

[0119] A protein can be designed rationally, on the basis of known information about protein structure and folding. This can be accomplished by design from scratch (de novo design) or by redesign based on native scaffolds (see, for example, Heliinga, 1997; and Lu and Berry, Protein Structure Design and Engineering, Handbook of Proteins 2, 1153-1157 (2007)). Protein design typically involves identifying sequences that ibid into a given or target structure and can be accomplished using computer models. Computational protein design algorithms search the sequence- conformation space for sequences that are low in energy when folded to the target structure. Computational protein design algorithms use models of protein energetics to evaluate how mutations would affect a protein's structure and function. These energy functions typically include a combiiuttion of molecular mechanics, statistical (i.e. knowledge-based), and other empirical terms. Suitable available software includes IPRO (Interative Protein Redesign and Optimization), EGAD (A Genetic Algorithm for Protein Design), Rosetta Design, Sharpen, and Abalone.

[0120] In an embodiment, an exogenous or recombinant polypeptide of the invention has β-glucan synthase (BG-synmesizing) enzyme activity when produced in a wheat cell and comprises amino acids having a sequence as provided in any one of SEQ Π) NOs: 2, 9, 10, 1 I, 18, 19, 20, 23, 30, 37, 38, 39, 41, 3, 45, 7, 50, 55, 56, 57, 59, 61, a biologically active fragment thereof, or an amino acid sequence which is at least 40% identical, or at least 70% identical, or at least 90% identical or at least 95% identical or at least 98.2% identical to any one or more of SEQ ID NOs: NOs: 2, , 10, 11, 18, 19, 20, 23, 30, 37, 38, 39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 50, 55, 56, 57, 59, 61. Preferably, the exogenous orraxmbinant polypeptide comprises amino acids having a sequence as provided in any one of SEQ ID NOs: 18, 19, 20, 55, 56, 57, 59 or 61, a biologically active fragment thereof, or an amino acid sequence which is at least 40% identical, or at least 70% identical, or at least 90% identical or at least 95% identical or at least 98.2% identical to any one or more of SEQ ID NOs: NOs: 18, 19, 20, 55, 56, 57, 59 or 61. In a preferred embodiment, Ate exogenous polypeptide is a CslF6 polypeptide whose length is about.940-952 amino acid residues, more preferably of 943, 944 or 950 amino acid residues, such lengths including a signal sequence of about 90 amino acid residues. In an embodiment, the exogenous polypeptide is a CslF6 polypeptide whose length, including its signal sequence of 90 amino acids, is not 947 amino acids. In an emrxxiiment, the exogenous CslF6 polypeptide has 8 predicted transmembrane domains, including, for example, one or more of the transmembrane domains described in the Listing of Sequence ID NOs for any one or more of SEQ TD NOs: 55, 56, 57, 59 or 61. The CslF polypeptide preferably comprises the amino acids known to be critical for activity as described herein for one or more of SEQ ID NOs: 55, 56, 57, 59 or 61 such as the D228, DxD (430432), D636 and QxxRW (674-678) amino acid motifs in SEQ ID NO: 55 or the conesponding amino acid positions in the other SEQ ID NOs. hi preferred embodiments, the exogenous CslF6 polypeptide is an oat (AsCsJF6), maize (ZmCsJFo), sorghum (SbCslFo) or rice (OsCslF6) CslF6 polypeptide. As used herein, an oat CslF6 polypeptide is denned as a polypeptide whose amino acid sequence is set forth as SEQ ID NOs: 55-57 or which is at least 95% identical, preferably at least 98% identical, thereto. In an embodiment, the oat CslF6 polypeptide is encoded by a polynucleotide whose nucleotide sequence is set form as any one of SEQ ID NOs: 51-54 or a protein coding region thereof or a polynucleotide which encodes the same polypeptide as any one of SEQ ID NOs: 51- 54. As used herein, a rice CslF6 polypeptide is defined as a polypeptide whose amino acid sequence is set forth as SEQ ID NO: 61 or whkh is at least 95% identical, preferably at least 98% identical, thereto. In an embodiment, the rice CslF6 polypeptide is encoded by a polynucleotide whose nucleotide sequence is set forth as SEQ ID NO: 60 or a protein coding region thereof or a polynucleotide which encodes the same polypeptide as SEQ ID NO: 60. As need herein, a Brachypodium C&IF6 polypeptide is defined as a polypeptide whose amino acid sequence is set form as SEQ ID NO: 59 or which is at least 95% identical, preferably at least 98% identical, thereto, in an embodiment, the Brachypodium CslF6 polypeptide is encoded by a polynucleotide whose nucleotide sequence is set form as SEQ ID NO: 58 or a protein coding region thereof or a polynucleotide which encodes the same polypeptide as SEQ ID NO: 58. As used herein, a barley CslF6 polypeptide is defined as a polypeptide whose tmino acid sequence is set forth as SEQ ID NO: 175 or which is a naturally occurring variant thereof in barley. Such variants are at least 99% identical in amino acid sequence to SEQ ID NO: 175. In an embodiment, the exogenous polypeptide is a CslF6 polypeptide other than a barley CslF6 polypeptide.

[0121] Polynucleotides The present invention refers to various porynuclcotides. As used herein, a "polynucleotide" or "nucleic acid" or "nucleic acid molecule" means a polymer of nucleotides, which may be DNA or RNA or a combirtation thereof, for example a rteteroduplcx of DNA and KNA, and includes for example mRNA, cRNA, cDNA, tRNA, siRNA, shRNA, hpRNA, and single or douWe-stranded DNA. It may be DNA or RNA of cellular, genomic or synthetic origin, for example made on an automated synthesizer, and may be combined with carbohydrate, lipids, protein or other materials, labelled with fluorescent or other groups, or attached to a solid support to perform a particular activity defined herein. Preferably the polynucleotide is solely DNA or solely RNA as occurs in a cell, and some bases may be methylated or otherwise modified as occurs in a wheat cell. The polymer may be single-stranded, essentially double-stranded or partly double-stranded. An example of a partly-double stranded KNA molecule is a hairpin RNA (hpRNA), short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or ^f-complementary RNA which include a double stranded stem formed by basepairing between a nucleotide sequence and its complement and a loop sequence which covalently joins the nucleotide sequence and its complement Basepairing as used herein refers to standard basepairing between nucleotides, including 0:U basepairs in an RNA molecule. "Complementary" means two polynucleotides are capable of basepairing along part of their lengths, or along the full length of one or both.

[0122] By "isolated" is meant material that is substantially or essentially free from coirrponents that normally accompany it in its native state. As used herein, an "isolated polynucleotide" or "isolated nucleic acid molecule" means a polynucleotide which is at least partially separated from, preferably substantially or essentially free of; the poJynucleotide sequences of the same type with which h is associated or linked in its native state or in a cell. For example, at "isolated polynucleotide'' includes a pdynucleotide which has been purified or separated from the sequences which flank h in a naturally occurring state, e.g., a DNA fragment which has been removed from the sequences which are normally adjacent to the fragment. Preferably, the isolated polynucleotide is also at least 90% free from other components such as proteins, cartwbydrates, lipids etc. The term "rcombinant polynucleotide'' as used herein refers to a polynucleotide formed in vitro by the manipulation of nucleic acid into a form not mnmally found in nature. For example, the recombinant polynucleotide may be in the form of an expression vector. Generally, such expression vectors include ttanscriptional and translational regulatory nucleic acid operabiy connected to the nucleotide sequence to be transcribed in the cell.

[0123] The present invention refers to use of oligonucleotides which may be used as "probes" or "primers". As used herein, "oligonucleotides' 1 are polynucleotides up to 50 nucleotides in length. They can be RNA, DNA, or combinations or derivatives of either. Oligonucleotides are typically relatively short single stranded molecules of 10 to 30 nucleotides, commonly 15-25 nucleotides in length, typically comprised of 10- 30 or 15-25 nucleotides which are identical to, or complementary to, part of an CslF or CslH gene or cDNA coiresx ding to an CslF or CslH gene. When used as a probe or as a primer in an amplification reaction, the minimum size of such an oligonucleotide is the size required for the formation of a stable hybrid between the oligonucleotide and a complementary sequence on a target nucleic acid molecule. Preferably, the oligonucleotides are at least 15 nucleotides, more preferably at least 18 nucleotides, more preferably at least 19 nucleotides, more preferably at least 20 nucleotides, even more preferably at least 25 nucleotides in length. Polynucleotides used as a probe are typically conjugated with a detectable label such as a radioisotope, an enzyme, biotin, a fluorescent molecule or a chemUuminescent molecule. Oligonucleotides and probes of the invention are useful in methods of detecting an allele of a CslF, CslH or other gene associated with a trait of interest Such methods employ nucleic acid hybridization and in many instances include oligonucleotide primer extension by a suitable polymerase, for example as used in PCR for detection or identification of wild-type or mutant alleles. Preferred oligonucleotide pairs are those that span one or more introns, or a part of an intron and therefore may be used to amplify an intron sequence in a PCR reaction. Numerous examples are provided in me Examples herein. (0124) The terms "polynucleotide variant" and "variant" and the like refer to polynucleotides displaying substantial sequence identity with a reference polynucleotide sequence and which are able to Jiioction in an analogous manner to, or with the same activity as, the reference sequence. These terms also encompass polynucleotides that are distinguished from a reference polynucteoride by the addition, deletion or substitution of at least one nucleotide, or that have, when compared to naturally occurring molecules, one or more mutations. Accordingly, die terms "polynucleotide variant 11 and Variant'' include polynucleotides in which one or more nucleotides have been added or deleted, or replaced with different nucleotides, hi this regard, it is well understood in the art that certain alterations inclusive of mutations, additions, deletions and substitutions can be made to a reference polynucleotide whereby the altered polynucleotide retains the biological function or activity of the reference polynucleotide. Accordingly, these terms encompass polynucleotides that encode polypeptides that exhibit enzymatic or other regulatory activity, or polynucleotides capable of serving as selective probes or other hybridising agents. The terms "polynucleotide variant" and "variant" also include naturally occurring allelic variants. Mutants can be either naturally occurring (that is to say, isolated from a natural source) or synthetic (for example, by performing she-directed mutagenesis on the nucleic acid). Preferably, a polynucleotide variant of the invention which encodes a polypeptide with enzyme activity is greater than 400, mote preferably greater than 500, more preferably greater than 600, more preferably greater than 700, more preferably greater than 800, more preferably greater than 900, and even more preferably greater than 1,000 nucleotides in length, up to the roll length of the gene.

[0125] A variant of an oligonucleotide of the mvention includes molecules of varying sizes which are capable of hybridising, for example, to the wheat genome at a position close to that of the specific oligonucleotide molecules defined herein. For example, variants may comprise additional nucleotides (such as 1, 2, 3, 4, or more), or less nucleotides as long as they still hybridise to the target region. Furthermore, a few nucleotides may be substituted without influencing the ability of the oligonucleotide to hybridise to the target region. In addition, variants may readily be designed which hybridise close (for example, but no limited to, vdfhin S0 nucleotides) to the region of the plant genome where the specific oligonucleotides defined herein hybridise.

[0126] By "corresponds to" or "corresponding to" in the context of polynucleotides or polypeptides is meant a polynucleotide (a) having a nucleotide sequence that is substantially identical or complementary to all or a portion of a reference polynucleotide sequence or (b) encoding an amino acid sequence identical to an amino acid sequence in a peptide or protein. T s phrase also includes within its scope a peptide or polypeptide having an amino acid sequence that is substantially identical to a sequence of amino acids in a reference peptide or protein. Terms used to describe sequence relationships between two or more polynucleotides or polypeptides Include "reference sequence", "comparison window", "sequence identity", "percentage of sequence identity", "substantial identity" and ^identical", and are defined with respect to a defined minimum number of nucleotides or amino acid residues or preferably over the full length. The terms "sequence identity" and "identity" are used iiiterchangcably herein to refer to the extent that sequences are identical on a nucleotide>by-nucleottde basis or an amino ac^by-amino acid basis over a window of comparison. Thus, a "percentage of sequence identity" is calculated by comparing two optimally aligned sequences over the window of comparison, detenmning die number of positions at which the identical nucleic add base (e.g., A, T, C, G, U) or the identical amino acid residue (eg., Ala, Pro, Ser, Thr, (Hy, VaL Leu, Ile, Phe, Tyr, Trp, Lys, Arg, His, Asp, Glu, Asn, Gin, Cys and Met) occurs in both sequences to yield the number of matched positions, dividing the number of matched positions by the total number of positions in the window of comparison (he., the window size), and multiplying the result by 100 to yield the percentage of sequence identity.

[0127] The % identity of a polynucleotide can be determined by GAP (Needleman and unsch, 1970) analysis (GCG program) with a gap creation penalty=5, and a gap extension penalty=0.3. Unless stated otherwise, the query sequence is at least 45 nucleotides in length, and the GAP analysis aligns the two sequences over a region of at least 45 nucleotides. Preferably, the query sequence is at least IS0 nucleotides in length, and the GAP analysis aligns the two sequences over a region of at least 150 nucleotides. Mote preferably, the query sequence is at least 300 nucleotides in length and the GAP analysis aligns the two sequences over a region of at least 300 nucleotides, or at least 400, 500 or 600 nucleotides in each case. Reference also may be made to the BLAST family of programs as for example disclosed by Altschul et al, 1997. A detailed discussion of sequence analysis can be found in Unit 19.3 of Ausubel etal. t 1994-1998, Chapter 15.

[0128] Nucleotide or amino acid sequences are indicated as "essentially similar 1 ' when such sequences have a sequence identity of at least about 95%, particularly at least about 98%, more particularly at least about 98.5%, quite particularly about 99%, especially about 99.5%, more especially about 100%, quite especially are kJentical. It is clear that -when RNA sequences are described as essentially similar to, or have a certain degree of sequence identity with, DNA sequences, thymine (T) in the DNA sequence is considered equal to uracil (U) in the RNA sequence.

[0129] w »t regard to the defined polynucleotides, it will be appreciated that % identity figures higher than those provided above will encompass preferred embodiments. Thus, where applicable, in light of the minimum % identity figures, it is preferred that the polynucleotide comprises a polynucleotide sequence which is at least 75%, more preferably at least 80%, more preferably at least 85%, more preferably at least 90%, more preferably at least 91%, more preferably at least 92%, more preferably at least 93%, more preferably at least 94%, more preferably at least 95%, more preferably at least 96%, more preferably at feast 97%, more preferably at least 98%, more preferably at least 99%, more preferably at feast 99.1%, more preferably at least 99.2%, more preferably at least 99.3%* more preferably at least 99.4%, more preferably at least 99.5%, more preferably at feast 99.6%, more preferably at least 99.7%, more preferably at least 99.8%, and even more preferably at least 99.9% identical to the relevant ruminated SEQ ID NO.

[0130] In some embodiments, the present invention refers to the stringency of hybridization corotitions to define the extent of complementarity of two polynucleotides. "Stringency" as used herein, refers to the temperature and ionic strength conditions, and presence or absence of certain organic solvents, during hybridization. The higher the stringency, the higher will be the degree of complementarity between a target nucleotide sequence and the labelled polynucleotide sequence. "Stringent conditions" refers to temperature and ionic conditions under which only nucleotide sequences having a high frequency of complernentary bases will hybridize. As used herein, the term hybridizes under low stringency, medium stringency, high stringency, or very high stringency conditions'* describes conditions for hybridization and washing. Guidance for performing hybridization reactions can be found in Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons, N.Y. (1989), 6 J.1-6.3.6, herein incorporated by reference. Specific hybridization conditions referred to herein are as follows: 1) low stringency hybridization conditions in 6 X sodium chloride/sodium citrate (SSC) at about 4S°C, followed by two washes in 0.2 X SSC, 0.1% SDS at 50-55°C; 2) medium stringency hybridization conditions in 6 X SSC at about 45°C, followed by one or more washes in 0.2 X SSC, 0.1% SDS at 60°C; 3) high stringency hybridization conditions in 6 X SSC at about 45°C, followed by one or more washes in 02 X SSC, 0.1% SDS at 65°C; and 4) very high stringency hybridization conditions are 0.S M sodium phosphate, 7% SDS at 65 °C, followed by one or more washes at 0.2 X SSC, 1% SDS at65 e C.

[0131] fiejej. in some embodiments, the present invention involves modification of gene activity, particularly of CslF gene activity, cc biriations of mutant genes, and the construction and use of chimeric genes. As used herein, the term "gene" includes any dcoxyntamicleotide sequence which includes a protein coding region or which is transcribed in a cell but not translated, together with associated non-coding and regulatory regions. Such associated regions are typically located adjacent to the coding region on both the 5' and 3' ends for a distance of about 2 kb on either side. In this regard, the gene includes control signals such as promoters, enhancers, transcription termination and/or polyaderrylation signals that are naturally associated with a given gene, or heterologous control signals in which case the gene is referred to as a "chimeric gene". The sequences which are located 5' of the protein coding region and which are present on the mR A are referred to as 5* non-translated sequences. The sequences which are located 3' or downstream of the protein coding region and which are present on the mRNA are referred to as 3' non^nmslated sequences. The term "gene" encompasses both cDNA and genomic forms of a gene. The term "gene" includes synthetic or fusion molecules encoding the proteins of the invention described herein. Genes are ordinarily present in the wheat genome as double- stranded DNA. A chimeric gene may be introduced into an appropriate vector for extracbromosomal maintenance in a cell or for integration into the host genome.

[0132] Examples of sequences of Csl genes, or of protein coding regions of genes etxaxting Csl rwtypeptides, include SEQ Π) NOs 1 - 8, 12 - 17, 21, 22, 24 - 29, 31 - 36, 40 - 42, 44, 6, 48, 49, 51 - 54, 58 and 60.

[0133] A genomic form or clone of a gene contaming the coding region may be interrupted with non-coding sequences termed "introns" or N inteivening regions" or "intervening sequences." An "intron" as used herein is a segment of a gene which is transcribed as part of a primary RNA transcript but is not present in the mature mRNA molecule. Introns are removed or "spliced out" from the nuclear or primary transcript; introns therefore are absent in the messenger RNA (mRNA). Introns may contain regulatory elements such as enhancers. "Exons" as used herein refer to the DNA regions corresponding to the RNA sequences which are present in the mature mR A or the mature NA molecule in cases where the UNA molecule is not translated. An mKNA functions daring translation to specify the sequence or order of amino acids in a nascent polypeptide.

[0134] As used herein, a "chimeric gene 11 or "genetic construct 11 refers to any gene that is not a native gene in its native location i.e. it has been artificially manipulated, including a dmneric gene or genetic construct which is integrated into the w ea genome. Typically a chimeric gene or genetic construct om rises regulatory and transcribed or protein coding sequences that are not found together in nature. Accordingly, a chimeric gene or genetic construct may comprise regulatory sequences and coding sequences that are derived from different sources, or regulatory sequences and coding sequences derived from the same source, but arranged in a manner different than that found in nature. The term "endogenous" is used herein to refer to a substance that is normally produced in an unmodified plant at the same developmental stage as the plant under investigation, preferably a wheat plant An "endogenous gene" refers to a native gene in its natural location in the genome of an organism * preferably a wheat plant. As used herein, "recombinant nucleic acid molecule" refers to a nucleic acid molecule which has been constructed of modified by recombinant D A technology. The terms "foreign polynucieotide" or "exogenous ροΐνηιιοΐβοtiόν or "heterologous polynucleotide" and the like refer to any nucleic acid which is introduced into the genome of a cell by experimental manipulations, preferably the wheat genome, but which does not naturally occur in the cell These include modified forms of gene sequences found in that cell so long as the introduced gene contains some modification, e.g. an introduced mutation or the presence of a selectable marker gene, relative to the naturally-<x«urring gene. Foreign or exogenous genes may be genes found in nature that are inserted into a non-native organism, native genes introduced into a new location within the native host, or chimeric genes or genetic constructs. A "transgene" is a gene that has been introduced into the genome by a transformation procedure. The term "genetically modified" includes mtroducing genes into cells, mutating genes in cells and altering or modulating the regulation of a gene in a cell or organisms to which these acts have been done or their progeny.

[0135] The present invention refers to elements which are operably connected or linked. "Operably connected" or "operably linked" and the like refer to a linkage of polynucleotide dements in a functional relationship. Typically, operably connected nucleic acid sequences are contiguously linked and, where necessary to join two protein coding regions, contiguous and in reading frame. A coding sequence is "opcraWy connected to" another coding sequence when RNA polymerase will transcribe the two coding sequences into a single RNA, which if translated is then translated into a single polypeptide having amino acids derived from both coding sequences. The coding sequences need not be contiguous to one another so long as die expressed sequences are ultimo

[0136] As used herein, the term Vfc-acting sequence", "ducting element" or "ds- regulatory region" or 'Regulatory region" or similar term shall be taken to mean any sequence of nucleotides which regulates the expression of the genetic sequence. This may be a naturally occurring cis-acting sequence in its native context, for example regulating a wheat CslF or CslH gene, or a sequence in a genetic construct which when positioned appropriately relative to an expressible genetic sequence, regulates its expression. Such a cis-rcgulatory region may be capable of activating, silencing, enhancing, repressing or otherwise altering the level of expression and or cell-type- specificity and or developmental specificity of a gene sequence at the transcriptiofial or post-transcriptional level. In preferred embodiments of the present invention, the cis-acting sequence is an activator sequence that enhances or stimulates the expression of an expressible genetic sequence, such as a promoter. The presence of an iirtron in the 5 -leader (UTR) of genes has been shown to enhance expression of genes in monocotyledonous plants such as wheat (Tanaka et aL, 1990). Another type of da- acting sequence is a matrix attachment region (MAR) which may influence gene expression by anchoring active chromatin domains to the nuclear matrix.

[0137] "Operably connecting" a promoter or enhancer element to a transcribable polynucleotide means placing the transcribable porynucleotide (e.g., protem-encoding polynucleotide or other transcript) under the regulatory control of a promoter, which men oontrols the transcription of that polynucieotide. In the construction of heterologous promoterstructural gene combinations, it is generally preferred to position a promoter or variant thereof at a distance from the transcription start site of the transcribable polymicleotide, which is approximately the same as the distance between that promoter and the gene it controls in its natural setting; i.e., the gene from which the promoter is derived. As is known in the art, some variation in this distance can be accommodated without loss of function.

[0138] Vectors The present invention makes use of vectors for production, manipulation or transfer of chimeric genes or genetic constructs. By 'Vector" is meant a nucleic acid molecule, preferably a DNA molecule derived, for example, from a plasmid, bacteriophage or plant vino, into which a nucleic add sequence may be inserted A vector preferably coiitains one or more unique restriction sites and may be capable of autonomous replication in a defined host cell iiKluding a target cell or tissue or a progenitor cell or tissue thereof, or be integrable into the genome of the defined host such that the cloned sequence is reproducible. Accordingly, the vector may be an autonomously replicating vector, i,e., a vector that exists as an extradiromosomal entity, the replication of which is iiidependent of chromosomal replication, e.g., a linear or closed circular plasmid, an extrachromosomal element, a mhuchroroosome, or an artificial chromc*ome. The vector may contain any means for assuring self-replication. Alternatively, the vector may be one which, when introduced into a cell, is integrated into the genome of the recipient cell and replicated together with the chromosomes) into which it has been integrated. A vector system may comprise a single vector or plasmki, two or more vectors or plasmids, which together contain the total DNA to be inrrrxruned into the genome of the host cell, or a transposon. The choice of the vector will typically depend on the compatibility of the vector with the cell into which the vector is to be introduced The vector may also include a selection marker such as an antibiotic resistance gene that can be used for selection of suitable transformante, or sequences that enhance transformation of prokaryotic or eukaryotk (especially wheat) cells such as T-DNA or P-DNA sequences. Examples of such resistance genes and sequences are well known to those of skill in the art

[0139] By "marker gene" is meant a gene that imparts a distinct phenotype to cells expressing the marker gene and thus allows such transformed cells to be distinguished from cells that do not have the marker. A "selectable marker gene" confers a trait for which one can 'select" based on resistance to a selective agent (e.g., a herbicide, antibiotic, radiation, heat, or other treatment damaging to untransfbrmed cells) or based on a growth advantage in the presence of a metabolizable substrate. A screenable marker gene (or reporter gene) confers a trait that one can identify through observation or testing, i.e., by 'screening* (e.g., (glucuronidase, luciferase, OFP or other enzyme activity not present in untransformed cells). The marker gene and the nucleotide sequence of interest do not have to be linked.

[0140] Examples of bacterial selectable markers are markers that confer antibiotic resistance such as ampicillin, kanamycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol or tetracycline resistance. Exemplary selectable markers for selection of plant transfbnnants include, but are not limited to, a hyg gene which confers hygromycin B resistance; a neomycin phosphotransferase (npf) gene conferring resistance to kanamycin, paromomycin, G418 and the like as, lor example, described by Potrykus et al., 1985; a glutathione^transfeiase gene from tat liver conferring resistance to glutathione derived herbicides as, tor example, described in EP-A-256223; a ghitajnine synthetase gene conferring, upon overexpression, resistance to giutamine synthetase inhibitors such as phosobinotlmcin as, for example, described WO8705327, an acetyl transferase gene from Streptomyces viridochromogenes conferring resistance to the selective agent phosphmothricin as, for example, described in EP-A-275957, a gene encoding a 5<enolshiIdmate-3-nhosphate synthase (EPSPS) conferring tolerance to N-phosr^or ined)ylglycine as, for example, described by Hinchee et al., 1988, a bar gene conferring resistance against bialaphos as, for example, described in WO91 02071; a nitrilase gene such as bxn from Klebsiella oza nae which confers resistance to bromoxynil (Stalker et al., 1988); a dihydrofolatc reductase (DHFR) gene conferring resistance to methotrexate (Thillet et e/,1988); a mutant acetolactate synthase gene (ALS), which confers resistance to tmida?»Iinone, sulfonylurea or other ALS½hft)rting chemicals (EP-A- 154204); a mutated anttiranilate synthase gene that confers resistance to 5-methyi tryptophan or adalapon dehalogenase gene that confers resistance to the herbicide.

[0141] Preferred screenable markers include, but are not limited to, a uidA gene encoding a β-glucuronidase (GUS) enzyme for which various chromogenic substrates are known, a β-galactosidase gene encoding an enzyme for which chromogenic substrates are known, an acquorin gene (Piasher et a/., 198S), which may be employed in calciiim-sensitrve hi oluminescence detection; a green fluorescent protein gene (GFP, Niedz et al, 1995) or one of its variants; a hiciferase Que) gene (Ow et al, 1986), which allows for bioluminescence detection, and others known in the art

[0142] In some embodiments, the level of endogenous enzyme activity is modulated by decreasing the level of expression of genes encoding proteins involved in BG production in the wheat plant, or increasing the level of expression of a nucleotide sequence that codes for the enzyme involved in BG synthesis in a wheat plant Increasing expression can be achieved at the level of transcription by using promoters of different strengths or inducible promoters, which are capable of controlling the level of transcript expressed from the coding sequence. Heterologous sequences may be mtnxmced which encode transcription factors that rrM)dulate or enhance expression of genes whose products down regulate starch branching. The level of expression of the gene may be modulated by altering the copy number per cell of a construct comprising the coding sequence and a transcrir/tional control element that is operaWy connected thereto and that is functional in the cell. Alternatively, a plurality of Iransfonnants may be selected, and screened for those with a favourable level and/or specificity of taansgene expression arising from influences of endogenous sequences in the vicinity of the transgene integration site. A favourable level and pattern of transgene expression is one which results in a substantial increase in BG content in the wheat plant This may be detected by simple testing of transfbrmants.

[0143] Reducing gene expression Reducing gene expression may be achieved through introduction and transcription of a "gene-silencing chimeric DNA" or a "gcno-silencing chimeric nucleic acid" introduced into the wheat plant, or through the isolation of mutants which comprise mutations in a gene of interest that reduce the expression and/or activity of the gene relative to a wild-type gene. The gene-sflencing chimeric DNA is an exogenous polynucleotide which is preferably introduced stably integrated into the wheat genome, preferably the wheat nuclear genome, so that it is stably inherited in progeny grain and plants as part of the wheat genome. As used herein "gene-silencing effect" refers to the reduction of expression of a target nucleic acid in a wheat cell, preferably a seed cell, more preferably an endosperm cell, which can be achieved by mtroduction of a silencing R A. In a preferred embodiment, a gene-silencing chimeric DNA is introduced which encodes an RNA molecule which reduces expression of one or more endogenous genes. Such reduction may be the result of reduction of transcription, including via methyladon of chromatin remodeling, or posttranscriptional modification of the RNA molecules transcribed from the endogenous gene, including via RNA degradation, or both. 'Oene-silencirig w as used herein includes a reduction in some but not all of the gene expression or activity- a partial reduction- as well as an abolishing of the expression of the target nucleic acid or gene. It is sufficient that the level of expression of the target nucleic acid in the presence of the silencing RNA is lower man in the absence thereof, for example in a ccnesponding cell lacking the gene-sUencing chimeric DNA. The level of expression arKl/or the activity of the targeted gene may be reduced by at least about 40% or at least about 45% or at least about 50% or at least about 55% or at least about 60% or at least about 65% or at least about 70% or at least about 75% or at least about 80% or at least about 85% or at least about 90% or at least about 95% or effectively abolished to an essentially undetectable level.

[0144] Antisense. Antisense techniques may be used to reduce gene expression in wheat cells. The term "antisense RNA" shall be taken to mean an RNA molecule that is complementary to at least a portion of a specific mRNA molecule and capable of reducing expression of the gene encoding the mRNA. Such reduction typically occurs in a 9equence^ependent maimer and is thought to occur by interfering with a post- uaDscfiptional event such as mRNA transport from nucleus to cytoplasm, mRNA stability or irihibition of translation. The use of antisense methods is well known in the art (see for example, Hartmann and Endres, 1999). Antisense methods are now a well established technique i rriuuupulating gene expression in plants.

[0145] Antisense molecules typically include sequences that correspond to part of the transcribed region of a target gene or for sequences that effect control over the gene expression or splicing event For example, the antisense sequence may correspond to the targeted protein coding region of the genes of the invention, or the 5^intranslated region (UTR) or the 3 -UTR or combination of these, preferably only to exon sequences of the target gene. In view of the generally greater divergence between related genes of the UTRs, targeting these regions provides greater specificity of gene inhibition. The length of the antisense sequence should be at least 19 contiguous nucleotides, preferably at least S0 nucleotides, and more preferably at least 100, 200, 500 or 1000 nucleotides, to a maximum of the full length of the gene to be inhibited. The fu1Hength sequence complementary to the entire gene transcript may be used. The length is most preferably 100-2000 nucleotides. The degree of identity of the antisense sequence to the targeted transcript should be at least 90な and more preferably 95-100%. The antisense RNA molecule may of course comprise unrelated sequences which may function to stabilize the molecule.

[0146] Genetic constructs to express an antisense RNA may be readily made by joining a promoter sequence to a region of the target gene In an "antisense" orientation, which as used herein refers to the reverse orientation relative to the orientation of transcription and translation (if it occurs) of the sequence in the target gene in the plant cell Preferably, he antisense RNA is expressed preferentially in the endosperm of a wheat plant by use of an endosperm-spedfic promoter.

[0147] The tenn "ribozyme" refers to an RNA molecule which specifically recognizes a distinct substrate RNA and catalyzes its cleavage. Typically, the ribozyme contains an antisense sequence for specific recognition of a target nucleic acid, and an enzymatic region referred to herein as the "catalytic domain". The types of ribozymes that are particularly useful in this invention are the hammerhead ribozyme (Hasek>ff and Gerlach, 1988; Perri an et al., 1992) and the hairpin ribozyme (Snippy eiai, 1999).

[0148] DsRNA. As used herein, "artificially introduced dsRNA molecole" refers to the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecule, which preferably is synthesiscd in the wheat cell by transcription from a chinieric gene encoding such dsRNA molecule. RNA interference (RNAi) is particularly useful for specifically reducing the expression of a gene or inUb ing the production of a particular protein, also in wheat (Regina et a!., 2006). This technology relies on the presence ofdsRNA molecules that contain a sequence that is essentially identical to the mRNA of the gene of interest or part thereof, and its complement, thereby forming a dsRNA. Conveniently, the dsRNA can be produced from a single promoter in the host cell, where the sense and anti-sense sequences are transcribed to produce a hairpin RNA in which the sense and ami-sense sequences hybridize to form the dsRNA region with a related or unrelated sequence fi i g a loop structure, so die hairpin RNA comprises a stem-loop structure. The design and production of suitable dsRNA molecules for the present invention is well within the capacity of a person skilled in the art, particularly considering aterhouse et a/., 1998; Smith et al. t 2000; WO 9932619; WO 99/53050; WO 99/49029; and WO 01/34815.

[0149] The DN A encoding the dsRNA typically comprises both sense and antisense sequences arranged as an inverted repeat In a preferred embodiment Che sense and antisense sequences are separated by a spacer region that comprises an intron which * when transcribed into RNA, is spliced out This airangemetit has been shown to result In a higher efficiency of gene silencing (Smith et al., 2000). The double- stranded region may comprise one or two RNA molecules, transcribed from either one DNA region or two. The dsRNA may be classified as long hpRNA, having long, sense and antisense regions which can be largely complementary, but need not be entirely complementary (typically larger than about 200 bp, ranging between 200- 1000 bp). hpRNA can also be rather small with the double-stranded portion ranging in size from about 30 to about 42 bp, but not much longer than 94 bp (see WO04073390). The presence of the double stranded RNA region is thought to trigger a response from an endogenous plant system that destroys both the double stranded RNA and also the homologous RNA transcript from the target plant gene, efficiently reducing or elimirwting the activity of the target gene. {01-50} The length of the sense and tmtiseose sequence* that hybridise should each be at least 19 contiguous nucleotides, preferably at least 30 or 50 nucleotides, and more preferably at least 100, 200, 500 or 1000 nucleotides. The fulMength sequence corresponding to the entire gene transcript may be used. The lengths are most preferably 100-2000 nucleotides. The degree of identity of the sense and antisense sequences to the targeted transcript should be at least 85%, preferably at least 90% and more preferably 95-100%. The longer the sequence, the less stringent the requirement for the overall sequence identity. The RNA molecule may of course comprise unrelated sequences which may function to stabilize the molecule. The promoter used to express the dsIWA-forming construct may be any type of promoter that is expressed in the cells which express the target gene.

[0l51] Other silencing RNA may be "unrwlyadenylated RNA" comprising at least 20 consecutive nucleotides having at least 95% sequence identity to the complement of a nucleotide sequence of an RNA transcript of the target gene, such as described in WO01/12824 or US6423885. Yet another type of silencing RNA is an RNA molecule as described in WO03/076619 (herein incorporated by reference) comprising at least 20 consecutive nucleotides having at least 95% sequence identity to the sequence of the target nucleic acid or the complement thereof, and further comprising a largely- double stranded region as described in WO03/076619.

[0152] As used herein, "silencing RNAs" are RNA molecules that have 21 to 24 contiguous nucleotides that are conmlementary to a region of the mRNA transcribed from the target gene. The sequence of the 21 to 24 nucleotides is preferably fully ccnmlenie&tary to a sequence of 21 to 24 contiguous niicleotides of the mRNA i.e. identical to the comrdeaient of the 21 to 24 nucleotides of the region of the mRNA. However, miRNA sequences which have up to five mismatches in region of the mRNA may also be used (Palatnik ex al, 2003), and basepairing may involve one or two G-U basepairs. When not all of the 21 to 24 micleotides of the silencing RNA are able to basepair with the mRNA, it is preferred that there are only one or two rniematches between the 21 to 24 nucleotides of the silencing RNA and the region of the mRNA With respect to the miRNAs, it is preferred that any mismatches, up to the ntaximum of five, are found towards the 3* end of the miRNA. In a preferred embodiment, there are not more than one or two mismatches between the sequences of the silencing RNA and its target mRNA. [0153] Silencing RNAs derive from longer RNA molecules that are encoded by the chimeric DMAs of the invention. The longer RNA molecules, also referred to herein as "precursor RNAs", are the initial products produced by transcription from me dnmeric DNAs in the wheat cells and have partially double-stranded character formed by intramolecular basepauing between complementary regions. The precursor RNAs are processed by a specialized class of RNAses, commonly called "Dfcer(s)", into the silencing RNAs, typically of 21 to 24 nucleotides long. Silencing RNAs as used lierein include short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which differ in their biosynthesis. SiRNAs derive from fully or partially double-stranded RNAs having at least 21 contiguous basepatrs, including possible G- U basepairs, without mismatches or non-basepaired nucleotides bulging out from the double-stranded region. These double-stranded RNAs are formed from either a single, self-complementary transcript which forms by folding back on self and forming a stem-loop structure, referred to herein as a "hairpin RNA", or from two separate RNAs which are at least partly complementary and that hybridize to form a double- stranded RNA region. MiRNLAs are produced by processing of longer, single-stranded transcripts that include complementary regions that are not fully complementary and so form an imperfectly basepaired structure, so having mismatched or non-basepaired nucleotides within the partly double-stranded structure. The basepaired structure may also include O-U basepairs. Processing of the precursor RNAs to form miRNAs leads to the preferential accumulation of one distinct, small RNA having a specific sequence, the miRNA. It is derived from one strand of the precursor RNA, typically the "antisense" strand of the precursor RNA, whereas processing of the long complementary precursor RNA to form siRNAs produces a population of siRNAs which are not uniform in sequence but correspond to many portions and from both strands of the precursor.

[0154] MiRNA. MiRNAs were first discovered as a small regulatory RNA controlling the lin-4 gene in C. elegans (Lee ei at, 1993). Since then, large numbers of other naturally occurring miRNAs have been reported to be involved in regulation of gene function in animals and plants. MiRNA precursor RNAs of the invention, also termed herein as "artificial miRNA precursors", are typically derived from naturally occurring miRNA precursors by altering the nucleotide sequence of the miRNA portion of the naturally-occurring precursor so that it is complementary, preferably fully complementary, to the 21 to 24 nucleotide region of the target mRNA, and altering the nucleotide sequence of the complementary region of the miRNA precursor thai basepairs to the miRNA sequence to maintain basqpairiog. The remainder of the miRNA precursor RNA may be unaltered and so have the same sequence as the naturally occurring miRNA precursor, or it may also be altered in sequence by nucleotide suostitutkms, nucleotide insertions, or preferably nucleotide deletions, or any combination thereof. The remainder of the miRNA precursor RNA is thought to be involved in recognition of the structure by the Dicer enzyme called Dicer-like 1 (DCL1X and toercfbre it is preferred that few if any changes are made to the remainder of the stmcture. For example, basepaired nucleotides may be substituted for other basepaired nucleotides without major change to the overall structure. The iiaturaHy occurring miRNA precursor from which the artificial miRNA precursor of the invention is derived may be from wheat, another plant such as another cereal plant, or from non-plant sources. Examples of such precursor RNAs are the rice mi395 precursor, the Ambidopsis mi ! 59b precursor, or the mil 72 precursor.

[0155] Artificial miRNAs have been denumstasted in plants, for example Alvarez et of., 2006; Parizotto etal., 2004; Schwab et al., 2006.

[0156] Co-suppression. Another molecular biological approach that may be used is co-suppression. The roechanism of co-suppression is not well understood but is thought to involve post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and in that regard may be very similar to many examples of antisense suppression. It involves introducing an extra copy of a gene or a fragment thereof into a plant in the "sense orientation'' with respect to a promoter for its expression, which as used herein refers to the same orientation as transcription and translation (if it occurs) of the sequence relative to the sequence in the target gene. The size of the sense fragment, its cmespondence to target gene regions, and its degree of homology to the target gene are as for the antisense sequences described above. In some instances the additional copy of the gene sequence interferes with the expression of the target plant gene. Reference is made to Patent spedfication WO 97/20936 and European patent specification 0465572 for methods of implementing co-suppression approaches. The antisense, co- suppression or double stranded RNA molecules may also comprise a largely double- stranded RNA region, preferably comprising a nuclear localization signal, as described in WO 03/076619.

[0157] Any of these technologies for reducing gene expression can be used to coordinately reduce the activity of multiple genes. For example, one RNA molecule can be targeted against a family of related genes by targeting a region of the genes which is in common. Alternatively, unrelated genes may be targeted by including multiple regions in one RNA molecule, each region targeting a different gene. T s can readily be done by fusing the multiple regions under the control of a single promoter.

[0158] Trflffr'nflttolB number of techniques are available for the introduction of nucleic acid molecules into a wheat cell, well known to workers in the art The term "transfbnnation" as used herein means alteration of the genotype of a cell, for example a bacterium or a plant particularly a wheat plant, by the mtroduction of a foreign or exogenous nucleic acid By %ansfonnant M is meant an organism so altered. Introduction of DNA into a wheat plant by crossing parental plants or by mutagenesis per se is not included in transfonnation. As used herein the term "transgenic'' refers to a genetically modified plant in which the endogenous genome is supplemented or modified by the random or site-directed integration, or stable maintenance in a repiicable non- tegrated form, of an introduced foreign or exogenous gene or sequence. By "Iransgene" is meant a foreign or exogenous gene or sequence that is introduced into a plant The nucleic acid molecule may be replicated as an extrachroniosomal element or is preferably stably integrated into the genome of the plant By "genome" is meant the total inherited genetic complement of the cell, plant or plant part, and includes chromosomal DNA,plastid DNA, mitochondrial DNA and extrahromosomal DNA molecules. In an embodiment, a transgene is integrated in the wheat nuclear genome which in bexaploid wheat includes the A, B and subgenomes, herein referred to as the A, B and D "genomes".

[0159] The most commonly used methods to produce fertile, transgenic wheat plants comprise two steps: the delivery of DNA into regenerable wheat cells and plant regeneration through in vitro tissue culture. Two methods are commonly used to deliver the DNA: T-DNA transfer using Agnba ter m tumefaciens or related bacteria and direct intrc<fucuon of DNA via particle bombardment, although other methods have been used to integrate DNA sequences into wheat or other cereals. It will be apparent to the skilled person that the particular choice of a transformation system to introduce a nucleic acid construct into plant cells is not essential to or a limitation of the invention, provided it achieves an acceptable level of nucleic acid transfer. Such techniques for wheat are well known in the art

[01(0] Transformed wheat plants can be produced by introducing a nucleic acid construct according to the invention into a recipient cell and growing a new plant that comprises and expresses a polynucleotide according to the invention. The process of growing a new plant from a transformed cell which is in cell culture is referred to herein as "regeneration*. Regenerable wheat cells include cells of mature embryos, meristeiriauc tissue such as the mesophyil cells of the leaf base, or preferably from the scutella of immature embryos, obtained 12-20 days post-anthesis, or callus derived from any of these. The most commonly used route to recover regenerated wheat plants is somatic eanbryogenesis using media such as MS-agar supplemented with an auxin such as 2,4-D and a low level of cytokhan, see Sparks and Jones, 2004).

[0161] AgrobacteriunHnef^lxd transformation of wheat may be performed by the methods of Cheng et at, 1997; Weir et al., 2001; anna and Daggard, 2003 or Wu et al., 2003. Any Agrobacterium strain with sufficient virulence may be used, preferably strains having additional virulence gene functions such as LBA4404, AGL0 or AGL1 (Lazo etal., 1991) or versions of C58. Bacteria related to Agrobacterium may also be used. The DNA that is transferred (T-DNA) from the Agrobacterium to the recipient wheat cells is comprised in a genetic construct (dumeric plasmid) that contains one or two bonier regions of a T-DNA region of a wild-type Ti plasmid flanking the nucleic acid to be transferred. The genetic construct may contain two or more T-DNAs, for example where one T-DNA contains the gene of interest and a second T-DNA contains a selectable marker gene, providing for independent insertion of the two T- DNAs and possible segregation of the selectable matter gene away from the transgene of interest.

[0162] Any wheat type that is regenerable may be used; varieties Bob White, Fielder, Veery-5, Cadenza and Florida have been reported with success. Transformation events in one of these more readily regenerable varieties may be transferred to any other wheat cultivars hxluding elite varieties by standard backemsing. An alterative method using Agrobacterium makes use of an in vivo inoculation method followed by regeneration and selection of transformed plants using tissue culture and has proven to be efficient, see WO00/63398. Other methods involving the use of Agrobacterium include: co-cultivation of Agrobacterium with cultured isolated protoplasts transfonnation of seeds, apices or meristems with Agrobacterium, or inoculation in planta such as the floral-dip method for Arabidopsis as described by Bechtold et al., 1993. This latter approach is based on the vacuum infiltration of a suspension of Agrobacterium cells. Alternatively, the chimeric construct may be mtroduced using root-inducing (Ri) plasmids of Agrobacterium as vectors. [0163] Another method commonly used for inbx)ducing the nucleic acid construct into a plant cell is high velocity ballistic penetration by small particles (also known as particle bcjnbajtlment or raicloprojectile bombardment) with the nucleic acid to be introduced ©obtained either within the matrix of small beads or particles, or on the surface thereof as, for example described by Klein etal., 1987. This method has been adapted for wheat (Vasil, 1990). Microprojectile bombardment to induce wounding followed by co-cuWvation with Agrobacteri m may be used (EP-A-486233). The genetic construct can also be hrtroduced into plant cells by eiectroporation as, for example, described by Fromm et al., 1985 and Shimamoto et al., 1989. Alternatively, the nucleic acid construct can be introduced into a wheat cell such as a pollen cell by contacting the cell with the nucleic acid using mechanical or chemical means.

[0164] Preferred selectable marker genes for use in the transformation of wheat include the Streptomyces hygroscopicus bar gene or pat gene in conjunction with selection using the herbicide glufbsinate ammonium, the hpt gene in conjunction with the antibiotic hygromydn, or the nptll gene whh kanamycin or G 18. Alternatively, positively selectable markers such as the anA gene encoding phosphomarinose isomerase (ΡΜΓ) with the sugar inarflftose^p-Msphate as sole C source may be used.

[0165] Mntaaeaeris Procedure Techniques for generating mutant plant lines are known in the art Examples of mutagens that can be used for generating mutant plants include irradiation and chemical mutagenesis. Mutants may also be produced by techniques such as T-DNA insertion and teansposon-induced mutagenesis. The mutagenesis procedure may be performed on any parental cell of a wheat plant, for example a seed or a parental cell in tissue culture. A r*eferred method of mutagenesis is heavy km bombardment or another irradiation method, or the use of zinc finger nucleases or TAL effectors, as known in the art

[0166] Chemical mutagens are classifiable by chemical properties, e.g., alkylating agents, cross-linking agents, etc Useful chemical mutagens include, but are not limited to, N-emyl-N^irtrosourea (ENU); N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU); procarbazine hydrochloride; chlorambucil; cyclophosphamide; methyl memanesulfonate (MMS); ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS); diethyl sulfate; aciylamide monomer, triethylene melamine (TBM); mehhalan; nitrogen mustard vincristione; a^methy trosamine; N-me l-N'-nitro-Nitro«og\iani- dine (MN G); 7,12 dimethylbenzai-thracene (DMBA); ethylene oxide; hexamethytphosphoramide; and bisulmn. [01657 An example of suitable irradiation to induce mutations is by gemma radiation, such as that supplied by a Cesium 137 source. The gamma radiation preferably is supplied to the plant cells in a dosage of approximately 60 to 200 mL, and most preferably in a dosage of approximately 60 to 90 Krad

[0168] Plants are typically exposed to a mutagen for a sufficient duration to accomplish the desired genetic modification but insufficient to completely destroy the viability of the cells and their ability to be regenerated into a plant.

[0169] Mutations can also be inlroduced into wheat plants of the invention using the process known as TILLING (Targeting Induced Ixxal Lesions IN Genomes) for detection of mutations in genes other than the exogenous polynucleotide. In a first step, introduced mutations such as novel single base pair changes are induced in a population of plants by treating seeds or pollen with a chemical mutagen, and men advancing plants to a generation where mutations will be stably inherited. DNA is extracted, and seeds are stored from all members of the population to create a resource that can be accessed repeatedly over time.

[0170] For a TILLING assay, PCR primers are designed to specifically amplify a single gene target of interest. Specificity is especially important if a target is a member of a gene family or part of a polyploid genome. Next, dye-labeled primers can be used to amplify PCR products from pooled DNA of multiple individuals. These PCR products are denatured and reannealed to allow the formation of mismatched base pairs. Mismatches, or heteroduplexes, represent both naturally occuxring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (i.e., several plants from the population are likely to cany the same polymorphism) and induced SNPs (i.e., only rare individual plants are likely to display the mutation). After heteroduplex formation, the use of an endonuclease, such as Cel I, that recognizes and cleaves inismatched DNA is the key to discovering novel SNPs within a TELUNO population.

71165] Using this approach, many thousands of plants can be screened to identify any individual with a single base change as well as small insertions or deletions (1-30 bp) in any gene or specific region of the genome. Genomic fragments being assayed can range in size anywhere from 0.3 to 1.6 kb. At 8-fold pooling, 1.4 kb fragments (discounting the ends of fragments where SNP detection is problematic due to noise) and 96 lanes per assay, this combination allows up to a million base pairs of genomic D A to be screened per single assay, making TILLING a high-tbrougliput technique. TILLING is further described in Slade and Knauf (2005), and Henikoff et al. (2004).

[0172] In addition to allowing efficient detection of mutations, Wg hroughput TILLING technology is ideal for the detection of natural polymorphisms. Therefore, ntCTWgatirtgan unknown homologous DNA by heteroduplexing to a known sequence reveals the number and position of polymorphic sites. Both nucleotide changes and small insertions and deletions ate identified, inchKhng at least some repeat number polynmphisms.

[0173] Having generally described the mventkm, the same will be more readily understood by reference to the following examples, which are provided by way of illustration and are not intended as limiting.

EXAMPLES OF THE INVENTION

Example 1. Materials aad Methods

Flora Material and growth conditions

[0174] Plants of barley { ordevm vulgar ) cuhivar Himalaya and wheat (Triticum aestivum sp. aestiv m) cultivar Bob White26, including both untransrarmed (wild- type) and transgenic derivatives, or cultivar Westonia were grown in 15 cm pots under standard glasshouse conditions with natural daylight and a temperature regime of 25°C maximum during the day and 15°C minimum at night. To provide barley leaf tissue for gene expression studies, grain was germinated in the lab in vermiculite and the first leaf was harvested after 7 days. The conssponding wheat leaves were harvested from plants after 9 days. For the grain development gene expression studies, heads of greenhouse grown plants were tagged at anthesis and grain was harvested every 4 days post anthesis (DP A). The whole caryopsis was used at 0 and 4 days post anthesis and the embryo and pericarp were removed from all other samples except the 28 day sample from which the pericarp could not be removed. For the oleoptile gene expression studies, grain was genmnatcd in water in the dark on vermiculite and the coleoptile was harvested at 3, , 5, and 7 days post imbibition. Mature coleoptUes were harvested from grain germinated in the light following emergence of the first leaf. In contrast to the dark grown coleoptiles, the mature coleoptiles were shorter and green. DNA, RNA isolation andcDNA synthesis

[0175] Plant DNA was isolated from fully expanded leaf tissue using a CTAB based method according to Murray and Thompson (1980). Briefly, one gram of tissue frozen and ground in liquid nitrogen was extracted for one hour with 5 ml of CTAB extraction buffer at 60°C, followed by extraction with 5 ml of chloroform, inverted for 3 minutes and centrifugation at 5,000 g for 10 minutes. The supernatant was removed and DNA was precipitated by adding 2/3 volume of isopropanol followed by cenlrifugation at 2,000 g for 5 minutes. The peflet was washed with 70% ethanol and air dried before resuspension in 0.5 ml of 10 mM Tris, 1 mM EDTA pH 8.0 with 20 ug/ml R Ase A. The concentration and integrity of the DNA was determined by agarose gd electrophoresis and staining with ethidium bromide.

[0176] Total RNA was isolated from vegetative tissues using an RNAeasy kit (Qiagen, catalog number 74904) according to the manufacturer's instructions. RNA was isolated from developing endosperm using a phenol-SDS extraction solution and precipitation of RNA from the aqueous phase using LiCl according to Clarke et al., (2008). The RNA concentration in the preparations was determined s^ectrophotometrically and the integrity of the RNA was determined by agarose gel electrophoresis and staining with ethidium bromide. RNA was treated with DNAsc using a "DNA-free ** kit (Amnion, catalogue number 1905) to remove any residual DNA in the preparations, and then cDNA was synthesised from the RNA template using Superscriptin reverse transcriptase (Inv rogen, catalogue number 18080-044) according to the manufacturer's instructions.

Milling of wheat flour

[0177] The moisture content of wheat grain was measured by N1R using a FOSS 5000 machine according to the mmu&cturer's instruction and then conditioned to 14% moisture by mixing with the required amount of water overnight and then milled on a Brabender Quadrumat Junior mill into white flour and bran fractions. The fractions were combined and then sieved through 300 um and 150 μm screens. Material collected on the 300 um screen was xatridered bran and that retained by the 150 um screen was pollard and was discarded while materia] passing through the 150 um screen was considered white flour (endosperm). A wholemeal wheat flour was prepared by milling conditioned grain on a cylcone mill fitted with a 1 mm screen. Anafysis of the BO content In cereal grains

[0178] Since milled whole grain flour was derived from and representative of the whole grain, the BG content of the grain was measured by assaying the BO content of the milled whole grain flow (w w), as follows. Single grains were ground to a fine wholemeal flour with a single ball bearing in a dentists amalgam mixer (WIG-L- BUG, entsply). Such flour from mature single grains was analysed for BO content using a scaled down version of the lichenase enzymatic method (AACC Method 32- 33, Megazyme assay kit, cCleary and Qleimie-Holmes 1985). Briefly, 20 mg of flour in a 2ml screw cap Eppendorf tube was resuspended in 1 ml of sodium phosphate buffer and uKubated at 90°C for one hour with shaking. The sample was cooled to 42°C and 40ul of licnenase (S0U ml) was added and the sample incubated for one hour with occasional shaldng. Following centrifugation at 13,000 g for 5 min, triplicate ΙΟμΙ samples (or 20 μl for low BO samples such as wheat) of the supematant were transferred to a 96 well microtitre plate. One sample in each triplicate was treated as a blank by adding ΙΟμΙ of sodium acetate buffer, while the other two were each treated with ΙΟμΙ ofbetaglucosidase (2U/ml) for 15 min at 42°C. The amount of released glucose in each sample was measured by adding 200 μl of OOPOD reagent, men colour development was allowed to take place at 42°C for 20 minutes and the absorbance was measured at 510nm. The amount of BO was calculated by reference to glucose standards and normalised against the barley reference standard supplied with the Megazyme assay kit The BO contents are expressed as a weight percentage (w/w) of the milled whole grain flour, on a dry weight basis using the formula given in the Megazyme kit

Anafysis of the structure ofBG

[0179] The fine structure of the BG was examined by lichenase digestion and fluorescent labelling of the oligosaccharides followed by separation by capillary cl ctn^horesis. This method was more sensitive than the traditional HPAEC method (Wood et al, 1991) and had the added advantage of being quantitative. In the Uchenase/fluorescent labelling method, each oligosaccharide was labelled with only one fluorescent tag at the reducing end, so the signal strength was independent of oligosaccharide length and the molar ratio of the oligosaccharides was therefore directly proportional to the fluorescence signal. [0180] After wheat flours were treated with the hchenase digestion in the Megazyme assay as described above, samples were ceotrifuged for one tnirartc at 10,000 g. Samples of 100 μΐ of supemataat were dried in a Speedivac. the ohgosaccharides were then fluorescently labelled by reductive emulation with 8- aimncHl ,6-pyrcrietris acid (APTS) and separated by fluorophore-assisted- capHlary electrophoresis (FACE) with laser induced fluorescence detection as described in O'Shea et al, 1998. The fluorescent signal in each of the peaks corresponding to the DP3 and DP4 oligosaccharides was integrated, and the ratio of these areas calculated to provide the DP3/DP4 ratio. (DP3 divided by DP4). As deteimined by this fluorescence method, mis ratio is a molar ratio, not a weight/weight ratio. This method has also been used for the analysis of oat BO structure (CoUeoni-Sirghie et al..2003).

Water solubility o/BG in flour samples

[0181] In a first method, water solubility of BG in flour samples was determined using a method that included a heat inactivation step to inactivate endogenous enzymes, as follows. Samples of 100 rag flour were heated at 80°C in 1.8 ml of 80% ethanol in screw capped tubes with shaking for 1 hour in an Epr>en(iorf Thenrraimxer. This step inactivated any endogenous enzymes which would break down polymeric cell wall material in the subsequent steps, while the ethanolic nature of the solvent prevented any polymers from being sohibUised and removed. However, sugars and other ethanol-soluble oligosaccharides would be removed from the flour samples in mis ethanolic treatment step. Following centrifugauon at 10,000 g for 1 min, the pelleted flour was resuspended in 1 ml of 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 6.5 and incubated at 37°C for 2 hours with shaking to extract water soluble components. The sample was spun again and the supernatant removed and collected - this water fraction contained the water-soluble (water-extractable) BG. The pellet (water insoluble fraction) was resuspended in 1 ml of the same buffer. Aliquots of both fractions, water-soluble and water-insoluble, were taken for assay of BG content using the scaled down Megazyme assay described above. Duplicate samples were assayed. Soluble and insoluble BO contents were calculated as % of dry weight of the flour, i.e. a BG content of 1% dry weight is equivalent to 10 mg of BO per gram dry weight of flour. In the calculation, flour was assumed to contain 10% (w w) moisture -the moisture content of several flour samples from well dried grain was determined by near-infrared (N1R) spectroscopy and found to be about 10% (w w). Total BG was calculated as the sum of the soluble and insoluble BG. [0182] In a second method, used less often, water solubility of BG in flour samples was <letermined as described by Aman et al., (1987). method does not use the heat inactfration step.

Dietary Fibre Determination

[0183] Total and soluble dietary fibre of the cereal flours were determined by the AOAC Official method 991.43 with minor fimdificalions (Lee et al., 1992). The inotf fications were the use of 25 ml hexane in total for Kpid extraction (not 25 ml per gram), the use of 80% and absolute ethanol for washing residues instead of 78% and 95% ethanol solutions and washing residues at 60°C instead of 70°C as stated in the AOAC method.

Determination of physicochemical and nutritional properties of wheat comprising elevated BG.

[0184] The nutritional composition of the fibrenmhanced wheat flour, including fibre content and composition, levels of macronuirients, antioxidant capacity and other relevant attributes are determined using standardised analytical procedures (Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (AOAC; 2002). Levels of lipid are detennined gravimetrically after extraction with a mixture of chloroformrmethanol (1:1, v v), using the method of Daugberty (1983), (AOAC method 983.23). The total nitrogen level is detennined by the Dumas oxidation technique using the method of Kirsten et al (1984) with a Carlo Erba nitrogen analyser. Following complete and instantaneous oxidation of the sample, the resulting gases are passed through a reduction fumace and a series of scrubbing cohunns prior to the nitrogen being measured using a thermal conductivity detector. The protein value is calculated by applying a multiplication factor of 6.25. For neutral NSP (NNSP), a modified version of the GC method of Theander et al., (1995; AOAC method 994.13) is used which employs a scaled-down procedure using a 2-hour hydrolysis with dilute sulphuric acid (1 M) followed by cenhifugation for the insoluble NNSP, and a former hydrolysis using 2M trifluoroacetic acid for the soluble NNSP. Total starch was deteimined according to the enzymatic method of McCleary et al (1994) using a commercial assay kit (K-TSTA, egazyme Im^rnational Ireland Ltd., Bray, Ireland). The ash content was determined by igniting approximately 1 to 4 g of freeze dried sample in a muffle furnace for 15 h at 540°C as outlined in the AOAC method 923.03 (1923). The weight of the ash was determined by difference. Simple sugars are extracted using method 982,14 of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists and quantified by HPLC using appropriate standards. Total starch was analysed as free glucose after a-amylase & amytoglucosidase digestion using a commercial procedure (Total Starch Assay Kit, Mcgazyme Ltd, Melbourne, Australia) that was based on the methcxi ofMcCleary et al. (1994). Resistant starch (RS) content and glycemic index (01) were predicted using an in vitro inctibation system which modeled the buccal, gastric and pancreatic phases of food digestion as occurs in the human upper gut (Bird, Usher, Klingner, Topping and More1l, see O20067069422). Duplicate samples of the test flour and relevant reference foods are placed in a flask and mixed with artificial saliva (250U/mL of a-amylase) at pH 7.0. After 15-20 s, the mixture is incubated with acidified (0.02M HCl) pepsin (1 mg/mL) at 37*0 for 30 mia The solution is then adjusted to pH 6.0 and the sample treated with pancreatin (2 mgmL) and amyloghicosidase (28 U/mL) at 37°C in 0.2M acetate buffer (pH 6.0) in a shaking water bath. For glycemic index (GI), aliquots of supernatant are sampled at designated time points for up to 5 h and glucose concentration determined using an automated electrochemical procedure. The predicted OI of the sample is calculated as the percentage of available carbohydrate converted to glucose and released during the time course of the incubation. For resistant starch (RS), the incubation period is extended for several more hours and the amount of starch remaining in the sample at that time determined using conventional enzymatic and spectrophotometric techniques. The predicted RS content of the sample is calculated as the amount of starch remaining in the digest as a percentage of sample weight

Example 2. Cloning of wheat SF and Csffi genes

[0185] Introduction. The (U; )-p * -D-glucan (herein BO) content of cereal grains varies amongst the cereal species with barley, oats and rye having the highest amounts and wheat, maize and rice have relatively low levels (Fincher and Stone, 2004). For example, wild-type barley normally has about 4% BO with some barley lines having considerably more BC, whereas wheat grain typically has less than 1% BO, normally about 0.5-0.8%, on a dry weight basis, In barley, BO forms the main component of cell walls in both developing endosperm and mature endosperm (Izydorczyk and Dexter, 2008). In contrast, BO is the main cell-wall component of wheat endosperm only at early grain devdopment stages whereas arabinoxylans accumulate at the beginning of cell differentiation and by grain maturity form 70-80% of the endosperm cell-walls (Philippe et al., 2006a, 2006b). [0186] The CsIF6 gene in badcy was shown to encode an active BO synthase (Burton et ah, 2008). More recently, Dobfin et al., (2009) have shown that the barley CslH gene also encodes a BO synthase, and the authors concluded that boh the OIF and CslH gene famines contributed to BG synthesis in barley. In barley * overexpresskm of HvCslF6 led to an increase in the BO levels in transgenic grain by up to about 80% (Burton et at, 2011 ). In wheat, in contrast, over-expression of Cs1H in the developing endosperm resulted in an increase of about 100% of the BO level in mature grain, from about 0.69% of grain weight to a maximum of \S¾ (WO2009079714). The authors commented that this level of BO had never been seen before in wheat Nemeth et al. (2010) showed that the endogenous C&1F6 gene was expressed in wheat and was required tor production of normal levels of BO that is present in wild-type wheat endosperm. However, they did not over-express CslF6 in wheat and there was no indication whether the level of CslF6 expression in wheat was limhing the BO accumulation or whether other genes were Iirnhing in wheat

[0187] At the beginning of this study, it was not known whether genes other than CslH would increase BG levels when expressed from a transgene in wheat endosperm, and the present inventors therefore tested several CslF genes, in particular the CslF4, CslFo, C&1F7 and CslF9 genes in transgenic wheat The inventors therefore first cloned candidate wheat Csl genes and determined their expression patterns in wheat plants, as follows.

Isolation of cDNA clones corresponding to TaCslF and TaCslH genes.

[0188] Total UNA was isolated from one week old leaf and seedling tissue of wheat ctthivar Saratovskaya29 using an R Aeasy kit This was used for SMART cDNA library construction. KNA was also isolated from developing grain of wheat cultivar Westonia by a phenol/SDS method using LiCl precipitation of KNA as described in Example 1 and used for cDNA synthesis. Complementary DNA (cDNA) was synmesised using Superscript ΠΙ reverse transcriptase at S0°C according to the manufacturers instructions (mvitrogen) and 5' and 3* SMART RACE was performed as described (Burton etal. 1 2008).

[0189] Expressed sequence tag sequences and corresponding consensus sequences were identified from NCBI and TIGR databases by BLAST searches using the available CslF and Cs1H sequences from barley (Burton et al., 2008). Wheat ESTs TC276200 and TC261037 were homologous to the 3' half of CslP3, TC244207 and TC256381 to the 3* half of CslF4 and TC275889 and TC250370 were homologous to the 5 » and 3 » ends of CslP6. Singleton TC255 29 oonesponded to the 3* end of CslH and BJ280995 to the central portion of CslF8. There were no EST sequences homologous to HvCslF7 m die databases. Sense primers were designed based on the barley sequences around the initiating medncmine oodon (SJ114, SJ115, SJ116, SJ117, SJ118, SJ30 and SJ163 for CstF3, CslF4, CsBな, CslF7, CslF8, CslP9 and Cs1H respectively, see Table 1 tor sequences), in order to isolate cDNAs corresponding to these genes. To isolate the full length cDNA including 5'- and 3'- UTRs, the 5'end of the cDNA enooding wheat C&IFIO was isolated by 5'RACE using nested primer pairs UPM-SJ150 and NUP-SJ155. Nested primer nairs for isolation of the 3* ends of the cD As by 3 'RACE woe: UPM-SJ60 and NUP-SJ14 for CsDF4, UPM-SJ113 and NUP-SJ48 for C&IF6, UPM-SJ61 and NUP-SJ56 for CslF8, and UPM-SJ113 and NUP-SJ03 for CslF9 (primer sequences in Table 1). Annealing was performed at 55% for all primers. Sense and antisense primers were designed to the consensus sequence or 3 'RACE sequence and used for isolation of genomic and cDNA fragments to enable a full length protein coding consensus sequence to be assembled for each gene.

[0190] Full length cDNAs were isolated from wheat cultivar Westonia endosperm cDNA (4 days post anthesis) using primer pairs SJM6-SJ156 (CslF6), SJ1 I8-SJ158 (CslF8), SJ165-SJ166(CslF10) and SJ163^J164(Cs1H).

[1191] No wheat sequences or ESTs corresponding to the rice CslFl, CslF2 or CslF5 genes were found in databases.

Isolation of genomic dona for TaCslFand TaCslH genes.

[0192] AmpUfication was performed on DNA isolated from leaves from wheat plants of cultivar Chinese Spring in order to isolate genomic CslF and CslH sequences, including their introns. Cloning of genes from bread wheat was complicated by the tact that Tr icum aestiv m is a hexapioid with three subgenomes, commonly designated the A, B and D genomes. However, genomic clones including the full-length protein coding regions were successfully isolated from the wheat cultivar Chinese Spring using primer pairs SJ162-SJ156 for CslF6, SJ278-SJ147 for CslF7, and SJ163-SJ164 for CslH. Full length cDNA and genomic clones were obtained from each of the three genomes for most but not all of (he CslF and Cs1H genes. The position and size of the introns were determined for each gene by comparing die cDNA and genomic sequences, the position and size of the introns in comparison to the conespondii-g barley genes are shown schematically in Figure 1.

[0193] A CslFS consensus nucleotide sequence was assembled from the nucleotide sequences from the cDNA (amplified with primer pair SJ114-SJ38) and genomic sequences (amplified with primer pain SJ114-139 and SJ44-SJ31). A TaCslF3 cDNA sequence is provided as SEQ ID NO:l, and a TaCslF3 polypeptide amino acid sequence is provided as SEQ ID O:2. A CslF4 consensus nucleotide sequence was assembled from the sequences of cDNAs (amplified with primer pairs SJ115-SJ13 and SJ14-NUP) and genomic sequences (amplified with primer pairs SJ115-SJ140 and SJ115-SJ157). cDNA sequences corresponding to the three wheat CslF4 genes are given in SEQ ID NOs: 3-5, the corresponding CslF4 genomic sequences including two introns each as SEQ ID NOs: 6-8, and the encoded C&IF4 amino acid sequences as SEQ ID NOs: 9-11. cDNA sequences corresponding to the three wheat CslF6 genes are given in SEQ ID NOs: 12-14, the corresponding CslF6 genomic sequences including introns (where isolated) each as SEQ ID NOs: 15-17, and the encoded CslF6 amino acid sequences as SEQ ID NOs: 18-20. These probably represent, in order, the CslF6 genes from the A, B and D genomes. SEQ ID NOs: 21, 22 and 23 are the nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding CslF7, a genomic (partial length) clone and the encoded amino acid sequence, respectively. The CsIF9 consensus nucleotide sequence was assembled from the sequences of cDNAs (amplified with primer pairs SJ30-SJ135 and SJ03-NUP) and genomic sequences (amplified with primer pairs SJ30-101 and SJ152-SJ37). Partial length or full-length cDNA sequences conespanding to the three wheat CslF9 genes are given in SEQ ID NOs: 24-26, the corresponding CslF9 genomic sequences including introns (where isolated) each as SEQ ID NOs: 27-29, and an encoded CslF9 amino acid sequences as SEQ ID NO: 30. cDNA sequences corresponding to the three wheat CslH genes are given in SEQ ID NOs: 31-33, the cetresponding CslH genomic sequences including introns (where isolated) each as SEQ ID NOs: 34-36, and the encoded Cs1H amino acid sequences as SEQ ID NOs: 37-39. These probably represent, in order, the CslH genes from the A, B and D genomes.

Discussion of the wheat genes and polypeptides,

[0194] Like barley, each genome of hexaploid wheat had seven CslF genes (CslF3, CslF4, CS1F6, CslF7, CslF8, CslF9 and CsIFlO) and a single CslH gene. The positions of introns and splice junction (GT...AG) sequences were conserved in wheat and barley. In general, the sizes of the introns were similar between conttspondrag wheat and barley genes and some of the difference could be explabied by the presence or absence of repetitive or traosposon sequences. For instance, the second intron of the barley HvCslF9 gene had an May MITE insertion compared to the wheat sequence and the first intron of wheat TaCsJF3 was slightly larger than the corresrxmding gene in barley and had a 30 bp sequence which was found in other barley genes. The first intron of both the wheat and barley CslF genes was much larger than all the other introns due in part to the presence of retrotransposons - in wheat of a sequence with homology to a Stowaway ΜΠΈ from Aegilops tcatschli and in barley to a Stowaway MITE Hades. The differences in intron sequences did not appear to affect splicing of the introns. cDNA sequences were obtained for all genes that corresponded to correctly spliced mR As. However, it was not detenriined whether the intron splicing efficiency was the same for the wheat genes relative to the cofresponding barley genes.

[0195] All of the wheat genes encoded proteins of similar size to the corresrjondmg barley proteins (Table 2) and all had die same number of predicted transmembrane domains, two towards the amino terminus and six towards the carboxy terminus for a total of eight per polypeptide (Figure 1). All of the amino acids reported to be necessary for glycosvltrensferase activity, namely D, DxD, ED and Qxx W amino acids (Pear ct al, 1996), were conserved in the wheat proteins. Analogous to the barley HvCslF6 protein, the wheat TaCsIF6 protein had an extended loop of about 50 additional amino acids compared to the other CslF proteins. The 50 additional amino acids were amino acids 517-566, 513-561 and 516-565 of the A, B and D genome encoded C&1F6 proteins, respectively. All of the polypeptides have a signal sequence that directs them to the Golgi membrane system, but this sequence is not cleaved off.

{9196] The wheat ToCs H gene had eight introns, the same number of introns as the rice OsCslHJ gene and one more than the HvCslH gene isolated from the barley cultivar Golden Promise (Doblin et al., 2009) which lacked the penultimate mtron. Isolation of the HvCslH gene from the hulless barley cultivar Himalaya confirmed that it had eight introns like the wheat and lice genes (Figure 1).

Example 3. Anafysie ef expression of CslF and CslH genes in wheat

(0197) For analysis of endogenous gene expression, semi^u∞titative RT-PCR was performed with HotStar Taq (Qiagen) DNA polymerase. In order to not saturate the amplifkations, the number of cycles in each PC reaction was adjusted in the range of 28-35 for Or/ and CesA genes, and 24 cycles for the a-tubnlin gene used as a control for quantitation of RNA loading. Real time PCR, which was more quantitative, was performed on a Rotorgeoeo OO (Qiagen) with Platinum Taq and SyBR green. The machine software was used to calculate expression differences based on comparative quantitation. Nucleotide sequences of the primers used are given in Table 1.

Expression analysis of Cs!Fand CsIH gems in wheat - coleoptile and leaf tissue

[0198] Based on the semi-quantitative RT-PCR results, the expression of the more highly-expressed wheat OIF genes, namely TaCslF6 and TaCsIF9, and the TaCslH gene was examined using Real-time PCR. Data are shown in Figure 2 for the expression of these genes along an elongating leaf and over a time-course in coleoptile tissue (3-7 days post-germination) and in mature coleoptile. Of these genes, the wheat TaCslF6 gene was by far the most highly expressed TaCslF gene in all vegetative tissues examined, expression being higher in leaf than coleoptile. TaCslF6 expression was high in elongating tissues, young cokoptiles and tower leaf sections and declined in mature coleoptiles and towards the leaf tip. Expression was also lower in young endosperm tissue (Figure 2A). The wheat Ta slF9 gene was expressed maximally in elongating tissues in the youngest coleoptile and lowest leaf section (Figure 2B) and was lower in the leaf than the coleoptile and lower still in the developing grain. In contrast, the wheat TaCslH gene was expressed at highest levels in mature tissues that had completed elongation such as the mature coleoptile and leaf tip (Figure 2C).

Expression of CslFandCslH genes in developing wheat and barley grain

[0199] To investigate gene expression during grain development and to compare the expression in wheat and barley, Real-time PCR was performed on cDNA made from RNA extracted from wheat and barley endosperm at 4 day intervals from the day of antfaesis (labelled TaEO, HvEO, respectively) up to 28 days post anthesis, and using the primers listed in Table 1. The data are shown in Figure 3, showing die expression level relative to the EO samples (EO * endosperm at 0 DPA), where the data was normalised against the amount of input RNA rather than against die expression of a control endogenous gene due to the large differences in developmental stages between die tissues. Levels of mRNA expressed from housekeeping genes such as sucrose synthase 1 and a-tubulin were also assayed and were greatest early in seed development at about 4-12 DPA. These profiles were reproducible and reflected the metabolic state of the developing grain as it proceeded through die development phases from (i) cellularisation and division early on (0-14 DPA), followed by (ii) a differentiation phase (14-28 DPA) with maximal starch and cell wall synthesis and then (iii) a slower maturation and desskation phase (28 days and following). The wheat TaCslF6 gene was the most highly expressed gene in the developing grain and was expressed at high levels throughout development (Figure 3 A), with the greatest expression in the sample 4 days post anthesis. The barley HvCslF6 gene was expressed at similar although slightly higher maximum levels at about l.5-fbld greater levels than for the wheat TaCslF6 gene, and expression also declined at late stages of grain devdoprnent (Figure 3A). The next most highly expressed gene, T CslF9 peaked around 8 DPA in wheat and expression fell off dramatically after this (figure 3B). The barley HvCslF9 gene showed a similar expression level and pattern although expression at 12 DPA was higher than in wheat (Figure 3B). Expression of the other HvCslF genes in developing barley grain was ten to a hundred fold lower, near the limit of reproducible detection and no distinct pattern of expression could be discerned (Burton et aJ., 2008). This was also the case in wheat and no consistent differences could be detected. In summary, the individual CslF genes in developing wheat grain were expressed in a similar pattern to the barley CslF genes, and it was considered that the substantial difference in BO content between wheat and barley grain was not likely to be due to differences in CslF gene expression during grain development.

[0200] The major difference observed between developing wheat and barley grain was the expression of the CslH gene (Figure 3C). In barley, expression of die vCsI gene was lowest in the youngest stage and expression increased during development, peaking at 28 DPA. In contrast in wheat, expression of TaCslH gene was highest in the youngest tissue and from 8 DPA and subsequent stages, expression was very low, such mat the expression level in wheat endosperm was observed at about 10-fold lower levels than in barley at later stages of development (Figure 3C). The expression profile of the TaCslH gene was therefore the opposite of the ffvCslH gene, and this gene was therefore considered the likely cause to explain the differences in BG accumulation in grain between these species.

[0201] Discussion. Wheat has much lower levels of BG in the endosperm compared to barley and some other cereals. The experiments described above set out to detemrine a possible reason for this. A comparative analysis of the CslF and CslH genes in wheat and barley was undertaken including isolation of the wheat genes (Example 2) and an analysis of gene expression in both vegetative tissues and developing grain (Example 3). This showed that wheat had a foil complement of OIF and CslH genes, each of which are expressed, so the lower level of BO in wheat relative to barley was not caused by lack of a particular CslF or CslH gene or expression of a particular gene. The full length genes that were isolated from wheat all encoded proteins of similar length to the barky orthologs. Although mere were some amino acid differences between the species, none of these were in completely conserved residues such that they were likely to affect enzymatic activity of the encoded proteins.

[0202] The expression of the most abundant wheat CslF and CslH genes in vegetative tissues also appeared to be similar to that of barley. The TaCslF6 gene was constttutively expressed at high levels, although expression was much lower in the upper half of the leaf and especially low in me leaf tip. The TaCslF gene was expressed at highest levels in elongating tissues such as die base of leaf and young cotooptile while the reverse was true for TaCslH, which was highest in differentiated tissues such as mature coleoptUes and leaf tips. In the developing endosperm, the TaCslF6 and TaCslF9 genes showed the same expression pattern as the barley homologues although at slightly lower levels but probably not different enough to explain the large difference in BO composition of the endosperm between the species. In contrast to expression in vegetative tissues, in developing endosperm the TaCslH gene was expressed in a c fierent maimer compared to the barley HvCslH gene in both temporal pattern and abundance. Whereas the HvCslH gene increased in expression as the endosperm matured and reached a maximum at 28 DPA, the TaCslH gene was maximally expressed at 0 and 4 DPA and expression declined steeply after that, so mat at 28 DPA there was about a 10 fold lower expression of the TaCslH gene. In barley, BO biosynthesis predominantiy occurred in the later stages of development after about 19 days (Coles, 1979; Seefeldt et al., 2009) so this difference in expression of the CslH gene between wheat and barley suggested a role for the CslH gene in controlling BO levels of the grain.

[0203] In Examples 2 and 3, the genes in the wheat CslF and CslH gene families were isolated and their expression profiles compared to those of the barley genes. It was found that wheat has a full complement of CslF and CslH genes and that a lower level of CslH during late endosperm development was hypothesized to explain the low levels of BG in the grain. This was tested as described in the following Example.

Example 4. Expretsfoa of a chimeric gene encoding barley HvCslH in wheat endospcrai

[0204] To test whether the observed differences in expression pattern, namely the lower level and altered timing, of die TaCslH gene in developing wheat grain compared to the JivCsI gene in barley contributed to the much lower levels of BG in the mature wheat grain, a construct was designed and made to over-express the barley HvCs1H protein in transgenic wheat grain using an endosperm specific promoter, as follows. A genomic HvCslH sequence (SEQ ID NO:49) was used in case there were any regulatory sequences contained in the intrans of the barley gene that might affect expression of the gene and contribute to the difference in expression.

Vector construction and plant transformation

[0205] A full length cDNA sequence of the HvCslH gene was described in WO2009/079714. A chimeric gene comprising the protein coding region of HvCslH was isolated from genomic DNA and used to transform wheat plants. Based on the cDNA sequence, oligonucleotide primers SJ91 and SJ85 (Table 1) were designed for the 5' and 3' ends, respectively, of the protein coding sequence of the gene. These were used to amplify a DNA fragment induding 3203 bp of barley DNA using genomic DNA obtained from barley plants of cultivar Himalaya as the template sequence in the amplification reaction. The fragment was inserted into the plasrrud vector pCRBluntn TOPO (Invitrogen). The nucleotide sequence of mis fragment plus flanking 12bp nucleotide sequences from the vector, as an EcoRl fragment, is given in SEQ ID NO: 49. The introns in the gene correspond to nucleotides 339-437, 769-867, 994-1107, 1228-1331, 1545-1637, 1759-1817, 2048-2081, 2505-2655 in SEQ ED NO:49. The genomic HvCslH sequence was excised from the vector and inserted as an EcoRl fragment between a 1.9 kb fragment of the high molecular weight glutenin Bxl7 promoter (pBx!7) and the nasi* polyadenylation/ terminator region in pZLBxl7nosCas vector. The pBx!7 promoter was used in the construct because it was known to confer high level and preferential expression in developing endosperm ("endosperm-specific promoter", Reddy and Appels, 1993). The resultant chimeric DNA construct was used to transform wheat plants of the Bob White 26 cultivar using the biolistics method of Pellegrineschi et aJ., (2004) using 50 mgL G418 as the selection agent to select for transformed cells. To do this, the expression vector encoding HvCs1H and a second ptasroid (pCMSTSL2neo) conuxising a ΝΡΤΠ selectable madcer gene under the control of a CaMV 35S promoter sequence were mixed in equimolar amounts and co-bombarded into the scutella of immature embryos of Bob White 26 plants. Regenerated plants were screened for the presence of the transgene by PCR assays using DNA extracted from young leaf tissue with the RedI&tradiiAinp™ktt

[0206] Fourteen independe y-transfcvmed wheat plants were generated following antibiotic selection and were grown in a glasshouse to produce seed after self- fertilisation. Eleven of these plants were confirmed to be transgenic by PCR for the expression construct encoding the barley HvCs1H protein. All of the transformed lines appeared phenotypically normal Approximately fifteen days after anthesis, RNA was extracted from pools of three developing grains (Tl seeds) from each plant and expression of the introduced gene encoding barley HvCs1H was monitored by real time PCR using primers specific for the HvCslH transgene (SJ183 and SJ85, Table 1 ). As a control gene for normalising expression levels of the introduced gene * expression of an endogenous a-tubulin was also assayed. At least five of the plants showed expression of the chimeric gene encoding barley HvCs1H. The observed expression levels (Table 5) were several hundred-fold up to about 2000-fold greater than that of the lowest expressing PCR negative line, which was presumed to be a non- transformed line that had come through the transformation process. A full length cDNA clone of the barley HvCslH transgene transcript was isolated from line H1-5B with primers SJ163 and SJ 164 (Table 1) and sequenced to show that the barley introns were correctly spliced in the transformed wheat plants.

[0207] Expression of die transgene was analysed by real-time PCR of cDN A from single or duplicate pooled Tl developing grain samples (approximately 15 DPA). The expression level was normalised against expression of a tubulin gene and is shown (Table 5) relative to the sample with me lowest level (Line Hl-2) which represents the wild-type expression level In addition, BO levels were determined on wholemeal flour from single mature Tl grains from the same plants. The BO content of grain from PCR negative plants i.e. non-transgenic plants, was up to a maximum of 1.0%. In contrast, two of the plants expressing the chimeric gene ericoding HvCslH lines had several grains with 1.9% (w w) BG, representing an increase of at least 90% in the BO level On average, Tl grain from the PCR positive lines had a significantly higher BG content than the PCR negative lines (0.96 vs 0.69% (w w) respectively). However, this analysis did not distinguish between homozygotes and heterozygotes for the introduced transgene.

[0208] Six to eight individual Tl plants of each line were grown, self-fertilised and 72 seed produced. The T2 seeds were PCR screened for the presence of the chimeric gene encoding HvCalEi Line 9 showed all PCR positive progeny, suggesting that this line was homozygous and this was confirmed in farther generations. Other lines may also have been homozygous but the results of the first test were inconclusive.

[0209] At about the mid-point of grain development, three pooled T2 seed from each Tl plant were analysed for expression of the transgene, and at matxirhy 3-5 single seeds were analysed for BO content Lines 6, 9 and 10 showed the highest transgene expression at levels between 4-fold and 6-fold greater than the R A level expressed from the endogenous a-tubulin gene used as a control for quantitation. Most of the mature grains had increased BO content up to a maximum of 2.4%. Line H1-6A5 also appeared to be homozygous for the transgene as all grain from mis line had increased BO levels.

[0210] Based on the gene expression data and BO results, seeds of four T2 lines (lines H1-6A5, H1-9B2, H1-10B1 and H1-10B7) were sown and the resultant plants self-fertilised to obtain homozygous T3 lines. The chimeric gene expression levels and BO levels of the T3 grain were assayed; the data are shown in Figure 4. Wild- type BO levels were generally in the range 0.6% to about 1.0% as indicated for the PGR negative lines (gray filled triangles in Figure 4). All except one T3 grain of line H1-6A5 had increased BO content All T3 grain from lines H1-10B1.9 and Hl- 10B7.4 and HM0B7.6 (dark filled triangles in Figure 4) had increased BO content, suggesting homozygosity of the transgene in those grains. Screening of further generations confirmed homozygosity for all these lines. These lines together with line H1-10B73 as a negative segregant (i.e. wild-type) were bulked up to obtain more than 200g of pooled T4 grain for further analysis, as described in Example 5.

Example 5. Analysis of BG levels in wheat grain transformed with aa erogenous gene encoding HvCslH

[0211] The T4 grain from the HvCslH overexpressing lines looked phenotypicaUy normal except for about an 18-20% decrease in average grain weight, from about 44mg per wild-type grain to about 32-35rag per transgenic grain, determined as an average weight of 100 grains. Samples of this grain were CO ball milled to produce wholemeal flour or (ii) milled with a Buhtar Quadrumat roller mill winch separated the flaky bran from the while endosperm flour, thus producing endosperm flour ("white flour"), and each fraction was analysed for BO content as described in Example 1. This was done for T4 wheat grain from one negative segregaot (Hl- 10B7.3 as a wild-type control) as well as for three homozygous HvCsM over- expressing lines. BG levels of duplicate samples were analysed with a Megazyme kit Part of the lichenase digest from these samples was fluorescenth/ labelled and analysed by PACE to deterniine me ratio of the DP3 and DP4 ougosaccharides. The dietary fibre levels of the white flour were determined according to enzymalic- gravimetric AOAC Official Method 991.43. The data are recoided in Tabic 6.

[0212] Wholemeal flour from the negative segiegant grain (i.e. wild-type line HI- 10B73) had 0.8% BO whereas the bran fraction had higher BO levels at 1.78%. The endosperm flour of this wild-type had a low BO content of 0.26% on a dry weight basis. In contrast, flour from plants expressing the chimeric vCslH gene had increased BO content relative to the wild-type. The BO content of the wholemeal flour from the highest-expressing line had doubled to about 1.6% (w/w) (Table 6) and the endosperm flour had up to a 3.5-fbld increase to 0.9% (w w) compared to the control. The BO content of the bran also increased from 1.78% to 2.39% (w w), probably due at least in part because of contamination with adhering endosperm fragments which were visible as white specks on the large bran flakes. This incomplete separation of the endosperm from the bran is often seen in small scale milling as these machines are less efficient than commercial mills.

[0213] As arabinoxylan (AX) is the major cotm Mient of wheat endosperm cell walls, the pentosan content of the endosperm and bran fractions was also determined. This showed mat there was a slight increase in the pentosan level of the endosperm in the high BG lines and there was a corresponding decrease in the pentosan levels of the bran from the same lines compared to die negative segregant control line.

Fine structure and water solubility of BG in the transgenic grain

[0214] The structure of the BG isolated from the transgenic grain, isolated by the method described in Example 1, was examined after lichenase digestion and FACE analysis (CShea et al., 1998). BG from wholemeal wheat flour from the negative segregant grain had a DP3/DP4 ratio of about 14, while for BO from the bran the ratio was about 2.6. The ratio for BG from the endosperm flour was lower at about 1.9 (Table 6). The DP3 DP4 ratio of BG isolated from grain from the three wheat lines over-expressing HvCs1H showed slight variation from each other, but overall the values were not significantly different to the ratios observed for wild-type wholemeal, bran and endosperm flours. The range in DP3 DP4 for BG from wholegrain was 230- 2.44, while for BG from endosperm it was 1.89-1.99.

[0215] In wild-type wheat grain, very little BG is soluble (Beresfbrd and Stone, 1983). The solubility of BG from wheat endosperm flour from the HsCs1H transgenic grain was determined by extraction In aqueous buffer for 2 hours at 40°C as described in Example 1. Under these conditions, about 7% of me BG in the control grain of line H1-10B7.3 was water-soluble (Figure 5). Similar levels of water-soluble BG were found in the endosperm flours of die transgenic HvCs1H grain although as a proportion this represented between 1 and 3% oflhe total BG in uic grain.

[0216] It was concluded that although the BG content increased sigruficanuy in the HsCs1H transgenic grain, the DP37DP4 ratio in the BG and the amount of water- soluble BG had not changed.

Analysis of dietary fibre levels in endosperm flour

[0217] While the proportion of soluble BG appeared not to have increased in the transgenic HvCs1H grain, the levels of dietary fibre in white flour were also determined by the Prosky AOAC Official method 991.43 (Lee et d., 1992). This standard method uses high temperatures and thermostable starch hydrolysing and protease enzymes to simulate digestion of cooked foods in the human digestive tract Analysis of the control endosperm flour confirmed that white flour had low levels of soluble and total dietary fibre at 0.7% and 2.4% of the dry weight, respectively (Table 6). In contrast, and unexpectedly, all three transgenic HvCs1H lines showed large increases in bom soluble and total dietary fibre in the white flour. Chain of line Hl- 10B 1.9 showed more than a two fold increase with 1.8% soluble and 5.3% total dietary fibre.

[0218] Discussion. When the low levels of endogenous TaCslH gene expression late in endosperm development were supplemented by introduction and expression of the chimeric gene encoding HvCslH, including the introns as found in the native barley gene, the BG content of the grain was increased substantially up to 2.1% (w w) in transgenic grain compared to 0.6 to 1.0% in wild-type grain. Such a level of BG was unknown in non ransfbrmed wheat or its wild progenitors (Pritchard et al, 2010). In bulked T4 grain from homozygous HvCsJH transgenic lines, there was a two fold increase in BO content in wbolerneal flour and a 3.5-foid increase from 0.26% to about 0,9% BO in white ( idosperm) flour. Structural analysts of the BO after lichenase digestion showed mat there were no changes in the OP3 DP4 ratio, indicating that the extra BO in the endosperm had a similar structure to the wild-type BO. There was also no change in the proportion of water soluble BO as both the wild- type and high BO lines showed only low levels of water soluble BO. Surprisingly, there were increases of about 2-foM m levels of soluble and total dietary fibre in the endosperm flour compared to me normal wheat floor. The difference in solubility between the two assays may be explained by the extraction conditions as the first step of the BO solubility assay involves heating the flour suspension in an 80% ethanol solution to inactivate endogenous enzymes, whereas the dietary fibre assay has no inactivation step and the endogenous hydrolytic enzymes could act on the cell wall and release more carbohydrate, 'the fibre assay also measured arabinoxylan and other fibre components.

Example 6. Isolation of sequences encoding various HvCslF and Cs1H protein* and testing their funetkwaHty in Nkotiana benthami

[0219] Several barley CslF genes are described in WO2007/014433. In order to prepare constructs for transformation of wheat for heterologous expression of the barley CslF proteins, me coding regions were isolated from either cDNA or genomic DNA and inserted in expression constructs as follows. Several of the constructs included, at the 5' end of the protein coding regions, a nucleotide sequence encoding a T7 epitope tag of 11 amino acids having the amino acid sequence MASMTGOQQMG, thereby adding the 11 amino acids to the N-tenninus of the encoded proteins. This epitope was included to aid detection and quantitation by Western blot analysis of the protein expressed in transgenic grant, since commercial antibodies specific for this epitope were available. As shown below, addition of the T7 tag did not affect enzyme activity of the T7-added proteins compared to die wild- type proteins. Aside from the T7 tags, the encoded proteins were not modified in amino acid sequence relative to the wild-type barley proteins in cultivar Himalaya.

Ckming ofcD A encoding HvCslF4

[0220] Total KNA was isolated from barley cultivar Himalaya leaf and seedling tissue using the RNAeasy kit (Qiagen). RNA samples were treated with RNAse-free D Aec (Ambion) before cDNA synthesis. Five inicrograms of the RNA preparation was used to make cDNA using 10 pmol of the RoRidTl? primer and Supefscript HI reverse transcriptase (Invitrogm) for one hour at 50°C in a20ul reaction according to the inanufacturer's instructions. A full length cDNA conesponding to HvCslF4 was amplified from the kafcDNA using primers SJ253 and SJ254 and Advantage 2 Taq DNA polymerase mix (Clontech Cat No 639201) according to the niaindacturer's instructions. The ampiifjcarion reaction used the green buffer with an initial cycle of 2 min at 94°C followed by 30 cycles of 94°C for 20 sec, 58°C for 20 sec and 68°C for 3 min. this amplification added the nucleotide sequence encoding the eleven amino acid T7 epitope tag in me same reading frame at the N-terminus of the HvCslF4 protein. The cDNA product was cloned into the pCR2.1-TOPO vector and sequenced. A sequencing error in the 3' end of the gene was corrected by replacing a Spel- A fragment from another HvCslF4 3'RACE construct cloned in the same orientation and vector.

Ooainf ofcD As enroling HvCsHな

[0221] Two nucleic acid fragments each containing a full length protein coding region from cDNA corresponding to the HvCslF6 gene were amplified with (i) primers SJ116 and SJ77, or (ii) with primers SJ277 and SJ77. The 5' primer SJ277 included the nucleotide sequence encoding the 17 epitope tag (as above) while the 3* primer (SJ77) was specific to the 3' untranslated region. The second amplification therefore included the T7 epitope tag sequence, whereas the first did not. The template nucleic acid was barley leafcDNA prepared from RNA obtained from barley plants of cv. Himalaya (as above). The amplifications used Phusion DNA polymerase (New England Bioiabs, catalogue number F-530S) with GC buffer and 3% DMSO according to manufacturer's instructions. The cycling conditions in the amplifications were: 98°C for 30 sec, followed by 30 cycles of 98°C for 7 sec, 15 sec at 63°C and 72°C for 1 min followed by a 5 min extension at 72°C. The use of GC buffer and DMSO was essential to amplify a full length coding region since, without this optimisation of PCR conditions all of the obtained clones had a deletion at the 5' end of the coding region. This may have been caused by the Taq polymerase skipping over a hairpin slructure formed by a GC rich region near the 5' end of the barley CslF6 coding region. The approximately 3 kb PCR products were gel purified using an Illustra (GE Healthcare) kit and inserted into the pCRBluntll TOPO cloning vector (Invitrogen) and sequenced. One clone named HvCslF6_277-77_23 contained an intact open reading frame. Cloning of ft genomic region encoding HvCslF7

[0222] A full length clone containing the protean coding region of the HvCslF7 gene (genomic clone) was amplified from barley cultivar Himalaya with primers SJ112 and SJ111. The amplifications used Phusion DNA polymerase with HF buffer according to nianufacturer's instructions. The JPCR reactions used initial dertaturing conditions of 3080c at 98°C followed by 35 cycles of 98°C for 7 sec, 57°C for 15 sec and 72°C for 2 mm. The amplified fragments were dA tailed with HotStarTaq (Qiagen) according to the Invitrogen manual and cloned into the pCR2.1-TOPO vector (mvitrogen). The clone was designated HvCslF7g_l 12-111_1.

Cloning of a genomic region encoding HvC»I

[0223] A full length clone containing the protein coding region of the HvCslF9 gene (genomic clone) was also amplified from barley cultivar Himalaya with primers SJ30 and SJ99. The amplifications used Phusion polymerase with HF buffer according to manufacturer's instructions. The PCR reactions used initial denaturing conditions of 30 sec at 98°C followed by 32 cycles of 98°C for 7 sec, 56.5°C for 15 sec and 72°C for 2 rnin. The amplified fragments were dA tailed with HotStarTaq (Qiagen) according to the invitrogen manual and cloned into the pCR2.1-TOPO vector (mvitrogen). The clone was designated HvCatF9g_30-99_2.

Expression of rail length coding regions m wheat

[0224] The full length HvCslF genes described above were expressed in wheat endosperm as described in detail in Example 7.

Isolation of rail length cDNA for repression in NicotUmo bentkamian leaves

[0225] Full length CslF and CslH coding sequences were amplified from barley, wheat and oat seedling or 4DPA endosperm cDNA by using BDTaq or Phusion DNA polymerase with primers as detailed in Table 7. The amplified DNA fragments were inserted into TOPO vectors, sequenced and men inserted into the plant expression vector as described below. Cloning and functional analyses of the the full length CslF6 coding sequences are described in Examples 2, 9 and 10. Auetsktg the isnction«ttty of sequences encoding barky CsIF proteins by tnmatet cjprtssten in Nicotians benthamituta\ avtx

(0226J The functionality of tbe barley, wheat and oat CslFand Cs1H coding regions was initially assessed by transient expression of 35S-driven constructs in Ni otiana benthamk a leaves and analysis of the BO content in cell wall fractions from the leaves. Briefly, the full length CsIF or Cs1H protein coding regions were excised from the TOPO vectors and ligated between the CaMV 35S promoter and tbe iws3 * polyad€«ylation terrninator region in a binary expression vector pORE0235S which was a derivative of pORE02 with tbe CaMV 35S promoter inserted at the Sfbl site at the 5' end of the polytinker (Wood et al., 2009). An example of such a plasmid is pSJ38.

(0227] The binary vector constructs were elcctroporated into Agrobacterium twnefaciens strain AGL1 and transformed colonies selected on media containing 100 mg L kanaroycin and 5 mg/L rifampicin. Transient expression in N. benthamkma leaves was carried out essentially as described in Wood et al., (2009). Agrobacterial cultures were used at an optical density (A«o) of 0.4. They were mixed with an Agrobacterium strain pOV3101 containing a T-DNA for expression of the P19 viral sUenctng suppressor, included to reduce smalt RNA-induced gene silencing following transient introduction of the T-DNAs into the leaf tissue and thereby increasing the expression level and persistence of the transgenes. Each gene was under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. Mixtures of the Agrobacterium cells were infiltrated into the underside of the top three fully expanded leaves of five week old iV. benthamiana plants grown at 24°C in a 1678 light dark cycle. Leaves were harvested after five days and freeze dried.

[0228] The BO content of the inoculated leaf samples was assayed as follows. Firstly, dried leaf samples were ground to a powder and a crude cell wall preparation was made from 20 mg of ground leaf material by heating it for 30 min at 80°C in 1.8 ml of 80% ethanol in a 2 ml tube with mixing. Each supernatant was removed after centrifugation at 10,000 pm for 5 min and the pelleted residue was re-extracted in the same volume of 80% ethanol at 80°C for 10 min. After csntrifugation, the pellet was washed at room teinperature for 10 min in 50% ethanol with a final 5 min wash in 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 6.5. The pellet was resuspended in 0.S ml of the same buffer and material was solubilised by heating at 90°C for 30 min with mixing. The sample was cooled to 50°C and BG was assayed with a Megazyme kit Briefly, the sample was incubated for 2 br with 20 μΐ (1 U) lichenase (Megazyme) to digest the BG, centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 5 min and a sample was removed for BO assay by further digestion with β-glucosidase. The released glucose was quantitated spectrophotometrically against glucose standards as described in the Megazyme kit protocol.

[0229] I cotyledonous plants do not oniinarily make BG so the presence of BG in the JV. benthamiana leaves was also assayed by FACE detection of the released oligosaccharides in the lichenase digests (O'Shea etaL, 1998). Lichenase cleaves only at a (1,4>^D-ghicosidic linkage following a (U>^D-ghicosidic linkage, releasing oUgosaccharides with a degree of polymerisation (DP) of mainly DP3 and DP4 (G 4 G 3 G and G 4 G 4 G 3 G,) from BG (Lazaridou and Bil aderis, 2007). To determine the proportion of DP3 and DP4 ougosaccharides released by lichenase digestion, and thereby the DP3:DP4 ratio, 100 μΐ samples prepared as described in me previous paragraph but without the ^glucosidase digestion were dried in a Speedivac and the oUgosaccharides in each sample fluorescently labelled by reductive amination with 8- amino-1 ^oijyrenetrisulfcttic acid (APTS). The labeled products were men separated by fiuorophore^ssisted ^Uary electrophoresis (FACE) with laser induced fluorescence detection as described by O'Shea et al., (1998). The advantage of mis method was that each oligosaccharide had a single fmorophore attached and the signal response from the detector was therefore independent of the oligosaccharide length, unlike in HPAEC methods with a pulsed amperonietric detector where each oligosaccharide had a dififerent response factor dependin on the length. By this method, the oligosaccharides were readily quantitated.

[0230] In several iiKlependertt experiments, the construct encoding the barley CslF6 protein directed the synthesis of considerable amounts of BG as measured by the Megazyme assay (Tables 8 and 9). In contrast, BG was not detected when constructs for expression of any of the cereal CalP polypeptides other than CslF6 were introduced Control leaves always showed zero levels of BG in the Megazyme assay and no BG derived oligosaccharides (i.e. DP3 and DP4) could be detected after lichenase digestion or FACE analysis. In contrast, very small amounts of DP3 and DP4 otigosacchartdes were detected from expression of the barley Cs1H coding sequence in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves but this was below the limit of detection by the Megazyme assay. To detect these oligosaccharides it was also necessary to concentrate the lichenase digest on graphinzed carbon SPE cartridges before fluorophore labeling and FACE analysts. Example 7. Protection of truitgeak wheat plants overexpreuing the barley CsIF gem* fa developing endosperm.

HvCslF9 vector construction

[0231] The full length coding region for HvCslF flora the pCR2.1 TOPO vector was inserted as an EcoRV-Kpnl fragment into the BamW-Kpnl site of pZLBxl7CasN after treatment of the BamVBL she with D A polymerase I- lenow fiagtnen The resultant plasmid was designated pSJ2. This introduced EcoRl sites between the Bxl7 promoter and nosV ends which were used for former cloning. The jfcoRI HvCslF9 fragment of pSJ2 was excised and the vector religated to create pSJ5. This expression vector thereby had a 1.9 Id) fragment comprising a high molecular weight gjutenin Bxl7 promoter and a nopaline synthase polyadenylation region/terminator (nosV) flanking a multiple cloning site (MCS), thus providing the regulatory regions for expression of any protein coding region in the developing endosperm of wheat The MCS had BanA Smal, KprH, Sacl and AflW sites. The Bxl7 promoter is preferentially expressed and confers high level expression in developing endosperm tissue in cereals such as wheat ( eddy & Appels 1993). The expression cassette was flanked by Xba\, HinSUl and No restriction sites so the entire cassette could be excised and inserted into other vectors.

HvCslF6 vector construction

[0232] The full length barley HvCslF6 coding region including the T7 epitope tag at theN-ternnnus was excised from the pCRBluntll TOPO vector as an EcoRl fragment and inserted into the EcoRl site of plasmid pSJ5. The resultant plasmid with the T7- HvCslF6 coding region was designated pSJ33.

HvCslF4-T7 vector construction

[0233] The DNA region encoding HvCsl 4 with the N-termmal T7 tag was excised from the pCR2.1 TOPO vector as an ΑβΙ fragment and inserted into the same site of pSJ5 to create pSJll. HvCslF7 vector construction

[0234] The foil length coding region for HvCslF7 was excised from the pCRllTOPO vector as an £coRI fragment and closed into the JEeoRl site o pSJ2 to create pSJ3.

[0235] Ήκ length of each of the encoded polypeptides was as detailed in Table 10.

Production of transgenic wheat plants overexpressing HvCslF4, F6, F7 andF9

[0236] Each of the constructs for expression of the bailey CsIF proteins were used to produce transformed wheat plants of the cuttivar Bob White 26 using the biolistic method (PeUcgrineschi ei al 2002) with 50 mg L 0418 as the selection agent, as described above for the HvCslfl construct For example, the HvCslF6 expression vector pSJ33 and a second plasmid with the CaMV 3SS promoter driving expression of the ΝΡΤΠ selectable marker (pCMSl * SL2neo) were mixed in eqirimolar amounts and co-bombarded into immature wheat embryos. Regenerated plants were screened for the presence of the transgenes by extracting DNA from young leaf tissue using the RedExtract-N-Amp™ kit (Sigma) and perfonning PCR reactions on the DNA preparations using a gene specific and a vector specific primer pair, followed by electrophoresis of the products on agarose gels. The appearance of the following sized sized DNA fragments on the gels indicated the presence of the transgene in the plants:

Transgene 5* primer 3' primer size(basepairs)

HvCslF4T7 SJ244 SJ81 599

HvCslF6T7 SJ242 nosR 268

HvCslF7 SJ123 nosR 680

HvCslF9 SJ217 nosR 289

Example 8. Analysis of transgenic wheat plants comprising HvCslF am *

Expression analysis of HvCslF transgenes in wheat by real time-PCR

[0237] In order to measure the expression level of the HvCslF transgenes in the transformed wheat lines, total RNA was isolated from three developing grains from each plant, collected approximately 15 days post anmesis (DPA). The RNA preparations were DNAse treated to remove any contaminating DNA, and RNA samples reverse transcribed with Superscript HI according to the manufacturer's instructions (Invitrogen). PCR reactions were performed using Platinum Taq DNA polymerase. The cDNA was diluted and used in PCR reactions at a levei equivalent to 1 ng of original RNA per microlitre. Quantitative Real time PCR was performed on triplicate samples on a Rotorgeneo OO machine using Platinum Taq, SybrGreen and primers SJ242 and SJ77 (Table 1) for the HvCslF6 transgene and HvTUBF and HvTUBR primers for the endogenous alriha-tubuhn reference gene (Accession number Y0840) and an annealing temperature of 60° . Expression levels of the gene encoding HvCslF6 were calculated using the machine software and compared to the level of expression of the alpha-tubulin gene in the same sample. Cycling conditions were denaturation at 95°C for 15 sec followed by 45 cycles of 94°C for 20 sec, 60°C for 20 sec, and 72°C for 30 sec using Platinum Taq polymerase (Envitrogen Cat No. 10966-034) according to the manuractnrer's instructions.

[0238] The 3' primer that was used in these PCR reactions (SJ77) was specific for the HvCslF6 transgene because it corresponded to a region in the 3' untranslated region of the transgene which was not conserved between wheat and barley, and therefore did not anneal to the endogenous wheat CslF6 genes or transcripts. Thus, any amplification products generated in the Real time PCR and therefore the output signals were specific for the transgene.

[0239] Fifteen, five and four PCR positive TO wheat plants were obtained which were transformed with the HvCslF9, HvCslF4T7 and HvCslF7 constructs, respectively. Real time PCR of the HvCslF9 plants with primer pair SJ97 and SJ93, demonstrated that five of them were expressing the HvCslF9 transgene at high levels (2,000 to 10,000 times that of a PCR negative plant) in the developing endosperm at approximately 15 DPA. This expression level was stable in the T2 generation, but homozygous plants at the T3 generation had silenced the transgene and expression was at background levels. Analysis of BG content of single grains from any generation did not show any increase compared to the control or PCR negative lines. Similarly, the BG content of grain fiom HvCslF4T7 and HvCslF7 PCR positive lines showed no differences fiom the controls and these lines were not studied any further, nor were expression levels of the transgenes detennined.

Generation of wheat plants expressing HvCslF6 in th grain

[0240] The full length barley HvCslF6 coding region with the T7 epitope tag at the N-terrainus (HvCslF6_277-77_23) in pSJ33 was used to transform Bob White 26 wheat plants using the bioHstics method The HvCslF6 expression vector pSJ33 and a second plasmid with the Ca V 35S promoter driving expression of too ΝΡΤΠ selectable matter (pCMSTSL2nco) were mixed in equimolar amounts and co- bombarded into immature wheat embryos. Transgenic plants were screened for the presence of the transgene using young leaf tissue and the Redl&tractnAmp™ kit (Sigma) and primers SJ242 and nosR. Five plants were confirmed to be transgenic by PGR for the Hv(^F6½n<x>d-ng transgene and the JVP77/ gene and were grown in the glasshouse to maturity along with PCR negative control plants from the tramformation process. Corm^ementary DNA was made from pooled Tl grain sampled at approximately 15 days post anthesis (DPA) and expression of the transgene was monitored by real time PCR and compared to the level ofbeta-tubulin. The endogenous wheat CsIF6 gene expresses at about 0.005 the level ofbeta-tubulin and three of the primary transf rmants showed significantly increased levels of the HvCslF6 mRNA at I.S2, 0.92 and 022 that of tubulin (hne F6-1, F6-6 and F6-21 respectively).

[0241] Analysis of the BO content in the Tl wheat grains was determined as described in Example 1 and expressed as a weight percentage (w/w) of the milled whole grain flour from the grain. That is 1% (w w) was equivalent to 10 mg of BG per gram of material.

[0242] The BG content of single mature Tl grains showed that the PCR negative controls (i.e. equivalent to wild-type) and line F6-21 had BG levels of about 0.9% (w/w) whereas line F6-6 had increased levels up to about 1.7%. Moreover, six out of seven grains from line F6-1 had more than 3% BG up to a maximum of about 4.1%.

[0243] A total of 24 Tl grains from lines F6-1, ¥6-6 and F6-21 were germinated and tested for the presence of the HvCslF6 transgene by PCR and grown as before in the glasshouse. Monitoring of transgene expression at mid maturity of T2 grain showed that line F6-21 no longer expressed the HvCslF6 gene whereas line ¥6-6 showed slightly decreased expression at 0.12-f ld relative to that of tubulin. Most grains from line F6-1 had high levels of HvCsDF6 expression at about 0.2- 1.39-fold relative to tubulin, although some lines (for example, F6-1CI, F6-1D3 and F6-I 2) showed much lower levels of HvCslF6 expression (Figure 6, numbers in brackets). It was noted that the transgene was still segregating in these lines. Both F6-1 and F6-6 showed an approximate 3:1 segregation ratio, and as only three grain were pooled to make cDNA, the expression levels were only an approximation of the expression level of the homozygous state. Analysis of the BO levels in mature single T2 grains from these plants did indeed show that most lines woe still segregating with some grain having BG contents close to that of the PC negative lines F6-1D1 and F6-1D2 (Figure 6). In general, those lines that had high levels of HvCslF6 expression had the highest level of BG; F6-6 " lines generally had lower expression than F6-1 lines and these had significantly higher BO levels with many having more than 4¼ BG and for line F6-1K5 all five grains had BG between 4.4 and a maximum of 5.5%.

(1244] In order to get homozygous hoes expressing the transgene, between 5 and 10 T2 grains from each of twelve F6-1 and one F6-6 Tl plants were germinated, PCR tested and grown in the glasshouse. Transgene expression at mid grain development and the BG content of mature grain was assayed. Expression of the HvCslF6 transgene appeared to be stable as most of the lines continued to show high levels of expression, similar to or higher wan the expression level of the endogenous tubulin gene. The BG content in the T3 grain of most of these T2 plants was between 3% and 5%, with an occasional grain showing BG of greater than 5% (Figure 7). Most of these lines appeared to be still segregating as some grains had BG levels similar to four negative PCR lines. However, lines F6-1G6.2, F6-1G6.8 and F6-1D4.4 potentially were homozygous as all grain had high BG (Figure 7) Again, F6-1 lines had higher mRNA levels and BG levels man F6- lines.

Phenofypic appearance of grai is altered in same lines expressing HvCslF6 at high levels

[0245] The original TO plants had relatively poor seed set and reduced grain size as the plants were flowering at die hottest time of the year in the glasshouse although this was most obvious in those lines that showed expression of the transgene encoding HvCslF6. Many of the mature grains from plant F6-1 exhibited a reduced size and wrinkled appearance. This was most obvious for plant F6-1 and was also observed in many but not all high BG progeny of subsequent gerierations. All T3 grain of T2 plants F6-1D4.4 and F6-1G6.8 had a both a high BG content and a wrinkled and shrunken appearance whereas line F6-1G6.4 which was still segregating for low and high BG appeared inorphologicaUy normal, likewise the grain from the negative segregant line F6-1K3.2 which had wild-type levels of BG. The F -6 grains and its progeny grains were not wrinkled or shrunken in morphology and the BG level in these grains was not as high as in F6-1 lines. Mature grain of negative segregants all had a normal appearance suggesting that the shrunken phenotype was linked to the HvCsIF6 transgene in the F6-1 lines. The BG structure was altered in the high BG HvCslF6 lines

[0246] Hie fine structure of die BO was examined by lichenase digestion and fluorescent labelling of the oligosaccharides followed by separation by capillary electrophoresis. Lichenase digestion of wheat flour BG released oUgosaccharidee of mainly DP3 and DP4 (G 4 O3O and G 4 G G3G), respectively with smaller amounts of longer oligosaccharides up to DP . Calculating die molar ratio of the DP3 and DP4 peaks indicated that BG from an endosperm flour from wild-type wheat had a DP3 DP4 ratio of 2.5 which was slightly lower than mat of the barley standard flour from Megazyme, while as expected, a wholegrain flour from oats had a lower ratio of 1.8. hi (he transgenic HvCslF6 wheat T2 single grain flours, the control negative segregants had a ratio of between 2.5 and 3, the same as the wild-type. However in those lines with increased BG levels, mis ratio decreased to less man 2 in some cases (Table 9). Analysis of pooled (ten grains) flour from homozygous HvCslF6 wheat 13 lines clearly d^rnomtrated mat the high BG lines had low DP3 DP4 ratios, as low as 1.67 (Table 9), which was even lower than that of oat BG. Tins compared to the average DP3 DP4 ratio of 2.49 in the negative segregants and indicated mat the BG structure was significantly different in the high BG lines.

Selection of less shrunken grain with increased BG levels

[0247] As noted before, grains of several of the homozygous HvCslF6 lines having high BG contents were shrunken and morphologically abnormal. As these were all derived from a single transformed line F6-1, further transfonnation experiments were undertaken with plasmid pSJ33 to detennine if it was possible to get non-shrunken, normal grains having elevated levels of BG. Twenty nine new TO HvCslF6 plants were generated of which fourteen showed inm'vidual Tl grains with increased BO content. While most high BG lines had lower man average grain weight, it was possible to obtain some high BG lines with high average grain weights e.g lines F6- 87, F6-89 and F6-106 (Figure 8). The maximum BG content of a single grain was 5.9% from line F6-90, 5.7% from F6-103 and 4.7% from line F6-87. These results demonstratod that it was possible to produce wheat grains containing high levels of BG and having a non-shrunken morphology. Example 9. Oraing•fCsEK genet from other specks.

Wheat CslF6

[0248] Two sequences were identified m available databases which encoded partial- length polypeptides which had similarity to barley CslF6, namely the ESTs TC275889 which appealed to include the 5 ' end of a wheat CslF6 and TC250370 which appeared to include the 3 * end of a wheat CslF6. To isolate a full-length wheat sequence, total RNA was isolated from seedling tissue of plants of wheat cultivar Westonia using the RNAeasy kit (Qiagen). The RNA was treated with RNAse-free DNAse (Ambion) before cDN A synthesis. A 3'RACE library was made from the RNA using a Clontech SMART cDNA kit according to the inanufacturer's instructions. The cDNA was men diluted to 100 microlitres with Tricine-EDTA and stored at 4°C. Subsequent PCR reactions were performed with Advantage 2 polymerase (Clontech) according to the mamifacturer's instructions using the universal primer mix (UP ) and gene specific primer SJ113. The temperature cycling conditions were: denaturation for 1 min at 94 e C, then 35 cycles of 9 °C for 30 sec, 30sec at 55°C and T C for 2 min followed by a 5 min extension at 72°C. The resultant PCR reaction mixture was diluted 100- fold and used as template in a nested PCR using the nested universal primer (NUP) and a second internal gene specific primer (SJ123) with cycling conditions: denaturation for 1 min at 94°C, then 30 cycles of 94°C for 30 sec, 30sec at S8°C and 72°C for 90 sec followed by a 5 min extension at 72°C.

[0249] Several 3* RACE amplification products of about 800 bp were gel purified using an IUiistra (GE Healthcare) kit and cloned into the pCR2.1 TOPO T/A cloning vector and sequenced. Three different sequence types were obtained. These were presumed to correspond to the transcripts from each of the three wheat genomes (A, B and D). An antisense primer (SJ156) was designed in the 3'untranslated region mat would match all three ty es and was used with a 5 'primer (SJ162) to amplify cDNAs inchiding the fulMength protein coding regions conesponding to the transcripts for each of the three wheat genomes.

[02510 Five micrograms of seedling RNA was used to make cDNA using 10 pmol of the RoRidTl7 primer and Superscript ΠΙ reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen) for one hour at 50°C in a 20 microlitre reaction according to the nianufacturer's instructions. The cDNA was men diluted to 100 microlitres with Tricine EDTA and stored at 4°C. Full length cDNAs were amplified from first strand seedling cDNA using Phusion very high fidelity proofreading TaqPolyraerase from Finnzymes (now available from NEB). One microlitre of diluted cDNA was amplified with primers SJ162 and SJ156 or SJ274 and SJ156 or SJ277 and 8J156 in 20 mi rolitre PCR reactions with OC buffer and 3% (w v) DMSO according to the manufacturer's instructions. Cycling conditions were: 98°C for 30 sec, followed by 35 cycles of 98°C for 7 sec, 15 sec at 63°C and 72°C for 2 min followed by a 5 min extension at 72°C. PCR products around 3 kb in size were separated on a l.Ott TBE agarose gel, gel purified and cloned into the pCRBluntfl II TOPO cloning vector and sequenced Three clones named TaCslF6_277-156_23, TaCsIF6_277-325J8 and TaCelF6_274-156_10 each contained an intact open reading frame encoding a wheat CslF6 polypeptide and corresponded to the CslF6 genes from the three wheat genomes. Their nucleotide sequences are given in SEQ ID NOs: 12-14 and the amino acid sequences in SEQ ID NOs: 18-20. They were used in functional expression studies in N. b nlhamiana end transgenic plants (below).

Oat slF6

[0251] No sequences of oat CslF genes were identified in publically available databases so the genes were cloned using primers to conserved regions as follows. This used 5 * and 3 * RACE as well as conventional PCR. On the likelihood that CslF6 would be expressed in leaf tissue of oat seedlings, total RNA was isolated from the 2 cm regions of leaf tips of 12 day old oat seedlings (cultivar Matika) as well as whole 6-7 day old whole seedlings using RNAeasy columns (Qiagen) according to die maniiiacturer's instructions. The preparation was done without DNase treatment Five nucTOgrams of each RNA preparation was used to make cDNA using 10 prool of the RoRidT17 primer and Superscript ΙΠ reverse transcriptase in a20ul reaction. This involved annealing the primer with RNA at 70°C for 10 min, cooling on ice before adding the remaining reagents and incubating at 50°C tor one hour. The reaction was terminated by heating at 70°C for 10 min and me RNA template was degraded with 1.5 units of RNAseH at room temperature for 20 min. The cDNA was heated again at 70°C for 10 min and then diluted to ΙΟΟμΙ with TE pH 8 and stored at 4°C.

[0252] PCR was performed with GoTaq polymerase (Promega) using one microlitre of oat seedling cDNA in a 20ul PCR reaction, lx colourless buffer, 5 pmols of each primer, 0.2 mM dNTPs, 1.5 mM MgCfe and cycling conditions: denaturation for 2 nun at 9S°C, then 35 cycles of 95°Cfor 30 sec, 30 sec at 5S°C and 72°C for 2 min followed by a 5 min extension at 72°C Primer pair SJ17 and SJ37 amplified several fragments around one kb in size as analysed by electrophoresis in a 1.0% TBE agarose gel These fragments were gd puriikd and cloned into the pCRli TOPO T/A ckming vector and sequenced. One PGR product had a nucleotide sequence of 983 bp which had homology to wheat CslFtS. From the region of homology, the sequence spanned the second and third exons of the oat CslF6 gene.

0253] This sequence was extended using 5' and 3 'RACE in order to clone a full- length oat CslF6 cDNA. The 5' and 3' RACE cDNA libraries were made from a mixture of RNAs from the leaf tip and seedling in a ten microlitre reaction using a Clontech SMART cDNA lot according to the inanufacturcr's mstructions. The cDNA was men diluted to lOOuL with ricine-BDTA and stored at 4°C. Subsequent PCR reactions were performed with Advantage 2 polymerase (Clontech) according to the manufacturer's insdrotions using the universal primer mix (UPM) and a gene specific primer. Cycling conditions were: denaturation for 2 min at 95°C, then 35 cycles of 94°C for 30 sec.30sec at 60°C and 72°C for 90 sec followed by a 10 min extension at 72°C. The resultant PCR mixture was diluted 100-fold and used as template in a nested PCR with the nested universal primer (NUP) and a second internal gene specific primer with cycling conditions: denaturation for 10 min at 95°C, then 35 cycles of 94°C for 25 sec, 30sec at 57°C and 72°C for 2 min followed by a 5 min extension at 72°C.

[0254] Alignment of the foil length CslF6 cDNAs from barley, wheat and rice identified several regions which were conserved and sense and antisense primers, some degenerate, were designed to these regions. For 3'RACE, PCR with primer pairs SJ113-UPM and nested PCR with SJ123- UP enabled amplification of an oat CslF6 3* RACE product of about 1000 bp in length. For 5 * RACE, the same PCR (ionditions were used with primer pairs SJ37-UPM and nested PCR with SJ19-NUP. This enabled amplification of an oat CslF6 5' RACE product of about 600 bp in length. This RACE product did not contain the 5 * end of the oat gene so additional rounds of 5'RACE were performed with new antisense primers designed specifically to the SJ19-NUP amplified fragment Nested PCR with primers SJ265-UPM and SJ270-NUP extended the sequence to within approximately 30 bp of the predicted ATG methionine start of the full length gene. An additional antisense primer SJ272 was designed closer to the 5 * end but mis foiled to extend the sequence any further despite repeated attempts. It was noted that the 5' region of the oat CslF6 gene was extremely QC rich and mis was thought likely to produce significant secondary structure which could interfere with the extension of the Taq polymerase through this region. The 5'RACE procedure was repeated but with the inclusion of 3% DMSO to try and reduce the effect of the GC rich secondary structure. Additionally, the initial PCR protocol was modified by using a two-step PCR at a high annealiiig/extetiskMi temperature. PCR was performed whh primer pair SJ265-UPM and cycling conditions: denaturation for 2 coin at 9S°C, seven cycles of 94°C for 25 sec and 2 min at 72°C then 32 cycles of 94°C for 25 sec and 67°C for 2 min followed by a 7 nun extension at 67°C. Nested PCR was performed with primer pair SJ272-NUP with 3% DMSO and cycling conditions of denaturation for 1 nun at 94°C, then 35 cycles of 94°C for 25 sec, 25sec at 6O°C and 72°C for 1 min followed by a 5 min extension at 72°C. Sequencing of the cloned PCR products showed that these donee contained the 5' end of the oat CslF6 gene as stop codons were present upstream of the predicted initiating ATO inettuonine codon. The longest clone had more than 370 bp of the 5' untranslated leader sequence. Cloned PCR products contained sequences of the CslF6 gene from the three oat genomes. Shortly after identifying the foil length oat CslF6 gene, a partial length oat CslF6 cDNA sequence was deposited in Genbank. This sequence (Accession number ACX85725) encodes a polypeptide of 891 amino acids and is missing 53 amino acids from the true N^erminus of the protein, further demonstrating the difficulty in isolating a full length oat CslF6 gene due to the very GC rich nature of the 5' end of the gene which was 73-75% GC in a region of more than 300 bp.

[0255] Based on this 5' sequence, new primers were designed to the sequence surrounding the initiating metmonine codon, namely SJ116 and SJ277, the latter primer including an additional 33 bases encoding the 11 amino acid T7epitope tag MASMTGGQQMG immediately upstream of me ATG. These were used with a primer in the 3' untranslated region (SJ243) to amplify approximately 3 kb cDNAs containing the full-length oat CslF6 open reading frame of either 943 or 944 amino acids. The oat seedling cDNAs were amplified using Advantage 2 polymerase (Ckmtech) according to the inanuferturer's instructions with 3% DMSO and cycling conditions of denaturation for 2 min at 94°C, then 35 cycles of 94°C for 25 sec, 25 sec at 58*C and 72°C for 3 nun followed by a 5 min extension at 72°C. PCR products around 3 kb in size were separated on a 1.0% TBE agarose gel, gel purified and cloned into the pCR2.1 TOPO T/A cloning vector and sequenced. Several of the full length cDNAs appeared to contain PCR4ntroduced single base changes. Therefore additional foil length cDNAs were amplified from first strand seedling cDNA using the Phusion TaqPolymerase. One microlrtre of diluted seedling cDNA was amplified with primers SJ277 and SJ243 in a 20uL PGR reaction with HF buffer and 3% (w v) DMSO accenting to the inanufacturer's mstraetions with cycling carnations of 98°C for 30 sec, followed by 30 cycles of 98°C for 7 sec, 15 sec at 63°C and 72°C for 1 mm followed by a 5 min extension at 72°C. Inclusion of DMSO improved both the yield and specificity of the reaction products. PCR products of about 3 kb in size were separated on a 1.0% TBE agarose gel, gel purified and cloned into the pCRfihmtll 11 TOPO cloning vector and sequenced. Two sequenced clones designated AsCslF6_277-243_28 and AsCsIF6_277-243_29 each contained an intact open reading frame and were subsequently shown by transient expression in Nlcoiiana b nthami na leaves to encode functional Csl polypeptides (see below).

[0256] The sequences of all the cloned oat CsiF6 fragments were manually aligned in the Bioedit software program. Three consensus cDNA sequences were produced ∞nrespo«dmg to the three genome variants of the hexaploid oat genome and these were designated as AsCslF6-l t AsCslF6-2 and AsCslF6-3. Each cDNA had a long open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 944, 943 and 944 amino acids, respectively. The AsCslF6-2 protein sequence had a deletion of one amino acid relative to the other two, approximately 20 amino acids from the N-terminus within the signal peptide domain.

[0257] A full length genomic clone of AsCslF6 was isolated as follows. Genomic D A was isolated from seedling tissue using a CTAB method (Murray and Thompson, 1980). Approximately 100 ng of diluted genomic DNA was used as template DNA in a 20ul amplifkatton reaction with Phusion polymerase, primers SJ274 and SJ243, HF buffer and 3% (w/v) DMSO according to the manufacturer's instructions with cycling conditions of 98°C for 30 sec, followed by 35 cycles of 98°C for 7 sec, 15 sec at 63°C and 72°C for 2 min followed by a 5 nun extension at 72°C. The largest PCR product of about 5.2 kb in size was separated on a 1.0% TBE agarose gel, gel purified and cloned into the pCRBhmtD Π TOPO cloning vector and sequenced. One clone designated AsCs!F6_274-243_l 1 was sequenced it contained a sequence of S244 bp. Cornparison with the cDNA sequences showed (hat there were two introns in the gene, the first of 1627 nucleotides and the second of 691 nucleotides. The nucleotide sequence of the exons was identical to the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA from AsCslF6-2. The nucleotide sequences and encoded amino acid sequences for the oat genes are given in SEQ ID NOs: 51-57. Rice (Oryzae sativa)

[0258] UNA was isolated from approximately 100 mg tissue from one week old seedlings of Oryzae sativa cv. Nipponbare using a Nuckospin RNA Plant extraction, kit according to the manufacturer's instructions (Macherey-Nagel). Five micrograms of RNA, without D Ase treatment, was reverse transcribed in a 20μ1 reaction for one hour at 55°C using 5 pmol of the RoRidTl 7 primer and a rice gene specific 3* primer SJ321 with Siiperscript III reverse tianscriptase. Following heat inactivation at 70°C for IS mm, me RNA strands were removed by digestion for 15 minutes at 37°C with 1.5 units of RNAseH. The reaction was diluted with TE to lOOui One microlitre of this diluted seedling cDN A was amplified with Phusion polymerase, primers SJ69 and SJ324 with IIP buffer and 7% (w/v) DMSO with cycling conditions of 98°C for 30 sec, followed by 35 cycles of 98°C for 10 sec, 15 sec at 62°C and 72°C for 90 sees followed by a 5 min extension at 72°C. Inclusion of at least 5% DMSO was essential for specific amplification as no full length PGR. product was formed with even 3% DMSO. Optimum amplification occurred with DMSO concentration of between 7 and 10% (w/v). PCR products of about 3 kb in size were separated on a 1.0% TBE agarose gel, gel purified and cloned into the pCRBluntll II TOPO cloning vector and sequenced. One cDNA clone designated OsCslF6_69-324_l 5 was sequenced, its nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID No: 60) corresponded exactly to the sequence of the OsCslF6 gene in the published rice genome, and encoded a polypeptide having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 61.

Brachyp dlum distachyon

[0259] RNA was isolated from approximately 100 mg of tissue from one week old seedlings of Bractypodium distachyon BD21 using a Nucleospin RNA Plant extraction kit cDNA was prepared as described above for rice. Two nncrolhres of the seedling cDNA was used in a PCR with primers SJ116 and SJ357 or SJ277 and SJ357 using Phusion Hot Start polymerase. The PCR reaction including 7% (w v) DMSO with cycling conditions of 98°C for 30 sec, followed by 36 cycles of 98°C for 7 sec, 15 sec at 62°C and 72°C for 90 sees followed by a 5 min extension at 72°C. PCR products around 3 kb in size were separated on a 1.0% TBE agarose gel, gel purified and cloned into the pCRBluntll II TOPO cloning vector and sequenced. Two clones designated BdCslP6Jt6-357_l BdCsIF6_277-357_10 were sequenced. The nucleotide sequences conesponded exactly to the sequences of die BdCslF6 genes in the published genome sequence. One nucleotide sequence is given as SEQ ID NO: 58 ai i the polypepti(ic amino acid sequence as SEQ ID NO: 59.

Example 10. Assessing the functionality of sequences encoding wheat, oat, rice and Brachypodium CsI 6 protein by transient expression m Mcotisma b Hthem ruiht ng

[0260] The iunctioaality of the CslF6 coding regions fiom wheat, oat, rice and Brachypodium was initially assessed by transient expression of35S-driven constructs in Nicotiana bentharoiana leaves and analysis of the BO content in cell wall fractions from the leaves. The methods used were as described in Examples 1 and 6.

[0261] The constructs made and used are listed in Table 10. The presence of BO in the N. benthamiana leaves following the transient expression of the chimeric CslF6 genes was also assayed by lichenase digestion of the erode cell wall preparations and detection of the released oligosaccharides by FACE (0*Shea et a!., 1998).

[0262] In several independent experiments, the constructs encoding the wheat, oat, rice and Brachypodium CslF6 protein directed the synthesis of significant amounts of BG as raeasured by the Megazyme assay (Tables 11 and 12). These chimeric genes were also compared to the barley CslF6 gene.

[0263] The amount of BG produced varied somewhat between experiments with the genes encoding the oat CslF6 proteins producing the least amount The amount of BO produced in these transient assays did not correlate well with the BO levels in the corresponding grain, for example rice grain has low endogenous levels of about 0.02%, yet the chimeric gene was efficient at BG synthesis, while Brachypodium has relatively high levels of around 40% (Guillon et al., 2011) but the gene was only slightly more efficient man the others in producing BG. Therefore, the amounts observed in the transient assays (Table 12) may have reflected the efficiency of transcription and/or translation of me messenger RNA fiom each chimeric gene. Closer examination of the oat CslF6 sequences cloned in the plasmids revealed, however, that these PCR products were from more than one oat genome (pSJ79) or had one PCR error (pSJ78, which changes an amino acid C to Y at position 445) compared to the consensus sequences and that this may have an effect on the amount of BG produced. [0264] The addition of the T7 epitope tag at the N-tenninus of the wheat and Brachypodium CslF6 proteins had no apparent effect on activity of the proteins.

[0265] ft was clear that the CslF6 gene from each species produced a BG with a particular structure as evidenced by the different DP3 DP4 oligosaccharide ratios. Brachypodium CslF6 produced BG with the highest DP3/DP4 ratio (1.6 - 1.7), followed by wheat (1.5 - 1.6) then barley (1.37) whereas oat and rice both produce BG with very lowDP3/DP4 ratios of about 1.0. The capillary electrophoresis system used to analyse these oligosaccharides was both very sensitive and accurate (see standard deviations in Table 12) giving high confidence that each chimeric CslF6 transgene produced a BG with a distinct DP3/DP4 ratio.

[0266] The DP3/DP4 ratios of the BG produced in N. benthamiana leaves were also well below those of native BG found in cereal grains. By the FACE analysis, barley and wheat enzymes yielded BG having a DP3/DP4 ratio of 2.55, the oat enzyme produced BG having a significantly lower ratio of about 1.9, whereas the Brachypodium enzyme produced BG having a high DP3 DP4 ratio of about 8.0. A large survey of BG structure studies has shown a typical range of DP3/DP4 ratio 1.7- 3.8 in barley, wheat and oats (Lazaridou and Biiiadcris, 2007). Some studies have shown DP3 DP4 ratios outside of this range and this can be affected by the method of analysis (eg HPLC, HPAEC or FACE), calculation of molar ratios, differences in the detection response of oligosaccharides of different lengths or whether whole grain or suhfractions (eg bran or white flour) were used as well as the extraction methods used (water, alkali temperature etc) in the analysis.

[0267] The inventors considered that the large observed differences in fine structure of the BG produced from each CslF6 gene in the N. benthamiana leaf would affect die physical properties of the polymer considerably, in particular the viscosity and solubility. There is evidence that consecutive runs of ceDotriosyl units causes helices or junction zones to form between polymer chains resulting in aggregation and insolubility (Tosh et al, 2004). Oat grain BG was more soluble than barley grain BG under the extraction conditions used (enzyme inactivation at 80°C in 80% ethanol for one hour followed by extraction in 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) for 2 hours at 37°C). Approximately 50% and 27% of the wild-type oat and barley grain BG was extractable, respectively, whereas little (2-5%) wheat grain BG or Brachypodium grain BG was soluble under the same conditions. There was an inverse relationship between the DP3/DP4 ratio and BG solubility i.e. the most soluble BG had the lowest DP3 DP4 ratio. The order of solubility of BG produced in M benthamiana leaves from expression of the difierent CslF6 genes was the same as the order observed in the wild-type grain BO (Figure 9). The Brachypodium CslF6 gene produced the least soluble BG and this had the highest DP3 DP4 ratio (1.6), the barley and wheat CslF6 genes had an intermediate solubility and DP3 DP4 ratios (1.4-1.5), whereas the oat and rice CslF6 genes produced the most warm water soluble BG and these had the lowest OP3 DP4 ratio of 1.0.

Example U. anlpnb-tkn of BG levels and structure in wheat grain by overexpresian ef CslF6 genet

[0268] The observation that different CsIF6 polypeptides could produce a BG with a distinct structure when expressed heterologously opened up the opportunity for manipulating the BG structure and amount in transgenic plants by over-expression of a chimeric gene for expression of a particular, selected CslF6.

Generation of -wheat plants expressing genetic constructs encoding oat AsCsIF6 in the grain

[0269] The full-length cDNA encoding oat CslF6 with the T7 epitope tag at the N- terminus (AsCslF6_277-243_29) and a full-length oat genomic coding region (AsCslF6_274j243_l 1) were each excised from the pCRBiuntll-based clones EcoRl fragments and inserted between a 1.9 kb fragment of the high molecular weight glutenin Bxl7 promoter and the nopaline synthase (nos3') poryadenylatk region transcription terminator to create genetic constructs pSJ127 and pSJ124, respectively. These constructs were used to transform immature embryos of Bob White 26 plants using the biolistics method. Transgenic plants were screened for the presence of the transgenes by extracting DNA from young leaf tissue using a RedExtractnAmp 1 * 4 kit (Sigma) and PCR reactions using printers SJ242 and nosR.

[0270] Twenty seven regenerated plants (TO plants) were confirmed to be transgenic for an AsCslF^-encoding transgene and were grown in the glasshouse to maturity along with a non4ransf rmed control plant (F6-121) from the transformation process. Complementary DNA was made from pooled, developing Tl grain sampled at approximately 15 days post anthesis (DPA) from each plant, and expression of the transgene in the developing grain monitored by Real-time PCR with primers SJ242 and SJ243. The transgene expression level in each transformed line was compared to the level of expression of an endogenous tubulin gene. Eleven of the primary transformants showed sigmficant levels of expression of the AsCslF6 transgene, in extent from about 0.01 -fold up to about 1.9-fbld relative to the level of tubulin gene expression (Table 13). Analysis of the BO content of wholemeal flour obtained from single mature grains from the transf nnant inii<ated that most of

had increased BG levels in the grain, up to about 4.4%. Que plant from the traosfonnation with pSJ124 contaiiiing the oat genomic AsCslF6 sequence showed expression of the transgene and increased BO levels (Table 13, last line). Hie grain weights of the grains expressing the AsCsIF6 construct were also measured and some high BG lines (F6-124, F6-133 and F6-139) had average grain weights equal to or greater man the PCR negative line F6-121 (Figure 8). The highest BG content of these single grains was from line F6-142 (4.4%) and line F6-139 (4.0%). In T2 grains, the AsCslF6 line F6-122.8 had an average BO content of 4.11% with an average grain size of 28 mg (Table 14). The level of (endogenous) BG in the non^ransformed control grains (F6-121) were 0.7-1.4% in this experiment

[9271] As expected, the Π grains appeared to be .segregating for both the transgene and the observed phenotype of the elevated BG content That is, the Tl grains were a mixture of homozygotes and heterozygotes for the transgene, or null segregants.

[0272] The fine structure of the BO in single seeds from two plants transformed with the AsCslF6 construct was examined by lichenase digestion and fluorescent labelling of the oligosaccharides followed by separation by capillary electrophoresis. Figure 10 shows the observed DP3/DP4 ratios. The wheat seed designated F6-142d had both a normal BO level (1.0%) and structure (DP3 DP4 ratio of 2.5), similar to that of me non-transformed control; it was a null segregant. In contrast, other grains from F6-142 had a BG content of at least 4%. In those grains, the DP3 DP4 ratio had decreased drarnatkally to as low as about 1.30. A wheat BG, with such a low DP3 DP4 ratio has never been reported previously.

[0273] Seeds from two AsCslF6 plants (F6-122 and F6-124) were sown and the resultant plants were grown in the glasshouse. AsCslF6-PCR positive lines were grown to maturity. Ten T2 grains from several of the progeny plants were pooled and each pool ground to a flour. The BG content and DP3/DP4 ratio was determined for each pool (Table 14). All pools showed a high BG content, up to about 4.11%, and low DP3/DP4 ratios of about 1.4 to 1.5 which was significantly lower than the wild type barley control flour provided with the Megazymc kit (Table 14). This demonstrated mat the high BG trait was stably inherited. Example 12. S*kOii t «f the BG fi^ traafgodcwfaMt grains

[0274] There are several methods described in the literature for deten iiing BO solubility, some involving water extraction and some with other aqueous solvents such as containing sodium carbonate or atta!i solutions, hi addition different temperatures and times of extraction can be used, either with or without refluxing in ethanolic solutions at high tenroerature. The different methods don't all give the same solubility values. It was therefore important to define the sohMisauon conditions for meaningful measurements to be made. The method used for detenmmng BO solubility of grain samples in the inventore' experiments was as follows. Each 100 mg sample of flour - in this case wholemeal flour ball nulled from pooled grain from each line - was heated at 80°C in 1.8 ml of 80% ethanol in a screw capped tube shaking at 1000 rpm for 1 hour in an Eppendorf ThernUMnixer (or similar). This step inactivated any endogenous enzymes which could otherwise breakdown polymeric cell wall material, while the ethanolic nature of the solvent prevented any polymers from being solubilised and removed. Mono* and di-saccharides and oligosaccharides would however be removed from the flour samples in this ethanolic treatment step. Following cenlrifugation at 10,000 g for 1 min and decantation of the supernatant, the pelleted flour was lesuspended in 1 ml of 20 roM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) and the suspensions incubated at 37°C for 2 hours with slMtking at 1000 rpm to extract water soluble components. The sample was spun at 10,000 g for 1 min and the supernatant carefully removed with a pipette and collected - this aqueous fraction contained the water-soluble (water-extractable) BG. The pellet containing the water- insoluble BO fraction was resuspended in 1 ml of the same buffer. Aliquots of both fractions, water-soluble and water-insoluble, were taken for assay of BO content using the scaled down Megazyme assay described above. Duplicate samples were assayed. Soluble and insoluble BO contents were calculated as a percentage of dry weight of the flour.

(0275] In wild-type barley and oat grain, a significant fraction of the BO content was reported to be water soluble whereas in wheat, little BO was soluble (Beresford and Stone, 1983). When measured without an ethanolic heat inactivation step, 80% of oat BO was soluble compared to 50% of barley BO, for about 21 different varieties, when solubilised in 38°C water for 2 hours (Aman and Graham, 1987). When measured by the inventors' method described above, water-soluble levels of 50% and 27% for r»n4ransformed oat (cuKivar MHika) and barley BO, respectively, were obtained. Therefore, the method used by Aman and Graham over-estimated the true water-soluble BO levels and the inventors* method using inactivation of endogenous enzymes by the ethanol treatment avoided that overastimation.

[0276] Using the assay method including a heat inactivatkm step (Example 1), about 7% of the BO in Die endosperm flour of control wheat of line H1-10B7.3 was water- soluble. Similar low levels of water-sohible BO were found in the endosperm flours of the homozygous transgenic HvCslH expressing lines H1-10B7.4, 7.6 and 1.9, although as a proportion this represented between 1 and 3% of the total BO in die endosperm flour. It was concluded that although the BO content increased significantly in the transgenic grain expressing the HvCs1H construct, the DP3/DP4 ratio of the BG and the proportion of water-soluble BO had not mcrcased. This conclusion was significant

[0277] In wild-type wheat wholegrain flour, less than about 5% of the BG content is water soluble - considering that about 0.6% to about 1% of the dry weight of wheat flour is BO, die amount of water soluble BO in wheat flour is very low. Furthermore, die BG assay which requires conversion of the BG to glucose, involves subtraction of background glucose values from the glucose released by β-glucosidase treatment of lichenase-derived BG oligosaccharides, so small variations in the background can compound the uncertainty of BG values at this very low level.

[0278] Table 15 shows the percentage solubility of the BO content of the flours from a number of transformed and control wheat grains. The control grain F6-1 3.2 had a BO content of 0.91% of which about 5% was soluble, similar to mat of PCR negative line F6-121 which had a slightly higher, but still low, percentage solubility. The insoluble BO from these grains had a normal DP3 DP4 ratio of 2.45 while the soluble BO had a lower ratio of around 2.15. Grain from homozygous transformed lines F6-1G6.1.8 and F6-1 5.9 had aslmaidcen appearaiiec and had a high BG content of around 4%. The percentage solubility of BO from these lines was similar to die controls even though both the insoluble and the soluble BO had a lower DP3/DP4 ratio man the controls (Table 15). Tl grain from HvCslF6 line F6-87 had a normal appearance and an increased BG content of about 3% with a low DP3 DP4 ratio of 2.1. This line showed an increased percentage of soluble BG to about 10% even though the DP3 DP4 ratio was similar to line F6-1 5.9. This could be explained by the increased ratio of endosperm BG to bran BG in this non shnmken grain as endosperm BG is known to be more soluble than bran BG (Izydorczyk and Dexter, 2008). In contrast, the AsCslF6 expressing lines exhibited an increased percentage of soluble BG, to at least 15% with the beat line having 18.3% soluble BO, In the next generation of the transgenic grain, milled flour from ten T2 pooled grains of lines F6- 124.1 and F6-124.2 had BG contents around 3.8% of which np to 20.55% was water soluble. These grains were not imiformly homozygous for die transgenes, so further increases in BG content are expected. Wheat grain with this level of soluble BG has never been reported before.

Example 13. Manipulation of BG levels and stractar* in wheat grate by #ver- expresstoa of chimeric genes cawodtaig rice OiCslTO and Jfaad^

[0279] As the rice OsCslF6 gene produced a BG in K betnhamiana leaves with a low DP3 DP4 ratio and the Brach podiunt BdCslF6 gene produced BG with the highest ratio of about 1.6, cUmeric genes encoding these enzymes were expressed in wheat endosperm to determine if further manipulation of BG levels or composition was possible. The full length OsCslF6 gene (OsCslF6_69~324__15) and the BdCslF6T7 gene (BdCslF6 _277-357_10) were excised from the pCRBluntll vector as EcoRS fragments and inserted between a 1.9 kb fragment of the high molecular weight gliitenin Bxl7 ptonioter and die nopalinc synthase tenninator to create plasmid pSJl48 and pSJ149 respectively. The promoter-CslF6 coding regions-nos tcrmiiuu polyadenylation region as expression cassettes were then cloned as No I fragments into the Nod site of the Agrobacterium vector pVecDRB to create plasmids pSJ151 and pSJ!52, respectively . These constructs were then used to tamsform wheat by Agrobacleri m- odifaed methods.

[0280] Transformed plants were selected on 0418 and plants were screened by PCR with primers SJ242 and nosR. BG content and DP3/DP4 ratio was determined on pooled Tl grain as described in the preceding examples and plants showing increased levels of BG were grown to obtain homozygous plants for further bulk up, grain compositional analysis and nutritional trials. The pooled Tl grain transfbrmed with the construcy expressing OsCsIF6 showed increased BG in 15 of 43 transfbrmed lines. One line showed 3.32% BG (w/w) on a dry weight basis, with a DP3/DP4 ratio in the range 1.66-1.75. In Tl grain transformed with the construct expressing BdCslF6T7, 2 of 54 transformed lines showed increased BG content, with one line showing 4.9% BG (w/w) on a dry weight basis.

Example 14. Analysis of dietary fibre levels in endosperm floor from HvCslH T4 grain and C*1F6 grain [0281] Total and soluble dietary fibre levels of endosperm flour were dcteirained by the Prosky AOAC Official method 991.43 (Lee etaL, 1992) with inii»rinodificatkms as described in Example 1. This method used high temperatures and thermostable starch hy<irolyswg and protease enzymes to simulate digestion of cooked foods in the human digestive tract Analysis of the control endosperm flour confirmed mat white flour had low levels of soluble and total dietary fibre at 0.7% and 2.4% of the dry weight (Table 6 In contrast and unexpectedly given that the solubility of the increased BG had not changed, all three transgenic HvCslH lines (HM0B7.4, 7.6 and 1.9) showed large increases in both soluble and total dietary fibre in the endosperm flour. Endosperm flour from grain of line H1-10B1. showed more than a 2-fbld increase with 1.8% soluble and 5.3% total dietary fibre. The difference in the percentage solubility of the BG and the amount of DF as measured in the assays may be explained by the extraction conditions as the first step of the BG solubility assay involved heating the flour suspension in an 80% ethanoi solution to inactivate endogenous enzymes whereas the dietary fibre assay had no such inactivatton step. Therefore, the endogenous hydrolytic enzymes could act on the cell wall and release more asffbohydrate in the DF assay. The fibre assay also measured arabinoxylan and other fibre components. Given the increase in DF of the HvCslF6 grain, the inventors expected greater increases in the level of DF of the higher BG lines, especially of the soluble DF in those lines that contained high levels of soluble BG.

[0282] Progeny plants derived from the transformed line F6-1 (Example 8) were propagated in the glasshouse to provide grain of the T4 generation. These included lines that were homozygous for the transgene expressing HvCslF6T7 (iiuluding the T7 epitope tag at the N^enninus) and lines that were negative segregants for the transgene and therefore the same as wild-type. The lines F6-1G and F6-1 and their sub-lines were derived from different heads of the same initial transformed plant F6- 1. Pooled grain of line F6-1G6.1.8 had an average grain weight of 29.7 mg, was much darker in colour (brown) and slightly wrinked in external appearance, and showed 4.36% (w/w) BG of which about 7% was soluble (determined with an ethanolic heat treatment step). Pooled T3 grain of line F6-1K5.9 had an average grain weight of 28.8 mg, was normal on colour and non-shrunken in appearance, and showed 4.03% BO, of which 6.2% was soluble. Pooled T3 grain of line F6-1G6.7 had an average seed weight of 36.5 mg and had 1.8% BG, of which about 7% was soluble. Negative segregant line F6-1K3.2 had an average grain weight of 34.7 mg and 0.77% BO, of which 2% was soluble. Grain from line F6-12 .4 which was transformed with the tnmsgene expressing tie oat F6 protein had 3% BO, of which about 20% was soluble.

[0283] Fibre and fibre components were dcienninod for flour obtained from these grains and a subsequent TS generation for line F6-1K5.9, after milling on a cyclone mill with a 1 mm screen, providing a fine flour. Starch content, protein content and sugar content was also detenriined. The data arc shown in Table 16. Each of the parameters, namely soluble fibre, insohible fibre, neutral non-starch polysaccharides (soluble NNSP and insoluble NNSP) were increased, as well as fructan levels in some cases. These flours were used to prepare muffins for the animal feeding trial as described in Example 17.

Example 15. Alteration of BG structure by crossing HvCslF6 mi BvCslH everexprasing lines

[0284] A more modified grain composition may be obtained by producing transgenic wheat plants that express bom CslF6 and Cs1H-^ncodmg transgenes in the endosperm, for example the C&1F6 and Cs1H from barley. Transgenic lines expressing the HvCs1H gene were therefore crossed to lines expressing the HvCslF6 gene and the progeny were screened by PCR for the presence of both transgenes as described in previous examples. Two lines were obtained that were homozygous for both the HvCsIF6 and the HvCs1H genes: F6H1-19.2.1 (H1-10B1.9 and F6-6D1 parents) and H1F6-6 .9.7 (H1-10B7.4 and F6-6D1 parents). All grain from these lines were not shrunken but had an angular appearance, an increased BO content and lower DP3 DP4 ratio compared to the wild-type control and slightly less of the BG was water soluble according to the inventors method (Table 17). Another cross F6H1-17 (parents H1-10B1.9 and F6-1G6.3) was still segregating and the results from analysis of flour milled from ten pooled grains of the negative segregant (F6H1-17.1.18), an HvCslF6 segregating line (F6H1-17.1.23) and one line with both HvCslF6 and HvCs1H (F6H1-17.1.16) arc also shown in Table 17.

[0285] Discussion. The inventors were not aware of any reported examples where a CslF6 gene from one species had been used to alter BG levels or structure in another species of cereal grain. Burton tt aL, (2006) showed that heterologous expression of some mernbers of the rice CslF gene family (OsCslF2 and /or OsCslF4 and OsCslF9) in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis could produce very small amounts (considerably less than 0.1% w/w) of BG. Similar experiments over-expressing HvCslH in Arabidopsis leaves also produced very low levels of BO, estimated to be maximally 0.016% of die cell wall (Doblin t aL, 2009). Those experiments demonstrated that some CslFaod Grf/f genes can make BO but also the difficulty in making substantial levels of BG such as described herein.

[0286] Given that the endogenous CslF and CslH genes are expressed in wheat, yet wheat grain has only relatively low levels of BO, it was not known if heterologous expression of the HvCslF6 gene in wheat would give increased BG levels as it was possible that some other gene fXtnction was missing or limiting m these grains.

[0287] The inventors have demonstrated that it was possible to approximately double the amount of BG in wheat grain by over-expression of a gene encoding ttvCslH. Furthermore, over-expression of HvCslF6 in wheat grain increased the amount of BO synthesised considerably more, by more than 6-fold, which was a much greater increase than in barley grain transformed with a HvCsIF6 construct. When similar experiments were conducted in rice grain, it was determined mat MvCs1H over-expression does not increase BO levels. Furthermore, in at least one transformed wheat line, high levels of HvCslF6 expression appeared to be deleterious to endosperm development as many of the grains with the highest BG levels from that transgenic line were shrunken. Such grains appeared to develop normally at first but the central part of the endosperm men failed to develop and fill as normal and the grains collapsed upon drying down as they matured. The shrunken grains thus had a much lower endosperm/bran ratio. However, the inventors were able to select for wheat grains that had high levels of BO with nunimal effects on grain size or morphology. This was done by generating a large number of additional new HvCslF6 transgenic wheat lines that looked relatively normal in size and or shape (i.e. were not shrunken) and growing these on, discarding those lines that showed severely shrunken grains.

[0288] Other CslF6 genes were also isolated and transformed into wheat in case this was a phenotype specific to the HvCslF6 gene. The oat AsCslF6 gene in tact produced high BG lines that were much less shrunken, although some lines did exhibit a shrunken phenotype and these were not studied former. Crossing the high expressing HvCslF6 lines to high expressing HvCs1H lines also produced grain that had a high BO content and was not as shnmken as the original HvCslF6 lines, although this produced a BO with a different structure and solubility. However some non shrunken grains with only the HvCslF6 transgene (e.g Line F6Hl-17.t.23) were produced by crossing and segregating away the HvCslH locus and this line not only had high BG but the BO was highly soluble at round 13% of the total BG. Thus, is possible to create similar lines by crossing to other elite wheat varieties and selecting for those lines with the desirable BG and grain size characteristics.

[0289] The inventors also showed that AsCslF6 oveivexrjression in wheat grain both increased BG levels and produced a BG structure with a low DP3 DP4 ratio of about 1.3, considerably lower than was seen with the HvCslF6 gene. Moreover, BG from the AsCsIF6 expressing wheat grain was much more soluble than the BG from either the wild-type or the HvCslF6 expressing wheat grain. This grain is expected to provide considerable health benefits as the cholesterol lowering properties of BG is related to its water solubility and the ability to form viscous solutions in the gut (reviewed in I^zaridou and Biliaderie, 2007; Theuwissen and Mensmk, 2008).

Example 16. Testing of fenuentation parantetcri

[0290] The potential of the wheat comrmsing increased BG to produce large bowel fermentations patterns likely to improve human health and reduce the risk of several common chronic diseases is investigated using a high throughput, anaerobic batch culture system to simulate human colonic fertnentanon. A completely ramJoniised experimental design is deployed to study the test substrates and fermentation standards (substrates). Human faeces is used as inoculum to simulate human large bowel fomentation. Freshly voided faeces will be sourced from three healthy adult subjects who are consuming their habitual diets and had not been on antibiotic mediations for the previous 6 months. After collection, faecal samples are homogenised and suspended at 10% w/v in sterile anaerobic phosphate buffered saline (PBS), cubations are performed in quadruplicate in an anaerobic chamber rathe test products, standard substrates and the controls (blanks). Briefly, standards and test Hours are pie-weighed into sterile fenuentation vessels and carbori-limited foineritarjon media comprising carbonate buffer and macro- and r icronutrients added to achieve a set volume and a neutral pH. After equtfihration, an aliquot of the 10% human faecal inoculum is added to each of the substrate suspensions, tubes capped, sealed and then incubated at 3TC with continuous shaking. After designated intervals, ferments are sampled and frozen immediately at -20°C to await bacterial enumeration using armropriate conventional and molecular methods (Abell et al., 2004; Bird et al., 2008 & 2009). DNA in digests was extracted by repetitive bead beating and kit purification as described by Yu and Morrison (2004). Example 17. Deteminatiea *f the potential of the novel wheat to daMpen postprandial grjceaJc response in rats

[0291] An acute feeding trial was designed and canied out to evaluate the physiological functionality of the wheat to attenuate postprandial glycemia using the chronically cannulated, meal-fed rat model. The study also explored the mechanistic basis by which the β-glucan enriched wheat, as wholemeal or refined white flour, may help to slow glucose assimilation and promote better control ofblood glucose levels.

[0292] The meal-fed rat model was used specifically to characterise the glycemk prooerties (blood glucose concentration, IAUC) of a prototype food manufactured from the wheat comprising increased BO. Whotaneal and refined white flour from the transgenic and conventional (control) wheats (composition shown in Table 18) were used to make test muffins which contained the following ingredients: 312 g flour, 100 g glucose powder, 310 g milk, 50 g egg and 90 g butter. 13C-octanoate salt (0.91 mg/g muffin) was also included in the formulation as a quantitation standard for deterrninatioa of gastric emptylng rates. The muffins were baked at 180°C for 20 min and their composftion is shown in Table 18. The four different muffins were tested in random order. The rats had free access to water and a standard cornmercial rat diet for 5 d before being given a standard AIN-93G diet for the rernainder of the study. They were habituated to eating a prescribed amount of food within a set time. The superior vena cava of each rot was catheterised via the external left jugular vein under aseptic conditions and catheters flushed on a regular basis using sterile techniques. Following recovery from surgery and adaptation to the experimental regimen, a 10-mL breath sample was collected from each rat as the baseline measurement Blood samples were also taken at that time. Each rat was men given a predeterrnined amount of the test and or control rauf ln and breath and blood samples collected at specified time points for up to 3 h after the rats finish eating their monung ration. The test and control muffins were investigated once each in any given animal. Blood glucose concentration was quantified using an automated blood glucose monitor. The remaining blood was collected into a tube containing anticoagulant, centrituged (3000 rpm for 10 mm) and the plasma supernatant removed and stored at -80°C to await analysis for insulin, GLP-l, GIP and PYY using a gut hormone multiplex kit (Mfliipore, St Charles, MO, USA). The 13 C content of breath samples was analysed by mass srtectrornetry and the gastric errtptyrng rate calculated. The results are shown in Figures 11 and 12. Figure 11 shows that the glycemic index (CI), defined as the area under the blood glucose concentration curve to 120 minutes after feeding, was siguificartly lower in rats fed the muffins made with the wheat flours containing increased levels of BG and increased total dietary fibre (TDF) levels than die rats fed the control muffins made with wild-type floors. Figure 12 shows that the gastric enmtymg rates for the rats fed t^

the rats fed the corresponding control muffins, showing that the reduced blood glucose concentrations and giyceroic indices were not related to a difference in gastric ernptylng rates. As expected, there was a difference in gastric emptylng rates when comparing the use of muffins made with refined wheat flour compared to wholemeal wheat Hour (Figure 12).

Example 18. Deterainatie* of the potential of the wheat to improve indiees of cardiometaboUc health hi lean and obese rats

[0293] A 6-wk dietary intervention to determine whether foods made with the wheat comprising increased BG reduces live weight gain, reduces adiposity and has favourable effects on indices of metabolic health, such as for example increased insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular health such as for example lower blood pressure and reduced levels of IDL-cholesterol, and bowel health such as for example increased digesta mass, prebiosis and improved fermentation patterns. The physiological, biochemical and hormonal mechanisms mediating the cardiometabolic and other health benefits are also determined.

[0294] Briefly, adult obese Zucker rats and their lean counterparts will be maintained in groups in wire-bottomed cages in a room with controlled beating and lighting (23°C; 12-h light/dark cycle) and have free access to food and water for drinking for the duration of the study. After a 7-day acclfrnation, the rats will be allocated randomly to one of four groups of about 12 animals each and fed one of two diets. The diets are based on AI -93G fbrmulation and will contain about 50% of wholemeal flour made from either the transgenic or a standard wheat The diets are formulated to supply equal amounts of inaa Hunrients, energy and starch. After 1 week on the experimental diets, the rats are transferred to metabolism cages for 4 days to determine intake of feed and water and fecal and urine excretion and men returned to their group cages. After 4 weeks on the experimental diets, the rats are anesthetized using 4% isoflourane in oxygen to allow blood from the abdominal aorta to be collected into vaccuette tubes (serum, EDTA-NaFl and EDTA-plasma with 10 uL/mL DPPrV inhibitor added) which are then centrifuged (3,000 x g) and the supernatant removed and stored at -80°C until analysed. Caecal and colonic digesta are then collected and weighed * and afiquots stored at -20°C to await analysis of short-chsia fatty acids (SCFA), H, phenols, p-cresols and ammonia. The composition of the raicrobiota in large bowel digcsta are determined using quantitative molecular microbiology techniques.

[0295] Plasma glucose, triglyceride, non«esteiified tree ratty acids and total cholesterol concentrations are measured using an automatic analyzer in conjimctioo with proprietary enzymatic kits (Roche Diagnostics Co, maUanapolis, IN). Plasma concentrations of various hormones including pancreatic polypeptide, QIP, GLP-1, PYY, insuKn and leptin will be determined using (he relevant gut hormone multiplex kit (Millipore, St Charles, MO, USA) (Belubrajdic et al., 2011).

[0296] Fecal, and cecal and colonic digesta samples will be analysed for the total and major individual SCFA (acetic, propionic and butyric acids) and other metabolites using published methods (Bird et al., 2007, 2008, 2009).

Example 19. Detcrmroatio* of the Gh/cemk Index of prototype foods made with the wheat

[0297] The Gl tanks carbchydntte^mtaining foods on a weight-for-weight basis according to their postprandial glycemic response. The transgenic wheat and a comparator (standard) wheat will be milled to produce wholemeal flours which are then made into a range of suitable prototype foods (bread, pasta, muffins, biscuits). The nutritional composition of the test foods is deterrnined using the analytical methods described above. The available carbohydrate content of the tests foods is determined directly as the as me sum of the total starch and simple sugar contents. These constituents are assayed using standardised procedures (methods; AACC, 76- 12 and AOAC, 982.14 respectively).

[0298] The srattdardised ht vivo testing protocol (Australian Standard AS 4694- 2007: Glycemic Index of Foods; International Standard ISO 26642) is used to determine the GI of the wheat-based test foods as described in more detail below.

[0299] The serving sizes of the foods used in the tests is based on 50 g of available carbohydrate, which is determined by direct analysis, as referred to earlier. The reference food to be used is glucose. All GI tests and associated laboratory analyses will be performed in the Clinical Research Unit at CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Sciences in Adelaide. For GI testing, about 12 participants fulfilling the selection criteria are to be recruited. Participants are not permitted to consume any food or beverages, other than water, for a miiiimum of 10 hours prior to each test Volunteers are also required to refrain from undertaking vigorous exercise immediately prior to, or during the test On the day of testing, two lasting blood samples arc taken, by finger-prick, about 5 minutes apart, analysed for glucose and the average result used as the baseline blood glucose concentration. Each participant men consumes their asagned test meal, the serving of which contains the equivalent of 50 grams of available carbohydrate. Further finger-prick blood samples are taken at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes, starting immediately after the first nrouthful of test food. The participants are also offered 250 mL ofwatw to consume wimtlje test foods.

[0300] For the reference food (glucose drink), 50 grams of anhydrous glucose powder is dissolved in 250 mL of water. This drink supplies exactly the same amount of available carbohydrate as the standard serving of the test food and will have been tested in each participant on three previous occasions within the immediate 3 month period prior to testing of the wheat breakfast cereals.

[0301] The glucose concentration in the blood samples will be assayed using an automated enzymatic and spettrc^hofemctric technique which has an intcrassay coefficient variation of <3.0%. The GI will be determined as the glycemic response (measured as the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve) following consumption of the standard amount of the test food, expressed as a percentage of the average glycemic response (IAUC) to an identical amount of carbohydrate from the reference food (glucose drink) consumed by the same participant on a separate occasion. The 01 of the test food equates to the mean GI of≥10 subjects. Glycemic load (GL), which provides an indication of both the quality and quantity of carbohydrate in the test food, will be calculated according to the following formula:

GL =(GIxthe amount of carbohydrate (grams)) divided by 100.

Example 20. Detenrtfnatkm of the cardtonetabofie health benefits of the novel wheat in an 'at risk' population

[0302] A medium-terrn, completely randomised, controlled parallel study will investigate the cardiometabolic health benefits of the novel wheat in free-living, mildly Irypeix^Iesterolemic but otherwise healthy adults (n - 60). Volunteers will be recruited by public advertisement to participate in the 12-week study. Exclusion criteria include a history of cardiovascular, hepatic, peripheral vascular, respiratory, gut or renal disease or a malignancy. All study procedures will be approved by the Human Btfaies Committee of Ac Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation.

[0303] About 60 volunteers will be randomised to one of three dietary groups to consume daily foods prepared from either the transgenic or conventional wheat (as wholemeal flours) or refined wheat For the duration of the study volunteers will consunK tbeir habitual diet wi^

foods (the Study Dietician will help mem in meeting this requirement). It is expected mat about 100 g of the cereal Sours will be eaten each day of the trial. Food records and other information as well as blood and faecal samples will be collected at baseline and at 3-week intervals thereafter for the remainder of study in order to assess changes in: plasma lipid profiles (total and LDL and HDL cholesterol, apo B and TAO) and glucose control (HbAlc and fasting blood glucose), TNF-alpha and hornocysteine contents, food and energy intake, weight management, waist circumference, blood pressure, faecal mass, bacterial counts, bile acids and SCFA levels, insulin sensitivity (fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance) and tirculating levels of selected hormones, including GLP-1 and glucose- dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). Volunteers will be asked to complete a 3-day food diary and a bowel habit, comfort and wellbeing questioimaire every three weeks as well. Faeces and blood will be analysed using standard methods described in the literature.

Example 21. Water so biMty of BG in flour samples without ethaneJk heat treatment.

[0304] A second BG water-solubility assay was developed which omitted die first ethanolic heat inactivatton step as described in Example 1, as an indication of the solubility of BG in floor dining normal food processing methods. A total BG assay on a 20 mg sample of flour was performed as described earlier using the scaled down Megazyme kit method and a second identical sample of fiour was subjected to sorabilisation in 1 ml of sodium phosphate buffer with shaking at 37C for 2 hours. The insoluble material was pelleted by centnfugation at i0,000g for 1 min, the supernatant was discarded, die pellet washed in 1 ml of phosphate buffer and then after a further centrifugation and discarding of the supernatant, de BG content of the pellet was determined as for die first sample to give the amount of insoluble BG in the flour. The soluble BO content of the sample was calculated by subtracting the insoluble BO value m the pellet from the total BG of the flour. Duplicate samples were treasured.

[0305] without the ethanolic heat inactivation step, oat and barley flours show an increased amount of BG solubilised with oat showing very high solubility of about 80% and barley just below 40% (Figure 13), compared to levels of 50% and 27% respectively as described in Example 12. in comparison, both wheat and barley flours have low levels of water-soluble BG of about 8%. The inventors noted that gain of the wheat cuhivar Fielder was regarded as "soft wheat" grain coinpared tothe grain of the tra-ousformed lines which were derived from the "hard wheat" of the Bob White 26 cultivar.

[0306] The BG water-solubility of selected transgenic lines with increased BG levels was determined using the new assay and the results are shown in Table 19. Each set of samples included a negative segregant as a control with BG levels of approximately 0.7 to 0.8%. Half of the controls showed a BG solubility of around 20% whereas the other half had around 10% soluble BG. In the field grown samples, the HvCslF6 high BG lines showed increased BO solubility up to 40% compared to 10% in the negative segregant The AsCslF6 expressing lines with increased BO content up to 3.9% also had dramatically increased BG solubilities ranging from 31% to more than 50%.

[0307] In contrast to the HvCslF6 lines, transgenic lines with higher BO levels as a result of expressing the HvCslH gene showed a reduced level of water-soluble BG (compare HM0B7.3 with HI- 10B1. and 7.4). The decreased solubility of BG in HvCs1H expressing lines, was also visible in the HvCslF6 x HvCs1H crossed lines. Lines that had both HvCslF6 and HvCs1H genes (F6HI-7.1.16 and F6HI-7.1.24) showed higher solubility of 17% and 23% than the negative segregant (F6H1-7.1.18, 11% soluble BO), but significantly lower man the line which contained only the HvCslF6 gene (F6H1-7.1.23) which had more than 50% soluble BO. As described earlier, this line was derived from one of the shiunken-grain HvCslF6 lines. However, with crossing and segregation from the HvCslH gene, grain from this line was no longer shmnken although it was slightly lighter than the wild type grain but still had a significantly increased BG content. [0308] Thus, wheat grains with a huge range of water-soluble BG content were produced by expressing different CslF and/or CslH genes or compilation of genes in the developing wheat grain during plant growth.

Example 22. Determination of the amino adds within tike CslF6 protein that central BG structure and wrinbfiity.

[0309] As described in Example 10, the CslF6 polypeptides from oat and rice, and also those maize and sorghum (see below), produced a BG with a tow DP3/DP4 ratio of around 1 or less when expressed in the Nicotkma benthamiana leaf system. This BG had much higher solubility man that produced from expression of the barley, wheat or Bra h podtum C&1F6 polypeptides where the DP3 DP4 ratio was about 1.4 or higher. The CslF6 polypeptides that produced BG having the lower DP3 DP4 ratios also produced BG of higher solubility when the genes encoding those particular CslF6 polypeptides were expressed in the cereal grain. Therefore, chhnertc gene constructs were made by joining part of a protein coding region from one gene (barley CslF6, higher DP3/DP4 ratio) with die other part of a second coding region (maize CslF6, lower DP3 DP4 ratio). These chimeric genes were expressed in the K benthamiana system as described in Example 6 and the DP3 DP4 ratio of the BG dust was produced deterroined, in order to determine the portion of the CslF6 polypeptide mat controlled the ratio and therefore the BG structure. Using this approach and various such fusions as described below, it was concluded that a single amino acid difference in one of die eight predicted transmeinbrane domains of the CslF6 polypeptide controlled the BO structure and iheieibre the DP3/DP4 ratio.

(1310] Comparing the sequences of the CslF6 genes from different species, it was noted that mere were several conserved restriction sites within die coding regions of the CsIF6 cDNAs mat could be used to swap regions of the CslF6 genes and thus express the chimeric polypeptides in plant cells. For example, there were conserved Aped, Bg and Sa sites in both of the vCslF6 gene and the ZmCslF6-2 gene.

[0311] Full length cDNAs corresponding to the barley CslF6 gene (HvCslF6, nucleotide sequence of cDNA is SE ) ID NO: 169), maize CslF6 genes {ZmCslF6-I, SEQ ID NO:166; ZmCslF6-2, SEQ ID NO: 167) and the sorghum CnlF6 gene (SbCslF6 > Sb07g004110; SEQ ID NO: 168) were amplified using Phusion polymerase from seedling cDNA using the methods described in Example 13 and using primer pairs (forward and reverse) SJ116 and SJ77, SJ391 and SJ392, SJ393 and SJ392, and SJ387 and SJ389 respectively and cloned into the binary vector pCXSN as described in (Cheng et al 2009) to create Dlasmids pSJ226, pSJ192, pSJ195 and pSJ197. The sequences of the amplified cD As differed slightly from the published sequences (compare SEQ ID Os: 164 and 16S with SEQ ID NOs: 166 and 167) in several positions, probably reflecting varietal differences. These <faflerences were not within the region of the polypeptides that determined the DP3 DP4 ratio of the BG (see below). However the amino acid sequence of the ZmCslF6-lpolypeptide encoded by the isolated cDNA was found to have a 25 amino acid deletion in the coding sequence near the 5' end but this did not affect activity of the gene (see below). This deletion probably occurred as a result of the Phusion polymerase skipping over a secondary DNA loop structure due to me extreme GC richness of the 5 * end of die CslF6 genes even though a high concentration of DMSO was used in the amplification reaction. This has been observed by the inventors with several other CslF6 genes.

Table 20. Nucleotide sequences of primers

[0312] In me first instance, dmneric genes were made using the HvCslF6 and ZmCslF6-2 derived plasmids pSJ226 and pSJ195 as these had the most restriction sites in common (Figure 14). The sites for the restriction enzymes Sacl (nucleotide positions 821 and 856), Apal (1501 and 1536) and Bgill (2060 and 2077) occurred at the same positions within the coding sequences of the barley and maize genes. Therefore a first set of chimeric genes were made using those sites and the unique Hindlll and EcoRI sites which were 5' and 3' of the CaMV35S promoter and Nos polyadenylation regions, respectively. A schematic diagram of the constructs and summary of the results of the DP3/DP4 ratio of the BG produced after expression in N. benthamiam are shown in Figure 16.

[0313) T e parental HvCsIF6 polypeptide produced a BG with a relatively high DP3/DP4 ratio of about 1.4 when expressed in the benthamiam cells whereas the parental ZmCslF6-2 polypeptide yielded a relatively low DP3 DP4 ratio of about 1.1. The standard deviations for the data from the assays were in the range 0.01-0.02 so the observed differences were significant even though the absolute values varied slightly from experiment to experiment depending on the plant age. These experiments were repeated many times and the differences between the two polypeptides were consistent When the Bglll-EcoRl fragment was exchanged between the HvCslF6 and ZmCslF6-2 genes, the DP3 DP4 ratio was changed - the Hv-2mCslF6-2 polypeptide had a lower ratio similar to that conferred by the ZmCslF6-2 polypeptide whereas the Zm-HvCslF6-2 chimeric polypeptide yielded a higher ratio like the HvCSlF6 polypeptide. It was concluded that the BglU-EcoM region (i.e. 3' region) of the genes conferred the characteristic DP3/DP4 ratio produced by the encoded polypeptides. When other regions of the genes were exchanged such as the 5' regions, there was no affect on the DP3 DP4 ratio of the BG, although the Sacl-Apal fragment exchange produced a DP3/DP4 ratio that was ktennediate between the vCslF6 and ZmCslF6-2 genes suggesting mat this region might also exert some influence on die BG structure in this particular chimeric protein context

[0314] To confirm these results, the Bgffi-EcoJU fragment was exchanged between the other CsIF6 genes as shown in Table 21. The Bgltt site was conserved in all of the listed CslF6 genes. The native BdCslF6 and HvCslF6 polypeptides both produced a BG with a relatively high DP3/DP4 ratio of about 1.4 and about 1.74, respectively, whereas the AsCs!F6, ZmCslF6-2 and SbCslF6 polypeptides produced a BG with a relatively low DP3/DP4 ratio of about 0.9 to about 1.09. When the Bgltt-EcoBI f agment was exchanged between these genes, the DP3/DP4 ratio and therefore the structure of the BG corresponded to the source of that fragment - if it was from a gene that produced a low DP3 DP4 ratio then the chimeric gene also yielded a tow DP3 DP4 ratio and vice versa lor the high DP3 DP4 ratio CslF6 genes, exchanging the BglBrEcoKL fragments within a DP3 DP4 ratio class eg. between the Bd and Hv CsIF6 genes or betweenthe Aeand Zm CslF6 genes had no effect on the BO structure as the DP3 DP4 ratio remained high or low, respectively. Therefore this region of the CslF6 polypeptides was shown conchisively to control the DP3 DP4 ratio of the BG.

[0315] This carhoxy terminal region of the Cs)F6 polypeptides contains a small portion of the predicted cytoplasmic region and six predicted transmembrane domains which form part of a membrane channel as predicted by comparison to the recently published 3D crystal structure of the related bacterial cellulose synthase protein (Morgan et al., 2013). To further define the region controlling the DP3 DP4 ratio, an Xbal she was introduced into the middle of this region encoding the TM5 and TM6 transmembrane dornains of the HvCslF6 and ZmCslF6 polypeptides (plasmids pSJ245 and pSJ246, respectively). This was achieved by a nucleotide change which would not change the amino acid sequence of the polypeptides, using a synthetic gBlock method (IDT, USA). This allowed the exchange of the Bg II-Xbal and Xbal- EcoRI fragments between the vCslF6 and ZmCslF6 genes. When expressed in the plant cells, these chimeric genes produced BO from which it was detennitted that the BgM-Xbal region of each gene determined the DP3/DP4 ratio (Table 22).

[0316] The amino acid sequences for the carboxy terrninal half of die HvCslF6 and ZmCslF6 polypeptides and those for the cellulose synthase proteins CesA were aligned The differences between the HvCSlF6 and ZmCslF6 polypeptides in the region encoded by the BgKl-Xbal region were identified. There were twelve amino acid differences in this region, the majority of whkh were predicted to lie in the TM3- TM6 domains.

[0317] Synthetic Bglll-Xbal gBlock DNA fragments were designed to create chimeric Hv-ZmCslF6 polypeptides fused just upstream of a PvuU. position in the ZntCslF sequence as this separated in half the differences in the two polypeptides in that region- the N-tenninal half of the region containing the TM3 and ΊΓΜ4 transmembrane dornains and the C-terminal half coiitainirig the TM5 and TM6 dwnains. Expression of these chimeric Hv-ZmCslF6 polypeptides in the N. entfaamiana cells thereby defined the region controlling the DP3/DP4 ratio of die BO to the N-terminal half of this region (compare pSJ253, pSJ254, pSJ255 and pSJ256, Tabte 21). This region mdudedfte

differences in the central cytoplasmic domain of the CslF6 porypetides between the Bgfll she and the PsA sites. The tatter two differences had no affect on the DP3/DP4 ratio as an exchange of the PsA fragments between the vCslF6 and ZmCslF6 genes in plasmids pSJ226 and pSJ195 had no affect on the BO structure (pSJ252, Table 23). Therefore, it was concluded that the four amino acid differences in the TM4 transmembrane domain determined the difference in the DP3 DP4 ratio of BO produced by the HvCslF6 and ZmCSlF6 polypeptides. The region of the genes that encoded that domain lay between the PsA and Xba\ sites of the CslF6 genes.

[0318] To simplify further dotting, the PsA site upstream of the CaMV 35S promoter in pSJ226 and pSJ195 was destroyed by cutting withS¾ l and repairing the ends with T4-DNA polymerase, thus leaving the PsA site in the CslF6 coding sequence as a unique PsA site and enabling the gBlock fragments to be cloned into the Pst Xbal sites of pSJ257and pSJ258 (encoding HvCslF6 and ZmCslF6-2, respectively). Cloning of the PsA-XbcA fragments from plasmids pSX254 and pSJ255 into pSJ257 and pSJ258 generated CslF6 genes that (iiffered only in the PsA-Xbai region and expression of these genes (pSJ259 and pSJ260) in N. benthamkma cells amfinned that this region alone determined the DP37DP4 ratio of the BO (Table 22).

[0319] There were four single amino add differences in the TM4 domain between the HvCslF6 and ZmCslF6-2 polypeptides. To o^tennine which of these four ainino acid changes determined the BO structure and the DP3 DP4 ratio, four synthetic PsA- Xbal gBlock fragments each containing only one amino acid difference relative to the HvCslF6 polypeptide (G748A, S752A,V756l and 1757L with reference to SEQ ID NO:175, single letter amino acid codes) were designed and tested. This experiment was designed to show whether any of these single amino acid changes by themselves could affect the DP3 DP4 ratio of the BO produced by HvCSiF6 polypeptide and essentially convert it into a polypeptide with the properties of the ZmCslF6 polypeptide. When these mutant vCslF6 genes were expressed in N. benthamiana leaves, only the I757L (isoleucinc for leucine) sutetitution affected the DP3 DP4 ratio producing a BO with a structure similar to that of the ZmCslF6 polypeptide (Table 24). This finding is very surprising as the amino acid substitution is a very conservative substitution; 1 for L. It was siirprising this seemingly minor change had such a substantial effect

[0320] This amino acid substitution is introduced into the endogenous CslF6 gene of barley and into one or more of the three wheat CslF6 genes by genome editing techniques to produce barley grain or wheat grain whose BO was an altered DP3 DP4 ratio and therefore an increased solubility of BO in the grain or flour or wholemeal obtained therefrom. This provides food ingredients and food products with increased soluble dietary fibre.

listing of Sequence ID NOs

[0321] SEQ ID NO: 1, TBCS2P3 type B cDNA, 2618 nt's. Initiating methionine ATG is nucleotides 7-9, the translation stop codon TAG is nucleotides 2560-2561

[0322] SEQ ID NO: 2, TaCslF3 type B polypeptide, 851aa's. Signal sequence is amino adds 1-57, predicted tansmembfane domains are ammo acids 72-93, 101-120, 630-651, 664-686, 701-721, 752-774, 791-813 and 822-841. Amino acids known to be critical for activity are D195, DxD (395-397), D556 and O xRW motifs (594-598).

[0323] SEQro NO: 3, TaCslF4 typet cDNA 2726 nt's. Initiating methionine ATG is nucleotides 1-3, the translation stop codon TAG is nucleotides 2608-2610

[0324] SEQ ID NO: 4, TaCe!F4 typc2 cDNA 2725 nt's. Initiating methionine ATG is nucleotides 1-3, the stop codon TAG is nucleotides 2608-2610.

[0325] SEQ ID NO: 5, TaCsIF4 lype3 cDNA 2728 nt's. Initiating methionine ATG is nucleotides 1-3, the translation stop codon TAG is nucleotides 2608-2610.

[0326] SEQ ID NO: 6, TaCslF4 type! gene 3022 nt's. Initiating metMonine ATG is nucleotides 1-3, the translation stop codon TAG is nucleotides 2904-2906. Intron sequences (GT..AO) are nucleotides 246-356, 1804-1268.

[0327] SEQ ID NO: 7, TaCslF4 typc2 gene 3015 nt's. Initiating methionine ATG is nucleotides 1-3, the translation stop codon is nucleotides 2898-2900. Intron sequences are nucleotides 246-349 and 1077-1262.

[0328] SEQ Π> NO: 8, TaCslF4 type3 gene 2992 nt's. Initiating methionine ATG is nucleotides 1-3, the translation stop codon TAG is nucleotides 2872-2874. Intron sequences are nucleotides 246-341 and 1069-1236.

[0329] SEQ Π> NO: 9, TaCslF4 typel polypeptide, 869aa'& Signal sequence is amino acids 1-62, predicted tnuisinembrane domains are 79-101, 108-127, 635-656, 669-691, 706-726, 757-779, 794-816 and 825-845. Amino acids known to be critical for activity are D198, DxD (398-400), D561 and QxxRW motifs (599-603).

[0330] SEQ ID NO: 10, TaCslF4 type2 polypeptide, 869 aa's. Signal sequence, predicted transmembrane domains and D, DxD, D and QxxRW motifs are at the same positions as for SEQ ID NO: 8. [0331] SEQ ID NO: 11, TaCslF4 type3 polypeptide, 869 aa's. Signal sequence, predicted transmembrane domains and D, DxD, D and QxxRW motifs are at the same positions as for SEQ ID NO: 8.

[0332] SEQ ID NO: 12, TaCslF6 typeA cDNA 3082 nt's. Initiating incduonine ATG is nucleotides 2-4, the translation stop codon TGA is nucleotides 2837-2839.

[0333] SEQ ID NO: 13, TaCslF6 typeB cDNA 3156 nt's. Mtiatmg methionine ATG is 97-99, the translation stop codon TOA is nucleotides 2920-2922.

[0334] SEQ ID NO: 14, TaCsIF6 typeD cDNA 3193 nt's. Initiating methionine ATG is nucleotides 101-103, the translation stop codon TGA is nucleotides 2933- 2935.

[0335] SEQ ID NO: 15, TaCslF6 type A gene 3813 nt's. Initiating ATG start codon is nucleotides 2-4, translation stop codon TGA is nucleotides 3568-3570. The first intron was not isolated and is not present in this sequence. The second intron sequence is nucleotides 1070-1800.

[0336] SEQ ID NO: 16, TaCslF6 type B gene without the first intron and the 3 1 part of the second intron from primer SJ180 to the splice site, 3741 nt's. initiating methionine ATG start codon is nucleotides 97-99. Intron sequence is nucleotides 1153-1737.

[0337] SEQ ID NO: 17, TaCsIF6 type D gene 5520 nt's. ATG start codon is nucleotides 101-103, translation stop codon TGA is nucleotides 5260-5262. Intron sequences are nucleotides 421-2047 and 2793-3492.

[0338) SEQ ID NO: 18, TaC*lF6 type A polypeptide, 945 aa's. Signal sequence is amino acids 1-91, predicted transmembrane domains are amino adds 105-126, 134- 153, 707-728, 741-763, 778-798, 31-852, 65-887 and 894-915. Amino acids known to be critical for activity are D228, DxD (430432), D633 and QxxRW motifs (671- 675).

[0339] SEQ ID NO: 19, TaCslF6 type B polypeptide 941 aa's. Signal sequence is amino acids 1-87, predicted transmembrane domains are amino acids 101-122, 130- 149, 703-724, 737-759, 774-794, 827-848, 861-883 and 890-911. Amino acids known to be critical for activity are D224, DxD (426428), D629 and QxxRW motifs (667- [0340] SEQ ID NO: 20, TaCsiF6 type D polypeptide, 944 aa's. Signal sequence is amino acids 1-90, predicted transmembrane domains are amino acids 104-125, 133- 152, 706-727, 740-762, 777-797, 830-851, 864-886 and 893-914. Amino acids known to be critical for activity are D227, DxD (429-431), D632 and QxxRW motife (670- 674).

18341) SEQ ID NO: 21, TaCslP7 type 3 cDNA sequence 2444 nt's. ATG start codon is nucleotides 11-13, translation stop codon TAA is nucleotides 2435-2437.

[0342] SEQ ID NO: 22, TaCslF7 type 3 gene, 3327 nt's partial sequence. Initiating ATG start codon is nuceolides 11-13. Intron sequence is nucleotides 157-1039.

[0343] SEQ ID NO: 23, TaCslF7 Type 3 polypeptide, 808 aa's. Signal sequence is amino acids 1-32, predicted transmembrane domains are amino acids 46-67, 81-101, 590-612, 631-653, 667-688, 723-745, 755-777 and 783-805. Ainino acids known to be critical for activity are D168, DxD (342-344), D447 and QxxRW motife (555-559).

[0344] SEQ ID NO: 24, TaCslF9 type A cDNA 2162 nt's, partial length- 3' end not isolated. Initiating ATG methionine is at nucleotides 41-43.

[0345] SEQ ID NO: 25, TaCslF9 type B cDNA sequence, 2159 nt's. partial lengths' end not isolated. Initiating ATG methionine codon is nucleotides 41-43.

[0346] SEQ ID NO: 26, TaCslF9 type D cDNA 2760 nt's. ATG start codon is nucleotides 41-43, translation stop codon TAA is nucleotides 2612-2614.

(034η SEQ ID NO: 27, TaCslF9 type A gene, 3370 nt's, partial length- 3' end not isolated. ATG start codon is nucleotides 41-43. Intron sequences are nucleotides 1223-1375 and 2130-2211.

[0348] SEQ ID NO: 28, TaCslF9 type B gene, 3348 nt's, partial length- 3' end not isolated. ATG start codon is nucleotides 41-43. Intron sequence is nucleotides 253- 1351.

[0349] SEQ ID NO: 29, TaCslF9 type D gene, 2847nt, first intron not present ATG start codon nucleotides 41-43, translation stop codon TAA is nucleotides 2699-2701. Intron sequence is 1004-1090. [0350] SEQ ID NO: 30, TaC$lF9 type D polypeptide, 857 aa's. Signal sequence is amino adds 1-51, predicted taosmembnue domains are amino acids 67-89, 6-115» 634-655» 668-690» 793-815 and 822-844. Ammo acids known to be critical for activity are O190, DxD (395-397), D560, and QxxRW motifs (598-602).

[0351) SEQ ID NO: 31, TaCslH type A cDNA, 2284 nt's. Initialing ATG start codon is nucleotides 19 * 21, translation stop codon TAA is milceotides 2275-2277.

[0352] SEQ ID NO: 32, TaCs1H type B cDNA, 2421 nt's. raitiating ATO start codon is nucleotides 156-158, translation stop codon TAA is nucleotides 2412-2414.

[0353] SEQ ID NO: 33, TaCslH type 3 cDNA, 2284 nt's. Initiating methionine ATG is nucleotides 19-2 , the translation stop codon is nucleotides 2275-2277.

[0354] SEQ ID NO: 34, TaCs1H type A gene, 3236 nt's. ATO start codon is nculeotides 141-143, translation stop codon TAA is nucleotides 3227-3229. Intron sequences are nucleotides 392-492, 824-918, 1045-1143, 1264-1337, 1627-1715, 1837-1948, 2134-2165 and 2595-2668.

[0355] SEQ ID NO: 35, TaCs1H type B gene, 3316 nt's. ATO start codon is nucleotides 156-158, translation stop codon is nucleotides 3307-3309. Intron sequences are in corresponding positions relative to SEQ ID NO: 33

[0356] SEQ ID NO: 36, TaCs1H type 3 gene, 3181 nt's. Initiating methionine ATO is nucleotides 19-21, the translation stop codon TAA is nucleotides 3172-3174. Intron sequences are in (corresponding positions relative to SEQ ID NO: 33.

[0357] SEQ ID NO: 37» TaCs1H type A polypeptide, 752 aa's. Signal sequence is ammo acids 1-9, predicted transmembrane dontains are amino acids 17-37, 44-66, 530-553» 572-596, 666-687 and 701-721. Amino acids known to be critical for activity are D133, DxD (293-295), D460, and QxxRW moufe (498-502).

[0358] SEQ ID NO: 38, TaCslH type B polypeptide, 752 aa's. Signal sequence, predicted transnrcmbrane domains and amino acid D, DxD, D and QxxRW motifs are in the corresponding positions relative to SEQ ID NO: 36.

[0359] SEQ ID NO: 39, TaCs1H type 3, polypeptide 752 aa's. Signal sequence, predicted traiismembrane dconains and amino acid D, DxD, D and QxxRW motifs are in the corresponding positions relative to SEQ ID NO: 36. [0360] SEQ E> NO: 40. Chimeric HvCslF4T7 gene in pSJll, AM fragment, 2888nt Initiating methionine ATO of the T7 tag amino acids is nucleotides 7-9, the ATG of the CsIF4 polypeptide is nucleotides 34-36, the translation stop codon TAG is nucleotides 2653-2655.

[0361] SEQ ID NO: 41, Chimeric HvCslF4T7 polypeptide encoded by pSJll, 882aa's. T7 tag consists of amino acids 1-11, signal peptide sequence is amino acids 10-70, predicted traisinembiaiie domains are amino acids 89-110, 118-137, 648-669, 682-704, 718-739, 770-792, 807-829 and 836-858. Amino acids known to be critical for activity arc D211 , DxD (411-413), DS74, and QxxRW motifs (612-616).

[0362] SEQ ID NO: 42 Chimeric HvCslF6T7 gene in pSJ33, AflU, 2977nt f agment, Initiating methionine of the T7 tag is nucleotides 6-9, the ATG of the CslF6 polypeptide is nucleotides 34-36, the translation stop codon TGA is nucleotides 2884- 2886.

[0363] SEQ ID NO: 43, Oiiineric HvCslF6T7 polypeptide encoded by pSJ33, 958aa's. T7 tag is amino acids l-l 1, signal sequence is amino acids 12-101, predicted transmembrane domains are amino acids 117-138, 146-165, 719-740, 753-775, 789- 810, 842-864, 877-899 and 906-927. Amino acids known to be critical for activity are D240, DxD (442-444), D645, and QxxRW motifs (683-687).

[0364] SEQ ID NO: 44, HvCslF9 genomic fragment in pSJ2, EcoRI fragment, 3984nt ATO start codon is nucleotides 54-56, translation stop codon TAA is nucleotides 3942-3944. Intron sequences are nucleotides 269-1220 and 1972-2336.

[0365] SEQ m NO: 45, HvCslF polyr^ride^

acids 1-52, predicted transmembrane domains are amino acids 69-90, 98-117, 634- 655, 668-690, 704-726, 757-778, 793-815 and 822-844. Amino acids known to be critical for activity are D 192, DxD (396-398), D560, and QxxRW motifs (598-602).

[0366] SEQ ID NO: 46, Chimeric HvCslF7 genomic fragment in pSJ3, EcoRI fragment, 3620nf s. ATO start codon is nucleotides 35-37, translation stop codon TAA is nucleotides 3570-3572. Intron sequence is nucleotides 181-1285.

[0367] SEQ ID NO: 47, HvCslF7 polypeptide encoded in pSJ3, 810 aa's's. Signal sequence is amino acids 1-32, predicted transmembrane domains are amino acids 46- 66, 82-101, 590-612, 631-654, 668-689, 725-747, 757-780 and 786-806. Amino acids known to be critical for activity are D168, DxD (343-345) » D517, and Qxx W motifs (555-559).

[0368] SEQ ID NO: 48, HvCs1H fell length cDNA (2333 at) ATG start codon is nucleotides 76-78, translation stop codon TAA is nucleotides 2329-2331.

[0369) SEQ ID NO: 49, HvCs1H genomic EcoRJ fragment in pSJ6, 3227nt's. initiating ATO start codon is nucleotides 88-90, translation stop codon TAA is nucleotides 3211-3213. Intron sentences are nucleotides: 339-437, 769-867, 994- 1107, 1228-1331, 1545-1637, 1759-1817, 2048-2081, 2505-2655.

[03701 SEQ ID NO: 50, HvCs1H polypeptide encoded by pSJ6, 751 aa's's. Signal sequence is amino acids 1-10, predicted transmembrane domains are amino acids 17- 38, 4-66, 530-553, 572-595, 08-630, 665-688, 700-721 and 726-748. Amino acids known to be critical for activity are D133, DxD (293-295), D460, and QxxRW moors (498-502).

[0371] SEQ m NO: 51, Oats AsCslF6 typel cDNA, 3002 nt's. Initiating methionine ATO is nucleotides 1-3, the translation stop codon TOA is nucleotides 2833-2835.

[0372] SEQ ID NO: 52, Oats AsCslF6 type 2 cDNA, 3424 nt's. Initiating methionine ATG is nucleotides 347-349, the translation stop codon TOA is nucleotides 3175-3177.

[0373] SEQ ID NO: 53, Oats AsCslF6 type 3 cDNA, 3269 nt's. Initiating methionine ATO is nucleotides 178-180, the translation stop codon TOA is nucleotides 3010-3012.

[0374] SEQ ID NO: 54, Oats AsCsDP6 type2 genomic fragment AsCslF6_274_243_ll, 5244 nt's. ATG start codon highlighted is nucleotides 18-20, translation stop codon is nucleotides 5165-5167. Intron sequences are nucleotides 338-1964 and 2710-3400

[0375] SEQ ID NO: 55, Oats AsCslF6 type 1 polypeptide amino acid sequence, 944 aa's. Signal sequence is amino acids 1-91, predicted tnmsmembrane domains are amino acids 105-126, 134-153, 708-731, 744-766, 780-801, 834-853, 868-890 and 897-918. Amino acids known to be critical for activity are D228, DxD (430-432), D636 and QxxRW motif. (674-678). [0376] SEQ © NO: 56, Oats AsCslF6 type 2 polypeptide, W3 aa's. Si^

is amino adds 1-90, predicted transmembrane domains are amino acids 104-125, 133- 152, 707-730, 743-765, 779-800, 833-852, 867-889 and 896-917. Amino acids known to be critical for activity are D227, DxD (429-431), D635 and QxxRW motifs (673-

677) ,

[0377] SEQ ID NO: 57, Oats AsCslF6 type 3 polypeptide, 944 aa*s. Motifs as for SEQ 1DNO: 55.

[0378] SEQ ID NO: 58, BdCelF6_277-357J0 cDNA, 2933 nt's. The first 12 nucleotides and last 12 nucleotides are vector sequences from pCR BluntU. The T7 epitope tag sequence is nucleotides 16-48, and the translation stop codon TOA is nucleotides 2866-2868.

[0379] SEQ ID NO: 59, BdCslF6T7 polypeptide, 950 aa's. T7tag is amino acids 1- 1). Signal sequence is amino acids 12-93, predicted transmembrane domains arc amino acids 107-128, 135-155, 713-735, 747-769, 783-804, 837-856, 871-893 and 900-920. Amino acids known to be critical for activity are D230, DxD (433-435), D639 and QxxRW motifs (677-681).

[0380] SEQ ID NO: 60, Rice OsCslF6_69-324_15 cDNA 3115 nt's. The first 12 nucleotides and last 12 nucleotides are vector sequences from pCR Bluntll. The initiating methionine ATO is nucleotides 244-246, the translation stop codon TOA is nucleotides 3100-3102.

[0381] SEQ ID NO: 61, Rtoe OsCslF6 polypeptide, 952 aa's. Signal sequence is amino acids 1-90, predicted transmembrane domains are amino acids 104-125, 1 2- 152, 712-732, 744-766, 780-801, 834-853, 868-890 and 897-918. Amino acids known to be critical for activity are D227, DxD (429-431 ), D636 and QxxRW motifs (674-

678) .

[0382) SEQ ID NOs: 62-163. Oligonucleotide primers (Table 1).

[0383] SEQ ID NO:164 Zea mays cDNA corresponding to ZmCsIF6-l GRMZM2G110145

[0384] SEQ ID NO: 165 Zea mays cDNA conespcmduig to ZmCslF6-2 GRMZM2G122277-T01 [0385] SEQ1DNO:166 lea mays cDNA corresponding to ZmCslF6-l J91- 392_14

[0386] SEQ1DNO:167 Zea mays cDNA corresponding to ZmCsIF6-2 393- 392_6

[0387] SEQ1DNO: 168 Sorghum biclor cDNA corresponding to SbCsIF6 Sb07g004110|Sb07g004110.1

[0388] SEQ1DNO:169 HvCslF6_116-77(pSJ226)

[0389] SEQ1DNO.170 Amino acid sequence of Zea mays CslF6 polypeptide G MZM2G 1101 5_T01 pro

[0390] SEQ1DNO: 71 Amino acid sequence of Zea mays CslF6 polypeptide - GRMZM2G122277-TOlpro

[0391] SEQ1DNO: 172 Amino acid sequence of Zea mays CslF6 polypeptide ZmCslF6-l 391-392J4pro

[0392J SEQ1DNO: 173 Amino acid sequence of Zea mays CslF6 polypeptide Zea mays CslF6 ZmCslF6-2393-392_6pro

[0393] SEQ1DNO: 174 Amino acid sequence of Sorghum bicolor CslF6 polypeptide- Sorghum bicolor|Sb07g004110|Sbo7g004110.1

[0394J SEQ1DNO: 175 Amino acid sequence of Hordeum vulgare CslF6 polypeptide HvCsIF6 (pSJ226). Signal sequence is amino acids 1-90, predicted transmembrane domains are amino acids 105-127, 134-153, 714-736, 743-765, 778- 800, 830-852, 867-889 and 896-918.

[0395] SEQ1DNO: 176 Amino acid sequence of native HvCslF6 TM4

[03%] SEQ1DNO: 177 Amino acid sequence of native ZmCslF6 TM4

[0397] SEQ1DNO: 178 Amino acid sequence of HvCsIF6 TM4 amino acid substitution mutant Table 1. Nucleotide sequences of primers used hi cloning CslFaad /H sequences and in RT-PCR experiments

O 2015/017

Table 5. Relative tnuugene expression levels in Tl developing grain (angle or duplicate pooled Tl grain samples approximately 15 DPA) and BO levels in mature grain from wbeat plants transformed with chimeric gene encoding HvCs1H

Table 7. Primers used in cloning cereal CslFaad Cs!H genes

Table 8. HvCslF6 wheat T2 grain with increased BG content has an altered structure

Table 9. DP3/DP4 ratio of BG from ooled HvCslF6 wheat T3 wholemeal flour

Table 10. Summary of binary vectors for transient expression of Csl proteins in N. t

Table 11. Amount and structure of BO from heterologous CslF6 genes expressed transiently in N. benthamiana leaves.

Table 12. Amount and structure of BO from CslF6 genes expressed in N. benthamiana leaves (average of 4 biological replicates per construct, (+/- s.d.).

Table 13. PGR analysis of regenerated wheat plants and AsCslF6 transgene expression and BQ content in Tl grains

Tibfe 14. BO content, DP3 DP4 ratio and avenge grain weight of T2 wheat gram expressing AsCslF6

Table 17. Composition of grains ransfomied with both CslF6 and Cs1H constructs

Table 18. Composition of wheat flours and muffins made with wheat grain transformed Table 19. Water-solubility of BG in transgenic wheat flows made from grain twrasformed with constructs to express CslF6 polypeptides from barley or oats, as determined without a heat inactivation step (Example 21).

Table 21. DP3/DP4 ratio of BO produced by chimaeric CslF6 genes (BglII-EcoRI

Table 22. DP3/DP4 ratio of BO produced by chimeric CslF6 genes (BglII-XbaI or XbaI- Table 23. DP3 DP4 ratio of BO produced by chimeric CslF6 genes (BgM-Xbol gBlock

Table 24. DP3/DP4 ratio of BO produced by chimeric CslF6 genes (Pstl-Xbal gBlock riagments

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