Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
WIDEBAND NR-U OPERATION COMPATIBLE WITH NARROWBAND INTERLACE STRUCTURES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/216910
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
In an example of an embodiment a method is provided including determining a first set of resources within an unlicensed wide bandwidth to be allocated for uplink transmission by a user equipment; determining a second set of resources based on a first configuration of an interlace structure for at least one subband within the unlicensed wide bandwidth, wherein the second set of resources correspond to one or more interlaces of the first configuration that are to be excluded from the first set of resources; and transmitting, to the user equipment, information relating to the first set of resources and the second set of resources to indicate the uplink resources allocated for the user equipment.

Inventors:
TIIROLA, Esa (Porttikellonkuja 12, Kempele, Kempele, FI)
HOOLI, Kari (Paloniemenranta 5 C 6, Oulu, Oulu, FI)
PIIPPONEN, Antti (Hirsipadonkuja 1 D 28, Helsinki, Helsinki, FI)
Application Number:
US2018/032260
Publication Date:
November 14, 2019
Filing Date:
May 11, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
NOKIA TECHNOLOGIES OY (Karaportti 3, Espoo, Espoo, FI)
NOKIA USA INC. (200 South Mathilda Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA, 94086, US)
International Classes:
H04L5/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2017164664A12017-09-28
WO2017146987A12017-08-31
Foreign References:
US20170289967A12017-10-05
Other References:
ERICSSON: "Uplink Resource Allocation Design for Enhanced LAA", vol. RAN WG1, no. St Julian's, Malta; 20160215 - 20160219, 6 February 2016 (2016-02-06), XP051064478, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20160206]
None
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
LOVERME, Stephen, R., III et al. (Harrington & Smith, Attorneys at Law LLC,4 Research Driv, Shelton CT, 06484-6212, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. An apparatus comprising:

at least one processor; and

at least one memory including computer program code, the at least one memory and computer program code configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus to at least:

determine a first set of resources within an unlicensed wide bandwidth of a cell to be allocated for uplink transmission by a user equipment;

determine a second set of resources based on a first configuration of an interlace structure for at least one subband within the unlicensed wide bandwidth, wherein the second set of resources correspond to one or more interlaces of the first configuration that are to be excluded from the first set of resources; and

transmit, to the user equipment, information relating to the first set of resources and the second set of resources to indicate the uplink resources allocated for the user equipment.

2. The apparatus as in claim 1, wherein determination of the first set of resources is based at least on a physical resource block grid corresponding to the unlicensed wide bandwidth, and wherein the first set of resources is a continuous set of resources in the predefined physical resource block grid.

3. The apparatus as in any one of claims 1-2, wherein the information relating to the first set of resources comprises an indication of the first resource and the last resource of the first set of resources within the wide bandwidth.

4. The apparatus as in any one of claims 1-3, wherein the interlace structure corresponds to one of: a predefined interlace structure comprising at least a cluster size, a number of interlaces, a starting position of the interlace structure, and the number of clusters for each of interlaces; and

a flexible interlace structure comprising at least: a cluster size, a number of interlaces, a starting position and an ending position of the interlace structure.

5. The apparatus as in any one of claims 1-4, wherein the transmitted information relating to the second set of uplink resources indicates at least one of:

a bitmap comprising a plurality of bits wherein a value of each bit indicates whether a given interlace of the interlace structure is included in the first configuration; and

a value corresponding to one of plurality signaling states, wherein the plurality of signaling states indicate one or more interlaces of a set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure that are included the first configuration.

6. The apparatus as in claim 5, wherein the plurality of signaling states comprises at least one of:

a first signaling state indicating that all interlaces in the set of interlaces are included in the first configuration; and

a second signaling state indicating that none of the interlaces in the set of interlaces are included in the first configuration.

7. The apparatus as in any one of claims 1-6, wherein determination of the second set of resources is further based on a different, second configuration of the interlace structure for at least one second subband within the unlicensed wide bandwidth.

8. The apparatus as in any one of claims 7, wherein at least one of:

the information indicating the second set of resources further comprises a second bitmap comprising a plurality of bits wherein a value of each bit indicates whether a given interlace of the interlace structure is included in the second configuration; the information indicating the second set of resources further comprises a further value corresponding to one or more of the plurality signaling states indicating one or more interlaces of the set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure is included in the second configuration; and

each of the plurality of signaling states indicate one or more interlaces of the set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure that are included in each of the first configuration and the second configuration.

9. The apparatus as in any one of the preceding claims, wherein the at least one memory and computer program code are configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus to:

receive an uplink transmission from the user equipment in accordance the transmitted information.

10. The apparatus as in claim 9, wherein reception of the uplink transmission is dependent on a ratio of the first set of resources and the second set of resources.

11. The apparatus as in any one of the preceding claims, wherein the uplink resources allocated for the user equipment are for a physical uplink shared channel, and wherein downlink control information comprises the information relating to the first set of resources and the second set of resources.

12. A method comprising:

determining a first set of resources within an unlicensed wide bandwidth of a cell to be allocated for uplink transmission by a user equipment;

determining a second set of resources based on a first configuration of an interlace structure for at least one subband within the unlicensed wide bandwidth, wherein the second set of resources correspond to one or more interlaces of the first configuration that are to be excluded from the first set of resources; and

transmitting, to the user equipment, information relating to the first set of resources and the second set of resources to indicate the uplink resources allocated for the user equipment.

13. An apparatus comprising:

at least one processor; and

at least one memory including computer program code, the at least one memory and computer program code configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus to at least:

receive information related to an allocation of uplink resources within an unlicensed wide bandwidth of a cell, wherein the information comprises at least: an indication of a first set of the uplink resources and an indication of at least a first configuration of an interlace structure for at least one subband of the wide bandwidth; determine a second set of the uplink resources to be excluded from the first set of the uplink resources based on the information, wherein the second set of the uplink resources correspond to at least: one or more interlaces of the first configuration of the interlace structure; and

transmit data using the remaining uplink resources in the first set.

14. The apparatus as in claim 13, wherein the interlace structure corresponds to one of: a predefined interlace structure comprising at least a cluster size, a number of interlaces, a starting position of the interlace structure, and the number of clusters for each of interlaces; and

a flexible interlace structure comprising at least: a cluster size, a number of interlaces, a starting position and an ending position of the interlace structure.

15. The apparatus as in any one of claims 13-14, wherein the indication of the first configuration of the interlace structure for the at least one subband of the wide bandwidth, comprises at least one of:

a bitmap comprising a plurality of bits wherein a value of each bit indicates whether a given interlace of the interlace structure is included in the first configuration; and a value corresponding to one of plurality signaling states, wherein the plurality of signaling states indicate one or more interlaces of a set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure that are included the first configuration.

16. The apparatus as in any one of claims 13-15, wherein the information further indicates a different, second configuration of the interlace structure for at least one second subband within the unlicensed wide bandwidth of the cell, and wherein determination of the second set of the uplink resources to be excluded from the first set of the uplink resources is further based on the second configuration of the interlace structure.

17. The apparatus as in any one of claims 16, wherein at least one of:

the information indicating the second configuration comprises a second bitmap comprising a plurality of bits wherein a value of each bit indicates whether a given interlace of the interlace structure is included in the second configuration;

the information indicating the second configuration comprises a further value corresponding to one or more of the plurality signaling states indicating one or more interlaces of the set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure is included in the second configuration; and

each of the plurality of signaling states indicate one or more interlaces of the set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure that are included in each of the first configuration and the second configuration.

18. The apparatus as in any one of claims 13-17, wherein the at least one memory and computer program code are configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus to:

compare the first set of uplink resources and the second set of uplink resources based on a rule to determine at least whether the allocation is an almost contiguous allocation;

in response to determination that the allocation is an almost contiguous allocation, transmit data in accordance with the received information with a first maximum allowed power reduction, and in response to determination that allocation is not an almost contiguous allocation: either determine the allocation to be invalid or transmit data using the uplink resources by applying a second maximum power reduction, wherein the second maximum allowed power reduction is larger than the first maximum power reduction.

19. The apparatus as in claim 18, wherein

the rule comprises comparison of a ratio between the first set of resource and the second set of uplink resources to a threshold, such that when the ratio is less than the threshold, the allocation is determined to be an almost contiguous allocation; and in response to determination that the ratio exceeds the threshold, the allocation is determined to be not an almost contiguous allocation.

20. A method comprising:

receiving information related to an allocation of uplink resources within an unlicensed wide bandwidth of a cell, wherein the information comprises at least: an indication of a first set of the uplink resources and an indication of a first configuration of an interlace structure for at least one subband of the wide bandwidth;

determining a second set of the uplink resources to be excluded from the first set of the uplink resources based on the information, wherein the second set of the uplink resources correspond to at least: one or more interlaces of the first configuration of the interlace structure; and

transmitting data using the remaining uplink resources in the first set.

Description:
WIDEBAND NR-U OPERATION COMPATIBLE WITH NARROWBAND

INTERLACE STRUCTURES

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] Various example embodiments relate generally to wireless networks and, more specifically, relates to utilization of unlicensed spectrum in wireless networks.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Unlicensed frequency bands are portions of the radio frequency spectrum that do not require a license for use and may therefore be used by any device to transmit or receive radiofrequency signals. Wireless networks may utilize unlicensed frequency bands to provide additional bandwidth for communications between base stations and user equipments, for example. The operation of such communications may be based on different standards, such as Licensed Assisted Access (LAA) and MulteFire for example. LAA provides licensed-assisted access to unlicensed spectrum while coexisting with other technologies and fulfilling regulatory requirements, whereas MulteFire relates to stand-alone unlicensed band operation.

[0003] Abbreviations that may be found in the specification and/or the drawing figures are defined below, after the main part of the detailed description section.

BRIEF SUMMARY

[0004] This section is intended to include examples and is not intended to be limiting.

[0005] In an example of an embodiment, a method is provided including: determining a first set of resources within an unlicensed wide bandwidth of a cell to be allocated for uplink transmission by a user equipment; determining a second set of resources based on a first configuration of an interlace structure for at least one subband within the unlicensed wide bandwidth, wherein the second set of resources correspond to one or more interlaces of the first configuration that are to be excluded from the first set of resources; and transmitting, to the user equipment, information relating to the first set of resources and the second set of resources to indicate the uplink resources allocated for the user equipment. [0006] An additional example of an embodiment includes a computer program, comprising code for performing the method of the previous paragraph, when the computer program is run on a processor. The computer program according to this paragraph, wherein the computer program is a computer program product comprising a computer-readable medium bearing computer program code embodied therein for use with a computer.

[0007] An example of an apparatus includes one or more processors and one or more memories including computer program code. The one or more memories and the computer program code are configured to, with the one or more processors, cause the apparatus to perform at least the following: determining a first set of resources within an unlicensed wide bandwidth of a cell to be allocated for uplink transmission by a user equipment; determining a second set of resources based on a first configuration of an interlace structure for at least one subband within the unlicensed wide bandwidth, wherein the second set of resources correspond to one or more interlaces of the first configuration that are to be excluded from the first set of resources; and transmitting, to the user equipment, information relating to the first set of resources and the second set of resources to indicate the uplink resources allocated for the user equipment.

[0008] In another example of an embodiment, an apparatus comprises means for determining a first set of resources within an unlicensed wide bandwidth of a cell to be allocated for uplink transmission by a user equipment; means for determining a second set of resources based on a first configuration of an interlace structure for at least one subband within the unlicensed wide bandwidth, wherein the second set of resources correspond to one or more interlaces of the first configuration that are to be excluded from the first set of resources; and means for transmitting, to the user equipment, information relating to the first set of resources and the second set of resources to indicate the uplink resources allocated for the user equipment.

[0009] In an example of an embodiment, a method is provided including: receiving information related to an allocation of uplink resources within an unlicensed wide bandwidth of a cell, wherein the information comprises at least: an indication of a first set of the uplink resources and an indication of a first configuration of an interlace structure for at least one subband of the wide bandwidth; determining a second set of the uplink resources to be excluded from the first set of the uplink resources based on the information, wherein the second set of the uplink resources correspond to at least: one or more interlaces of the first configuration of the interlace structure; and transmitting data using the remaining uplink resources in the first set.

[0010] An additional example of an embodiment includes a computer program, comprising code for performing the method of the previous paragraph, when the computer program is run on a processor. The computer program according to this paragraph, wherein the computer program is a computer program product comprising a computer-readable medium bearing computer program code embodied therein for use with a computer.

[0011] An example of an apparatus includes one or more processors and one or more memories including computer program code. The one or more memories and the computer program code are configured to, with the one or more processors, cause the apparatus to perform at least the following: receiving information related to an allocation of uplink resources within an unlicensed wide bandwidth of a cell, wherein the information comprises at least: an indication of a first set of the uplink resources and an indication of a first configuration of an interlace structure for at least one subband of the wide bandwidth; determining a second set of the uplink resources to be excluded from the first set of the uplink resources based on the information, wherein the second set of the uplink resources correspond to at least: one or more interlaces of the first configuration of the interlace structure; and transmitting data using the remaining uplink resources in the first set.

[0012] In another example of an embodiment, an apparatus comprises means for receiving information related to an allocation of uplink resources within an unlicensed wide bandwidth of a cell, wherein the information comprises at least: an indication of a first set of the uplink resources and an indication of a first configuration of an interlace structure for at least one subband of the wide bandwidth; means for determining a second set of the uplink resources to be excluded from the first set of the uplink resources based on the information, wherein the second set of the uplink resources correspond to at least: one or more interlaces of the first configuration of the interlace structure; and means for transmitting data using the remaining uplink resources in the first set. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0013] Some example embodiments will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings.

[0014] FIG. 1 is a block diagram of one possible and non-limiting exemplary system in which the exemplary embodiments may be practiced;

[0015] FIG. 2 shows example bandwidths for different subcarrier spacings in accordance with various example embodiments;

[0016] FIG. 3 shows example combinations of contiguous transmission bandwidth;

[0017] FIG. 4 shows an example resource allocation for LAA/MulteFire according to B-IFDMA;

[0018] FIG. 5 (including FIGS. 5A and 5B) shows an example of partial interlace allocations with PRB/RBG PUSCH allocation;

[0019] FIG. 6 shows an example of a 40 MHz carrier with 2x20 MHz subbands;

[0020] FIG. 7 (including FIGS. 7 A and 7B) shows an example of a resource allocation in accordance with various example embodiments;

[0021] FIG. 8 shows a table in accordance with various example embodiments; and

[0022] FIGS. 9 and 10 are logic flow diagrams for wideband NR-U operation compatible with narrowband interlace structures, and illustrate the operation of exemplary methods, a result of execution of computer program instructions embodied on a computer readable memory, functions performed by logic implemented in hardware, and/or interconnected means for performing functions in accordance with exemplary embodiments.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0023] Features as described herein occasionally refer to LTE terms, however, it is noted that these features may be used in the future with other types of systems (such as New Radio (NR)/5G wireless systems for example). These other wireless systems may be defined by a relevant wireless standard, such as is the case of NR/5G systems for example. In this way, references to, for example, an eNB (i.e. an LTE base station) are equally applicable to future base stations of these other wireless networks (such as, for example, base stations in 5G wireless networks referred to as gNB) unless indicated otherwise.

[0024] The exemplary embodiments herein describe techniques for wideband NR-U operation compatible with narrowband interlace structures. Additional description of these techniques is presented after a system into which the exemplary embodiments may be used is described.

[0025] Turning to FIG. 1, this figure shows a block diagram of one possible and non limiting exemplary system in which the exemplary embodiments may be practiced. In FIG. 1, a user equipment (UE) 110 is in wireless communication with a wireless network 100. A UE is a wireless, typically mobile device that can access a wireless network. The UE 110 includes one or more processors 120, one or more memories 125, and one or more transceivers 130 interconnected through one or more buses 127. Each of the one or more transceivers 130 includes a receiver, Rx, 132 and a transmitter, Tx, 133. The one or more buses 127 may be address, data, or control buses, and may include any interconnection mechanism, such as a series of lines on a motherboard or integrated circuit, fiber optics or other optical communication equipment, and the like. The one or more transceivers 130 are connected to one or more antennas 128. The one or more memories 125 include computer program code 123. The UE 110 includes a determination module, comprising one of or both parts 140-1 and/or 140-2, which may be implemented in a number of ways. The determination module may be implemented in hardware as determination module 140-1, such as being implemented as part of the one or more processors 120. The determination module 140-1 may be implemented also as an integrated circuit or through other hardware such as a programmable gate array. In another example, the determination module may be implemented as determination module 140-2, which is implemented as computer program code 123 and is executed by the one or more processors 120. For instance, the one or more memories 125 and the computer program code 123 may be configured to, with the one or more processors 120, cause the user equipment 110 to perform one or more of the operations as described herein. The UE 110 communicates with gNB/eNB 170 (generally referred to as gNB 170 below) via a wireless link 111.

[0026] The gNB 170 is a base station (for example, for 5G/LTE) that provides access by wireless devices such as the UE 110 to the wireless network 100. The gNB 170 includes one or more processors 152, one or more memories 155, one or more network interfaces (N/W I/F(s)) 161, and one or more transceivers 160 interconnected through one or more buses 157. Each of the one or more transceivers 160 includes a receiver, Rx, 162 and a transmitter, Tx, 163. The one or more transceivers 160 are connected to one or more antennas 158. The one or more memories 155 include computer program code 153. The gNB 170 includes an allocation module, comprising one of or both parts 150-1 and/or 150-2, which may be implemented in a number of ways. The allocation module may be implemented in hardware as allocation module 150-1, such as being implemented as part of the one or more processors 152. The allocation module 150-1 may be implemented also as an integrated circuit or through other hardware such as a programmable gate array. In another example, the allocation module may be implemented as allocation module 150-2, which is implemented as computer program code 153 and is executed by the one or more processors 152. For instance, the one or more memories 155 and the computer program code 153 are configured to, with the one or more processors 152, cause the gNB 170 to perform one or more of the operations as described herein. The one or more network interfaces 161 communicate over a network such as via the links 176 and 131. Two or more gNBs 170 communicate using, for example, link 176. The link 176 may be wired or wireless or both and may implement, for example, an X2 interface.

[0027] The one or more buses 157 may be address, data, or control buses, and may include any interconnection mechanism, such as a series of lines on a motherboard or integrated circuit, fiber optics or other optical communication equipment, wireless channels, and the like. For example, the one or more transceivers 160 may be implemented as a remote radio head (RRH) 195, with the other elements of the gNB 170 being physically in a different location from the RRH, and the one or more buses 157 could be implemented in part as fiber optic cable to connect the other elements of the gNB 170 to the RRH 195.

[0028] It is noted that description herein indicates that“cells” perform functions, but it should be clear that the gNB that forms the cell will perform the functions. The cell makes up part of a gNB. That is, there can be multiple cells per gNB. For instance, there could be three cells for a single gNB carrier frequency and associated bandwidth, each cell covering one-third of a 360 degree area so that the single gNB’s coverage area covers an approximate oval or circle. Furthermore, each cell can correspond to a single carrier and an gNB may use multiple carriers. So if there are three 120 degree cells per carrier and two carriers, then the gNB has a total of 6 cells.

[0029] The wireless network 100 may include one or more network control elements (NCE) 190 that may include MME (Mobility Management Entity) and/or SGW (Serving Gateway) functionality, and which provides connectivity with a further network, such as a telephone network and/or a data communications network (for example, the Internet). The gNB 170 is coupled via a link 131 to the NCE 190. The link 131 may be implemented as, for example, an Sl interface. For 5G wireless systems, the link 131 may represent a 5G interface, such as NG2 orNG3 for example. The NCE 190 includes one or more processors 175, one or more memories 171, and one or more network interfaces (N/W I/F(s)) 180, interconnected through one or more buses 185. The one or more memories 171 include computer program code 173. The one or more memories 171 and the computer program code 173 are configured to, with the one or more processors 175, cause the NCE 190 to perform one or more operations.

[0030] Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the various network elements shown in FIG. 1 may be implemented differently in future wireless network, such as 5G wireless networks. For example, the terms NCE, MME, and SGW are terms generally used for the core elements in a LTE network. In contrast to LTE, future wireless networks may carry out network functions (NFs) by a plurality of cooperating devices. The different NFs, may include for example, Access and Mobility Function (AMF), Session Management Function (SMF), Policy Control Function (PCF), Application Function (AF), Authentication Server Function (AUSF), User Plane Function (UPF), and User Data Management (UDM). These NFs may be a virtualized function instantiated on an appropriate platform, such as a cloud infrastructure. For example, certain protocols (such as non-real-time protocols for example) may be performed by one or more centralized units (CUs) in a cloud infrastructure, while one or more distributed units (DUs) operate the remaining protocols (e.g. real-time protocols) of the 5G radio interface. In this way, the various NFs may be split between CUs and DUs. Together a CU, underlying DUs, and RRHs may be considered as forming a logical base station (which may be represented by gNB 170 in FIG. 1 for example).

[0031] The wireless network 100 may implement network virtualization, which is the process of combining hardware and software network resources and network functionality into a single, software-based administrative entity, a virtual network. Network virtualization involves platform virtualization, often combined with resource virtualization. Network virtualization is categorized as either external, combining many networks, or parts of networks, into a virtual unit, or internal, providing network-like functionality to software containers on a single system. Note that the virtualized entities that result from the network virtualization are still implemented, at some level, using hardware such as processors 152 or 175 and memories 155 and 171, and also such virtualized entities create technical effects.

[0032] The computer readable memories 125, 155, and 171 may be of any type suitable to the local technical environment and may be implemented using any suitable data storage technology, such as semiconductor-based memory devices, flash memory, magnetic memory devices and systems, optical memory devices and systems, fixed memory and removable memory. The computer readable memories 125, 155, and 171 may be means for performing storage functions. The processors 120, 152, and 175 may be of any type suitable to the local technical environment, and may include one or more of general purpose computers, special purpose computers, microprocessors, digital signal processors (DSPs) and processors based on a multi-core processor architecture, as non-limiting examples. The processors 120, 152, and 175 may be means for performing functions, such as controlling the UE 110, gNB 170, and other functions as described herein.

[0033] In general, the various example embodiments of the user equipment 110 can include, but are not limited to, cellular telephones such as smart phones, tablets, personal digital assistants (PDAs) having wireless communication capabilities, portable computers having wireless communication capabilities, image capture devices such as digital cameras having wireless communication capabilities, gaming devices having wireless communication capabilities, music storage and playback appliances having wireless communication capabilities, Internet appliances permitting wireless Internet access and browsing, tablets with wireless communication capabilities, as well as portable units or terminals that incorporate combinations of such functions.

[0034] Having thus introduced one suitable but non-limiting technical context for the practice of the various exemplary embodiments, the exemplary embodiments will now be described with greater specificity.

Regulatory Landscape [0035] Unlicensed band usage involves different regulatory rules which aim at fair and equal spectrum usage for different devices. The main rules involve limitations related to occupied channel bandwidth (OCB) and maximum power spectral density (PSD).

[0036] The OCB rule is set forth, for example, in ETSI Harmonized Standard (ETSI EN 301 893, n.2.1.1), which states that the Occupied Channel BW, defined to be the bandwidth containing 99% of the power of the signal, shall be between 80% and 100% of the declared Nominal Channel BW. Equipment may operate temporarily with an Occupied Channel BW of less than 80 % of its Nominal Channel BW with a minimum of 2 MHz during a Channel Occupancy Time (COT).

[0037] The PSD rule relates to the Maximum PSD requirements that exist in many different regions (see e.g. TR 36.889). For most cases, the requirement is stated with a resolution bandwidth of 1 MHz. For example, the ETSI 301 893 specs requires 10 dBm/MHz for 5150-5350 MHz. Similar limitations are involved also in USA (governed by FCC). Peak UE’s PSD for 5.15 - 5.725 MHz is 11 dBm/MHz in USA.

[0038] Both rules are relevant especially for uplink transmissions since DL can be made wideband by gNB scheduler decision. It is noted that in order to maximize the transmission power a wide enough transmission bandwidth is needed.

Listen Before Talk (LBT) operation on LTE LAA and MulteFire uplink

[0039] In LTE LAA, two channel access procedures are defined for LBT, namely, Type 1 (a variant of Category 4 energy detection LBT procedure as described in TS36.889) and Type 2 (a variant of Category 2 energy detection LBT procedure):

[0040] In Type 1 LBT, a node generates a random number, N, uniformly distributed over a contention window (where the size of contention window depends on the channel access priority class of the traffic). Once a node has measured the channel to be vacant for N times, the it may occupy the channel with transmission. To align the transmission with LTE subframe/slot boundary, the node may need to resort to self-deferral during the LBT procedure.

[0041] In Type 2 LBT, anode performs a single channel measurement in a time interval of 25 us before transmission. For physical uplink shared channel (PUSCH), this type of LBT access procedure may be performed when eNB shares its channel occupancy time (COT) with the UE. In other words, the eNB has contended for the channel and once eNB has obtained access to the channel, it allows UEs to use a portion of its channel occupancy time for UL transmissions.

[0042] It is desirable to support UL transmission with Type 2 LBT within a gNB acquired COT also on NR-U (New radio Unlicensed), as it supports efficiently scheduled UL as well as UL FDMA (as well as multi-user MIMO).

[0043] In MulteFire, a UE may also skip the LBT procedure for UL control signaling within an eNB acquired COT if a UL transmission starts within 16 us after the end of DL transmission.

Wideband operation on NR-U

[0044] There are several wide unlicensed bands and even a single gNB or a UE can occasionally access very wide bandwidths. Hence, wideband operation is one of the key building blocks for NR-U. Both carrier aggregation and bandwidth part (BWP) mechanisms are supported in Rel-l5 NR for wideband operations. It is expected that NR-U should use both of these mechanisms to achieve sufficiently versatile support for wideband.

[0045] Conventional carrier aggregation offers several benefits, such as frequency domain flexibility as aggregated carriers do not need to be adjacent but may be spaced widely apart. This offers diversity for channel access for example. Also, each carrier may employ its own LBT procedure thus providing agile channel access. Thus, it can be seen that carrier aggregation should be supported for NR unlicensed (in addition to facilitating the LAA operation with NR licensed carrier). Of course, carrier aggregation also has its price as multiple RF chains are required which in turn increases the price of UE transceivers. Additionally, carrier aggregation increases UE power consumption and has rather considerable latency in the component carrier activation/deactivation (to save UE power).

[0046] In Rel-l5 NR, the concept of serving cell adaptive BW was introduced by means of BWPs. In Rel-l5 NR, a UE is instructed to operate on a specific part of gNB’s BW, that is, on a BWP. Up to 4 BWPs can be configured separately for UL and DL. Each BWP can have, for example, separately configured subcarrier spacing (SCS), cyclic prefix length, BW in terms of contiguous PRBs as well as location of the BW in the cell’s total BW, K0, Kl and K2 values defining the time offsets from DL assignment reception to the beginning of PDSCH, from the end of PDSCH to HARQ-ACK transmission time, and from UL grant reception to the start of PUSCH transmission, respectively. In case of unpaired spectrum (i.e. TDD), UL and DL BWPs can be paired, in which case the center frequency of both BWPs is the same. One of the BWPs may be defined as a default BW to, for example, facilitate UE battery saving.

[0047] In Rel-l5 NR, UE may have only one BWP active at a time. Active BWP can be indicated by a field in the DCI or by RRC signaling. BWP switching occurs after UE has received the signaling changing the active BWP, but switching time is yet to be determined. UE may also fall back to default BWP after a configured period of inactivity.

[0048] The BWP mechanism provides an alternative wideband mechanism when accessing unlicensed spectrum on adjacent 20 MHz channels as it can provide savings in the UE cost with reduced number of RF chains. A single RF chain and FFT processing can be used to access wide bandwidth of e.g. 80 MHz or 160 MHz on 5 GHz or 6 GHz (potential) unlicensed bands. It also improves the trade-off between UE throughput and battery consumption via fast BWP switching. As the BWP switching time is shorter than the component carrier (de)activation time (subject of current discussion in RAN4), a UE can be switched rather aggressively to a narrow BWP (and back to a wideband BWP) saving UE battery and compromising throughput less than the slower CC (de)activation. On the other hand, NR BWP switching time (hundreds of microseconds, e.g. 600 us) has clearly a different order of magnitude than a single CCA (e.g. 9 us) in LBT procedure. This poses constraints on how BWP operation and LBT can interact.

[0049] Channel contention mechanism is one of the key components for efficient wideband operation and the channel contention mechanism for wideband operations should be considered for NR. It is noted that both Wi-Fi and LTE LAA LBT operate on 20 MHz channels and some of the regulatory rules, e.g. ETSI’s standard, require LBT operation on 20 MHz grid at 5 GHz band. Hence, to meet regulatory requirements and to ensure fair coexistence with other systems, also NR-U should support 20 MHz grid for LBT operation at least for the 5 GHz unlicensed band. Of course, also wider LBT BWs should be supported e.g. for higher frequency unlicensed bands or for potential new unlicensed bands like the 6 GHz band. [0050] A non-limiting example of a framework for NR-U wideband operation (such as bands larger than 20 MHz for example):

• Operation in 5 GHz unlicensed spectrum;

• A large FFT size (such as 4k FFT as is assumed in Rel-l5 NR for example).

The maximum number of PRBs per BWP in Rel-l5 is 275. The assumption behind this is that the UE implementation is based on 4k FFT (275 PRB * 12 subcarriers/PRB = 3300 subcarriers); and

• A large SCS, such as 30 kHz or 60 kHz.

[0051] The term‘carrier bandwidth’ is generally used in the description below to refer to a carrier bandwidth as defined by NR standards (such as 40 MHz, 80 MHz or 160 MHz for example). However, this is not intended to be limiting and the term‘carrier bandwidth’ is also applicable to carrier bandwidths defined by other standards for example.

[0052] For the purposes of the description below the term‘subband’ refers to one (or possibly multiple adjacent) channel(s) on an unlicensed carrier, typically having a bandwidth of 20 MHz. A subband may be aligned with the bandwidth of LBT. A subband may be equal to BW of single LBT (e.g. 20 MHz), or multiple LBT BWs (e.g. 40 MHz). All subbands may have the same BW; or there may be combination of different subband BWs (such as an 80 MHz carrier BW containing 20+20+40 MHz subbands for example).

[0053] FIG. 2 shows possible NR BWs assuming 4k FFT with different subcarrier spacings, where each carrier bandwidth comprises multiple 20 Mhz subbands. In FIG. 2,‘20’ denotes a 20 MHz subband.

[0054] When operating according to unlicensed band regulations in an NR-U scenario, a gNB performs LBT before it can start transmitting a DL Tx burst in the cell. To meet regulatory requirements and to ensure fair coexistence with other systems NR-U should support subband LBT at least with 20 MHz resolution.

[0055] FIG. 3 shows a non-limiting example of a table 300 that includes possible transmission bandwidth combinations for a gNB after subband specific LBT. In this example, an 80 MHz bandwidth and contiguous allocation of 20 MHz subbands are assumed. The subbands in this figure are labeled A, B, C, and D. As such, this figure shows how one, two, three, or all four subbands could be allocated for NR-U transmissions. In some scenarios, also non-contiguous allocations of subbands can be considered and/or supported (although not shown in FIG. 3). Non-contiguous allocation may be a feasible assumption at least for gNB transmitter.

[0056] Maximum Power Reduction (MPR) is a concept, for example, from LTE and NR, where a UE’s maximum uplink TX power is rated according to its power class, (such as 23 dBm for example). This means, that the UE is able to transmit 23 dBm using a pre-defmed resource configuration, typically a narrow QPSK signal (few resource blocks). With larger resource allocations (such as allocation with more PRBs) or higher modulation (such as 16/64/256-QAM), a relaxation is allowed to the maximum output power. The relaxation is defined in terms of maximum power reduction (MPR). UE may reduce the maximum output power for given transmission from the maximum uplink transmission power of its power class based e.g. on the properties of transmitted signal(s). The maximum allowed power reduction is defined by MPR; UE may reduce the maximum output power also less than MPR. In general, it is attempted to minimize the excess MPR, such as only allowing a relaxation that really is needed for a certain transmission configuration. Additional-MPR (A-MPR) means that in some scenarios, the normal MPR definition is not enough to guarantee low enough unwanted emissions, and the output power requirement is further relaxed.

[0057] In general, various example embodiments are directed to facilitating wideband operation for NR-U using subband specific interlaces. Block Interleaved OFDMA (B- IFDMA) is the baseline uplink transmission scheme used for uplink transmission in unlicensed spectrum. Regulatory rules (such as ETSI for example) generally require that all signal(s) in wideband transmission must be easily detectable by neighboring nodes. B-IFDMA allocation facilitates efficient resource allocation for UL transmissions that do not normally require sufficiently wide BW, such as due to limited payload size for example.

[0058] FIG. 4 shows the principle of LAA/MulteFire UL transmission according to B- IFDMA. In the figure, each row of squares represents single PRB, and each square one symbol of one PRB. In B-IFDMA, allocation is performed based on interlaces each consisting of 10 equally spaced clusters of 1 PRB each. In the figure, three interlaces are allocated to three different user equipments, as shown with different shadings. The PRBs belonging to one interlaced allocation is pointed out with lines. [0059] FIG. 5 (which includes FIGS. 5A and 5B) shows an example of a partial interlace concept, which may be used to increase the multiplexing capacity when the number of allocated REs (and allowed UL Tx power) on a partial interlace remain sufficient for the intended payload. In FIG. 5, each column represents one cluster, and each row represents one interlace. One interlace comprises the clusters that are shaded similarly on the corresponding row. In figure 5, all shown interlaces are partial interlaces, occupying all together 36 first clusters (0 to 35). The resources corresponding to the last 36 clusters (i.e. 36 to 71) are available for non-interlace based transmission (e.g. PUSCH). Partial interlaces on interlaces 0, 1, 3 and 5 comprise 6 clusters each and are allocated to UEs #1, #2, #7, #5, respectively. Partial interlaces of 3 clusters are allocated on interlaces 2 and 4. For example, UEs #3 and #8 are allocated partial interlaces of 3 clusters on interlace 2, partial interlace allocation of UE #3 occupying clusters #2, #8, #14, and partial interlace allocation of UE #8 occupying clusters #20, #26, #32. With partial interlaces (and no cell edge UEs scheduled), interlaced allocations can be restricted into a sub-portion of a BW, such as shown in FIG. 5. One of the goals with this partial interlace concept is to provide more flexible coexistence with PRB/RBG type of PUSCH resource allocations.

[0060] Various example embodiments may utilize “almost contiguous PUSCH resource allocation” such as described in R4- 1804024 for example. A contiguous resource allocation contains a number of adjacent resource blocks and is the basic uplink transmission scheme for LTE and NR. All MPR (Maximum Power Reduction) specifications for NR have been developed for contiguous resource allocation only. Any allocation which is not contiguous in frequency domain, is by definition non contiguous, and so far, Rel-l5 NR has no requirements for such allocations - simple MPR specification for non-contiguous is not possible, and in LTE non-contiguous MPR always assumes worst case resource position from an unwanted emissions point of view which leads to a high MPR that is excessive for many transmission configurations. The almost contiguous allocation is a contiguous allocation, from which some PRBs have been punctured (such as up to some predefined limit for example). For instance, an almost contiguous allocation refer to an allocation where the number of punctured resources relative to the full allocation is less than a predefined ratio. This allocation type is close to a contiguous allocation from an unwanted emissions perspective, and can use the same, or essential the same, MPR as the corresponding contiguous allocation. It is expected that NR specifications for almost contiguous allocation are to be finalized in Rel-l6 time frame.

[0061] In some example embodiments, PUSCH resource allocation is provided for the wideband scenario consisting of a plurality of subbands (such as 20 MHz for example). In order to minimize the spectrum fragmentation, it may be preferable to concentrate all interlace-based transmissions (such as PUSCH with small data rate and long PUCCH) within a limited number of 20 MHz subbands (e.g. one or two subbands). This maximizes the opportunities for localized (wideband) transmission for other portions of the wideband carrier (including guard band between different 20 MHz subbands). On the other hand, interlace structure with 20 MHz bandwidth can already fulfill the regulatory rules related to OCB, and provide sufficient transmission power under constrained PSD. Based on that, at least one subband of the considered wideband channel (or BWP) has a narrowband interlace structure in use.

[0062] FIG. 6 shows a non-limiting example wideband scenario with 40 MHz carrier 602 consisting of two 20 MHz subbands 601-1, 601-2. An interlace structure may be characterized by the number of interlaces, the number of clusters and the cluster size. In the example shown in FIG. 6, the interlace structure includes 5 interlaces (corresponding to the by different rows 604) having a cluster size of 1 PRB (360 kHz), and 10 clusters per interlace.

[0063] In some example embodiments, a subband specific interlace structure is predefined, such as the interlace structure in FIG. 6 for example. In these embodiments, each interlace has a predefined location and size within the subband. The location may be given with respect to common PRB grid within the wideband carrier or BWP for example. In other example embodiments, the interlace structure in the frequency is flexible and supports variable starting and ending position, as well as, a flexible number of clusters. It is noted that FIG. 6 is merely exemplary, and that the various example embodiments are equally applicable when, for example, the total amount of PRBs is different.

[0064] According to some example embodiments, PUSCH resources are allocated in the wideband carrier around one or more interlace(s). The PUSCH resource allocation in the frequency domain may include two parts. In part 1, PUSCH resources are allocated on a wideband carrier using a PRB grid and numerology. Numerology may be seen to refer in this context to a set of the basic time and frequency domain values of an OFDM system. Numerology may be defined by a key parameter value, e.g., a numerology may be defined by OFDM subcarrier spacing. Distinct OFDM symbol duration, cyclic prefix duration, and e.g. slot duration are related for each numerology. Numerology may be configured e.g. in system information or via RRC signaling. The PRB grid and/or numerology may be predefined such as at least in part by a relevant wireless standard. For example, different grids having a different number of PRBs are defined for different number of subbands or for different bandwidths. Some parameters may be configured to the UE (e.g. as part of system information or UE-specific RRC signaling), such as a frequency offset between PRB grid and synchronization signal or selection of PRB grid (or number of subbands or bandwidth) for example.

[0065] This resource allocation is contiguous and it is signaled, for example, according to NR Resource allocation type 1 (start, stop). In part 2, resources are allocated that are excluded from the PUSCH resources allocated in part 1, and these resources are reserved interlaces (i.e. reserved for other usage, e.g. being used by other UEs, and allocated by means of interlace-based resource allocation).

[0066] In one example embodiment, the PUSCH resource allocation grant (DCI) includes both the resources allocated in Part 1 and in Part 2. This PUSCH resource allocation may be“almost contiguous” such that effectively the same MPR may be used in the Part 1 and Part 2 allocation. In LTE/LAA, such allocation would be non contiguous, and use significantly higher MPR.

[0067] In one example embodiment, the ratio of PRBs contained in Part 2/Part 1 (=R) is upper limited (- RMAX), such as being defined by a specification. If R = (the number of PRBs of Part 2) / (the number of PRBs of Part 1) < RMAX, then the UE transmits the PUSCH according to the gNB’s request and without A-MPR (Additional Maximum Power Reduction) or with a very small A-MPR, according to the almost contiguous resource allocation. Otherwise, when R exceeds the predefined value for PUSCH the PUSCH may be dropped (e.g. considered as an invalid allocation), or the allocation maybe considered as non-contiguous and a corresponding (typically higher) MPR may be applied for the transmission. Applying MPR to a transmission means that UE may reduce the maximum output power for the transmission from the maximum uplink transmission power of its power class an amount that is less than or equal to the maximum power reduction. [0068] RMAX is, for example, a predefined parameter (such as 25% as a non-limiting example) and it may vary according to the scenario. In one scenario, R is quantized into multiple classes with the class-specific MPR/A-MPR. Due to the finite number of interlaces, the PUSCH configurations and the value RMAX can be exhaustively simulated in an RF simulator, which allows the excess MPR/A-MPR to be very small.

[0069] FIG. 7 shows an example of resource allocation in accordance with some example embodiments. In this example, interlace structure consists of 5 interlaces, 10 clusters in each where the cluster size = 1 PRB. The interlace structure 702 is at predefined location on the common (wideband) PRB grid, and starts at PRB#55 in this example. Part 1 resource allocation contains the start PRB (PRB#0) and the end PRB (PRB# 105) on the wideband PRB grid. Part 2 contains the information that two interlaces corresponding to the first and second PRB in the interlace structure 702 are reserved (by other UEs). In this example, the interlace structure includes 5 interlaces. R=Size of Part 1 / Size of Part 2 = 20 PRBs/l06 PRBs = 18.9%. Hence, this can be considered“almost contiguous” and transmitted with a small MPR provided that RMAX=25%.

[0070] Subband specific LBT: In order to minimize spectrum fragmentation, in some examples all interlace -based transmissions (PUSCH with small data rate, long PUCCH and/or PUSCH supporting only 20 MHz bandwidth) are concentrated within one 20 MHz subband. On the other hand, due to LBT, the subband with interlace-based transmission may need to vary dynamically. For that reason, there is a need to support the option where the starting PRB of the interlace structure (of Part 2) is indicated dynamically, as discussed in more detail below.

[0071] According to some example embodiments, there are two aspects in the signaling of the reserved resources in the Part 2 allocation: 1) configuration of resource space and 2) indication of resources to be excluded based on the configured resource space.

1) Configuration of Resource Space

[0072] There are different options for configuring the resource space for Part 2. In one option, a predefined and subband specific interlace structure is defined, such as shown in FIG. 6 for example. The configuration includes: a cluster size (c): a number of interlaces (n): the first PRB of the interlace structure (k): and the number of clusters per interlace (n_c). [0073] Another option is to have flexible start and/or end position for the interlace structure. This option allows the interlace structure to be defined with a flexible location, flexible size and/or with flexible number of clusters per interlace. The interlace structure may be defined based on the following parameters: cluster size (c): number of interlaces (n): the first PRB of the interlace structure (k): and the last PRB of the interlace structure (/). In some versions, the interlace structure may be indicated also in terms of a 'number of clusters if all interlaces have an equal number of clusters.

[0074] In one example embodiment, the entire interlace structure is defined via higher layer signaling (such as RRC signaling for example).

[0075] According to one example embodiment, a part of the configuration (such as cluster size, number of interlaces) is defined via higher layer signaling whereas a part of the configuration is made by means of dynamic signaling. For example, an indication of the first PRB of the interlace structure can be conveyed dynamically as part of PUSCH resource allocation (such as within two or four preconfigured values for example). This allows dynamic coexistence between wideband PUSCH and narrowband PUSCH using subband specific interlace, such that subband with PUSCH interlace(s) can vary according to gNB/UE LBT.

2) Indication of Resources to be Excluded

[0076] Another aspect of Part 2 is to indicate which resources of the configured resource space needs to be excluded from the current PUSCH resource allocation

• Option 1: In one option, the indication is done via dynamic signaling (as part of UL grant). For example, a bitmap approach may be used where each bit indicates one interlace. For example, if there are 5 possible interlaces in a given interlace structure, bitmap comprises 5 bits. If only the first two interlaces are to be excluded, the bitmap may, for example, be set to‘ 11000’ (such as the case in FIG. 7 for example). In another example, a Reverse Indication Value (RIV) indicating the number of (consecutive) reserved interlaces is used. For example, ‘4’ may indicate that interlaces [0, 1, 2, 3] are reserved For this example, one signaling state should be reserved for the following cases: 1) all interlaces are reserved and 2) no interlaces is reserved.

Option 2: Another option is to use a combination of semi-static and dynamic signaling. For this option, the UE is configured with multiple interlace allocation options via higher layer signaling, and the gNB dynamically selects one option out of available options and conveys this information via UL grant.

• Option 3, is indicating the reserved interlaces using semi-static signaling. This option may be used in combination with Option 1 and/or Option 2; for example some interlaces are reserved semi-statically while additional interlaces may be indicated dynamically.

[0077] Support for multiple subband specific interlaces: The resource allocation can be extended to support interlace structure (Part 2) on multiple subbands at the same time. This can be done, for example, such that Part 2 (resource space configuration) is defined separately for two or more subbands. The dynamic indication of Part 2 could be made e.g. according to FIG. 8 (and Option 1 discussed above). FIG. 8 shows an example table 800 showing different signaling states corresponding to reserved interlaces of different subbands. In the example shown in FIG. 8 two subbands contain a predefined interlace structure with 5 interlaces on both. For example, the signaling state 110 in table 800 indicates that each of subbands 1 and 2 include two interlaces (corresponding to interlace 0 and 1 in a predefined interlace structure); whereas signaling state 001 indicates subband 1 includes one interlace (i.e. interlace 0) and there are no interlaces included in subband 2. Table 800 is merely an example, and it should be appreciated that, for example, the number of signaling states and/or subbands could be different.

[0078] FIG. 9 is a logic flow diagram for wideband NR-U operation compatible with narrowband interlace structures. This figure further illustrates the operation of an exemplary method or methods, a result of execution of computer program instructions embodied on a computer readable memory, functions performed by logic implemented in hardware, and/or interconnected means for performing functions in accordance with exemplary embodiments. For instance, the allocation module 150-1 and/or 150-2 may include multiples ones of the blocks in FIG. 9, where each included block is an interconnected means for performing the function in the block. The blocks in FIG. 9 are assumed to be performed by a base station such as gNB 170, e.g., under control of the allocation module 150-1 and/or 150-2 at least in part.

[0079] According to an example of an embodiment, a method is provided including determining a first set of resources within an unlicensed wide bandwidth of a cell to be allocated for uplink transmission by a user equipment as indicated by block 900; determining a second set of resources based on a first configuration of an interlace structure for at least one subband within the unlicensed wide bandwidth, wherein the second set of resources correspond to one or more interlaces of the first configuration that are to be excluded from the first set of resources as indicated by block 902; and transmitting, to the user equipment, information relating to the first set of resources and the second set of resources to indicate the uplink resources allocated for the user equipment as indicated by block 904.

[0080] Determining the first set of resources may be based at least on a physical resource block grid corresponding to the unlicensed wide bandwidth, and the first set of resources may be a continuous set of resources in the predefined physical resource block grid. The information relating to the first set of resources may include an indication of the first resource and the last resource of the first set of resources within the wide bandwidth. The interlace structure may correspond to a predefined interlace structure comprising at least a cluster size, a number of interlaces, a starting position of the interlace structure, and the number of clusters for each of interlaces. The interlace structure may correspond to a flexible interlace structure comprising at least: a cluster size, a number of interlaces, a starting position and an ending position of the interlace structure. The transmitted information relating to the second set of uplink resources may indicate at least one of: a bitmap comprising a plurality of bits wherein a value of each bit indicates whether a given interlace of the interlace structure is included in the first configuration; and a value corresponding to one of plurality signaling states, wherein the plurality of signaling states indicate one or more interlaces of a set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure that are included the first configuration. The plurality of signaling states may include at least one of: a first signaling state indicating that all interlaces in the set of interlaces are included in the first configuration; and a second signaling state indicating that none of the interlaces in the set of interlaces are included in the first configuration. Determining the second set of resources may be further based on a different, second configuration of the interlace structure for at least one second subband within the unlicensed wide bandwidth. The information indicating the second set of resources may include a second bitmap comprising a plurality of bits wherein a value of each bit indicates whether a given interlace of the interlace structure is included in the second configuration. The information indicating the second set of resources may include a further value corresponding to one or more of the plurality signaling states indicating one or more interlaces of the set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure is included in the second configuration. Each of the plurality of signaling states may indicate one or more interlaces of the set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure that are included in each of the first configuration and the second configuration. The method may include receiving an uplink transmission from the user equipment in accordance the transmitted information. Receiving the uplink transmission may be dependent on a ratio of the first set of resources and the second set of resources. The uplink resources allocated for the user equipment may be for a physical uplink shared channel. The downlink control information may include the information relating to the first set of resources and the second set of resources.

[0081] According to another example of an embodiment, an apparatus is provided including: means for determining a first set of resources within an unlicensed wide bandwidth of a cell to be allocated for uplink transmission by a user equipment; means for determining a second set of resources based on a first configuration of an interlace structure for at least one subband within the unlicensed wide bandwidth, wherein the second set of resources correspond to one or more interlaces of the first configuration that are to be excluded from the first set of resources; and means for transmitting, to the user equipment, information relating to the first set of resources and the second set of resources to indicate the uplink resources allocated for the user equipment.

[0082] Determining the first set of resources may be based at least on a physical resource block grid corresponding to the unlicensed wide bandwidth, and the first set of resources may be a continuous set of resources in the predefined physical resource block grid. The information relating to the first set of resources may include an indication of the first resource and the last resource of the first set of resources within the wide bandwidth. The interlace structure may correspond to a predefined interlace structure comprising at least a cluster size, a number of interlaces, a starting position of the interlace structure, and the number of clusters for each of interlaces. The interlace structure may correspond to a flexible interlace structure comprising at least: a cluster size, a number of interlaces, a starting position and an ending position of the interlace structure. The transmitted information relating to the second set of uplink resources may indicate at least one of: a bitmap comprising a plurality of bits wherein a value of each bit indicates whether a given interlace of the interlace structure is included in the first configuration; and a value corresponding to one of plurality signaling states, wherein the plurality of signaling states indicate one or more interlaces of a set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure that are included the first configuration. The plurality of signaling states may include at least one of: a first signaling state indicating that all interlaces in the set of interlaces are included in the first configuration; and a second signaling state indicating that none of the interlaces in the set of interlaces are included in the first configuration. Determining the second set of resources may be further based on a different, second configuration of the interlace structure for at least one second subband within the unlicensed wide bandwidth. The information indicating the second set of resources may include a second bitmap comprising a plurality of bits wherein a value of each bit indicates whether a given interlace of the interlace structure is included in the second configuration. The information indicating the second set of resources may include a further value corresponding to one or more of the plurality signaling states indicating one or more interlaces of the set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure is included in the second configuration. Each of the plurality of signaling states may indicate one or more interlaces of the set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure that are included in each of the first configuration and the second configuration. The apparatus may include means for receiving an uplink transmission from the user equipment in accordance the transmitted information. Receiving the uplink transmission may be dependent on a ratio of the first set of resources and the second set of resources. The uplink resources allocated for the user equipment may be for a physical uplink shared channel. The downlink control information may include the information relating to the first set of resources and the second set of resources.

[0083] According to another example of an embodiment, an apparatus is provided including at least one processor; and at least one memory including computer program code, the at least one memory and computer program code configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus to at least: determine a first set of resources within an unlicensed wide bandwidth of a cell to be allocated for uplink transmission by a user equipment; determine a second set of resources based on a first configuration of an interlace structure for at least one subband within the unlicensed wide bandwidth, wherein the second set of resources correspond to one or more interlaces of the first configuration that are to be excluded from the first set of resources; and transmit, to the user equipment, information relating to the first set of resources and the second set of resources to indicate the uplink resources allocated for the user equipment.

[0084] Determination of the first set of resources may be based at least on a physical resource block grid corresponding to the unlicensed wide bandwidth, and the first set of resources may be a continuous set of resources in the predefined physical resource block grid. The information relating to the first set of resources may include an indication of the first resource and the last resource of the first set of resources within the wide bandwidth. The interlace structure may correspond to a predefined interlace structure comprising at least a cluster size, a number of interlaces, a starting position of the interlace structure, and the number of clusters for each of interlaces. The interlace structure may correspond to a flexible interlace structure comprising at least: a cluster size, a number of interlaces, a starting position and an ending position of the interlace structure. The transmitted information relating to the second set of uplink resources may indicate at least one of: a bitmap comprising a plurality of bits wherein a value of each bit indicates whether a given interlace of the interlace structure is included in the first configuration; and a value corresponding to one of plurality signaling states, wherein the plurality of signaling states indicate one or more interlaces of a set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure that are included the first configuration. The plurality of signaling states may include at least one of: a first signaling state indicating that all interlaces in the set of interlaces are included in the first configuration; and a second signaling state indicating that none of the interlaces in the set of interlaces are included in the first configuration. Determination of the second set of resources may be further based on a different, second configuration of the interlace structure for at least one second subband within the unlicensed wide bandwidth. The information indicating the second set of resources may include a second bitmap comprising a plurality of bits wherein a value of each bit indicates whether a given interlace of the interlace structure is included in the second configuration. The information indicating the second set of resources may include a further value corresponding to one or more of the plurality signaling states indicating one or more interlaces of the set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure is included in the second configuration. Each of the plurality of signaling states may indicate one or more interlaces of the set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure that are included in each of the first configuration and the second configuration. The at least one memory and computer program code may be configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus to: receive an uplink transmission from the user equipment in accordance the transmitted information. Reception of the uplink transmission may be dependent on a ratio of the first set of resources and the second set of resources. The uplink resources allocated for the user equipment may be for a physical uplink shared channel. The downlink control information may include the information relating to the first set of resources and the second set of resources.

[0085] According to another example of an embodiment, a computer readable medium is provided including program instructions for causing an apparatus to perform at least the following: determining a first set of resources within an unlicensed wide bandwidth of a cell to be allocated for uplink transmission by a user equipment; determining a second set of resources based on a first configuration of an interlace structure for at least one subband within the unlicensed wide bandwidth, wherein the second set of resources correspond to one or more interlaces of the first configuration that are to be excluded from the first set of resources; and transmitting, to the user equipment, information relating to the first set of resources and the second set of resources to indicate the uplink resources allocated for the user equipment.

[0086] Determining the first set of resources may be based at least on a physical resource block grid corresponding to the unlicensed wide bandwidth, and the first set of resources may be a continuous set of resources in the predefined physical resource block grid. The information relating to the first set of resources may include an indication of the first resource and the last resource of the first set of resources within the wide bandwidth. The interlace structure may correspond to a predefined interlace structure comprising at least a cluster size, a number of interlaces, a starting position of the interlace structure, and the number of clusters for each of interlaces. The interlace structure may correspond to a flexible interlace structure comprising at least: a cluster size, a number of interlaces, a starting position and an ending position of the interlace structure. The transmitted information relating to the second set of uplink resources may indicate at least one of: a bitmap comprising a plurality of bits wherein a value of each bit indicates whether a given interlace of the interlace structure is included in the first configuration; and a value corresponding to one of plurality signaling states, wherein the plurality of signaling states indicate one or more interlaces of a set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure that are included the first configuration. The plurality of signaling states may include at least one of: a first signaling state indicating that all interlaces in the set of interlaces are included in the first configuration; and a second signaling state indicating that none of the interlaces in the set of interlaces are included in the first configuration. Determining the second set of resources may be further based on a different, second configuration of the interlace structure for at least one second subband within the unlicensed wide bandwidth. The information indicating the second set of resources may include a second bitmap comprising a plurality of bits wherein a value of each bit indicates whether a given interlace of the interlace structure is included in the second configuration. The information indicating the second set of resources may include a further value corresponding to one or more of the plurality signaling states indicating one or more interlaces of the set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure is included in the second configuration. Each of the plurality of signaling states may indicate one or more interlaces of the set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure that are included in each of the first configuration and the second configuration. The computer readable medium may include program instructions for causing the apparatus to perform: receiving an uplink transmission from the user equipment in accordance the transmitted information. Receiving the uplink transmission may be dependent on a ratio of the first set of resources and the second set of resources. The uplink resources allocated for the user equipment may be for a physical uplink shared channel. The downlink control information may include the information relating to the first set of resources and the second set of resources.

[0087] FIG. 10 is a logic flow diagram for wideband NR-U operation compatible with narrowband interlace structures. This figure further illustrates the operation of an exemplary method or methods, a result of execution of computer program instructions embodied on a computer readable memory, functions performed by logic implemented in hardware, and/or interconnected means for performing functions in accordance with exemplary embodiments. For instance, the determination module 140-1 and/or 140-2 may include multiples ones of the blocks in FIG. 10, where each included block is an interconnected means for performing the function in the block. The blocks in FIG. 10 are assumed to be performed by the UE 110, e.g., under control of the determination module 140-1 and/or 140-2 at least in part. [0088] According to an example of an embodiment, a method is provided including: receiving information related to an allocation of uplink resources within an unlicensed wide bandwidth of a cell, wherein the information comprises at least: an indication of a first set of the uplink resources and an indication of a first configuration of an interlace structure for at least one subband of the wide bandwidth as indicated by block 1000; determining a second set of the uplink resources to be excluded from the first set of the uplink resources based on the information, wherein the second set of the uplink resources correspond to at least: one or more interlaces of the first configuration of the interlace structure as indicated by block 1002; and transmitting data using the remaining uplink resources in the first set as indicated by block 1004.

[0089] The interlace structure may correspond to one of: a predefined interlace structure comprising at least a cluster size, a number of interlaces, a starting position of the interlace structure, and the number of clusters for each of interlaces; and a flexible interlace structure comprising at least: a cluster size, a number of interlaces, a starting position and an ending position of the interlace structure. The indication of the first configuration of the interlace structure for the at least one subband of the wide bandwidth, may be at least one of: a bitmap comprising a plurality of bits wherein a value of each bit indicates whether a given interlace of the interlace structure is included in the first configuration; and a value corresponding to one of plurality signaling states, wherein the plurality of signaling states indicate one or more interlaces of a set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure that are included the first configuration. The plurality of signaling states may include at least one of: a first signaling state indicating that all interlaces in the set of interlaces are included in the first configuration; and a second signaling state indicating that none of the interlaces in the set of interlaces are included in the first configuration. The indication of the first set of resources may include an indication of the first resource and the last resource of a physical resource block grid corresponding to the unlicensed wide bandwidth, and wherein the first set of resources is a continuous set of resources in the predefined physical resource block grid. The information may further indicate a different, second configuration of the interlace structure for at least one second subband within the unlicensed wide bandwidth of the cell, and wherein determining the second set of the uplink resources to be excluded from the first set of the uplink resources may be further based on the second configuration of the interlace structure. The information indicating the second configuration may include a second bitmap comprising a plurality of bits wherein a value of each bit indicates whether a given interlace of the interlace structure is included in the second configuration. The information indicating the second configuration may include a further value corresponding to one or more of the plurality signaling states indicating one or more interlaces of the set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure is included in the second configuration. Each of the plurality of signaling states may indicate one or more interlaces of the set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure that are included in each of the first configuration and the second configuration. The method may further include comparing the first set of uplink resources and the second set of uplink resources based on a rule to determine at least whether the allocation is an almost contiguous allocation. The method may include in response to determining that the allocation is an almost contiguous allocation, transmitting data in accordance with the received information with a first maximum allowed power reduction, and in response to determining that allocation is not an almost contiguous allocation: either determining the allocation to be invalid or transmitting data using the uplink resources by applying a second maximum power reduction, wherein the second maximum allowed power reduction is larger than the first maximum power reduction. The rule may include comparison of a ratio between the first set of resource and the second set of uplink resources to a threshold such that when the ratio is less than the threshold, the allocation is determined to be an almost contiguous allocation; and in response to determining that the ratio exceeds the threshold, the allocation is determined to be not an almost contiguous allocation. The almost contiguous allocation may comprise a contiguous allocation where at least one resource is punctured. The uplink resources allocated for the user equipment may be for a physical uplink shared channel. Downlink control information may include the indication of a first set of the uplink resources and the indication of a first configuration of an interlace structure.

[0090] According to another example of an embodiment, an apparatus is provided including: means for receiving information related to an allocation of uplink resources within an unlicensed wide bandwidth of a cell, wherein the information comprises at least: an indication of a first set of the uplink resources and an indication of a first configuration of an interlace structure for at least one subband of the wide bandwidth; means for determining a second set of the uplink resources to be excluded from the first set of the uplink resources based on the information, wherein the second set of the uplink resources correspond to at least: one or more interlaces of the first configuration of the interlace structure; and means for transmitting data using the remaining uplink resources in the first set.

[0091] The interlace structure may correspond to one of: a predefined interlace structure comprising at least a cluster size, a number of interlaces, a starting position of the interlace structure, and the number of clusters for each of interlaces; and a flexible interlace structure comprising at least: a cluster size, a number of interlaces, a starting position and an ending position of the interlace structure. The indication of the first configuration of the interlace structure for the at least one subband of the wide bandwidth, may be at least one of: a bitmap comprising a plurality of bits wherein a value of each bit indicates whether a given interlace of the interlace structure is included in the first configuration; and a value corresponding to one of plurality signaling states, wherein the plurality of signaling states indicate one or more interlaces of a set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure that are included the first configuration. The plurality of signaling states may include at least one of: a first signaling state indicating that all interlaces in the set of interlaces are included in the first configuration; and a second signaling state indicating that none of the interlaces in the set of interlaces are included in the first configuration. The indication of the first set of resources may include an indication of the first resource and the last resource of a physical resource block grid corresponding to the unlicensed wide bandwidth, and wherein the first set of resources is a continuous set of resources in the predefined physical resource block grid. The information may further indicate a different, second configuration of the interlace structure for at least one second subband within the unlicensed wide bandwidth of the cell, and wherein determining the second set of the uplink resources to be excluded from the first set of the uplink resources may be further based on the second configuration of the interlace structure. The information indicating the second configuration may include a second bitmap comprising a plurality of bits wherein a value of each bit indicates whether a given interlace of the interlace structure is included in the second configuration. The information indicating the second configuration may include a further value corresponding to one or more of the plurality signaling states indicating one or more interlaces of the set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure is included in the second configuration. Each of the plurality of signaling states may indicate one or more interlaces of the set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure that are included in each of the first configuration and the second configuration. The apparatus may further include means for comparing the first set of uplink resources and the second set of uplink resources based on a rule to determine at least whether the allocation is an almost contiguous allocation. The apparatus may include in response to determining that the allocation is an almost contiguous allocation, means for transmitting data in accordance with the received information with a first maximum allowed power reduction, and in response to determining that allocation is not an almost contiguous allocation: either means for determining the allocation to be invalid or means for transmitting data using the uplink resources by applying a second maximum power reduction, wherein the second maximum allowed power reduction is larger than the first maximum power reduction. The rule may include comparison of a ratio between the first set of resource and the second set of uplink resources to a threshold such that when the ratio is less than the threshold, the allocation is determined to be an almost contiguous allocation; and in response to determining that the ratio exceeds the threshold, the allocation is determined to be not an almost contiguous allocation. The uplink resources allocated for the user equipment may be for a physical uplink shared channel. The almost contiguous allocation may comprise a contiguous allocation where at least one resource is punctured. Downlink control information may include the indication of a first set of the uplink resources and the indication of a first configuration of an interlace structure.

[0092] According to another example of an embodiment, an apparatus is provided including at least one processor; and at least one memory including computer program code, the at least one memory and computer program code configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus to perform at least to receive information related to an allocation of uplink resources within an unlicensed wide bandwidth of a cell, wherein the information comprises at least: an indication of a first set of the uplink resources and an indication of at least a first configuration of an interlace structure for at least one subband of the wide bandwidth; determine a second set of the uplink resources to be excluded from the first set of the uplink resources based on the information, wherein the second set of the uplink resources correspond to at least: one or more interlaces of the first configuration of the interlace structure; and transmit data using the remaining uplink resources in the first set. [0093] The interlace structure may correspond to one of: a predefined interlace structure comprising at least a cluster size, a number of interlaces, a starting position of the interlace structure, and the number of clusters for each of interlaces; and a flexible interlace structure comprising at least: a cluster size, a number of interlaces, a starting position and an ending position of the interlace structure. The indication of the first configuration of the interlace structure for the at least one subband of the wide bandwidth, may be at least one of: a bitmap comprising a plurality of bits wherein a value of each bit indicates whether a given interlace of the interlace structure is included in the first configuration; and a value corresponding to one of plurality signaling states, wherein the plurality of signaling states indicate one or more interlaces of a set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure that are included the first configuration. The plurality of signaling states may include at least one of: a first signaling state indicating that all interlaces in the set of interlaces are included in the first configuration; and a second signaling state indicating that none of the interlaces in the set of interlaces are included in the first configuration. The indication of the first set of resources may include an indication of the first resource and the last resource of a physical resource block grid corresponding to the unlicensed wide bandwidth, and wherein the first set of resources is a continuous set of resources in the predefined physical resource block grid. The information may further indicate a different, second configuration of the interlace structure for at least one second subband within the unlicensed wide bandwidth of the cell, and wherein determination of the second set of the uplink resources to be excluded from the first set of the uplink resources may be further based on the second configuration of the interlace structure. The information indicating the second configuration may include a second bitmap comprising a plurality of bits wherein a value of each bit indicates whether a given interlace of the interlace structure is included in the second configuration. The information indicating the second configuration may include a further value corresponding to one or more of the plurality signaling states indicating one or more interlaces of the set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure is included in the second configuration. Each of the plurality of signaling states may indicate one or more interlaces of the set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure that are included in each of the first configuration and the second configuration. The at least one memory and computer program code may be configured to, with the at least one processor, to cause the apparatus further to compare the first set of uplink resources and the second set of uplink resources based on a rule to determine at least whether the allocation is an almost contiguous allocation. The at least one memory and computer program code may be configured to, with the at least one processor, to cause the apparatus further to in response to determination that the allocation is an almost contiguous allocation, transmit data in accordance with the received information with a first maximum allowed power reduction, and in response to determination that allocation is not an almost contiguous allocation: either determine the allocation to be invalid or transmit data using the uplink resources by applying a second maximum power reduction, wherein the second maximum allowed power reduction is larger than the first maximum power reduction. The rule may include comparison of a ratio between the first set of resource and the second set of uplink resources to a threshold such that when the ratio is less than the threshold, the allocation is determined to be an almost contiguous allocation; and in response to determining that the ratio exceeds the threshold, the allocation is determined to be not an almost contiguous allocation. The almost contiguous allocation may comprise a contiguous allocation where at least one resource is punctured. The uplink resources allocated for the user equipment may be for a physical uplink shared channel. Downlink control information may include the indication of a first set of the uplink resources and the indication of a first configuration of an interlace structure.

[0094] According to another example of an embodiment, a computer readable medium is provided including program instructions for causing an apparatus to perform at least the following: receiving information related to an allocation of uplink resources within an unlicensed wide bandwidth of a cell, wherein the information comprises at least: an indication of a first set of the uplink resources and an indication of a first configuration of an interlace structure for at least one subband of the wide bandwidth; determining a second set of the uplink resources to be excluded from the first set of the uplink resources based on the information, wherein the second set of the uplink resources correspond to at least: one or more interlaces of the first configuration of the interlace structure; and transmitting data using the remaining uplink resources in the first set.

[0095] The interlace structure may correspond to one of: a predefined interlace structure comprising at least a cluster size, a number of interlaces, a starting position of the interlace structure, and the number of clusters for each of interlaces; and a flexible interlace structure comprising at least: a cluster size, a number of interlaces, a starting position and an ending position of the interlace structure. The indication of the first configuration of the interlace structure for the at least one subband of the wide bandwidth, may be at least one of: a bitmap comprising a plurality of bits wherein a value of each bit indicates whether a given interlace of the interlace structure is included in the first configuration; and a value corresponding to one of plurality signaling states, wherein the plurality of signaling states indicate one or more interlaces of a set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure that are included the first configuration. The plurality of signaling states may include at least one of: a first signaling state indicating that all interlaces in the set of interlaces are included in the first configuration; and a second signaling state indicating that none of the interlaces in the set of interlaces are included in the first configuration. The indication of the first set of resources may include an indication of the first resource and the last resource of a physical resource block grid corresponding to the unlicensed wide bandwidth, and wherein the first set of resources is a continuous set of resources in the predefined physical resource block grid. The information may further indicate a different, second configuration of the interlace structure for at least one second subband within the unlicensed wide bandwidth of the cell, and wherein determining the second set of the uplink resources to be excluded from the first set of the uplink resources may be further based on the second configuration of the interlace structure. The information indicating the second configuration may include a second bitmap comprising a plurality of bits wherein a value of each bit indicates whether a given interlace of the interlace structure is included in the second configuration. The information indicating the second configuration may include a further value corresponding to one or more of the plurality signaling states indicating one or more interlaces of the set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure is included in the second configuration. Each of the plurality of signaling states may indicate one or more interlaces of the set of interlaces corresponding to the interlace structure that are included in each of the first configuration and the second configuration. The computer readable medium may include program instructions for causing the apparatus to perform: comparing the first set of uplink resources and the second set of uplink resources based on a rule to determine at least whether the allocation is an almost contiguous allocation. The computer readable medium may include program instructions for causing the apparatus to perform in response to determining that the allocation is an almost contiguous allocation, transmitting data in accordance with the received information with a first maximum allowed power reduction, and in response to determination that allocation is not an almost contiguous allocation: either determining the allocation to be invalid or transmitting data using the uplink resources by applying a second maximum power reduction, wherein the second maximum allowed power reduction is larger than the first maximum power reduction. The rule may include comparison of a ratio between the first set of resource and the second set of uplink resources to a threshold such that when the ratio is less than the threshold, the allocation is determined to be an almost contiguous allocation; and in response to determining that the ratio exceeds the threshold, the allocation is determined to be not an almost contiguous allocation. The almost contiguous allocation may comprise a contiguous allocation where at least one resource is punctured. The uplink resources allocated for the user equipment may be for a physical uplink shared channel. Downlink control information may include the indication of a first set of the uplink resources and the indication of a first configuration of an interlace structure.

[0096] Without in any way limiting the scope, interpretation, or application of the claims appearing below, a technical effect of one or more of the example embodiments disclosed herein is efficient use of spectrum, for example, by fully utilizing guard band and/or unused interlaces. Another technical effect of one or more of the example embodiments disclosed herein is that allowing MPR to be minimized while guaranteeing low enough unwanted inband/outband emissions. Another technical effect of one or more of the example embodiments disclosed herein is Small complexity and signaling burden. Another technical effect of one or more of the example embodiments disclosed herein is support for fast switching of the subband with interlaced transmissions (based on LBT outcome). Another technical effect of one or more of the example embodiments disclosed herein is allowing flexibility in terms of interlace design.

[0097] Embodiments herein may be implemented in software (executed by one or more processors), hardware (e.g., an application specific integrated circuit), or a combination of software and hardware. In an example embodiment, the software (e.g., application logic, an instruction set) is maintained on any one of various conventional computer- readable media. In the context of this document, a“computer-readable medium” may be any media or means that can contain, store, communicate, propagate or transport the instructions for use by or in connection with an instruction execution system, apparatus, or device, such as a computer, with one example of a computer described and depicted, e.g., in FIG. 1. A computer-readable medium may comprise a computer-readable storage medium (e.g., memories 125, 155, 171 or other device) that may be any media or means that can contain, store, and/or transport the instructions for use by or in connection with an instruction execution system, apparatus, or device, such as a computer. A computer-readable storage medium does not comprise propagating signals.

[0098] If desired, the different functions discussed herein may be performed in a different order and/or concurrently with each other. Furthermore, if desired, one or more of the above-described functions may be optional or may be combined.

[0099] Although various aspects of the invention are set out in the independent claims, other aspects of the invention comprise other combinations of features from the described embodiments and/or the dependent claims with the features of the independent claims, and not solely the combinations explicitly set out in the claims.

[0100] It is also noted herein that while the above describes example embodiments of the invention, these descriptions should not be viewed in a limiting sense. Rather, there are several variations and modifications which may be made without departing from the scope of the present invention as defined in the appended claims.

[0101] The following abbreviations that may be found in the specification and/or the drawing figures are defined as follows:

A-MPR Additional MPR

B-IFDMA Block Interleaved OFDMA

BW Bandwidth

COT Channel Occupancy Time

DMRS Demodulation reference signal

eNB evolved Node B (e.g., an LTE base station)

FDM Frequency Domain Multiplex

gNB NR Base station

HARQ-ACK Hybrid automatic repeat request acknowledgement

I/F Interface

LAA Licensed Assisted Access

LBT Listen Before Talk LTE Long Term Evolution

MIMO Multiple-Input Multiple-Output

MME Mobility Management Entity

MU Multi-User

MPR Maximum Power Reduction

N/W Network

NCE Network Control Element

NR New Radio

OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Domain Multiple Access

PRB Physical Resource Block

PSD Power Spectral Density

PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel

PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel

QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

RBG Resource Block Group

RRH Remote Radio Head

Rx Receiver

scs Sub-Carrier Spacing

SGW Serving Gateway

Tx Transmitter

UE User Equipment (e.g., a wireless, typically mobile device)

UL Uplink

UL-SCH Uplink Shared Channel