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Title:
WOVEN TEXTILES AND METHODS FOR MAKING WOVEN TEXTILES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2016/168679
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
Woven textiles and methods of making woven textiles provide an increased level of three-dimensional design flexibility without extensive post weaving processing. Textiles are woven to form three-dimensional shaped structures, the shapes corresponding to anatomical and other designed structures. Hollow and/or expandable woven textiles with treads or filaments integrated into the construction, wherein the weft threads pass between or interchange between layers or folded layers, define a predetermined controlled shape and retain overall control of the form and size of the woven textile when expanded.

Inventors:
WINNER, Seth A. (127 New Street Fl 3, Glenside, Pennsylvania, 19038, US)
Application Number:
US2016/027871
Publication Date:
October 20, 2016
Filing Date:
April 15, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
THE SECANT GROUP, LLC (551 E. Church Avenue, Telford, Pennsylvania, 18969, US)
International Classes:
D03D11/02; A61F2/02; D03D25/00
Other References:
None
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
DOBREA, Diane et al. (McNees Wallace & Nurick LLC, 100 Pine StreetP.O. Box 116, Harrisburg Pennsylvania, 17108-1166, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1 . A process for forming a woven textile comprising: passing at least one fill shuttle partially across a width of a textile structure that is oriented in a first dimension, the passing of at least one fill shuttle placing a fill material oriented in a second dimension; reversing the at least one fill shuttle while continuing the placing of the fill material, the reversing of the at least one fill shuttle doubling the fill material; securing the fill material to the textile structure with a securement yarn shuttle, the securement yarn oriented in a third dimension, to form a layer; and repeating the passing the first shuttle, reversing the first shuttle, and securing the filler material to form stacked layers; wherein the stacked layers form a three-dimensional shape of the woven textile.

2. A process for forming a woven textile according to claim 1 , wherein the textile comprises at least two layers, a first layer having a first geometry; and a second layer having a second geometry, the second geometry being different from the first geometry; wherein the first layer and the second layer are formed from a single woven construct.

3. A process for forming a woven textile having two or more contoured layered dimensions, comprising: starting a delivered pick for a contoured layer at a first predetermined edge of a graphic design, continuously delivering a filling yarn from a shuttle across a predetermined portion of a plurality of warp threads to match a predetermined opposing edge of the graphic design of the contoured layer and reversing the direction of the shuttle to double the first filling yarn to lock the warp layer together, and continuously delivering the filling yarn across the predetermined portion of warp threads to reach the first predetermined edge and exiting the yarn from the warp repeating the process for each of the additional at least two discrete contoured layers until the desired predetermined fill for each layer has been achieved deploying a supplemental yarn from a warp shuttle to deploy a thread that traverses the at least two contoured layers to bind the warp and weft yarns across the depth of the two layers.

4. The process for forming a woven textile according to claim 3, wherein the supplemental yarn secures the warp and weft yarns using a weave selected from orthogonal, interlock, and layer to layer.

5. The process for forming a woven textile according to claim 4, wherein the placement of the filling yarn is determined by a weave program.

6. The process for forming a woven textile according to claim 5, wherein the weave program is JacqCad.

7. The process for forming a woven textile according to claim 3, wherein the portion of the warp threads across which the fill is delivered in any particular layer is determined by following a profile of a graphic representation of that layer.

8. The process for forming a woven textile according to claim 3, wherein graphic representation is provided by a deconstruction of a three-dimensional profile.

9. The process for forming a woven textile according to claim 3, wherein forming of the woven textile also includes forming edge tie downs.

10. The process for forming a woven textile according to claim 9, wherein forming of the edge tie downs includes overlaying an un-reduced graphic image over a technical cut file.

1 1 . The process for forming a woven textile according to claim 3, the woven textile comprising at least five layers.

12. The process for forming a woven textile according to claim 3, further comprising forming at least one layer over a solid preform positioned on the woven textile adjacent two layers.

13. A process for forming a woven textile comprising: forming a main body; forming a weft; and exchanging layers during the forming of the weft, such that exchanging layers forms an unwoven weft between layers of the main body; wherein the unwoven wefts provide limiters that define a geometry of the woven textile when expanded.

14. A process for forming a woven textile according to claim 13, wherein the woven textile formed by the process comprises a first layer; a second layer; and a weft thread connecting the first layer and the second layer, the weft thread being formed by weaving of the woven textile; wherein the weft thread limits expansion of the woven textile when expanded with a fill material.

15. The process for forming a woven textile according to claim 14, wherein the woven textile formed by the process comprises first and second layers that are formed by folding a continuous woven textile, and wherein the weft thread connecting the layers is a thread that is interchanged between the layers.

16. The process for forming a woven textile according to claim 13, wherein the position of the unwoven supplementary wefts between the layers is reversed on each pass, and the exchange of layers is repeated across a width of the main body of the woven textile, repeatedly reversing the orientation of even and odd supplementary wefts and forming the floating unwoven supplementary wefts, the unwoven supplementary wefts limiting an expansion width of the woven textile when expanded, and wherein optionally the supplementary wefts are controlled with a stop motion to decrease or eliminate interruptions in a density of the main body weave.

17. A textile composite comprising: a textile scaffold formed by weaving, the scaffold comprising one or both of a contoured multilayered textile comprising one or more yarns, and a multilayered textile having at least two layers interconnected by at least one weft thread and comprising at least two internal voids defined by the at least one weft thread, wherein at least two layers of the multilayered textile has a different shape, and wherein the layers are stacked a binder infused throughout at least a portion of the textile scaffold; a formable material filling at least one void in the textile scaffold; and wherein the first layer and the second layer are formed from a single woven construct.

18. The textile composite according to claim 17, wherein the binder is a concrete binder comprising a chemical formulation that is reactive with concrete, and wherein the formable material filling comprises concrete.

19. The textile composite according to claim 18, wherein the binder comprises a cell stimulating material and wherein the formable material comprises living cells.

20. The textile composite according to claim 19, wherein one or more of a yarn forming the textile scaffold, the binder, and the formable material comprises one or more of a biocompatible polymer, a biocompatible metal, and a tissue growth stimulator.

Description:
WOVEN TEXTILES AND METHODS FOR MAKING WOVEN TEXTILES

RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001 ] This application claims the benefit under 35 U.S.C. ยง 1 19(e) to U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 62/148,389 filed April 16, 2015. The entire description of the foregoing application is hereby incorporated herein by reference.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] This application is directed to woven textiles, woven articles, and methods for making woven textiles and woven articles. More particularly, the present application is directed to a near-net shape woven textile and method for making the same.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] Weaving traditionally includes throwing a filling yarn across the entire width of a textile and interlacing a single plane of threads in the x and y orientation (according to a Cartesian coordinate system). In many instances, more complex topology is desired than the singular plane of traditional weaving. In some instances, complex geometries are required for providing woven textiles having variable thickness to form a particularly shaped or contoured textile based article. One method of forming complex geometries in woven textiles includes orthogonal, isometric, or angle interlock weaving, which creates controlled thickness. For example, these techniques have been used to form intersecting planes of textiles for the creation of carbon preforms, such as gussets or I-beams. Thickness may also be formed in woven pile constructions such as frise, gro- point, velvet, or matelasse weaving, which are often used in the production of decorative textiles.

[0004] However, the above mentioned methods of forming thickness, particularly to provide complex geometries in a final article, generally include significant post processing in order to form shaped thickness gradients. For example, supplemental post processing steps can require cutting and sewing of multiple layers of fabric, or weaving multiple layers of fabric and cutting away unused portions. These post processing techniques increase production time, decrease efficiency, and/or result in waste material through the cutting away of unused portions, any or all of which increase production cost.

[0005] Additionally, when weaving textiles to form other complex shapes that include containment features, such as containers using double cloth construction, the conventional weaving techniques are typically unable to form elements that limit a geometry of the container so that it can retain its shape. For example, when filled with substances such as air or water, textile based containers formed using conventional weaving methods lack structure and elements that are capable of controlling the shape by limiting stretching, distortion and sagging. Thus, conventional weaving techniques must be supplemented with significant post processing, such as, for example, sewing and/or the application of buttons in order to control the shape of textile planes so as to provide a container that retains its intended shape.

[0006] These and other drawbacks are associated with current woven textile products and methods used for forming woven textile products. There is a need in the art for weaving methods and woven textiles that can satisfy the needs for providing textiles and articles having complex three-dimensional textures and shapes that avoid costly and time consuming post processing.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0007] In light of the foregoing, according to an exemplary embodiment, a woven textile includes a first layer having a first geometry, and a second layer having a second geometry, the second geometry being different from the first geometry. The first layer and the second layer are formed from a single woven construct. [0008] According to another embodiment, a method of forming a woven textile includes passing a first shuttle partially across a width of a textile structure, the passing of the first shuttle placing a fill material, reversing the first shuttle while continuing the placing of the fill material, the reversing of the first shuttle doubling the fill material, securing the filler material with a second shuttle to form a layer, and repeating the passing the first shuttle, reversing the first shuttle, and securing the filler material to form stacked layers. The stacked layers form a three-dimensional shape of the woven textile.

[0009] According to another embodiment, a process for forming a woven textile that includes starting a delivered pick for a contoured layer at a first predetermined edge of a graphic design. The process further includes continuously delivering a filling yarn from a shuttle across a predetermined portion of a plurality of warp threads to match a predetermined opposing edge of the graphic design of the contoured layer and reversing the direction of the shuttle to double the first filling yam to lock the warp layer together.

[0010] The process further includes continuously delivering the filling yarn across the predetermined portion of warp threads to reach the first predetermined edge and exiting the yarn from the warp. The process further includes repeating the process for each of the additional at least two discrete contoured layers until the desired predetermined fill for each layer has been achieved. The process further includes deploying a supplemental yarn from a warp shuttle to deploy a thread that traverses the at least two contoured layers to bind the warp and weft yams across the depth of the two layers. According to some embodiments, the supplemental yarn secures the warp and weft yarns using a weave selected from orthogonal, interlock, and layer to layer. According to some embodiments, forming of the woven textile also includes forming edge tie downs. [001 1 ] According to another exemplary embodiment, a woven textile includes a first layer, a second layer, and a weft thread connecting the first layer and the second layer, the weft thread being formed by weaving of the woven textile. The weft thread limits expansion of the woven textile when expanded with a fill material.

[0012] According to another embodiment, a method of forming a woven textile includes forming a main body, forming a weft, and exchanging layers during the forming of the weft, such that exchanging layers forms an unwoven weft between layers of the main body. The unwoven wefts provide limiters that define a geometry of the woven textile when expanded. According to another exemplary embodiment, a woven textile formed by the process comprises a first layer; a second layer; and a weft thread connecting the first layer and the second layer, the weft thread being formed by weaving of the woven textile; wherein the weft thread limits expansion of the woven textile when expanded with a fill material. In some embodiments, the woven textile formed by the process comprises first and second layers that are formed by folding a continuous woven textile, and wherein the weft thread connecting the layers is a thread that is interchanged between the layers.

[0013] According to another embodiment, a method of forming a woven textile includes a process wherein the position of the unwoven supplementary wefts between the layers is reversed on each pass, and the exchange of layers is repeated across a width of the main body of the woven textile, repeatedly reversing the orientation of even and odd supplementary wefts and forming the floating unwoven supplementary wefts, the unwoven supplementary wefts limiting an expansion width of the woven textile when expanded, and wherein optionally the supplementary wefts are controlled with a stop motion to decrease or eliminate interruptions in a density of the main body weave. [0014] According to another embodiment, a textile composite comprises a textile scaffold formed by weaving, the scaffold comprising one or both of a contoured multilayered textile comprising one or more yarns, and a multilayered textile having at least two layers interconnected by at least one weft thread and comprising at least two internal voids defined by the at least one weft thread, wherein at least two layers of the multilayered textile has a different shape, and wherein the layers are stacked. According to some embodiments, the textile composite includes a binder infused throughout at least a portion of the textile scaffold, and a formable material filling at least one void in the textile scaffold, wherein the first layer and the second layer are formed from a single woven construct. According to some embodiments, the binder is a concrete binder comprising a chemical formulation that is reactive with concrete, and wherein the formable material filling comprises concrete. In some embodiments, the binder comprises a cell stimulating material and wherein the formable material comprises living cells. In some embodiments, one or more of a yarn forming the textile scaffold, the binder, and the formable material comprises one or more of a biocompatible polymer, a biocompatible metal, and a tissue growth stimulator.

[0015] Among the advantages of exemplary embodiments is that methods described herein produce a woven textile having a three-dimensional structure including a relief profile. Another advantage is that the methods produce the three-dimensional structure directly through the weaving process. Still another advantage is that the methods produce the three-dimensional structure without significant post processing. A further advantage is that the methods provide a stacking of different layers during the weaving process. Yet another advantage is that the methods produce anatomically shaped woven textiles for use as bandages, scaffolds, preforms, molded constructs, and/or other porous structures. Another advantage is that the methods produce net or near-net shaped woven textiles. Still another advantage is that the methods provide controlled textile shapes without significant post processing.

[0016] Other features and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following more detailed description of exemplary embodiments that illustrate, by way of example, the principles of the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0017] The foregoing summary and the following detailed description of the preferred embodiments of the present invention will be best understood when read in conjunction with the appended drawings, in which:

[0018] FIG. 1 depicts a basic three-dimensional weave structure in an orthogonal view;

[0019] FIG. 2 depicts the basic three-dimensional weave structure of FIG. 1 in a pian view;

[0020] FIG. 3 depicts the woven article from FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, as formed on the loom;

[0021] FIG. 4 depicts a woven article having a complex geometry that includes a relief profile in the form of a curved wedge having a tiered relief;

[0022] FIG. 5 depicts the article as shown in FIG. 4, as formed on the loom;

[0023] FIG. 6 depicts a graphical illustration of the relationship of layers of the article as shown in FIG. 4 and FIG. 5;

[0024] FIG. 7 depicts a layered design for a woven article where the patter is reflected or repeated on both faces of the textile;

[0025] FIG. 8 depicts a topographical view of a portion of a knee j oint articular surface; [0026] FIG. 9 depicts a topographical surface rendering of the contours of the bearing surface in the knee joint such as shown in FIG. 8;

[0027] FIG. 10 depicts a generally square three dimensional shape formed in relief to provide a thick continuous or graduated border;

[0028] FIG. 1 1 depicts a woven textile that is hollow and includes a cavity configured for receiving a fill material therein, the cavity including one or more internal limiters, where each panel shows alternate views and embodiments;

[0029] FIG. 12 depicts a multi-lobed "X" shaped woven textile having internal limiters useful as a pylon;

[0030] FIG. 13 depicts the design scheme for a woven textile having internal limiters where panel A shows the weave pattern, panel B shows the weave shape without the limiters, and panel C shows the placement of limiters to form a multi lobed structure;

[0031] FIG. 14 depicts a woven textile having multiple intervening segments that are formed with crossing limiters according to an inventive method;

[0032] FIG. 15 depicts a graphical design for forming the three-dimensional article as shown in FIG. 4;

[0033] FIG. 16 depicts a graphical design for a woven textile was formed according to the inventive method according to the weave pattern shown in FIG. 7;

[0034] FIG. 17 depicts a construction preform formed in accordance with the disclosure;

[0035] FIG 18 depicts a graphical design for the woven textile shown in FIG. 17; [0036] FIG 19 depicts a representative example of the woven article of FIG. 17 when filled and in use as a structural component as a free standing arch; and

[0037] FIG. 20 depicts the article as shown in FIG. 19 incorporated into a structure to form a bridges. Wherever possible, the same reference numbers will be used throughout the drawings to represent the same parts.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENTS

[0038] Exemplary embodiments are directed to woven textiles and methods of making the woven textiles. The woven textiles formed according to one or more of the embodiments disclosed herein provides an increased level of three-dimensional design flexibility without extensive post weaving processing as compared to existing three-dimensional articles made with woven textiles. In a first exemplary embodiment, textiles are woven to form three-dimensional shaped structures that in some instances do not require any post-processing. In accordance with this exemplary embodiment, the methods provide for three-dimensional shaped woven textiles corresponding to anatomical structures without or substantially without subsequent cutting and/or sewing of the woven textile. In a second exemplary embodiment, the forming of hollow and/or expandable woven textiles defines a shape and retains overall control of the form and size of the woven textile when expanded, without or substantially without sewing, gluing, or other post processing of the woven textile. In accordance with this exemplary embodiment, the woven textile is formed with treads or filaments integrated into the construction wherein the weft threads pass between or interchange between layers or folded layers of a woven textile to provide one or more of increased strength of the woven textile, and control of expansion volume and shape. THREE-DIMENSIONAL TEXTILES AND ARTICLES

[0039] In accordance with the first exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure, in comparison to textiles and methods not using one or more of the features disclosed herein, provide net or near-net shaped woven textiles, provide net or near-net shaped three-dimensional structure, provide woven constructs including a relief profile, decrease or eliminate post processing, form three-dimensional structure directly through a weaving process, provide anatomically shaped woven textiles for use as bandages, scaffolds, preforms, molded constructs, and/or other porous structures, provide controlled textile shapes, and combinations thereof. In various embodiments, such woven three-dimensional articles are suitable for forming discrete structural articles, and for forming, in certain embodiments, textiles that can be further shaped into articles having shape and structure dimensionality achieved through the direct weaving process rather than post processing.

[0040] In one embodiment, a shaped thickness that includes one or both of steps and a gradient of discrete woven layers forms the shaped three-dimensional structure of the woven textile wherein one or more layers include a geometry that differs from at least one of the other layers, the differing geometries defining the shaped structure of the woven textile. Thus, in some embodiments, a plurality of layers are stacked above, below or above and below a centerline of a base structure, which includes, but is not limited to, any suitable connecting textile. In an exemplary embodiment, such a woven three-dimensional textile is based on a generic model or derived from a patient specific model for an anatomical structure, such as a human meniscus having a central tapered depression. The geometry of the individual layers is varied to form a crescent shape having a thickness that transitions from an increased thickness at an outside edge to a decreased thickness at an inside edge. The single woven construct is devoid or substantially devoid of breaks, which provides increased strength as compared to other woven textiles using sewing and/or cutting.

[0041 ] Generally, a textile having a three-dimensional weave may be provided, for example, by using one or more of an orthogonal, angle interlock, or layer to layer weave to construct a textile having layers that are interconnected by one or more crossover yarns. Referring now to the drawings, FIG. 1 and FIG. 2 each, respectively, show a basic three-dimensional weave structure in an orthogonal view and a plan view, where the weave is formed by an orthogonal construction method. Using references to Cartesian coordinates for X, Y and Z dimensions, the woven article as depicted in the weave structure shown in FIG. 1 and FIG. 2 is shown in FIG. 3, and is formed comprising 34 layers of woven fabric joined by a Z direction of supplemental warp yarn. In accordance with the depicted embodiment, top and bottom layers were formed of 1 10 dtex Dyneema at 48 PPI and 144 ends per inch ("EPI"), and the middle layers were formed of 2/1 10 dtex Dyneema warp with 4/440 dtex Dyneema filling at 12 picks per inch ("PPI") and 18 EPI, and in the Z direction of 1 10 dtex Dyneema on spools at 64 EPI. This representative example of three-dimensional weaving exemplifies one possible construction approach to interconnect layers of woven fabric to form a textile having dimensionality enabled by use of supplemental warp yarn in the Z axis to join woven layers formed in the X-Y plane.

[0042] As further described herein, the inventive methods and textiles include woven textiles that have three-dimensionally varying shapes and structures across the weave, to provide in some embodiments a relief effect that forms discrete structural objects. Referring again to the drawings, FIG. 4 depicts a woven article having a complex geometry that includes a relief profile in the form of a curved wedge having a tiered relief, and FIG. 5 shows the article as formed on the loom. A graphical representation of the layers of the woven article is shown in FIG. 6. It will be appreciated that, as shown, the article consists of five discrete tiered layers on top of a base layer, but of course it will be appreciated that the number of layers may vary and include more or fewer layers. And with respect to the depicted embodiment, the radii of each of the various layers may vary from top to bottom, and that likewise the lengths of the arcs of each layer may likewise vary. Further still, as illustrated in a further example herein, the layered pattern may be reflected or repeated on the opposite face of the textile, as depicted graphically in FIG. 7, which shows the weave pattern for an article having four tiers on each of its two opposing faces, the pattern showing the fill pattern for the weft threads in relation to the warp threads (where the supplemental threads in the third dimension are not shown). This woven textile is useful, in one example, as a knee meniscus replacement device.

[0043] Referring again to the drawings, FIG. 8 shows a topographical view of a portion of a knee joint articular surface, which surface is typically suitable for providing for placement of an artificial knee meniscus replacement device, and FIG. 9 shows a topographical surface rendering of the contours of the bearing surface in the knee joint such as shown in FIG. 8. Woven articles prepared according to certain embodiments of the instant disclosure can be modeled for any of a variety of biomedical applications, including devices used externally and implants, and may be designed to achieve generic or patient specific geometries. Although described herein with regard to a curved wedge and/or a knee meniscus replacement device, as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the woven textile is not limited in terms of overall shape. Accordingly, the examples herein are merely representative and are not limiting, and the methods hereof may be used to form articles having other and different geometries, including in the medical context and in the context of consumer and industrial goods. Embodiments of the invention include any other complex or simple three-dimensional shape such as, but not limited to, an article as shown in FIG. 10, having a generally square three dimensional shape formed in relief to provide a thick continuous or graduated border.

[0044] In accordance with the methods of this first exemplary embodiment, forming each of the layers of a three-dimensional woven textile is achieved using, in one example, a jacquard shuttle weaving process. The jacquard process facilitates control between the structural relationship of the horizontal and vertical intersections of warp and fill yarn, with a predetermined quill placement controlling the fill material being thrown across the shed. In contrast to traditional weaving processes, where throwing the filling yarn across the entire width of the textile forms a planar textile, jacquard shuttle weaving enables passing a shuttle partially across the width of the textile structure so as to form patterns and designs with different threads or yarns. The passing of the shuttle partially across the width of the textile structure provides a controlled placement of filling yarns, which is used advantageously in the inventive methods hereof to enable formation of the geometry of each of the one or more layers.

[0045] To create a shaped relief textile, a graphic is created to be used in conjunction with a textile design program. The graphic is a technical image reduced to the number of technical weaves that will be used in the final jacquard weave image, as would be understood by one skilled in the art of digital jacquard design. The simple graphic is reduced in scale to accommodate the expansion of the graphic to the final canvas of the number of hooks on the jacquard loom by the total number of picks of weaving, as determined by the pick density of the final fabric. Furthermore, the graphic is stair stepped to use each layer of the weave independently, in relationship to the depth of the relief structure.

[0046] According to the inventive methods, continuous delivery of the filling from a shuttle loom facilitates placement of the filling (in the Y dimension) across a predetermined portion of the warp (in the X dimension) to match an edge profile of the layer being formed. The matching of the edge profile includes doubling a first filling yarn to build the layer and locking the warp layer together with a second filling. For example, in reference to a woven textile design in accordance with the invention, a delivered pick may start at the edge of a right graphic edge on a layer, traverse to a left graphic edge of the layer, reverse, and exit at the same position on the right graphic edge of the layer. A different shuttle is used to bind and/or secure the warp yarns completely across the depth (in the Z dimension) of the fabric. The binding and/or securing of the filling yarn includes any suitable securing method, such as, but not limited to, an angle interlock weave. Together, the building and stacking of the layers across the width of the warp with the filling yarn and the securing of the layers with the supplemental yarn form the woven textile.

[0047] The placement of the filling yarn is determined by any suitable method, such as, but not limited to, for example using a weave program as described herein (e.g., JacqCad), programming each layer individually, programming multiple layers, and following a predetermined profile, or a combination thereof. A woven draft of the design may be provided to specify textile structures, shuttle movements, and/or pick count densities for the ultimate formation of the textile. For example, in one embodiment, the portion of the width across which the fill is thrown in any particular layer is determined by following a profile of a graphic representation of that layer. In some embodiments, the graphic representation is varied for one or more of the layers to vary the portion of the width across which the filling yarn is passed and form the shaped thickness or directly through the weaving process. In some embodiments, the graphic representation is provided by a deconstruction of a three-dimensional profile, where the cross-sections of the deconstructed shape form the graphic representations for the layers. Additionally or alternatively, each layer may be described individually or more than one of the layers may be described in a single image incorporating the more than one layer in a single graphic.

[0048] In some embodiments, the forming of the woven textile also includes forming edge tie downs. Wherein in one method, the forming of the edge tie downs includes overlaying an unreduced graphic image over a technical cut file. The un-reduced graphic image provides a template for the formation of refined edge tie downs during a return path of corresponding picks. The tie downs are deliberate placements of short floats of one or two pixels that come from another layer of the textile to bind and sharpen the return of the relief yarn. The forming of the edge tie downs connects the layers to a base material, minimizes blooming, provides increased control of the edges formed during the weaving, or a combination thereof. The woven textile and/or the edge tie downs may be formed with any suitable number of ground or supplemental repeats.

[0049] The woven textile is formed with any suitable loom, such as, but not limited to, at least a 2 shuttle loom, a 3 shuttle loom, a 4 shuttle loom, or a loom having greater than 4 shuttles. Generally, the number of shuttles required for forming the woven textiles according to this first embodiment of the invention is determined based on the number of relief areas above or below the main base layer plus one shuttle for the main base layer. In one embodiment, a 2 shuttle loom forms a main woven layer with a warp and one shuttle throwing the fill, while the other shuttle delivers successive yarns, one above the other, each at the length of the width coordinates described by the graphic representation at that layer. The warp yarns tack filling floats to a surface of the woven substrate in succession. Stop motions on the loom weave the successive picks in the same position, with each successive pick starting and stopping at coordinates provided by a graphical code of the graphic representation, the successive picks forming a topographical profile in woven form. The picks are attached to multiple base layers. For example, the filling picks may be woven on top of each other, as disclosed above, and attached to multiple layers of loosely woven warp substrate. The attaching of the filling picks to the multiple layers of loosely woven warp substrate provide increased control of the warp yarns and/or the loosely woven warp substrate conforms to a topographical profile created by the filling yarns.

[0050] In a representative embodiment, the loom includes a 4 shuttle loom having a 1200 end Jacquard head. The increased number of shuttles provides increased complexity of the woven textile. For example, the 4 shuttle loom may be used to form multiple independent ridgelines, with one of the shuttles forming the base fabric and the other three shuttles forming independent ridgelines that rise from the base fabric and/or undulate up the length of the fabric. The multiple independent ridgelines may be used to form a singular woven construct with a three-dimensional shape. Although described herein with regard to a 2, 3, or 4 shuttle loom, as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, more shuttles may be used and the use of additional shuttles facilitates the formation of an increased number and/or complexity of topographical rises in elevation along the width of the textile.

[0051] The woven textile includes at least one warp yarn, at least one filling yarn, and a supplemental yarn, and may include any suitable number and/or combination of yarns. In one embodiment, the woven textile includes a first filling yarn and a second filling yarn, wherein the first filling yarn and the second filling yarn include the same, substantially the same, or different materials and/or properties. For example, a warp including 1200 ends of l /140/34d PET may be used with a first filling of 1 /140/34 PET forming a ground and a second larger filling of 4/140/34 PET forming the shaping yarn. Any other suitable filling or combination of fillings may be used, including, but not limited to, a first filling of at least 1/140, a second filling of at least 1/140, a first and/or second filling of 1/140, 2/140, 3/140, 4/140, 5/140, 6/140, 7/140, 8/140, or a combination thereof.

[0052] More generally, selection of warp, fill and supplemental yarn number and material, as well as EPI and PPI depends on the properties of the article to be formed through the disclosed weaving process. In general the base layer that the structure is being built upon will be constructed from a much smaller yarn than the yarns that are being used for the relief profile, which will be most effective if they are substantially larger than the base yarns.

[0053] Additionally, yarns may be selected from any of a variety of possible materials known in the weaving arts, including but not limited to weaving of medical products. Thus, the material of any one or more filling yarn, warp yarn, and supplemental yarn includes any suitable material or combination of materials for forming the woven textile. Suitable yarns include, but are not limited to, resorbable materials, non-resorbable materials, or a combination thereof. Suitable non-resorbable materials include, but are not limited to, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), silicone, polyurethane, polycarbonate, polyether ketone, or a combination thereof. Suitable resorbable materials include, but are not limited to, polycaprolactone (PCL), polylactic acid (PLA), polyglycolic acid (PGA), poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS), or a combination thereof. Additionally or alternatively, the woven textile may include natural polymer fibers such as, but not limited to, collagen, fibronectin, hyaluronic acid, or a combination thereof, as well as medical polymers used for implants, including PEEK (polyetheretherketone).

[0054] In some examples, the fibers may further comprise materials such as hydroxyapatite

(HA), titanium, and other materials known to be bioactive or to stimulate bone and other tissue activity. The filling yarns may be changed at any point during the formation of the woven textile to provide different materials within any suitable portion of the woven textile. Based upon the material used to form the woven structure, the woven textile forms permanent hardware for a patient or an article of regenerative medicine. For example, permanent hardware may include non-re sorbable materials or combinations of resorbable and non- resorbable materials, while articles of regenerative medicine may include scaffolds formed from resorbable materials which are broken down after implantation.

[0055] The forming of the woven textile according to one or more of the embodiments disclosed herein forms the topography of the fillings either above or both above and below the centerline of the base structure, which provides three-dimensional profiles. Additionally, in accordance with some embodiments, the woven textile may be formed over a molded form whereby the forming of the woven textile over the molded form at least partially defines the geometry of the article formed with the woven textile and/or reinforces the molded form. In other embodiments, the forming of the woven textile includes weaving one or more pockets in the woven textile for receiving inserted materials that set a shape of a preform, such as, for example, a preform having a complex geometry.

VOLUME AND SHAPE DEFINED TEXTILES

[0056] In accordance with the first exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure, woven textiles and their method of production are provided that benefit from novel incorporation of shape and strength reinforcements. Referring again to the drawings, FIG. 1 1 shows a woven textile that is hollow and includes a cavity configured for receiving a fill material therein, the cavity including one or more internal limiters. The hollow woven textile includes any suitable filling yarn and/or combination of filling yarns having the same or differing compositions. As shown in FIG. 1 1 , Panel A, from an end on, top view, the article includes two open tubular bodies joined by a cross supporting limiter formed according to the methods hereof. Panels B and C of FIG. 1 1 , show respectively, alternate embodiments wherein in Panel B the article is shown having a base and in Panel C the tubes are free standing without a base. The depicted embodiment may be used as further described herein for a structural device.

[0057] In use, the woven expanded article is adapted to be filled, wherein the fill material may be selected from any of a variety of materials intended to be filled into the hollow textile, such as materials used for domestic or industrial applications, including but not limited to, gases (e.g., air, helium), liquids (e.g., water, reactive solutions, inert solutions), composite materials (e.g., cement, plaster of paris, other hardening materials), and solids (e.g., sand, stiffening materials, powders). And the fill material may be selected from materials used for domestic or medical applications, including but not limited to, biological materials, therapeutic agents and treatments, bone graft, and cells. Prior to expansion, a low profile and/or flatness of the woven textile facilitates one or more of its packaging, storage and transportation. Again referring to FIG. 1 1 , the one or more limiters within the woven textile at least partially define or control the shaped three-dimensional structure of the woven textile. The limiters facilitate control of an expanded geometry and/or provide an article for delivery of large volumes of material to spaces that are, for example, confined and/or distant. Additionally, the limiters may facilitate controlled delivery of the fill material into the hollow article, which decreases or eliminates material waste during expansion.

[0058] In some embodiments, the woven textile may include one or more sections with limiters and/or one or more sections without limiters, and may include a complex shape having multiple portions, or a combination thereof. A multi-lobed "X" shaped pylon is shown in FIG. 12, which depicts one possible woven article having a four layer structure formed by folding a woven article that forms a three-dimensional construct when expanded by weaving of the limiter with supplementary weft threads.

[0059] In accordance with various embodiments, the limiters within the woven textile include supplementary weft threads that travel between or are interchanging between layers. The weft threads connect a face and a back of the woven textile fabric with weft floats, the connecting of the face and back limiting the expansion of the woven textile from the fill material. Varying the number and/or position of the weft threads varies the expansion of the woven textile, facilitating control of a final expanded geometry of the woven textile. For example, the weft threads may form horizontal limits, vertical limits, shaped limits, point limits, or a combination thereof. Referring again to the drawings, as shown in FIG. 13, the woven textile may have a single internal cavity that is segmented by the placement of limiters. As shown in FIG. 13, panel A shows the weave pattern, panel B shows the weave shape without the limiters, and panel C shows the placement of limiters to form a multi lobed structure.

[0060] And in yet other embodiments, the woven textile may have a simple shape such as the article shown in FIG. 1 1 and multiple intervening segments that are formed with crossing limiters to form a textile article as shown in FIG. 14. Uses for such textiles, when filled are further described herein below.

[0061] Forming the hollow and/or expandable woven textile includes interchanging layers of supplementary filling yarns to define the shape of a textile preform. The interchanging layers may be formed with weaving equipment, such as a jacquard loom, spacer fabric equipment, velvet equipment, or a combination thereof. In one embodiment, defining an expanded or inflated shape of the woven textile includes lengthening and/or shortening of a float length, controlling a placement of the supplementary filling yarns, or a combination thereof. In another embodiment, the defining of the shape forms geometrical shapes, such as lines and/or curves, within the woven textile, defines cells, defines tubular volumes, or a combination thereof. Additionally, a first shuttle may be provided for the main body and a second shuttle may be provided for the weft threads, the first shuttle and the second shuttle using the same, substantially the same, or different materials. For example, a stronger material may be used in the second shuttle for the supplementary weft, the stronger material corresponding to an increased pressure on the supplementary weft from the fill material.

[0062] During the forming of the woven textile, one or more graphics direct the formation of zones of control and/or crossover, the zones providing a desired textile structure. For example, the graphics direct the formation of columns, rows, and or interrelationships of the supplementary wefts. In one such embodiment, the woven textile may be formed with limiters that split the article evenly into multiple columns, as shown, for example in FIG. 13. In some embodiments, the formation of the textile may be guided with a graphic for a binding weave at the top and the bottom, and a graphic for a tube transecting the binding weave, such as shown, for example, in FIG. 18 (further described herein below). In accordance with such embodiments, horizontal rows transect the columns and define regions of supplementary wefts configured to provide limiting crosses in the textile structure. Further according to such embodiments, the expanded width of the columns that intervene the limiters zones establish the expansion limits of the woven textile. With reference to the graphics, every other odd column is given a different technical color in the graphics (color detail not shown) to establish the face/back interrelationship of the supplementary wefts, which facilitates moving of the wefts from layer to layer. An exchange of layers through transition columns, such as the even columns, floats unwoven supplementary wefts between the layers, the unwoven supplementary wefts limiting an expansion width of the woven textile when expanded. In some embodiments, the supplementary wefts are controlled with a stop motion to decrease or eliminate interruptions in a density of the main body weave. This stop motion allows for a continuity of density at the point where the filling yarns cross over. Without these loom stop-motions, there could be an opening in the porosity of the textile wall that could cause leakage of structural failure. Of course, such openings may be desirable depending on the design and functional purpose of the article.

[0063] The supplementary weft for forming limiters includes any suitable weave, such as, but not limited to, a weft face satin weave. Where the supplementary wefts are on the first odd column, the odd supplementary wefts are on the face of the fabric and the even supplementary wefts are on the back. The exchange of layers float unwoven supplementary wefts in between the layers, and reverse the position of the supplementary wefts. For example, after the exchange of layers, on the next odd column, the even supplementary wefts are on the face of the fabric and the odd supplementary wefts are on the back. The exchange of layers is repeated throughout the columns, across the width of the woven textile, repeatedly reversing the orientation of the even and odd supplementary wefts and forming the floating unwoven supplementary wefts. During the exchange, sufficient float is provided to decrease or eliminate tension on the body during weaving.

[0064] The limited hollow and/or expandable woven textile formed according to one or more of the embodiments disclosed herein may be used in various applications, such as, but not limited to, construction, medicine, upholstery, naval or air transport, any other application where shaped constructs having controlled dimensions are required. The articles are particular beneficial for uses requiring relatively low weight, highly flexible containment articles that can be transported efficiently when empty, are easily filled and have shape and volume control. And as further described below, the inventive articles, when formed with active yarns and/or treated, can form structural components for use in applications ranging from medical to industrial.

[0065] For example, in one embodiment, the hollow and/or expandable woven textile is formed with an increased width having a heavy yarn suitable for maintaining or substantially maintaining mechanical properties during and/or after expansion, for example, with abrasive materials such as plaster of paris or concrete. In some embodiments, spacing and distance between the layers and/or the limiters form three-dimensional structures, such as an arch, curve, or other structure, when expanded. In another embodiment, one or more of the hollow and/or expandable woven textiles are formed in a roll, each of the woven textiles being continuous or separable from the roll. In a further embodiment, a plurality of layers are interconnected, the interconnected layers forming a complex grid having alternately fillable areas. For example, a broadloom with sufficient harnesses, or a jacquard head, may be used to quickly form road surfaces configured for flood control.

PRE AND POST WEAVING TREATMENTS OF YARNS FOR TEXTILES AND ARTICLES; YARN SELECTION

[0066] In accordance with the two exemplary embodiments described hereinabove, three- dimensional articles having complex woven geometries are provided, and hollow shape and expansion limited woven articles are provided. The woven textiles formed according to one or more of the embodiments disclosed herein may include one or combinations of at least one treatment. In various alternate embodiments, the treatment includes at least one additive and/or coating that is infused into or applied to one or more yarns prior to weaving, and at least one additive and/or coating in the form of a treatment that is infused or applied to the woven textile or article after weaving. The treatment may also include a coating or additive formed into or used to form a yarn, and may in some examples provide a reactive or active yearn.

[0067] Treatments include any one or more compositions selected from fluid and solid compositions that include, in some examples, one or both reactive and non-reactive chemicals, one or more resins, biological materials, and reagents for biological materials. Thus, in accordance with some embodiments, treating one or more of the yarns and woven construct includes, but is not limited to, applying a treatment to the woven construct, applying a treatment to one or more weft and/or warp threads, infusing one or more weft and/or warp threads with the composition, or a combination thereof.

[0068] In one particular example, one or both weft and warp threads, such as threads made from PET, are infused with magnesium oxide (MgO). In accordance with one use thereof, the woven article may be an hollow expandable textile in accordance with certain embodiments disclose herein, wherein the article can be filled with a fill material, such as, but not limited to, concrete, which binds directly to the MgO infused threads and can serve to offset concrete shrinkage and decrease or eliminate delamination (e.g., delamination of a coating from the threads), provide flame retardancy and combinations thereof.

[0069] Other chemical compositions include, but are not limited to, Ti0 2 , any composition that is reactive with the fill material, any compositions that is compatible with the weft and/or warp threads, or a combination thereof. For example, in another embodiment, the chemical composition may harden when contacted with an activator to harden the chemically treated woven textile and form an instant permanent structure, where the fill is a concrete and the woven article is used as a structural component. In a further embodiment, delivering the activator, such as water or a foaming agent, to the chemically treated hollow and/or expandable woven textile may both expand the woven textile and harden the textile to form the permanent structure. Alternatively, the woven textile including stacked layers may be contacted with the activator to harden the woven textile and maintain or substantially maintain the shaped thickness gradient of the stacked layers.

[0070] In some embodiments, the additive and/or coating includes an elastomer or bio- elastomeric resin, such as, but not limited to, PGS. For example, the woven textile may include fibers formed from the elastomer and/or be coated with the elastomer. In various embodiments, such treatments can be useful in applications that range from consumer, to industrial to medical. In one particular example applicable to medical applications, the elastomer functions to modulate the structural properties of the woven textile, facilitates enhanced cell colonization, maintains a shape of the woven textile, and provides controlled release of an element or composition, or a combination thereof. The elastomer may also be molded and/or embossed to provide topological and/or spatial surface features on the woven textile.

[0071] In another embodiment, the woven textile may be seeded or incubated with biological cells and/or release agents. Suitable release agents include, for example, trophic agents; proteins; peptides; cell growth agents; filler oxides; compounds that promote cellular attachment, cellular differentiation, regeneration, and/or tissue colonization; or a combination thereof. The release agents are released through any suitable release method, such as, but not limited to, coating release, controlled coating release, fiber degradation, or a combination thereof. For example, the woven textile may be formed from degradable fibers including filler oxides or other release agents that are released as the fibers degrade. Suitable biological cells include, but are not limited to, progenitor cells, autologous cells, allogenic cells, mesenchymal progenitor cells, stem cells, or a combination thereof. The progenitor cells and/or release agents facilitate integration of the woven textile and/or woven textile functioning similar or substantially similar to that of a biological organ being reconstituted and/or replaced.

[0072] In some examples, a woven article having three-dimensional features and provided in accordance with the first exemplary embodiment may be formed at least partially with one or more yarns that comprise an implantable polymer, such as PEEK, and infused with one or more bioactive materials to provide at least partial structural support and encourage biological activity at the implant site. In accordance with some such embodiments, the woven article may be seeded with cells. In one embodiment, after exposure of the woven textile to the biological cells and/or the release agents, the woven textile is incubated in a bioreactor prior to implantation.

[0073] In yet other embodiments, the woven textile includes additives, such as, but not limited to, fluorescence compounds, radio opaque compounds, anti-bacterial compounds, growth hormones, conductive compounds, ceramic compounds, metallic compounds, oxygen sensing compounds, radioactive compounds, hormones, cytokines, or combinations thereof.

[00741 In some embodiments, the chemical treatment and/or the material of the wefts and/or warps form conductive fibers. The conductive fibers are configured to provide conductivity throughout the woven textile and/or include a radio frequency response, the conductivity and/or response following the orientation of the fibers. Other suitable applications include, but are not limited to, flood control, controlled delivery of drugs, water storage, water filtration, or a combination thereof.

[0075] In yet other embodiments, the additive and/or coating includes a sealant for sealing the woven textile and/or forming an inflatable woven construct. Suitable application for the inflatable woven construct include, but are not limited to, aerospace applications, naval applications, entertainment applications, such as an inflatable bouncing platform, or a combination thereof.

EXAMPLES

[0076] The invention is further described in the context of the following examples, which are presented by way of illustration, not of limitation. In each of the examples, the method was carried out in accordance with one or more of the embodiments disclosed herein.

THREE-DIMENSIONAL ARTLICE EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE 1

[0077] Using the design program JacqCad, a graphic was created where each color in the graphic represents an "elevation" profile for each filling layer. Referring now to FIG. 15, a graphic and weave design are shown for forming the three-dimensional article as shown in FIG. 4. In this example, a crescent shape was created, and referring to the graphic in FIG. 15, 6 shades of blue and green were used (color not shown; gradations evidenced in gray scale), each color representing, discretely, each of the concentric arcs shown in the graphic to represent the heights of the topography and center portion to represent a base cloth substrate. The image was then expanded to provide each successive color from 1-6 on each layer it will build onto. Specifically, each successive colored arc in the expanded graphic represents weaving on adjacent levels, such that color (arc) 1 was present for weaving on layers 1 -6, color 2 was present for weaving on layers 2-6, color 3 was present for weaving on layers 3-6, color 4 was present for weaving on layers 4-6, color 5 was present for weaving on layers 5-6, and color 6 was present for weaving only on layer 6. As illustrated in the complex expansion image, a stratification of each pick sequence is revealed in steps across the image, each line representing a limitation of the distance the topographical pick travels, thus defining the width traveled for each pass of the fill in the Y dimension before returning to the start.

[0078] Next, a second pick expansion was performed, the second pick expansion expanding the picks by 4. This second pick expansion created the space for two base fillings and two "stuffer" fillings, which facilitated entering and exiting of the yarn at the same location without floating to a further location on the next pick. A white color is superimposed with a cut on every other pick so as to not weave when the stuffer pick is being employed.

[0079] Weaves were then assigned to the colors, the weaves being a 6 layer angle interlock weave where the stuffer or topographical yarns are fill satin weaves that share interconnecting warp yarns. The base layers were run independently as plain weave layers. After assigning the weaves to the colors, the weaving was performed on a shuttle loom with the top shuttle 1 including the stuffer topographical yarn and shuttle 2 including the base filling yarn. The top shuttle 1 always entered and exited from the left side of the loom, while shuttle 2 had no preference for sides.

EXAMPLE 2

[0080] Referring now to FIG. 1 6, in another example, the woven textile was formed according to the method described in Example 1 , with the addition of an expansion in both a lower direction and an upper direction, according to the weave example shown in FIG. 7. The expansion in the upper and lower directions created a double sided wedge for each pick succession graphically. A second weave set was created that built from the bottom of the fabric to the top, the bottom of the fabric forming the top of the ridge line with each stuffer widening successively to the center of the fabric. The stuffers then decreased successively on the top side of the fabric, mirroring the structures formed on either side of the base fabric. VOLUME AND SHAPED DEFINED EXAMPLES EXAMPLE 3

[0081] In another example, a construction preform was formed on a roll, the preform having the overall shape as shown in FIG. 17. The construction preform was formed at a significantly reduced scale for purposes of creating a prototype. However, as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the method described in this example may be scaled to any suitable size based upon the equipment being used. Referring now to FIG. 18, the design for the woven textile was prepared using the design program JacqCad. The scale fabric was woven with a 1/40/34 PET on a 4 shuttle narrow loom having a Staubli Jacquard head. The base end count for the prototype was 255 EPI/layer and 150 PPI/layer. As will also be appreciated by those skilled in the art, although designed for manufacture on a jacquard loom, the method may be applied on other devices, such as, but not limited to, a broad loom, a needle loom, any other style of loom with jacquard or dobby control, or a combination thereof. FIG. 19 and FIG. 20 show a representative example of the woven article when filled and in use as a structural component. In FIG. 19 the article is shown as a free standing arch, and in FIG. 20 the article is shown incorporated into a structure to form a bridge.

[0082] While the foregoing specification illustrates and describes exemplary embodiments, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted for elements thereof without departing from the scope of the invention. In addition, many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation or material to the teachings of the invention without departing from the essential scope thereof. Therefore, it is intended that the invention not be limited to the particular embodiment disclosed as the best mode contemplated for carrying out this invention, but that the invention will include all embodiments falling within the scope of the appended claims.