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Title:
hTRPV1 CHEMICAL AGENTS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2016/127085
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Novel diphenylurea and benzylbenzenesulfonamide compounds are disclosed along with methods of inhibiting the activity of TRPV1 and methods of treating pain associated with transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) using such compounds.

Inventors:
XIE XIANG-QUN (US)
FENG ZHIWEI (US)
Application Number:
US2016/016826
Publication Date:
August 11, 2016
Filing Date:
February 05, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
UNIV PITTSBURGH (US)
International Classes:
C07C275/30; A61K31/17; A61K31/18; A61P19/00; A61P25/00; A61P35/00; C07C275/32; C07C311/15; C07C311/44
Domestic Patent References:
WO2010146236A12010-12-23
WO2005021721A22005-03-10
WO2003093250A22003-11-13
Foreign References:
US20100261911A12010-10-14
Other References:
MARCELLO TREVISANI ET AL.: "TRPV1 antagonists as analogesic agents", THE OPEN PAIN JOURNAL, vol. 6, 2013, pages 108 - 118
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SIMKIN, Michele M. et al. (3000 K Street NW Suite 60, Washington District of Columbia, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A compound represented by Formula (I):

wherein:

X is independently in each instance halogen, OH, amino, COOH, CONH2, S03H, PO3H2, CN, SH, N(R')2, Ν<¾, CF3Ci-C6 perfluoroalkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C6 alkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C6 perfluoroalkyl, (Ci-C6)alkyl, (Ci-C6)alkoxy, (Ci-C6)haloalkoxy, (Ci- C6)haloalkyl, (C2-C6)alkenyl, (C2-C6)alkynyl,— NH2,— NH(Ci-C6)alkyl,— N[(C

C6)alkyl]2,— CN, (C3-C8)heteroaryl, (C3-C8)heterocycloalkyl, (C3-C8)cycloalkyl, (C3-C8)aryl, (C3-C8)heterocycloalkyl-(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C3-C8)heteroaryl-(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C3- C8)aryl(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C3-C8)aryl(Ci-C6)alkenylene-, or (Ci-C6)alkyl-(C3-C8)arylene;

Y is independently in each instance halogen, OH, amino, COOH, CONH2, SO3H, P03H2, CN, SH, N(R')2, N02, CF3Ci-C6 perfluoroalkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C6 alkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C6 perfluoroalkyl, (Ci-C6)alkyl, (Ci-C6)alkoxy, (Ci-C6)haloalkoxy, (Ci- C6)haloalkyl, (C2-C6)alkenyl, (C2-C6)alkynyl,— NH2,— NH(Ci-C6)alkyl,— N[(C

C6)alkyl]2,— CN, (C3-C8)heteroaryl, (C3-C8)heterocycloalkyl, (C3-C8)cycloalkyl, (C3-C8)aryl, (C3-C8)heterocycloalkyl-(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C3-C8)heteroaryl-(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C3- C8)aryl(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C3-C8)aryl(Ci-C6)alkenylene-, or (Ci-C6)alkyl-(C3-C8)arylene;

Z is halogen, OH, amino, COOH, CONH2, S03H, P03H2, CN, SH, N(R')2, N02, CF3Ci-C6 perfluoroalkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C6 alkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C6 perfluoroalkyl, (C C6)alkyl, (Ci-C6)alkoxy, (Ci-C6)haloalkoxy, (Ci-C6)haloalkyl, (C2-C6)alkenyl, (C2- C6)alkynyl,— NH2,— NH(Ci-C6)alkyl,— N[(Ci-C6)alkyl]2,— CN, (C3-C8)heteroaryl, (C3- C8)heterocycloalkyl, (C3-C8)cycloalkyl, (C3-C8)aryl, (C3-C8)heterocycloalkyl-(Ci- C6)alkylene-, (C3-C8)heteroaryl-(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C3-C8)aryl(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C3- C8)aryl(Ci-C6)alkenylene-, or (Ci-C6)alkyl-(C3-C8)arylene;

R is independently in each instance H,— OH, (Ci-Ce)alkyl, (Ci-Ce) perfluoroalkyl; (Ci-C6)alkoxy, (Ci-C6)haloalkoxy, (Ci-C6)haloalkyl, (C2-Ce)alkenyl, (C2- C6)alkynyl,— NH2,— NH(Ci-C6)alkyl,— N[(Ci-C6)alkyl]2,— CN, (C3-C8)heteroaryl, (C3- C8)heterocycloalkyl, (C3-Cg)cycloalkyl, (C3-C8)aryl, (C3-C8)heterocycloalkyl-(Ci- C6)alkylene-, (C3-C8)heteroaryl-(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C3-C8)aryl(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C3- C8)aryl(Ci-C6)alkenylene-, or (Ci-C6)alkyl-(C3-C8)arylene;

R' is independently in each instance H,— OH, (Ci-C6)alkyl, (Ci-Ce) perfluoroalkyl; (Ci-C6)alkoxy, (Ci-C6)haloalkoxy, (Ci-C6)haloalkyl, (C2-Ce)alkenyl, (C2- C6)alkynyl,— NH2,— NH(Ci-C6)alkyl,— N[(Ci-C6)alkyl]2,— CN, (C3-C8)heteroaryl, (C3- C8)heterocycloalkyl, (C3-Cg)cycloalkyl, (C3-Cg)aryl, (C3-C8)heterocycloalkyl-(Ci- C6)alkylene-, (C3-C8)heteroaryl-(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C3-C8)aryl(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C3- C8)aryl(Ci-C6)alkenylene-, or (Ci-C6)alkyl-(C3-C8)arylene;

a is an integer of 0 to 5; and

b is an integer of 0 to 4,

wherein the alkyl moieties are optionally substituted by one or more halogen, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

2. A compound of claim 1, wherein Z is N(R')2 or NO2 and a is an integer of 1 to 5; and b is an integer of 0 to 4.

3. A compound of claim 1, wherein

4. X is independently in each instance halogen, C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6

perfluoroalkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C6 alkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C6 perfluoroalkyl;

Y is independently in each instance halogen, C1-C6 alkyl;

Z is N(R')2, N02;

R is independently in each instance H, C1-C6 alkyl;

R' is independently in each instance H, C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 perfluoroalkyl; a is an integer of 1 to 5; and

b is an integer of 0 to 4,

wherein the alkyl moieties are optionally substituted by one or more halogen, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

5. A compound of claim 1 or 2 or 3, wherein a and b are each independently an integer of 1 to 3.

6. A compound of claim 1 or 2 or 3, wherein a and b are one.

7. A compound of any of claims 1 to 5, wherein X is fluoro, C1-C6 alkyl or C1-C6 perfluoroalkyl and a is 1.

8 A compound of any of claims 1 to 6, wherein Y is a C1-C6 alkyl and b is 1.

9. A compound of any of claims 1 to 7, wherein R is H.

10. A compound of any of claims 1 to 8, wherein Z is N02.

11. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any one of claims 1 to 9 and at least one pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

12. A method of treating pain associated with transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPVl) in a subject in need thereof, comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound or composition of any one of claims 1 to 10.

13. The method of claim 9, wherein the pain associated with TRPVl is selected from the group consisting of osteoarthritis, neuropathic pain, migraine, inflammatory bowel disease, and bone cancer pain.

14. A method of inhibiting the activity of TRPVl comprising contacting TRPVl with a compound or composition of any one of claims 1 to 10.

Description:
hTRPVl Chemical Agents

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims priority from U.S. Provisional Patent Application No.

62/113,429, filed February 7, 2015. The content of that application is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT

[0002] This invention was made with government support under NIH grant # DA025612 awarded by the NIH. The government has certain rights in the invention.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are among the largest families of ion channels. There are 28 known TRP cation channels in the TRP superfamily, which can be further subdivided into six subfamilies: TRP A ("Ankyrin": TRPA1), TRPML ("Mucolipin": TRPML1-TRPML3), TRPP ("Polycystin": TRPP1-TRPP3), TRPM ("Melastatin" : TRPM1- TRPM8), TRPC ("Canonical":TRPCl-TRPC7), and TRPV ("Vanilloid": TRPVl -TRPV6).

[0004] Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPVl) is a member of the TRPV subfamily. TRPVl and has been reported to contribute to acute and chronic pain, such as osteoarthritis, neuropathic pain, migraine, inflammatory bowel disease, and bone cancer pain. Brain TRPVl is also postulated to have a pathogenic role in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, ranging from Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer disease to anxiety, depression and other mood disorders.

[0005] Recently, the structures of rattus norvegicus apo-TRPVl (rTRPVl), rTRPVl bound with RTX/DkTx or with capsaicin has been reported by using single particle electron cryo- microscopy. Cao et al, "TRPVl Structures in Distinct Conformations Reveal Activation Mechanisms," Nature, 504: 113-118 (2013); Liao et al., "Structure of the TRPVl Ion Channel Determined by Electron Cryo-Microscopy, " Nature, 504: 107-11 (2013). Unfortunately, the resolution was insufficient to reveal in detail the nature of the ligand binding interactions with TRPVl . [0006] Human TRPV1 (hTRPVl) shares 85.7% sequence identity with rTRPVl. Most of the antagonists of hTRPVl, which represent the predominant therapeutic strategy for utilization of vanilloids in the treatment of pain, share a scaffold and R-groups. Developing antagonists of hTRPVl has been hindered by the unavailability of the 3D structure of hTRPVl.

[0007] Thus, there remains a need in the art to determine a pharmacophore model of hTRPVl . Furthermore, there remains a need in the art to develop new antagonists for hTRPVl.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION the invention relates to a compound represented by Formula (I): (I),

wherein:

X is independently in each instance halogen, OH, amino, COOH, CONH 2 , SO 3 H, PO 3 H2, CN, SH, N(R') 2 , N0 2 , CF 3 Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 alkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, (Ci-Ce)alkyl, (Ci-Ce)alkoxy, (Ci-C6)haloalkoxy, (Ci-C6)haloalkyl, (C 2 - C 6 )alkenyl, (C 2 -C 6 )alkynyl,— NH 2 ,— NH(Ci-C 6 )alkyl,— N[(Ci-C 6 )alkyl] 2 ,— CN, (C 3 - C 8 )heteroaryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )cycloalkyl, (C 3 -Cg)aryl, (C 3 - C 8 )heterocycloalkyl-(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl-(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl(Ci- Ce)alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl(Ci-C6)alkenylene-, or (Ci-C6)alkyl-(C 3 -C 8 )arylene; Y is independently in each instance halogen, OH, amino, COOH, CONH 2 , SO 3 H, P0 3 H 2 , CN, SH, N(R') 2 , N0 2 , CF 3 Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 alkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, (Ci-C 6 )alkyl, (Ci-C 6 )alkoxy, (Ci-C 6 )haloalkoxy, (Ci-C 6 )haloalkyl, (C 2 -C 6 )alkenyl, (C 2 - C 6 )alkynyl,— NH 2 ,— NH(Ci-C 6 )alkyl,— N[(Ci-C 6 )alkyl] 2 ,— CN, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl, (C 3 - C 8 )heterocycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )cycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl-(Ci- C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl-(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 - C 8 )aryl(Ci-C6)alkenylene-, or (Ci-C6)alkyl-(C 3 -C 8 )arylene; Z is halogen, OH, amino, COOH, CONH 2 , SO 3 H, P0 3 H 2 , CN, SH, N(R') 2 , N0 2, CF 3 Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 alkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, (Ci-C 6 )alkyl, (Ci-C 6 )alkoxy, (Ci-C 6 )haloalkoxy, (Ci- C 6 )haloalkyl, (C 2 -C 6 )alkenyl, (C 2 -C 6 )alkynyl,— NH 2 ,— NH(Ci-C 6 )alkyl,— N[(C

C 6 )alkyl] 2 ,— CN, (C3-C 8 )heteroaryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )cycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl-(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl-(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 - C 8 )aryl(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl(Ci-C6)alkenylene-, or (Ci-C6)alkyl-(C 3 -C 8 )arylene; R is independently in each instance H,— OH, (Ci-Ce)alkyl, (Ci-Ce) perfluoroalkyl; (Ci- C 6 )alkoxy, (Ci-C 6 )haloalkoxy, (Ci-C 6 )haloalkyl, (C 2 -C 6 )alkenyl, (C 2 -C 6 )alkynyl,— NH 2 ,— NH(Ci-C 6 )alkyl,— N[(Ci-C 6 )alkyl] 2 ,— CN, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl, (C 3 - C 8 )cycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl-(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl-(Ci- C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl(Ci-C 6 )alkenylene-, or (Ci-C 6 )alkyl- (C 3 -C 8 )arylene; R' is independently in each instance H,— OH, (Ci-C6)alkyl, (Ci-Ce) perfluoroalkyl; (Ci-C6)alkoxy, (Ci-C6)haloalkoxy, (Ci-C6)haloalkyl, (C 2 -Ce)alkenyl, (C 2 - C 6 )alkynyl,— NH 2 ,— NH(Ci-C 6 )alkyl,— N[(Ci-C 6 )alkyl] 2 ,— CN, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl, (C 3 - C 8 )heterocycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )cycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl-(Ci- C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl-(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 - C 8 )aryl(Ci-C6)alkenylene-, or (Ci-C6)alkyl-(C 3 -C 8 )arylene; a is an integer of 0 to 5; and b is an integer of 0 to 4, wherein the alkyl moieties are optionally substituted by one or more halogen, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

[0009] In another embodiment, Z is N(R') 2 or N0 2 and a is an integer of 1 to 5; and b is an integer of 0 to 4. In yet another embodiment, X is independently in each instance halogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 alkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl; Y is independently in each instance halogen, C1-C6 alkyl; Z is N(R') 2 , N0 2 ; R is independently in each instance H, C1-C6 alkyl; R' is independently in each instance H, C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 perfluoroalkyl; a is an integer of 1 to 5; and b is an integer of 0 to 4, wherein the alkyl moieties are optionally substituted by one or more halogen, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

[0010] In another embodiment, a and b are each independently an integer of 1 to 3, or a and b are one. In another embodiment, X is fluoro, C1-C6 alkyl or C1-C6 perfluoroalkyl and a is 1. In another embodiment, Y is a C1-C6 alkyl and b is 1. In another embodiment, R is H. In another embodiment, Z is N0 2 . [0011] Other aspects of the present invention include a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any of the prior embodiments and at least one pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

[0012] Another aspect of the present invention includes a method of treating pain associated with transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) in a subject in need thereof, comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound or composition of any of the prior embodiments. In some embodiments, the pain associated with TRPV1 is selected from the group consisting of osteoarthritis, neuropathic pain, migraine, inflammatory bowel disease, and bone cancer pain.

[0013] Yet another aspect of the present invention includes a method of inhibiting the activity of TRPV1 comprising contacting TRPV1 with a compound or composition of any prior embodiments.

[0014] The foregoing general description and following description of the drawings and detailed description are exemplary and explanatory and are intended to provide further explanation of the invention as claimed. Other objects, advantages, and novel features will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art from the following brief description of the drawings and detailed description of the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0015] FIG. 1 is a sequence alignment between hTRPVl and rTRPVl in the present work.

[0016] FIGs. 2A-2F are Ramachandran plots of hTRPVl model constructed by rTRPVl. FIG. 2A = General case; FIG. 2B = isoleucine and valine; FIG. 2C = pre-proline; FIG. 2D = glycine; FIG. 2E = trans proline; and FIG. 2F = cis proline. 95.5% (554/580) of all residues were in favored regions. 99.1% (575/580) of all residues were in allowed regions. There were 5 outliers (phi, psi): Glu250 (56.0, -24.3), Leu385 (88.0, 72.8), Thr407 (88.0, -19.7), Asp459 (22.4, -126.2), Pro462 (-28.9, -68.7).

[0017] FIGs. 3A-3F show detailed binding modes of six other antagonists with hTRPVl, including BCTC (FIG. 3A), A-425619 (FIG. 3B), A-784168 (FIG. 3C), SB705498 (FIG. 3D), AMG0347 (FIG. 3E), and JNJ17203212 (FIG. 3F). Two residues, Tyr511 and Thr550, formed strong hydrogen bonds with the antagonists. [0018] FIGS. 4A and 4B show alignments of (a) four AMG9810 and (b) of four RTX after MD simulation. The hTRPVl and its compounds before MD simulation were highlighted in gray, while the four AMG9810 and four RTX in different monomers were highlighted in colors.

[0019] FIGs. 5 A and 5B show alignments of four monomers (or units) (a) of hTRPVl bound with AMG9810 and (b) of hTRPVl bound with RTX.

[0020] FIG. 6 is alignments of hTRPV 1 bound with AMG9810 and bound with RTX. hTRPVl highlighted in green color was the structure of hTRPVl bound with antagonist, while hTRPVl highlighted in red color was the structure of hTRPVl bound with agonist. Residues from 112 to 364 were hindered for clarity.

[0021] FIG. 7 shows four allosteric binding pockets in tetramer hTRPVl model.

[0022] FIG. 8 shows a substructure search of diarylurea small molecules (derived from compound 1) against a refined compound library of 15,672 compounds for TRPVl .

[0023] FIG. 9 shows chemical structures and activity values of compounds 5 and 14.

Compound 5 (partial agonist) yielded an EC 50 value for capsaicin agonism of 2.84 ± 0.21 μΜ and maximal stimulation 55.7 ± 7.8% of that by 3000 nM capsaicin (Figure 9, red line). Compound 14 (antagonist) yielded a K; value for capsaicin antagonism of 0.47 ±0.18 μΜ (Figure 9, blue line)and inhibited [ H]RTX binding to hTRPVl with a ¾ value of 0.65 ± 0.26 μΜ

[0024] FIGs. 10a and 10b show a comparison of compound 1 with compound 10 indicating that the para-cymo replacement of a meto-trifluoromethyl R2 group affected the activity of the compounds at hTRPVl . (a) The detailed binding pose of compound 1 at TRPVl (¾: 2.57 ± 0.62 μΜ). (b) The detailed binding pose of compound 10 at hTRPVl (35 ± 5% inhibition at 30 μΜ).

[0025] FIGs. 1 la and 1 lb show a comparison of compound 1 with compound 14 indicating that the bulky R2 group replacement enhanced the activity of the ligand at hTRPVl. (a) The detailed binding pose of compound 1 at hTRPVl (¾: 2.57 ± 0.62 μΜ). (b) The detailed binding pose of compound 14 at TRPVl (¾: 0.47 ± 0.18 μΜ).

[0026] FIGs. 12a and 12b show a comparison of compounds 14-16 indicating that the nitro/hydroxyl group in Rl was important for the activity of inhibitors at hTRPVl . (a) The detailed binding pose of compound 14 at TRPVl (¾: 0.47±0.18 μΜ). (b) The detailed binding pose of compound 15 at TRPVl (¾: 0.49 ± 0.14 μΜ). (c) The detailed binding pose of compound 16 at TRPVl (¾: 0.56 ± 0.16 μΜ).

[0027] FIGs. 13a and 13b show a comparison of the slight different binding modes of compound 5 (partial agonist) and compound 4 (antagonist) at hTRPVl . (a) The detailed binding pose of compound 5 at hTRPVl (EC 50 : 2.84 ± 0.21 μΜ). (b) The detailed binding pose of compound 4 at hTRPVl (¾: 11.7 ± 1.3 μΜ).

[0028] FIGs. 14a and 14b show that compound 15 of TRPVl had potential binding at CB2. (a) The binding curve (¾: 1.39 μΜ) of compound 15 at CB2. (b) The detailed binding pose of compound 15 at CB2.

[0029] FIG. 15 shows that compound 1 of TRPVl is predicted to target CXCR2. The potential binding pose of the CXCR2 selective compound SB225002. (b) The potential binding pose of compound 1 at CXCR2. In vitro binding assays are still needed to experimentally validate the predicted binding activity of our compounds with CXCR2.

[0030] FIGs. 16a and 16b show detailed binding modes of (a) capsaicin and (b) RTX with hTRPVl . Two residues, Tyr511 and Thr550, formed hydrogen bonds with the agonists.

[0031] FIG. 17 shows compound 14 inhibited [ H]RTX binding to hTRPVl with a K ; value of 0.65 ± 0.26 μΜ.

[0032] FIG. 18 shows a correlation between the values for the predicted AG of the binding based on the modeling and the AG derived from the experimental activities (¾) of the 11 compounds in the present work. We converted the experimental activities (¾) to AG ac tuai (x- axis) using the equation RTlnK; (R:gas constant R, 8.314 J/mol*K; T:absolute temperature, 273.15+37=310.15K, since the T for the binding was measured at 37 °C), comparing with the predicted AG pre dict e d (y-axis).

[0033] FIG. 19 shows the comparisons of pore radius and conformational changes of hTRPVl bound with compound 4 and bound with compound 5. The pore radius along the channel for apo hTRPVl, hTRPVl -compound 4 (average conformation during the last 2ns), and hTRPVl -compound 5 (average conformation during the last 2ns).

[0034] FIGs. 20a and 20b show compounds (a) 14 and (b) 16 had weak binding activity with Kj values of 15.9 and 12.2 μΜ at CB2. DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Compounds of the invention

[0035] Compounds of the present disclosure include novel compounds represented by Formula (I):

wherein:

X is independently in each instance halogen, OH, amino, COOH, CONH 2 , S0 3 H, PO3H2, CN, SH, N(R') 2 , N0 2 , CF 3 Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 alkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, (Ci-C 6 )alkyl, (Ci-C 6 )alkoxy, (d-C 6 )haloalkoxy, (C

C 6 )haloalkyl, (C 2 -C 6 )alkenyl, (C 2 -C 6 )alkynyl,— NH 2 ,— NH(Ci-C 6 )alkyl,— N[(C

C 6 )alkyl] 2 ,— CN, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )cycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl-(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl-(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 - C 8 )aryl(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl(Ci-C6)alkenylene-, or (Ci-C6)alkyl-(C 3 -C 8 )arylene;

Y is independently in each instance halogen, OH, amino, COOH, CONH 2 , SO3H, P0 3 H 2 , CN, SH, N(R') 2 , N0 2, CF 3 Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 alkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, (Ci-C 6 )alkyl, (Ci-C 6 )alkoxy, (Ci-C 6 )haloalkoxy, (C

C 6 )haloalkyl, (C 2 -C 6 )alkenyl, (C 2 -C 6 )alkynyl,— NH 2 ,— NH(Ci-C 6 )alkyl,— N[(C

C 6 )alkyl] 2 ,— CN, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )cycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl-(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl-(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 - C 8 )aryl(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl(Ci-C6)alkenylene-, or (Ci-C6)alkyl-(C 3 -C 8 )arylene;

Z is halogen, OH, amino, COOH, CONH 2 , S0 3 H, P0 3 H 2 , CN, SH, N(R') 2 , N0 2, CF 3 Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 alkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, (C C 6 )alkyl, (Ci-C 6 )alkoxy, (Ci-C 6 )haloalkoxy, (Ci-C 6 )haloalkyl, (C 2 -C 6 )alkenyl, (C 2 - C 6 )alkynyl,— NH 2 ,— NH(Ci-C 6 )alkyl,— N[(Ci-C 6 )alkyl] 2 ,— CN, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl, (C 3 - C 8 )heterocycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )cycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl-(Ci- C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl-(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 - C 8 )aryl(Ci-C6)alkenylene-, or (Ci-C6)alkyl-(C 3 -C 8 )arylene; R is independently in each instance H,— OH, (Ci-Ce)alkyl, (Ci-Ce) perfluoroalkyl; (Ci-C6)alkoxy, (Ci-C6)haloalkoxy, (Ci-C6)haloalkyl, (C 2 -Ce)alkenyl, (C 2 - C 6 )alkynyl,— NH 2 ,— NH(Ci-C 6 )alkyl,— N[(Ci-C 6 )alkyl] 2 ,— CN, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl, (C 3 - C8)heterocycloalkyl, (C3-C8)cycloalkyl, (C3-Cg)aryl, (C 3 -C8)heterocycloalkyl-(Ci- C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C8)heteroaryl-(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C8)aryl(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 - C8)aryl(Ci-C6)alkenylene-, or (Ci-C6)alkyl-(C 3 -C8)arylene;

R' is independently in each instance H,— OH, (Ci-C6)alkyl, (Ci-Ce) perfluoroalkyl; (Ci-C6)alkoxy, (Ci-C6)haloalkoxy, (Ci-C6)haloalkyl, (C 2 -Ce)alkenyl, (C 2 - C 6 )alkynyl,— NH 2 ,— NH(Ci-C 6 )alkyl,— N[(Ci-C 6 )alkyl] 2 ,— CN, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl, (C 3 - C8)heterocycloalkyl, (C 3 -C8)cycloalkyl, (C 3 -C8)aryl, (C 3 -C8)heterocycloalkyl-(Ci- C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl-(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 - C8)aryl(Ci-C6)alkenylene-, or (Ci-C6)alkyl-(C 3 -C8)arylene;

a is an integer of 0 to 5; and

b is an integer of 0 to 4,

wherein the alkyl moieties are optionally substituted by one or more halogen, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

[0036] In some embodiments, in Formula (I),

X is independently in each instance halogen, C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 perfluoroalkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 alkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, N(R') 2 , C C 6 alkyloxy, pyrrolidine;

Y is independently in each instance halogen, C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 perfluoroalkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 alkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, N(R') 2 , Ci-C 6 alkyloxy, pyrrolidine;

R is independently in each instance H, Ci-Ce alkyl;

R' is independently in each instance H, C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 perfluoroalkyl; a is an integer of 1 to 5; and

b is an integer of 0 to 4, wherein the alkyl moieties are optionally substituted by one or more halogen, or

any pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

[0037] In some embodiments, the halogen is fluoro.

[0038] In some embodiments, Z is N(R') 2 or NO2 or in the para or meta position.

In some embodiments, Z is a para F or CI moiety.

[0039] In some embodiments, a is an integer of 1 to 5; and b is an integer of 0 to 4.

[0040] In some embodiments, X is , where represents an optional bond;

* is independently OMe, or CF 3 ., for example, — f . In some

embodiments, X is , where X' is O or S, and R, Y and b are defined

above, for example, in some embodiments, X is selected from the group consisting of D, CI, F, (CH 2 V 5 CH 3 , (e.g., Me, Et), OMe, CF 3 , CN, C(0)NR 2 , COO(CH 2 )o -5 CH 3 COO(CH 2 )o -5 CF 3 , (CH 2 ) 1-5 OH, , (CH 2 ) 0-5 -O-(CH 2 ) 1-5 , (CH 2 ) 0-5 - S-(CH 2 ) 1-5 , and (CH 2 ) 0-5 -NR-(CH 2 ) 1-

[0041] In some embodiments, Y is where represents an optional bond;

* is independently H, D, CI, F, Me, Et, OMe, or CF 3 ., for example, L ---/ . In some

embodiments, Y is A R R (Y)B , where X' is O or S, and R, Y and b are defined above, for example, or in some embodiments, Y is selected from the group consisting of D, CI, F, (CH 2 V 5 CH 3 , (e.g., Me, Et), OMe, CF 3 , CN, C(0)NR 2 , COO(CH 2 )o -5 CH 3 COO(CH 2 )o -5 CF 3 , (CH 2 ) 1-5 OH, , (CH 2 ) 0-5 -O-(CH 2 ) 1-5 , (CH 2 ) 0-5 - S-(CH 2 )i -5 , and (CH 2 ) 0 - 5 -NR-(CH 2 )i -5 .

[0042] In some embodiments, the compounds of the present disclosure include novel compounds represented by Formula (la): (la),

or any pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

[0043] In further embodiments, the compounds of the present disclosure include novel compounds represented by Formula (la') or (la") or (la'") or (la"") or (la'"") or one of (la 6"10 ):

(la 9 ) and R R (la 10 ) or any pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof. The variables of formulae (la), (la'), (la"), (la'"), (la""), (la'""), and (la 6"10 ) are the same as for Formula (I).

[0044] In some embodiments, when X in formula (la') is F, then Y is not methyl, and when X is CI, then Y is not CI, and in Formula (la'") when X is methyl and a is two, R is not in each instance H.

compounds represented by Formula (lb): b), or any pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof wherein the variables of Formula (lb) are the same as for Formula (I).

[0046] Some embodiments include compounds represented by Formula (lb') and (lb")

pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof wherein the variables are the same as for Formula (I).

compounds represented by Formula (Ib): b), or any pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof wherein the variables of Formula (Ib) are the same as for Formula (I).

[0048] In some embodiments, the compounds of the present disclosure include novel compounds represented by Formula (Ic): (Ic), or any pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, wherein two of X and/or two of Y are present on adjacent atoms, and together form a five or six-membered aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclic or cyclic ring that is optionally substituted by one or more halogen, OH, amino, COOH, CONH 2 , S0 3 H, P0 3 H 2 , CN, SH, N(R') 2 , N0 2, CF 3 C C 6 perfluoroalkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 alkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, (Ci-C 6 )alkyl, (C C 6 )alkoxy, (Ci-C 6 )haloalkoxy, (Ci-C 6 )haloalkyl, (C 2 -C 6 )alkenyl, (C 2 -C 6 )alkynyl,— NH 2 ,— NH(Ci-C 6 )alkyl,— N[(Ci-C 6 )alkyl] 2 ,— CN, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl, (C 3 - C8)cycloalkyl, (C3-C8)aryl, (C3-C8)heterocycloalkyl-(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl-(Ci- C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl(Ci-C 6 )alkenylene-, or (Ci-C 6 )alkyl- (C 3 -C8)arylene, and the remaining variables of Formula (Ic) are the same as for Formula (I).

[0049] In some embodiments, the two of X and/or two of Y are present on adjacent atoms, and together form a five or six-membered aryl ring. In some embodiments, the two of X and/or two of Y are present on adjacent atoms, and together form a five or six-membered heteroaryl ring. In some embodiments, the two of X and/or two of Y are present on adjacent atoms, and together form a five or six-membered heterocyclic ring. In some embodiments, the two of X and/or two of Y are present on adjacent atoms, and together form a five or six- membered cyclic ring. In some embodiments, the heteroatom is N. In some embodiments, the heteroatom is O. In some embodiments, the heterocycle/heteroaryl is selected from pyrrole, 1-pyrroline, 2-pyrroline, 3-pyrroline, pyrrolidone, imidazole, imidazoline, imidazolidine, pyrazole, 2-pyrazoline, 3-pyrazoline, pyrazolidine, 1,3,4-triazole, 1,2,3- triazole, 1,2,4-triazole, tetrazole, pentazole, pyridine, pyridazine, pyrimidine, pyrazine, triazine, 1,4-dihydropyridine, dihydropyrazine, piperidine, and piperazine.

[0050] In some embodiments, the two X are present on adjacent atoms, and together form a five or six-membered aryl or heteroaryl or heterocyclic or cyclic ring. In some embodiments, the two Y are present on adjacent atoms, and together form a five or six-membered aryl or heteroaryl or heterocyclic or cyclic ring. In some embodiments, the two X and the two Y are present on adjacent atoms, and each set together, independently, form a five or six-membered aryl or heteroaryl or heterocyclic or cyclic ring.

[0051] Compounds of Formula (Ic) include:

[0052] In some of the above embodiments, each R is H. In some embodiments, each Z is F.

[0053] In some embodiments, the compounds of the present disclosure include novel compounds represented by Formula (Id): (Id), or any pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, wherein is a 6- or 10-membered aryl (e.g., phenyl or napthyl), and the variables of Formula (Id) are the same as for Formula (I) or (Ic).

[0054] In some embodiments, the compounds of the present disclosure include novel compounds represented by Formula (Ie): (Ie), or any pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, wherein is a 6- or 10-membered aryl (e.g., phenyl or napthyl);

represents an optional bond;

J is independently a d-C6 alkyl substituted by one or more halogen, OH, amino, COOH, CONH 2 , SO3H, PO3H2, CN, SH, N(R') 2 , N0 2 , CF 3 Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 alkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, (Ci-C 6 )alkyl, (Ci-C 6 )alkoxy, (Ci-C 6 )haloalkoxy, (C C 6 )haloalkyl, (C 2 -C 6 )alkenyl, (C 2 -C 6 )alkynyl,— NH 2 ,— NH(Ci-C 6 )alkyl,— N[(C

C 6 )alkyl] 2 ,— CN, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )cycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl-(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl-(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 - C 8 )aryl(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl(Ci-C6)alkenylene-, or (Ci-C6)alkyl-(C 3 -C 8 )arylene; G is CR 2 , O, or NR;

and the variables of Formula (Ie) are the same as for Formula (I).

[0055] In some embodiments, J is selected from Ci-C6-alkyl-halogen (e.g., CI or F), C 1 -C6- alkyl-hydroxyl, and C 1 -C6 perfluoroalkyl.

[0056] In some embodiments, G is O. In some embodiments, each of is present.

[0059] Compounds of the present disclosure also include novel compounds represented by Formula (II):

wherein:

X is independently in each instance halogen, OH, amino, COOH, CONH 2 , S0 3 H, PO3H2, CN, SH, N(R') 2 , Ν<¾ , CF 3 Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 alkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, (Ci-C 6 )alkyl, (Ci-C 6 )alkoxy, (Ci-C 6 )haloalkoxy, (d- C 6 )haloalkyl, (C 2 -C 6 )alkenyl, (C 2 -C 6 )alkynyl,— NH 2 ,— NH(Ci-C 6 )alkyl,— N[(C

C 6 )alkyl] 2 ,— CN, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )cycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl-(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl-(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 - C 8 )aryl(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl(Ci-C6)alkenylene-, or (Ci-C6)alkyl-(C 3 -C 8 )arylene;

Y is independently in each instance halogen, OH, amino, COOH, CONH 2 , SO3H, P0 3 H 2 , CN, SH, N(R') 2 , N0 2, CF 3 Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 alkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, (Ci-C 6 )alkyl, (Ci-C 6 )alkoxy, (Ci-C 6 )haloalkoxy, (C

C 6 )haloalkyl, (C 2 -C 6 )alkenyl, (C 2 -C 6 )alkynyl,— NH 2 ,— NH(Ci-C 6 )alkyl,— N[(C

C 6 )alkyl] 2 ,— CN, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )cycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl-(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl-(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 - C 8 )aryl(Ci-C6)alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl(Ci-C6)alkenylene-, or (Ci-C6)alkyl-(C 3 -C 8 )arylene;

Z is halogen, OH, amino, COOH, CONH 2 , S0 3 H, P0 3 H 2 , CN, SH, N(R') 2 , N0 2, CF 3 Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 alkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl, (C C 6 )alkyl, (Ci-C 6 )alkoxy, (Ci-C 6 )haloalkoxy, (Ci-C 6 )haloalkyl, (C 2 -C 6 )alkenyl, (C 2 - C 6 )alkynyl,— NH 2 ,— NH(Ci-C 6 )alkyl,— N[(Ci-C 6 )alkyl] 2 ,— CN, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl, (C 3 - C 8 )heterocycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )cycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl-(Ci- C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl-(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 - C 8 )aryl(Ci-C6)alkenylene-, or (Ci-C6)alkyl-(C 3 -C 8 )arylene;

R is independently in each instance H,— OH, (Ci-Ce)alkyl, (Ci-Ce) perfluoroalkyl; (Ci-C6)alkoxy, (Ci-C6)haloalkoxy, (Ci-C6)haloalkyl, (C 2 -Ce)alkenyl, (C 2 - C 6 )alkynyl,— NH 2 ,— NH(Ci-C 6 )alkyl,— N[(Ci-C 6 )alkyl] 2 ,— CN, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaryl, (C 3 - C 8 )heterocycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )cycloalkyl, (C 3 -C 8 )aryl, (C 3 -C 8 )heterocycloalkyl-(Ci- C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 -C8)heteroaryl-(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C3-C 8 )aryl(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 - C8)aryl(Ci-C6)alkenylene-, or (Ci-C6)alkyl-(C3-C8)arylene;

R' is independently in each instance H,— OH, (Ci-C6)alkyl, (Ci-Ce) perfluoroalkyl; (Ci-C6)alkoxy, (Ci-C6)haloalkoxy, (Ci-C6)haloalkyl, (C 2 -Ce)alkenyl, (C 2 - C 6 )alkynyl,— NH 2 ,— NH(Ci-C 6 )alkyl,— N[(Ci-C 6 )alkyl] 2 ,— CN, (C 3 -C 8 )heteroaiyl, (C C8)heterocycloalkyl, (C3-C8)cycloalkyl, (C3-C8)aryl, (C3-C8)heterocycloalkyl-(Ci- C 6 )alkylene-, (C3-C 8 )heteroaryl-(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C3-C 8 )aryl(Ci-C 6 )alkylene-, (C 3 - C8)aryl(Ci-C6)alkenylene-, or (Ci-C6)alkyl-(C3-C8)arylene;

a is an integer of 0 to 5; and

b is an integer of 0 to 4,

wherein the alkyl moieties are optionally substituted by one or more halog or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

[0060] In some embodiments, in Formula (II),

X is independently in each instance halogen, C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6

perfluoroalkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 alkyl, NHC(0)-Ci-C 6 perfluoroalkyl;

Y is independently in each instance halogen, C1-C6 alkyl;

R is independently in each instance H, C1-C6 alkyl;

R' is independently in each instance H, C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 perfluoroalkyl; a is an integer of 1 to 5; and

b is an integer of 0 to 4,

wherein the alkyl moieties are optionally substituted by one or more halog or any pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

[0061] In some embodiments, the halogen is fluoro.

[0062] In some embodiments, Z is N(R') 2 or N0 2 or

[0063] In some embodiments, a is an integer of 1 to 5; and b is an integer of 0 to 4.

[0064] In some embodiments, the compounds of the present disclosure include novel compounds represented by Formula (Ila):

or any pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

[0065] In further embodiments, the compounds of the present disclosure include novel compounds represented by Formula (Ila') or (Ila") or (Ila' ") or (Ila" ") or (Ila' ""):

or any pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

[0066] The variables of formulae (Ila), (Ila'), (Ila"), (Ila' "), (Ila""), and (Ila' " ") are the same as for Formula (II).

[0067] In some embodiments of the Formulae (I) and (II) and their sub-formulae,, the C1-C6 alkyl is one or more of methyl, ethyl, propyl (n-, i-), butyl (n-, i-, t-, sec-), pentyl or hexyl. Preferred embodiments include methyl and ethyl. When the C1-C6 alkyl is substituted by one or more halogen, the embodiments include, for example, -CH 2 F, -CHF 2 , -CF 3 -CH 2 CH 2 F, - CH 2 CHF 2 , -CH 2 CF 3 , -CHFCH 3, -CHFCH 2 F, -CHFCHF 2 , -CHFCF 3, -CF 2 CH 3, -CF 2 CH 2 F, - CF 2 CHF 2 , -CF 2 CF 3

[0068] In some embodiments, the C1-C6 perfluoroalkyl is a -CF 3 or -CF 2 CF 3

[0069] In some embodiments, a is 0 or 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5. In a preferred embodiment, a is 1. In some embodiments, b is 0 or 1 or 2 or 3 or 4. In a preferred embodiment, b is 0 or 1.

[0070] Specific embodiments of compounds of the present invention include:

[0071] In some embodiments, the compounds of Formula (I), Formula (la), Formula Formula (la"), Formula (la' "), Formula (la" "), Formula (la' "") do not include the followin :

Methods of Treatment

[0072] One aspect of the present technology includes methods of antagonizing or ag hTRPVl or inhibiting the activity of TRPVl in a subject in need thereof, comprising contacting hTRPVl with a compound or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, or administering a composition comprising such a compound or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof. In some embodiments, the compound is a diarylurea compound capable of binding to a space within the TRPVl molecule comprising (1) an upper part of the binding pocket formed by several hydrophobic residues, including Leu518, Leu547, Phe554, Leu663 and Leu670; (2) a middle consisted of several residues, including Tyr511, Met514, Thr550 and Asn551 ; and (3) a bottom part mainly formed by two charged residues, Glu570 and Arg557. In some embodiments, the compound binds with a Ki value of less than 5 or 4 or 3 or 2 or 1 or 0.5 μΜ. In some embodiments, the compound is selected from the group consisting of Formula (I), Formula (la), Formula (la'), Formula (la"), Formula (la'"), Formula (la" "), Formula (la' " "), one of Formulae (la 6-10 ), Formula (lb), Formula (lb') and Formula (lb"), Formula (Ic), Formula (Id), Formula (Ie), Formula (II), Formula (Ila), Formula (Ha'), Formula (Ha"), Formula (Ila' "), Formula (Ila" "), Formula (Ila' ""), and any of their sub-formulae, or any combination thereof. In one embodiment the subject is a human.

[0073] Some embodiments, include methods of antagonizing or agonizing hTRPVl or inhibiting the activity of TRPVl in a subject in need thereof and binding to a cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) and/or the C-X-C chemokine receptor 2, "CXCR2," also known as the interleukin 8 receptor beta (IL8RB), comprising contacting hTRPVl and one of the mentioned additional receptors with a compound or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, or administering a composition comprising such a compound or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof. In some embodiments, the compound is a diarylurea compound capable of binding to a space within the TRPVl molecule comprising (1) an upper part of the binding pocket formed by several hydrophobic residues, including Leu518, Leu547, Phe554, Leu663 and Leu670; (2) a middle consisted of several residues, including Tyr511, Met514, Thr550 and Asn551; and (3) a bottom part mainly formed by two charged residues, Glu570 and Arg557 as well as the CB2 or CXCR2 receptor. In some embodiments, the compound binds with a Ki value of less than 5 or 4 or 3 or 2 or 1 or 0.5 μΜ. In some embodiments, the compound is selected from the group consisting of Formula (I), Formula (la), Formula (la'), Formula (la"), Formula (la' "), Formula (la" "), Formula (la'" "), one of Formulae (la 6-10 ), Formula (lb), Formula (lb') and Formula (lb"), Formula (Ic), Formula (Id), Formula (Ie), Formula (II), Formula (Ila), Formula (Ila'), Formula (Ila"), Formula (Ila' "), Formula (Ila" "), Formula (Ila' " "), and any of their sub-formulae, or any combination thereof. In one embodiment the subject is a human.

[0074] Other embodiments of the present invention include a method of treating pain associated with transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) in a subject in need thereof, comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, or administering a composition comprising such a compound or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof. In some embodiments, the compound is a diary lurea compound capable of binding to a space within the TRPV1 molecule comprising (1) an upper part of the binding pocket formed by several hydrophobic residues, including Leu518, Leu547, Phe554, Leu663 and Leu670; (2) a middle consisted of several residues, including Tyr51 1 , Met514, Thr550 and Asn551 ; and (3) a bottom part was mainly formed by two charged residues, Glu570 and Arg557, such that the diary lurea compound inhibits activity of TRPV1. In some embodiments, the compound is selected from the group consisting of Formula (I), Formula (la), Formula (la'), Formula (la"), Formula (la' "), Formula (la" "), Formula (la' " "), one of Formulae (la 6"10 ), Formula (lb), Formula (lb') and Formula (lb"), Formula (Ic), Formula (Id), Formula (Ie), Formula (II), Formula (Ila), Formula (Ila'), Formula (Ila"), Formula (Ila' "), Formula (Ila" "), Formula (Ila' " "), and any of their sub-formulae, or any combination thereof. In some embodiments, the pain associated with TRPV1 is selected from the group consisting of osteoarthritis, neuropathic pain, migraine, inflammatory bowel disease, and bone cancer pain.

[0075] In some embodiments, the method is for the treatment of acute and persistent pain, as well as inflammation, especially for the neuroinflammation. In addition, in some embodiments, the method is for the treatment of auto-immune disorders including neurodegenerative diseases and bone loss.

[0076] Compounds of Formulae I and II (including all sub-formulae), or pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates thereof, or a composition comprising such a compound or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, can be administered to a patient or subject in need of treatment either individually, or in combination with other therapeutic agents that have similar biological activities. For example, Formulae I and II compounds and

compositions can be administered as a single dose or as multiple daily doses by a practicing medical practitioner. When combination therapy is used, however, the compound and the other therapeutic agent can be administered separately at different time intervals, or simultaneously.

[0077] Pharmaceutical formulations may include one or more Compounds of Formulae I and/or II (including all sub-formulae), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. In some embodiments, the composition further comprises, in accordance with accepted practices of pharmaceutical compounding, one or more additional therapeutic agents, pharmaceutically acceptable excipients, diluents, adjuvants, stabilizers, emulsifiers, preservatives, colorants, buffers, and/or flavor imparting agents.

Pharmaceutical Formulations

[0078] Pharmaceutical compositions and medicaments may be prepared by mixing one or more compounds of the invention, prodrugs thereof, pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates thereof, stereoisomers thereof, tautomers thereof, or solvates thereof, with pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, excipients, binders, diluents or the like to prevent and treat disorders associated with TRPV1 or cannabinoid receptors.

[0079] The compounds and compositions of the invention may be used to prepare formulations and medicaments that prevent or treat a variety of disorders associated with TRPV1 or cannabinoid receptors, as described herein. For example, disorders and diseases such as obesity, smoking addiction, cardimetabolic risk factors, and other disorder and diseases associated with the central nervous system can be treated using the methods, compounds, and compositions of the invention. Such compositions can be in any pharmaceutically acceptable form, such as but not limited to in the form of, for example, granules, powders, tablets, capsules, syrup, suppositories, injections, emulsions, elixirs, suspensions or solutions. The compositions can be formulated for any pharmaceutically acceptable route of administration, such as for example, by oral, parenteral, pulmonary, topical, rectal, nasal, vaginal administration, or via implanted reservoir. Parenteral or systemic administration includes, but is not limited to, subcutaneous, intravenous, intraperitoneally, intramuscular, intra-articular, intrasynovial, intrasternal, intrathecal, intralesional and intracranial injections. The following dosage forms are given by way of example and should not be construed as limiting the invention. [0080] Pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the invention compounds are considered within the scope of the present invention. The compounds of the invention have a number of basic nitrogen groups, and as such, pharmaceutically acceptable salts can be formed with inorganic acids (such as hydrochloric acid, hydroboric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and phosphoric acid), organic acids (e.g. formic acid, acetic acid, trifluoroacetic acid, fumaric acid, oxalic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, maleic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, malic acid,

methanesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and p-toluenesulfonic acid) or acidic amino acids (such as aspartic acid and glutamic acid). The compounds of the present invention may have acidic substituent groups, and in such cases, it can form salts with metals, such as alkali and earth alkali metals (e.g. Na , Li , K , Ca , Mg , Zn ), organic amines (e.g. ammonia, trimethylamine, triethylamine, pyridine, picoline, ethanolamine, diethanolamine,

triethanolamine) or basic amino acids (e.g. arginine, lysine and ornithine).

[0081] Certain compounds within the scope of the invention are derivatives referred to as prodrugs. The expression "prodrug" denotes a derivative of a known direct acting drug, e.g. esters and amides, which derivative has enhanced delivery characteristics and therapeutic value as compared to the drug, and is transformed into the active drug by an enzymatic or chemical process; see Notari, R. E., "Theory and Practice of Prodrug Kinetics," Methods in Enzymology, 112: 309-23 (1985); Bodor, N., "Novel Approaches in Prodrug Design," Drugs of the Future, 6: 165-82 (1981); and Bundgaard, H., "Design of Prodrugs: Bioreversible- Derivatives for Various Functional Groups and Chemical Entities," in DESIGN

OF PRODRUGS (H. Bundgaard, ed.), Elsevier (1985), and Goodman and Gilmans,

The Pharmacological Basis Of Therapeutics, 8th ed., McGraw-Hill (1992).

[0082] For oral, buccal, and sublingual administration, powders, suspensions, granules, tablets, pills, capsules, gelcaps, and caplets are acceptable as solid dosage forms. These can be prepared, for example, by mixing one or more compounds of the present invention, or pharmaceutically acceptable salts or tautomers thereof, with at least one additive such as a starch or other additive. Suitable additives include any pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, including but not limited to sucrose, lactose, cellulose sugar, mannitol, maltitol, dextran, starch, agar, alginates, chitins, chitosans, pectins, tragacanth gum, gum arabic, gelatins, collagens, casein, albumin, synthetic or semi-synthetic polymers or glycerides. Optionally, oral dosage forms can comprise other ingredients to aid in administration, such as an inactive diluent, or lubricants such as magnesium stearate, or preservatives such as paraben or sorbic acid, or anti-oxidants such as ascorbic acid, tocopherol or cysteine, a disintegrating agent, binders, thickeners, buffers, sweeteners, flavoring agents or perfuming agents. Tablets and pills may be further treated with suitable coating materials known in the art.

Definitions

[0083] It is noted that, as used herein and in the appended claims, the singular forms "a", "an", and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. It is further noted that the claims may be drafted to exclude any optional element. As such, this statement is intended to serve as antecedent basis for use of such exclusive terminology as "solely", "only" and the like in connection with the recitation of claim elements, or use of a "negative" limitation.

[0084] As used herein, the term "about" will be understood by persons of ordinary skill in the art and will vary to some extent depending upon the context in which it is used. If there are uses of the term which are not clear to persons of ordinary skill in the art given the context in which it is used, "about" will mean up to plus or minus 10% of the particular term.

[0085] By "pharmaceutically acceptable" is meant a material that is not biologically or otherwise undesirable, i.e., the material may be incorporated into a pharmaceutical composition administered to a patient without causing any undesirable biological effects or interacting in a deleterious manner with any of the other components of the composition in which it is contained. When the term "pharmaceutically acceptable" is used to refer to a pharmaceutical carrier or excipient, it is implied that the carrier or excipient has met the required standards of toxicological and manufacturing testing or that it is included on the Inactive Ingredient Guide prepared by the U.S. and Drug administration.

[0086] By "patient" is meant any animal for which treatment is desirable. Patients may be mammals, and typically, as used herein, a patient is a human individual.

[0087] The term "pharmaceutically acceptable salt," as used herein, represents salts or zwitterionic forms of the compounds of the present invention which are water or oil-soluble or dispersible; which are suitable for treatment of diseases without undue toxicity, irritation, and allergic-response; which are commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio; and which are effective for their intended use. The salts can be prepared during the final isolation and purification of the compounds or separately by reacting the appropriate compound in the form of the free base with a suitable acid. Representative acid addition salts include acetate, adipate, alginate, L-ascorbate, aspartate, benzoate, benzenesulfonate (besylate), bisulfate, butyrate, camphorate, camphorsulfonate, citrate, digluconate, formate, fumarate, gentisate, glutarate, glycerophosphate, glycolate, hemisulfate, heptanoate, hexanoate, hippurate, hydrochloride, hydrobromide, hydroiodide, 2-hydroxyethansulfonate (isethionate), lactate, maleate, malonate, DL-mandelate, mesitylenesulfonate, methanesulfonate,

naphthylenesulfonate, nicotinate, 2-naphthalenesulfonate, oxalate, pamoate, pectinate, persulfate, 3-phenylproprionate, phosphonate, picrate, pivalate, propionate, pyroglutamate, succinate, sulfonate, tartrate, L-tartrate, trichloroacetate, trifluoroacetate, phosphate, glutamate, bicarbonate, para-toluenesulfonate (p-tosylate), and undecanoate. Also, basic groups in the compounds of the present invention can be quaternized with methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl chlorides, bromides, and iodides; dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl, and diamyl sulfates; decyl, lauryl, myristyl, and steryl chlorides, bromides, and iodides; and benzyl and phenethyl bromides. Examples of acids which can be employed to form pharmaceutically acceptable addition salts include inorganic acids such as hydrochloric, hydrobromic, sulfuric, and phosphoric, and organic acids such as oxalic, maleic, succinic, and citric. Salts can also be formed by coordination of the compounds with an alkali metal or alkaline earth ion.

Hence, the present invention contemplates sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium salts of the compounds of the compounds of the present invention and the like.

[0088] The term "solvates" is used in its broadest sense. For example, the term solvates includes hydrates formed when a compound of the present invention contains one or more bound water molecules.

[0089] Certain ranges are presented herein with numerical values being preceded by the term "about". The term "about" is used herein to provide literal support for the exact number that it precedes, as well as a number that is near to or approximately the number that the term precedes. In determining whether a number is near to or approximately a specifically recited number, the near or approximating unrecited number may be a number which, in the context in which it is presented, provides the substantial equivalent of the specifically recited number.

[0090] Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. Although any methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can also be used in the practice or testing of the present invention, representative illustrative methods and materials are now described.

[0091] Where a range of values is provided, it is understood that each intervening value, to the tenth of the unit of the lower limit unless the context clearly dictates otherwise, between the upper and lower limit of that range and any other stated or intervening value in that stated range, is encompassed within the invention. The upper and lower limits of these smaller ranges may independently be included in the smaller ranges and are also encompassed within the invention, subject to any specifically excluded limit in the stated range. Where the stated range includes one or both of the limits, ranges excluding either or both of those included limits are also included in the invention.

[0092] This invention is not limited to particular embodiments described, as such may, of course, vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to be limiting, since the scope of the present invention will be limited only by the appended claims.

[0093] As will be apparent to those of skill in the art upon reading this disclosure, each of the individual embodiments described and illustrated herein has discrete components and features which may be readily separated from or combined with the features of any of the other several embodiments without departing from the scope or spirit of the present invention. Any recited method can be carried out in the order of events recited or in any other order which is logically possible.

[0094] All publications and patents cited in this specification are herein incorporated by reference as if each individual publication or patent were specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference and are incorporated herein by reference to disclose and describe the methods and/or materials in connection with which the publications are cited. The citation of any publication is for its disclosure prior to the filing date and should not be construed as an admission that the present invention is not entitled to antedate such publication by virtue of prior invention. Further, the dates of publication provided may be different from the actual publication dates which may need to be independently confirmed. Working Examples

[0095] The present technology is further illustrated by the following examples, which should not be construed as limiting in any way. [0096] Binding Competition Assay and Ca Uptake Assay.

[0097] Materials. [ H]Resiniferatoxin ([ H]RTX, 37 Ci/mmol) was provided by Perkin Elmer Life Sciences (Boston, MA). Radioactive calcium (Ca-45, specific activity 5-30 Ci/g) was obtained from Perkin Elmer. Nonradioactive RTX was obtained from LC laboratories (Waltham, MA). Capsaicin was provided by Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO).

[0098] Stable hTRPVl expression cell line subculture Tet-On induced CHO-hTRPVl cells were cultured in maintaining medium (F12 supplemented with 10% TET-free FBS [Atlanta Biologicals, GA], 25 mM HEPES, 10 μ^ητΐ blasticidin and 250 μ^ητΐ geneticin (all from Invitrogen Life Sciences; Grand Island, NY). TRPV1 protein was induced with induction medium (F12 supplemented with 10% FBS, 25 mM HEPES, and 1 μg/ml tetracycline) as described below for ligand binding and Ca uptake measurements.

[0099] RTX competition binding assay. Binding studies with [ H]RTX were carried out as follows. The binding assay mixtures were prepared in 1.5 ml centrifuge tubes and consisted of a fixed concentration (approximately 2 nM) of [ H]RTX (37 Ci/mmol specific activity, PerkinElmer Life Sciences), various concentrations of competing ligands, and 100 μg protein of membranes from induced CHO-hTRPVl expressing cells (approximately 1-3 χ 10 6 cells) in Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (DPBS, with Ca 2+ & Mg 2+ ) for a total volume of 350 μΐ. The assay mix contained bovine serum albumin at a final concentration of 0.25 mg/ml (Cohn fraction V; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). In each set of experiments, nonspecific binding were determined in the presence of 200 nM non-radioactive RTX. The binding reaction was initiated by placing the assay mixture in a 37 °C shaking water bath for 60 minutes (-30 rpm). The assay mixture was then chilled on ice for 2-3 min before adding 100 μΐ of (Xi-acid glycoprotein (2 mg/ml; Sigma-Aldrich) and mixed thoroughly. The tubes were kept on ice for an additional 10 min. The bound and free ligands were then separated by centrifugation (12,200 rpm for 15 minutes) in a Beckman Coulter centrifuge Allegra 21R. 200 μΐ of supernatant was collected for determination of free ligand. The remainder was removed by aspiration. The bottom portion of the tubes containing the membranes was cut off and bound radioactivity determined. Radioactivity was measured by scintillation counting. Data were analyzed using GraphPad Prism. K; values for compounds were determined by competition for binding of [ H]RTX to the hTRPVl and represent the mean ± SEM of triplicate binding curves. In each curve, triplicate determinations were performed at each ligand concentration.

[0100] Calcium Uptake assays. CHO-hTRPVl cells were plated in 24-well plates, reaching 40 to 60% confluence in maintaining medium after 24 hours. The cells were washed once with Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (DPBS; Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY) to remove antibiotics, and fresh medium with tetracycline (inducing medium) was added to induce TRPV1 expression. Experiments were done approximately 24 hours after induction. The cells were at least 90% confluent at the time of the assays.

[0101] For agonist Ca 2+ uptake assays, the inducing medium was aspirated and replaced by DMEM (supplemented with bovine serum albumin (0.25 mg/mL), Ca 2 + (37 kBq/mL), and 100 μΐ of increasing concentrations of the non-radioactive ligand for a total volume of 400 μΐ/well. The cells were incubated for 5 min in a water bath at 37 °C. For uptake

measurements by a full agonist, a saturating concentration of capsaicin (3000 nM) was used as a positive control. Immediately after incubation, the assay medium was aspirated and the cells were washed twice with ice cold DPBS (no Ca 2 + & Mg 2 + ).The cells were then lysed in radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer (50 mM Tris-Cl pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl, 1% Triton X- 100, 1% SDS, and 1% sodium deoxycholate; 400 μΕΛ βΙΙ) for at least 40 min on a shaker. Aliquots (300 μί) of the cell lysates were counted in a liquid scintillation counter.

Background uptake was determined in the absence of either compound or capsaicin. For the antagonism assays, capsaicin (30 nM) was included along with increasing concentrations of the ligand being evaluated. The cells were incubated for 5 min in a water bath at 37 °C. Immediately after incubation, the assay medium was aspirated and the cells were washed twice with ice-cold DPBS (no Ca 2 + & Mg 2 + ). The cells were then lysed in

radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer for at least 40 min on a shaker. Aliquots of the cell lysate were counted in a liquid scintillation counter. Triplicate points at each concentration of ligand were determined in each experiment. Compounds were initially screened at a concentration of 30 μΜ. Compounds showing greater than 10% agonism/antagonism were evaluated in triplicate experiments. As indicated, full dose response curves for compounds showing activity were performed at least three times. Data was analyzed using GraphPad Prism. Example 1. Synthesis of Compound 1

[0102] The purpose of this example as to synthesize Compound 1 , the structure of which is shown below:

[0103] Taking 2-chloro-l -isocyanato-4-nitrobenzene and 3-(trifluoromethyl)aniline as staring materials, compound 1 was synthesized using the same method as compound 2.

[0104] This compound yielded Ki values for capsaicin antagonism of 2.60 ± 0.62 μΜ. It likewise inhibited [3H]RTX binding to hTRPVl with Ki value of 1.11 ± 0.21 μΜ.

Example 2. Synthesis of Compound 2

[0105] The purpose of this example as to synthesize Compound 2, the structure of which is shown below:

[0106] Compound 2 was synthesized by the method of the following Scheme.

General procedure of coupling reaction between isocyanate and amine.

[0107] l -isocyanato-2-methyl-4-nitrobenzene (1.6 mmol, 1 eqv.) was dissolved in dichloromethane (10 mL). 3-fluoroaniline (2.4 mmol, 1.5 eqv) was added, followed by triethylamine (3.6 mmol, 2.25 eqv) and the resulting mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. A precipitate was formed, filtered and washed with dichloromethane. The solid particles were purified with flash column chromatography utilizing ethyl acetate/petroleum ether (1 :2). The target compound was obtained as off-white solid (100 mg, yield: 34%). X H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-c¾, ppm) δ 9.60 (s, 1H), 8.44 (s, 1H), 8.34 (d, J= 8.80 Hz, 1H), 8.14 - 8.08 (m, 2H), 7.54 (d, J= 11.60 Hz, 1H), 7.37 - 7.35 (m, 1H), 7.15 - 7.13 (m, 1H), 6.86 - 6.85 (m, 1H), 2.38 (s, 3H). LC-MS (ESI, m/z): 290.0 (M + H) + . This compound yielded Ki values for capsaicin antagonism of 4.50 ± 0.88 μΜ. It likewise inhibited [3H]RTX binding to hTRPVl with Ki value of 5.20 ± 0.32 μΜ.

Example 3. Synthesis of Compound 3

[0108] The purpose of this example as to synthesize Compound 3, the structure of which is shown below:

[0109] 4-Acetamidobenzene-l-sulfonyl chloride (466 mg, 2.0 mmol) and 4-(aminomethyl)- N,N-diethylaniline (356 mg, 2.0 mmol) were dissolved in 10 mL of water and 5 mL of dimethylformamide. The mixture was added K 2 CO 3 (414 mg, 3.0 mmol) and stirred at room temperature for 12 h. The precipitated solid was filtered, washed with water, and dried in vacuo to obtain the crude product, which was recrystallized in ethanol to prepare the final compound N-(4-(N-(4-(diethylamino)benzyl)sulfamoyl)phenyl)acetamide (453 mg, 60%).

[0110] X H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-c¾) δ 10.28 (s, 1H), 7.69-7.75 (m, 5H), 6.97 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 2H), 6.52 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 2H), 3.79 (d, J= 6.0 Hz, 2H), 3.28-3.35 (m, 4H), 2.09 (s, 3H), 1.05 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 6H). LC-MS (ESI): mlz 376.1 (M + H) + . It antagonized capsaicin stimulation of hTRPVl by 12.7 ± 1.0% at 30 μΜ.

Example 4. The sequence alignment between hTRPVl and rTRPVl

[0111] The purpose of this example was to determine the sequence alignment between human TRPV1 (hTRPVl) and rat TRPV1 (rTRPVl), as shown in FIG 1.

[0112] The whole sequence identity between hTRPVl and rTRPVl was 85.7%. We used the structure of rTRPVl -capsaicin (PDB entry: 3J5R, EM resolution: 4.2 A) to construct the 3D structures of hTRPVl . The intact sequence of hTRPVl (Q8NER1, 839 residues for one monomer) was downloaded from the UniProtKB / Swiss-Prot

(http : //www. uniprot. org/ uniprot/).

[0113] We truncated some residues before Leul 12 for the N terminus and some residues after Lys719 for the C terminus. We also truncated 24 residues from Asn604 to Ser627. This truncation was necessary because the corresponding residues were unsolved in the structures of rTRPVl . Therefore, the generated sequence was from Leul 12 to Lys603 and fromTyr628 to Lys719 (584 residues for one monomer). We connected Lys603 and Tyr628 to generate a continuous polypeptide sequence. We then aligned the sequence and built the homology model based on this hTRPVl sequence by using our reported protocol.

Example 5. Ramachandran plots of hTRPVl model

[0114] The purpose of this example was to generate Ramachandran plots of hTRPVl.

[0115] Ramachandran plots of hTRPVl model constructed by rTRPVl. 95.5% (554/580) of all residues were in favored regions. 99.1% (575/580) of all residues were in allowed regions. There were 5 outliers (phi, psi): Glu250 (56.0, -24.3), Leu385 (88.0, 72.8), Thr407 (88.0, - 19.7), Asp459 (22.4, -126.2), Pro462 (-28.9, -68.7).

[0116] After obtaining the 3D structures, SYBYL-X 1.3 was used for the energy minimizations. SYBYL-X 1.3, Tripos International, 1699 South Hanley Rd., St. Louis, Missouri, 63144, USA. 2010. ProSA-web Z-scores and ProCheck Ramachandran plots were used for structural stereochemical evaluation of the hTRPVl models.

Example 6. Detailed binding modes of six antagonists with hTRPVl

[0117] The purpose of this example was to determine detailed binding modes of six antagonists with hTRPVl .

[0118] Most residues involved in the binding pocket had similar roles for the recognition of antagonists. (1) Ser512 (not shown), Arg557, and Glu570 formed a hydrophilic pocket that interacted with the polar / charged groups of the antagonists. (2) Thr550 and / or Tyr511 also formed strong hydrogen bonds with these 8 compounds. (3) Several hydrophobic residues formed strong hydrophobic interactions with all these antagonists, including Met514, Leu515 (not shown), Leu518, Leu547, Ala666 (not shown), and Leu670. The agonists and antagonists therefore shared the same binding pocket and similar binding interactions, which were congruent with the findings of GPCRs. Example 7. Determination of four allosteric binding pockets in tetramer hTRPVl model

[0119] The purpose of this example was to determine four allosteric binding pockets in a tetramer hTRPVl model.

[0120] Each predicted binding pocket was formed by five trans-membrane domains from two adjacent monomers, including S3, S4, S4-S5 linker, S5, and S6. An important observation was that the binding pockets of hTRPVl differed from the traditional orthosteric binding site because they were exposed to the lipids. Our MD simulation showed that both AMG9810 (antagonist) and RTX (agonist) were close to the lipid molecules (-5.4 A and 5.7 A for these two compounds, respectively). All the results showed that these were allosteric binding pockets. Our findings were congruent with the reports by Julius and co-workers. Liao, M.; Cao, E.; Julius, D.; Cheng, Y. Structure of the TRPV1 Ion Channel Determined by Electron Cryo-Microscopy. Nature 2013, 504, 107-112. In their apo structure of rTRPVl, they observed some density in the same site as the agonists, possibly correspond ng to a detergent molecule or lipid. They suggested that this binding site of ligands was in exchange with lipid molecules. This hypothesis was supported by experimental data, suggesting that TRPV1 can be activated by lipophilic or lipid molecules, such as diacylglycerols and anandamide. Consistently, some studies already showed a shared binding site for RTX and anandamide and partial activation of TRPVl by diacylglycerol.

Example 8. In vitro testing of compound

[0121] For an initial evaluation of the utility of the model for identifying novel structures with hTRPVl activity, a panel of several in-house compounds was examined. The in-house compounds were selected on the basis of the docking score (higher than 8.0). Of all the in- house compounds, one ( XIE1-203Y) antagonized capsaicin stimulation of hTRPVl by 12.7 ± 1.0% at 30 μΜ. Among the other compounds, 2 gave 98.2 ± 2.7% (compound 1) and 79.9 ± 4.9% (compound 2) inhibition at 30 μΜ. These compounds yielded K; values for capsaicin antagonism of 2.60 ± 0.62 (compound 1) and 4.50 ± 0.88 (compound 2) μΜ, respectively. They likewise inhibited [ H]RTX binding to hTRPVl with K ; values of 1.11 ± 0.21 and 5.20 ± 0.32 μΜ, respectively. Table 1. TRPVl inhibitors.

¾ (μΜ)

Compound ID Structure LogP MW (or % inhibition

aKj values for capsaicin antagonism. For weak compounds, the % inhibition at 30 μΜ is given. b Compound 5 was identified as a partial agonist. The value listed is for agonism. Example 9. Binding at the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2)

[0122] The compounds were also tested for activity in the CB2 receptior, and showed that the binding curve for compound 15 with a Ki value of 1.39 μΜ at CB2, while 14 and 16 showed weak binding activity with a Ki value of 15.9 μΜ and 12.2 μΜ.