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Title:
ACKNOWLEDGMENT IN MILLIMETER WAVE DISTRIBUTION NETWORK MANAGEMENT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/032139
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
This disclosure describes systems, methods, and devices related to acknowledgment in millimeter wave (mmWave) distribution network management. A device may determine a first announce frame comprising one or more information elements, wherein the information elements are associated with management information. The device may cause to send the first announce frame to a station device, wherein the first announce frame is sent during a time division duplex (TDD) slot associated with an mmWave distribution network. The device may identify an acknowledgment frame from the station device, wherein the acknowledgment frame is based on at least one of the one or more information elements.

Inventors:
CHEN CHENG (US)
CORDEIRO CARLOS (US)
KEDEM OREN (IL)
ALDANA CARLOS (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2017/069080
Publication Date:
February 14, 2019
Filing Date:
December 29, 2017
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
INTEL IP CORP (US)
International Classes:
H04B7/26; H04J3/16
Domestic Patent References:
WO2017115129A12017-07-06
Foreign References:
US20130223299A12013-08-29
US8331516B22012-12-11
US8599702B22013-12-03
US20150372795A12015-12-24
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
GRIFFIN III, Malvern U. et al. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A device, the device comprising memory and processing circuitry configured to: determine a first announce frame comprising one or more information elements, wherein the information elements are associated with management information;

cause to send the first announce frame to a station device, wherein the first announce frame is sent during a time division duplex (TDD) slot associated with a millimeter wave (mmWave) distribution network; and

identify an acknowledgment frame from the station device, wherein the

acknowledgment frame is based on at least one of the one or more information elements.

2. The device of claim 1, wherein the acknowledgment frame is identified during a predetermined TDD slot allocated for uplink traffic.

3. The device of claim 1, wherein the memory and the processing circuitry are further configured to set a first type subfield, in a TDD acknowledgment (ACK) element of the one or more information elements, to "0" to indicate the first announce frame requires acknowledgment.

4. The device of claim 3, wherein the acknowledgment frame is a second announce frame comprising a second TDD ACK element, wherein the second TDD ACK element comprises a type subfield.

5. The device of claim 4, wherein the type subfield of the second TDD ACK element is set to "1" indicating that it is an acknowledgment to the first announce frame.

6. The device of claim 4, wherein the second TDD ACK element comprises a second type subfield, wherein the second type subfield is set to 1 to indicate the second announce frame is an acknowledgment of the first announce frame.

7. The device of any one of claims 1-6, wherein the first announce frame comprises a TDD management element, wherein the TDD management element comprises a type subfield indicating a management frame type for the first announce frame.

8. The device of claim 7, wherein the management frame type includes at least one of a heartbeat frame, a keep alive frame, or an uplink bandwidth request.

9. The device of claim 7, wherein the type subfield of the TDD management element is comprised of one or more bit element, wherein the one or more bit element is set to a first value to indicate a heartbeat or a keep alive management frame type or set to a second value to indicate an uplink bandwidth request.

10. The device of claim 1, further comprising a transceiver configured to transmit and receive wireless signals.

11. The device of claim 10, further comprising one or more antennas coupled to the transceiver.

12. A non-transitory computer-readable medium storing computer-executable instructions which when executed by one or more processors result in performing operations comprising:

identifying a first announce frame received from an access point, wherein the first announce frame comprises one or more information elements associated with management information;

determining the first announce frame is received during a time division duplex (TDD) slot associated with a millimeter wave (mmWave) distribution network; and

causing to send an acknowledgment frame to the access point, wherein the acknowledgment frame is based on at least one of the one or more information elements.

13. The non-transitory computer-readable medium of claim 12, wherein the acknowledgment frame is sent during a predetermined TDD slot allocated for uplink traffic.

14. The non-transitory computer-readable medium of claim 12, wherein the operations further comprise determining that the first announce frame comprises a first TDD acknowledgment (ACK) element, wherein the first TDD ACK element is set to "0" to indicate the first announce frame requires acknowledgment.

15. The non-transitory computer-readable medium of claim 12, wherein the acknowledgment frame is a second announce frame comprising a second TDD ACK element wherein the second TDD ACK element comprises a type subfield.

16. The non-transitory computer-readable medium of claim 15, wherein the operations further comprise setting a type subfield in the second TDD ACK element to "1" to indicate the acknowledgment frame is an acknowledgment to the first announce frame.

17. The non-transitory computer-readable medium of any one of claims 12-16, wherein the operations further comprise identifying a first dialog token field included in the first announce frame, wherein the first dialog token field indicates a request to associate with acknowledgments .

18. The non-transitory computer-readable medium of claim 17, wherein the operations further comprise determining to set a second dialog token field in the acknowledgment frame, wherein the second dialog token field comprises a same value as the first dialog token field to associate the acknowledgment frame to the first announce frame.

19. A method comprising:

determining, by one or more processors, a first announce frame comprising one or more information elements, wherein the information elements are associated with

management information;

causing to send the first announce frame to a station device, wherein the first announce frame is sent during a time division duplex (TDD) slot associated with a millimeter wave (mmWave) distribution network; and

identifying an acknowledgment frame from the station device, wherein the acknowledgment frame is based on at least one of the one or more information elements.

20. The method of claim 19, wherein the first announce frame comprises a TDD management element, wherein the TDD management element comprises a type subfield indicating a management frame type for the first announce frame.

21. The method of any one of claims 19-20, wherein the acknowledgment frame is identified during a predetermined time division duplex (TDD) slot allocated for uplink traffic.

22. The method of claim 21, further comprising setting a first type subfield, in a TDD acknowledgment (ACK) element of the one or more information elements, to "0" to indicate the first announce frame requires acknowledgment.

23. The method of claim 21, wherein the acknowledgment frame is a second announce frame comprising a second TDD ACK element, wherein the second TDD ACK element comprises a type subfield.

24. The method of claim 23, wherein the type subfield of the second TDD ACK element is set to "1" indicating that it is an acknowledgment to the first announce frame.

25. The method of claim 23, wherein the second TDD ACK element comprises a second type subfield, wherein the second type subfield is set to 1 to indicate the second announce frame is an acknowledgment of the first announce frame.

Description:
ACKNOWLEDGMENT IN MILLIMETER WAVE DISTRIBUTION NETWORK

MANAGEMENT

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION(S)

[0001] This application claims benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/542,688, filed August 8, 2017, and U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/593,062, filed November 30, 2017, both disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference as if set forth in full.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] This disclosure generally relates to systems and methods for wireless communications and, more particularly, to acknowledgment in millimeter wave (mmWave) distribution network management.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Wireless devices are becoming widely prevalent and are increasingly requesting access to wireless channels. The growing density of wireless deployments requires increased network and spectrum availability. Wireless devices may communicate with each other using directional transmission techniques including, but not limited to, beamforming techniques.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0004] FIG. 1 depicts a network diagram illustrating an example network environment for acknowledgment in millimeter wave (mmWave) distribution network management, in accordance with one or more example embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0005] FIG. 2 depicts an illustrative schematic diagram for mmWave distribution, in accordance with one or more example embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0006] FIG. 3 depicts an illustrative diagram for an mmWave acknowledgment system, in accordance with one or more example embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0007] FIG. 4A illustrates a flow diagram of an illustrative process for an mmWave acknowledgment system, in accordance with one or more example embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0008] FIG. 4B illustrates a flow diagram of an illustrative process for an mmWave acknowledgment system, in accordance with one or more example embodiments of the present disclosure. [0009] FIG. 5 depicts a functional diagram of an example communication station that may be suitable for use as a user device, in accordance with one or more example embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0010] FIG. 6 depicts a block diagram of an example machine upon which any of one or more techniques (e.g., methods) may be performed, in accordance with one or more example embodiments of the present disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0011] Example embodiments described herein provide certain systems, methods, and devices for acknowledgment in millimeter wave (mmWave) distribution network management. The following description and the drawings sufficiently illustrate specific embodiments to enable those skilled in the art to practice them. Other embodiments may incorporate structural, logical, electrical, process, and other changes. Portions and features of some embodiments may be included in, or substituted for, those of other embodiments. Embodiments set forth in the claims encompass all available equivalents of those claims.

[0012] Devices may communicate over a next generation 60 GHz (NG60) network, an enhanced directional multi-gigabit (EDMG) network, and/or any other network. Devices operating in EDMG may be referred to herein as EDMG devices. This may include user devices, and/or access points (APs) or other devices capable of communicating in accordance with a communication standard.

[0013] The IEEE 802. Hay task group started development of a new standard in the mmWave (60 GHz) band which is an evolution of the IEEE 802.1 lad standard also known as WiGig. IEEE 802.1 lay proposes to increase the transmission data rate applying multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and channel bonding techniques.

[0014] Typically, when a management frame is sent from a transmitting device to a receiving device, the receiving device will send an acknowledgment frame to the received management frame. However, the acknowledgment frame does not contain identification information associated with the management frame. In other words, the acknowledgment is automatically sent based on receiving a management frame. However, in cases where multiple management frames are sent to the receiving device, the receiving device may still acknowledge a management frame at a time but again without identification or association with the management frames.

[0015 ] The mmWave distribution network use case has been adopted into 802.11 ay . Since an mmWave distribution network is a new use case that is different from many others, and since some of the existing management frames in 802. Hay can be reused and applied to the new use case, several new management frames are needed to accommodate the new features in order to make the network function properly.

[0016] There is no known solution to solving the problem, since an mmWave distribution network is a new use case with many distinct features. Existing 802.1 lay management frames are not sufficient to make the network function properly. Some features of the network require separate treatment in terms of management.

[0017] Example embodiments of the present disclosure relate to systems, methods, and devices for acknowledgment in millimeter wave (mmWave) distribution network management.

[0018] A directional multi-gigabyte (DMG) communications may involve one or more directional links to communicate at a rate of multiple gigabits per second, for example, at least 1 gigabit per second, 7 gigabits per second, or any other rate. An amendment to a DMG operation in a 60 GHz band, e.g., according to an IEEE 802. Had standard, may be defined, for example, by an IEEE 802. Hay project.

[0019] In some demonstrative embodiments, one or more devices may be configured to communicate over a next generation 60 GHz (NG60) network, an enhanced DMG (EDMG) network, and/or any other network. For example, the one or more devices may be configured to communicate over the NG60 or EDMG networks.

[0020] In one embodiment, an mmWave acknowledgment system may facilitate a mechanism for providing accurate acknowledgment to one or more management frames that may be sent from a first device to a second device.

[0021] In one embodiment, an mmWave acknowledgment system may define an enhanced scheduling structure for an mmWave distribution network, which may be comprised of a new type of scheduling slot with time division data (TDD) access. This enhanced scheduling structure may be dedicated to mmWave distribution networks where the AP and the stations (STAs) may perform downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) communications.

[0022] In one embodiment, an mmWave acknowledgment system may facilitate a mechanism to acknowledge received management frames at a receiving device using an announce frame. The announce frame may comprise one or more fields that may indicate whether the announce frame is an acknowledgment to a received frame. The announce frame may be an action frame. An action frame is a type of management frame used to trigger an action from a device. The traditional acknowledgment to frames in 802. Hay works such that if a first device sends a frame to a second device, the second device could send the acknowledgment immediately to the first device acknowledging the received frame. There is no restriction of a unique directional timeslot in that case. In any timeslot, bidirectional traffic is possible in 802. Hay. However, an mmWave acknowledgment system enforces a TDD access to the channel, which means that the second device would have to wait for a specific timeslot before it can send its acknowledgment to the received frame. This is the case because in the mmWave acknowledgment system only unidirectional traffic is allowed. For example, if a frame is sent in a first TDD slot and an acknowledgment frame could not immediately be sent to the first device, the second device would have to wait until a different TDD slot is allocated for uplink traffic. Even more, if a plurality of frames is sent from the first device to the second device, there is no way for the second device to specifically acknowledge each received frame because the acknowledgment message is typically without identification information about the frame that was sent. Therefore, if the acknowledgment message is sent at a specific TDD slot after the plurality of frames is sent, the first device would not know which frame the acknowledgment is supposed to be acknowledging.

[0023] In one embodiment, an mmWave acknowledgment system may define acknowledgment of management frames in mmWave distribution networks. For example, an mmWave acknowledgment system may reuse existing announce frames in 802.1 lad/ay, but may define a new information element that can be included in the announce frames to serve the management functions in mmWave distribution networks.

[0024] In one embodiment, an mmWave acknowledgment system may facilitate that in order to resolve the issue of acknowledgment of management frames, the mmWave distribution network management system may define a new time division duplex (TDD) acknowledgment (ACK) element. This TDD ACK element can be included in announce frames to serve as the acknowledgment of previously received management frames so that each acknowledgment can be associated with the correct management frame in a one-to-one correspondence.

[0025] In one embodiment, an mmWave acknowledgment system may define a new TDD management element, which includes the necessary management information and can serve the functions as the management frames introduced in mmWave distribution networks. The TDD management element may include management information in the mmWave distribution networks. An mmWave acknowledgment system may include the elements in announce frames and reuse announce frames to serve the functions of the new management frame in an mmWave distribution network. The benefits of using announce frames are as follows: (1) an announce frame offers significant flexibility; (2) an announce frame can be either an Action or Action No ACK frame; and (3) the transmission of the announce frame can be either unicast or broadcast, meaning that the announce frame can be sent from one node to another node (one-to-one) or may be sent as a broadcast from one node to multiple nodes (one-to-many). Some of the information needed for the management frames in mmWave distribution networks is either already included in the announce frame, or can be included in the announce frame by other information elements. For example, an announce frame already includes the timestamp field. The access assignment information, which is carried in a TDD slot schedule element, can be included in an announce frame. This approach allows for minimal change to the existing 802.1 lay specification and meanwhile minimizes overhead.

[0026] In one embodiment, an mmWave acknowledgment system may facilitate that the TDD ACK element may contain a dialog token field that will be used to identify the association of the ACK request and the ACK response in an announce frame exchange.

[0027] The advantages may be that the mmWave acknowledgment system resolves the acknowledgment correspondence issue associated with the management frames in an mmWave distribution network if there are multiple outstanding management frames that need to be acknowledged. It builds upon the existing 802. Hay specification as much as possible and introduces backward compatibility.

[0028] The above descriptions are for purposes of illustration and are not meant to be limiting. Numerous other examples, configurations, processes, etc., may exist, some of which are described in greater detail below. Example embodiments will now be described with reference to the accompanying figures.

[0029] FIG. 1 is a network diagram illustrating an example network environment for acknowledgment in millimeter wave (mmWave) distribution network management, in accordance with one or more example embodiments of the present disclosure. Wireless network 100 may include one or more user device(s) 120 and one or more access point(s) (AP) 102, which may communicate in accordance with IEEE 802.11 communication standards, such as the IEEE 802.11ad and/or IEEE 802.11ay specifications. The user device(s) 120 may be referred to as stations (STAs). The user device(s) 120 may be mobile devices that are non- stationary and do not have fixed locations. Although the AP 102 is shown to be communicating on multiple antennas with the user devices 120, it should be understood that this is only for illustrative purposes and that any user device 120 may also communicate using multiple antennas with other user devices 120 and/or the AP 102.

[0030] In some embodiments, the user device(s) 120 and the AP 102 may include one or more computer systems similar to that of the functional diagram of FIG. 5 and/or the example machine/system of FIG. 6. [0031] One or more illustrative user device(s) 120 and/or AP 102 may be operable by one or more user(s) 110. The user device(s) 120 (e.g., 124, 126, or 128) and/or AP 102 may include any suitable processor-driven device including, but not limited to, a mobile device or a non- mobile, e.g., a static, device. For example, user device(s) 120 and/or AP 102 may include, a user equipment (UE), a station (STA), an access point (AP), a personal computer (PC), a wearable wireless device (e.g., bracelet, watch, glasses, ring, etc.), a desktop computer, a mobile computer, a laptop computer, an ultrabook™ computer, a notebook computer, a tablet computer, a server computer, a handheld computer, a handheld device, an internet of things (IoT) device, a sensor device, a PDA device, a handheld PDA device, an on-board device, an off-board device, a hybrid device (e.g., combining cellular phone functionalities with PDA device functionalities), a consumer device, a vehicular device, a non-vehicular device, a mobile or portable device, a non-mobile or non-portable device, a mobile phone, a cellular telephone, a PCS device, a PDA device which incorporates a wireless communication device, a mobile or portable GPS device, a DVB device, a relatively small computing device, a non-desktop computer, a "carry small live large" (CSLL) device, an ultra mobile device (UMD), an ultra mobile PC (UMPC), a mobile internet device (MID), an "origami" device or computing device, a device that supports dynamically composable computing (DCC), a context-aware device, a video device, an audio device, an A/V device, a set-top-box (STB), a blu-ray disc (BD) player, a BD recorder, a digital video disc (DVD) player, a high definition (HD) DVD player, a DVD recorder, a HD DVD recorder, a personal video recorder (PVR), a broadcast HD receiver, a video source, an audio source, a video sink, an audio sink, a stereo tuner, a broadcast radio receiver, a flat panel display, a personal media player (PMP), a digital video camera (DVC), a digital audio player, a speaker, an audio receiver, an audio amplifier, a gaming device, a data source, a data sink, a digital still camera (DSC), a media player, a smartphone, a television, a music player, or the like. It is understood that the above is a list of devices. However, other devices, including smart devices, Internet of Things (IoT), such as lamps, climate control, car components, household components, appliances, etc. may also be included in this list.

[0032] Any of the user device(s) 120 (e.g., user devices 124, 126, 128), and AP 102 may be configured to communicate with each other via one or more communications networks 130 and/or 135 wirelessly or wired. Any of the communications networks 130 and/or 135 may include, but not limited to, any one of a combination of different types of suitable communications networks such as, for example, broadcasting networks, cable networks, public networks (e.g., the Internet), private networks, wireless networks, cellular networks, or any other suitable private and/or public networks. Further, any of the communications networks 130 and/or 135 may have any suitable communication range associated therewith and may include, for example, global networks (e.g., the Internet), metropolitan area networks (MANs), wide area networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), or personal area networks (PANs). In addition, any of the communications networks 130 and/or 135 may include any type of medium over which network traffic may be carried including, but not limited to, coaxial cable, twisted-pair wire, optical fiber, a hybrid fiber coaxial (HFC) medium, microwave terrestrial transceivers, radio frequency communication mediums, white space communication mediums, ultra-high frequency communication mediums, satellite communication mediums, or any combination thereof.

[0033] Any of the user device(s) 120 (e.g., user devices 124, 126, 128), and AP 102 may include one or more communications antennas. The one or more communications antennas may be any suitable type of antennas corresponding to the communications protocols used by the user device(s) 120 (e.g., user devices 124, 126 and 128), and AP 102. Some non-limiting examples of suitable communications antennas include Wi-Fi antennas, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 family of standards compatible antennas, directional antennas, non-directional antennas, dipole antennas, folded dipole antennas, patch antennas, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antennas, or the like. The one or more communications antennas may be communicatively coupled to a radio component to transmit and/or receive signals, such as communications signals to and/or from the user devices 120 and/or AP 102.

[0034] Any of the user devices 120 (e.g., user devices 124, 126, 128), and AP 102 may include multiple antennas that may include one or more directional antennas. The one or more directional antennas may be steered to a plurality of beam directions. For example, at least one antenna of a user device 120 (or an AP 102) may be steered to a plurality of beam directions. For example, a user device 120 (or an AP 102) may transmit a directional transmission to another user device 120 (or another AP 102).

[0035] Any of the user device(s) 120 (e.g., user devices 124, 126, 128), and AP 102 may be configured to perform directional transmission and/or directional reception in conjunction with wirelessly communicating in a wireless network. Any of the user device(s) 120 (e.g., user devices 124, 126, 128), and AP 102 may be configured to perform such directional transmission and/or reception using a set of multiple antenna arrays (e.g., DMG antenna arrays or the like). Each of the multiple antenna arrays may be used for transmission and/or reception in a particular respective direction or range of directions. Any of the user device(s) 120 (e.g., user devices 124, 126, 128), and AP 102 may be configured to perform any given directional transmission towards one or more defined transmit sectors. Any of the user device(s) 120 (e.g., user devices 124, 126, 128), and AP 102 may be configured to perform any given directional reception from one or more defined receive sectors.

[0036] MIMO beamforming in a wireless network may be accomplished using RF beamforming and/or digital beamforming. In some embodiments, in performing a given MIMO transmission, user devices 120 and/or AP 102 may be configured to use all or a subset of its one or more communications antennas to perform MIMO beamforming.

[0037] Any of the user devices 120 (e.g., user devices 124, 126, 128), and AP 102 may include any suitable radio and/or transceiver for transmitting and/or receiving radio frequency (RF) signals in the bandwidth and/or channels corresponding to the communications protocols utilized by any of the user device(s) 120 and AP 102 to communicate with each other. The radio components may include hardware and/or software to modulate and/or demodulate communications signals according to pre-established transmission protocols. The radio components may further have hardware and/or software instructions to communicate via one or more Wi-Fi and/or Wi-Fi direct protocols, as standardized by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 standards. In certain example embodiments, the radio component, in cooperation with the communications antennas, may be configured to communicate via 2.4 GHz channels (e.g., 802.11b, 802. llg, 802.11η, 802.1 lax), 5 GHz channels (e.g., 802.11η, 802.11ac, 802.11ax), or 60 GHz channels (e.g., 802.11ad, 802.11ay). In some embodiments, non- Wi-Fi protocols may be used for communications between devices, such as Bluetooth, dedicated short-range communication (DSRC), Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) (e.g., IEEE 802.11af, IEEE 802.22), white band frequency (e.g., white spaces), or other packetized radio communications. The radio component may include any known receiver and baseband suitable for communicating via the communications protocols. The radio component may further include a low noise amplifier (LNA), additional signal amplifiers, an analog-to- digital (A/D) converter, one or more buffers, and a digital baseband.

[0038] When an AP (e.g., AP 102) establishes communication with one or more user devices 120 (e.g., user devices 124, 126, and/or 128), the AP 102 may communicate in a downlink direction, and the user devices 120 may communicate with the AP 102 in an uplink direction by sending frames in either direction. The user devices 120 may also communicate peer-to-peer or directly with each other with or without the AP 102. The data frames may be preceded by one or more preambles that may be part of one or more headers. These preambles may be used to allow a device (e.g., the AP 102 and/or the user devices 120) to detect a new incoming data frame from another device. A preamble may be a signal used in network communications to synchronize transmission timing between two or more devices (e.g., between the APs and the user devices).

[0039] Some demonstrative embodiments may be used in conjunction with a wireless communication network communicating over a frequency band of 60 GHz. However, other embodiments may be implemented utilizing any other suitable wireless communication frequency bands, for example, an extremely high frequency (EHF) band (the millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency band), a frequency band within the frequency band of between 20 GHz and 300 GHz, a WLAN frequency band, a WPAN frequency band, a frequency band according to the WGA specification, and the like.

[0040] The phrases "directional multi-gigabit (DMG)" and "directional band (DBand)," as used herein, may relate to a frequency band wherein the channel starting frequency is above 45 GHz. In one example, DMG communications may involve one or more directional links to communicate at a rate of multiple gigabits per second, for example, at least 1 gigabit per second, 7 gigabits per second, or any other rate.

[0041] In some demonstrative embodiments, the user device(s) 120 and/or the AP 102 may be configured to operate in accordance with one or more specifications, including one or more IEEE 802.11 specifications, (e.g., an IEEE 802.1 lad specification, an IEEE 802.1 lay specification, and/or any other specification and/or protocol). For example, an amendment to a DMG operation in the 60 GHz band, according to an IEEE 802.1 lad standard, may be defined, for example, by an IEEE 802.1 lay project.

[0042] It is understood that a basic service set (BSS) provides the basic building block of an 802.11 wireless LAN. For example, in infrastructure mode, a single access point (AP) together with all associated stations (STAs) is called a BSS.

[0043] In one embodiment, and with reference to FIG. 1, when an AP (e.g., AP 102) establishes communication with one or more user devices 120 (e.g., user devices 124, 126, and/or 128), the AP 102 may communicate in a downlink direction, and the user devices 120 may communicate with the AP 102 in an uplink direction by sending frames (e.g., frame 140) in either direction. A device (e.g., the user devices 120 and/or the AP 102) may respond to receiving a frame by sending a response frame 142. The user devices 120 may also communicate peer-to-peer or directly with each other with or without the AP 102. The data frames may be preceded by one or more preambles that may be part of one or more headers. These preambles may be used to allow a device (e.g., the AP 102 and/or the user devices 120) to detect a new incoming data frame from another device. A preamble may be a signal used in network communications to synchronize transmission timing between two or more devices (e.g., between the APs and the user devices).

[0044] FIG. 2 depicts an illustrative schematic diagram for mmWave distribution, in accordance with one or more example embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0045] Referring to FIG. 2, there is shown a typical mmWave having one or more nodes communicating with each other using, for example management frames. An example of management frames may include a heartbeat management frame, an uplink (UL) bandwidth (BW) request management frame, and a keep alive management frame. For example, a distribution node (e.g., DN 202), which may be an AP, may be sending a keep alive message to another DN (e.g., DN 204). The DN 202 may be in communication with a client node (e.g., CN 222), which may be a user device (also referred to as an STA). For example, the DN 202 may send a heartbeat management frame to the CN 222, and the CN 222 may send a UL BW request to the DN 202. It should be understood that the AP may also be a personal basic service set (PBSS) control point (PCP). For simplicity, the term AP may be used throughout this disclosure, which may also be interchangeably replaced with PCP.

[0046] A keep alive frame is a message sent by one device to another to check that the link between the two is operating, or to prevent the link from being broken. A heartbeat management frame is used to request information from the device that receives the heartbeat management frame. An uplink bandwidth request management frame may be sent from a non- AP STA to an AP in order to request bandwidth from the AP.

[0047] Management frames in an mmWave distribution network may include a heartbeat frame, a keep alive frame, and an uplink bandwidth request frame, among other frames. The functions and relationships of some examples of these frames are shown in Table 1.

[0048] Table 1: Management Frames

[0049] In FIG. 2, each management frame may contain different information fields. All of these management frames will typically require acknowledgments from the receiver. However, due to the unique feature of separating transmit (TX) and receive (RX) TDD slots in mmWave distribution networks, if a DN (e.g., DN 202) sends a management frame to a CN (e.g., CN 222) in a TX TDD slot, the corresponding ACK frame cannot be transmitted by the receiver immediately, but can only be transmitted in the following RX TDD slots.

[0050] This unique feature will lead to an issue concerning acknowledgment of multiple management frames transmitted to the same user device. That is, if the AP/PCP transmitted multiple management frames to the same user device in the TX TDD slots, once it receives an ACK frame in the following RX TDD slots, it will not be able to identify the management frame for which the ACK is sent. There is no way to associate the ACK frame with the management frame in terms of one-to-one correspondence.

[0051] FIG. 3 depicts an illustrative diagram 300 for an mmWave acknowledgment system, in accordance with one or more example embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0052] Referring to FIG. 3, there is shown a DN (e.g., AP 304) that may send one or more management frames (e.g., management frames 305, 307, and 309) to a CN (e.g., user device 326). The AP 304 may have sent the management frames in order to relay some information to the user device 326. The user device 326 may wish to acknowledge each of these management frames, using, for example, an acknowledgment (ACK) frame 310. However, in current solutions, the user device 326 is unable to acknowledge each one of these management frames because the mmWave distribution is comprised of one or more TDD intervals. For example, the management frames 305, 307, and 309 may be sent during one or more transmit TDD intervals 301. The ACK frame 310 may be sent during a receive TDD interval 303. Therefore, since a current acknowledgment frame does not include any identification information or any association with the management frames that were received by the user device 326, it is not possible to send an acknowledgment to each of these management frames.

[0053] In one embodiment, an mmWave acknowledgment system may facilitate a mechanism for providing accurate acknowledgment to one or more management frames that may be sent from a first device (e.g., the AP 304) to a second device (e.g., the user device 326). For example, after receiving the management frames 305, 307, and 309, the user device 326 may accurately acknowledge each of these management frames while still operating in the enhanced scheduling structure for the mmWave distribution network, which may be comprised of a new type of scheduling slot with TDD access. For example, the user device 326 may respond to management frames 305, 307, and 309 by sending ACK frames 310, 311, and 312 respectively. The ACK frames 310, 311, and 312 may include one or more elements, fields, and subfields in order to associate each of the ACK frames with the respective received management frame. [0054] In one embodiment, an enhanced scheduling structure for an mmWave distribution network may be comprised of a new type of scheduling slot with time division data (TDD) client node (CN) access. This enhanced scheduling structure may be dedicated to mmWave distribution networks where the AP and the STAs may perform downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) communications.

[0055] In one embodiment, new information elements and fields may address scheduling and access of dedicated allocations that may be used between nodes. For example, one of four reserved bits in an allocation control subfield in the extended schedule element when an allocation type subfield is 00 (e.g., a slot allocation) may be used to indicate that the allocated slot is a new type of slot dedicated to a distribution mmWave network use case. A slot with a TDD channel access field may indicate whether a scheduled slot is the new enhanced slot with TDD channel access. If the TDD channel access field is 0, it may indicate a conventional slot.

[0056] In one embodiment, in the enhanced slot, a TDD interval scheduling structure may be dedicated to address a distribution mmWave use case, and the associated channel access rules may be used.

[0057] In one embodiment, consecutive slots with TDD channel access may be scheduled. A new type of slot with TDD channel access scheduled by the AP may include several identical TDD intervals, each of which may include consecutive DL and UL TDD slots that may be dedicated to transmissions with STAs. The number of DL and UL TDD slots in each TDD interval may be configured, as well as the duration of each specific TDD slot. Once the number of DL/UL TDD slots and their durations are known, the duration of one TDD interval may be determined. Knowing the total duration of the slot with TDD channel access, the total number of TDD intervals in the SP with TDD channel access may be determined. A new enhanced directional multi-gigabit (EDMG) slot structure information element may address slot scheduling. The EDMG Slot Structure information element may define the specific structure of a TDD slot, and within the allocated slot (e.g., with TDD channel access), the TDD slot may be repeated until the end of the slot. The EDMG slot structure information element may address the scheduling structure of the TDD slot that may be used by the AP and STAs in an mmWave distribution network. The transmission of the EDMG slot structure information element may be broadcast, and may be included in a beacon or announce frame to address slot scheduling. The presence of the EDMG slot structure information element in a beacon or announce frame may indicate that the scheduling is for a new mmWave distribution network usage model. [0058] In one embodiment, an mmWave acknowledgment system may define new information elements to carry all of the management information in the mmWave distributed networks. The elements may be included in the announce frames and the reused announce frames to serve the functions of the new management frames introduced earlier (e.g., the heartbeat, UL BW request, and keep alive frames). The benefits of using an announce frame is that the announce frame offers significant flexibility and can be either an action or action no ACK frame. The transmission of the announce frame can be either unicast or broadcast. Some of the information needed for the management frames in mmWave distribution networks is either already included in the announce frame, or can be included in the announce frame by other information elements. For example, the announce frame already includes the timestamp field. The access assignment information, which is carried in the TDD interval schedule element, can be included in the announce frame. This approach allows for minimal change to the existing 802.1 lay specification and meanwhile minimizes overhead.

[0059] In one embodiment, an mmWave acknowledgment system may define a new TDD ACK element. The TDD ACK element will contain the dialog token field that will be used to identify the association of the ACK request and the ACK response in the announce frame exchange. If some management information requires acknowledgment, the sender will include the TDD ACK element and set the type subfield to 0 to indicate that this announce frame requires acknowledgment. After receiving the announce frame containing the TDD ACK element with type set to ACK request, the receiver will also include a TDD ACK element in the announce frame, and set the type to 1 to indicate that this announce frame is an acknowledgment of the previously received announce frame. Moreover, the receiver will set the dialog token field to be exactly the same as the TDD ACK element it received which solicits acknowledgment. In this way, the one-to-one correspondence between the announce frame that solicits acknowledgment and the actual announce frame that is used as an ACK is established. The sender of the management information will be able to identify which management information has been successfully received. The element format of the TDD ACK element is shown in Table 2, while the TDD ACK control field is shown in Table 3. For example, Table 2 provides that the TDD ACK element comprises one or more fields including an element ID field, a length field, an element ID extension field, a dialog token field and a TDD ACK control field. [0060] Table 2: TDD ACK Element Format

[0061] In Table 3, there is shown that the TDD ACK control field is comprised of a type subfield. The type subfield may be set to "0" or "1" based on whether the announce frame is an ACK request or an ACK response. For example, if the AP sends an announce frame with the type subfield of the TDD ACK set to "0", this may indicate that the announce frame requires an acknowledgment from the device that receives this announce frame. Further, if the device that receives the announce frame determines that the type subfield of the TDD ACK is set to 0, the receiving device may in its acknowledgment send an announce frame that also includes a TDD ACK element comprising a type subfield, where the type subfield may be set to "1" to indicate that this announce frame is in response to the announce frame received from the AP.

[0062] Table 3: Proposed TDD ACK Control Format.

[0063] In one embodiment, an mmWave acknowledgment system may define a new TDD management element, which includes the necessary management information, and can serve as the functions of the management frames introduced in the mmWave distribution networks. The TDD management element may contain a type field indicating which type of management the element is for; the corresponding TDD management fields will vary depending on the Type field. Table 4 shows the TDD management element format, and Table 5 shows the TDD Management Control format. In these fields, A heartbeat and keep alive may use the same type because the information fields in heartbeat are a subset of those in keep alive. A subfield can be introduced in the corresponding TDD management field when the type is heartbeat or keep alive to differentiate these two messages

[0064] Table 4: Proposed TDD Management Element Format.

[0065] Table 5: TDD Management Control Format

[0066] The specific subfields or information contained in the TDD management field depends on the value in the type field. Specifically, when the value in the type field is 00, the TDD management field format is shown in Table 6. When the value in the type field is 01, the TDD management field format is shown in Table 7. Table 8 shows a link adaptation feedback subfield format. Table 9 shows a scheduler statistics subfield format.

[0067] Table 6: TDD Management Format When the Type Field Is 00.

[0068] Table 7: TDD Management Format When the Type Field Is 01.

[0069] Table 8: Link Adaptation Feedback Subfield Format.

[0070] Table 9: Scheduler Statistics Subfield Format. [0071] It is understood that the above descriptions are for purposes of illustration and are not meant to be limiting.

[0072] FIG. 4 illustrates a flow diagram of an illustrative process 400 for an mmWave acknowledgment system, in accordance with one or more example embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0073] At block 402, a device (e.g., the user device(s) 120 and/or the AP 102 of FIG. 1) may determine a first announce frame comprising one or more information elements, wherein the information elements are associated with management information. For example, an mmWave acknowledgment system may facilitate a mechanism to acknowledge received management frames at a receiving device using an announce frame. The announce frame may comprise one or more fields that may indicate whether the announce frame is an acknowledgment to a received frame. The announce frame is an action frame. An action frame is a type of management frame used to trigger an action from a device. The traditional acknowledgment to frames in 802.11 ay works such that if a first device sends a frame to a second device, the second device could send the acknowledgment immediately to the first device acknowledging the received frame. There is no restriction of a unique directional timeslot in that case. In any timeslot, bidirectional traffic is possible in 802.1 lay. However an mmWave acknowledgment system enforces a TDD access to the channel, which means that the second device would have to wait for a specific timeslot before it can send its acknowledgment to the received frame. This is the case because in the mmWave acknowledgment system only unidirectional traffic is allowed. The benefits of using an announce frame are as follows: (1) an announce frame offers significant flexibility; (2) an announce frame can be either an Action or Action No ACK frame; and (3) the transmission of an announce frame can be either unicast or broadcast, meaning that the announce frame can be sent from one node to another node (one-to-one) or may be sent as a broadcast from one node to multiple nodes (one-to-many). Some of the information needed for the management frames in mmWave distribution networks is either already included in an announce frame, or can be included in an announce frame by other information elements. For example, an announce frame already includes the timestamp field. The access assignment information, which is carried in the TDD interval schedule element, can be included in the announce frame. This approach allows for minimal change to the existing 802.1 lay specification and meanwhile minimizes overhead.

[0074] At block 404, the device may cause to send the first announce frame to a station device, wherein the first announce frame is sent during a time division duplex (TDD) slot associated with a millimeter wave (mmWave) distribution network. An enhanced scheduling structure for an mmWave distribution network may be comprised of a new type of scheduling slot with time division data (TDD) client node (CN) access. This enhanced scheduling structure may be dedicated to mmWave distribution networks where the AP and the STAs may perform downlink and uplink communications. New information elements and fields may address scheduling and access of dedicated allocations that may be used between nodes. For example, one of the four reserved bits in an allocation control subfield in the extended schedule element when an allocation type subfield is 00 (e.g., a slot allocation) may be used to indicate that the allocated slot is a new type of slot dedicated to a distribution mmWave network use case. A slot with a TDD channel access field may indicate whether a scheduled slot is the new enhanced slot with TDD channel access. If the TDD channel access field is 0, it may indicate a conventional slot. In the enhanced slot, a TDD interval scheduling structure may be dedicated to address a distribution mmWave use case, and the associated channel access rules may be used.

[0075] At block 406, the device may identify an acknowledgment frame from the station device, wherein the acknowledgment frame is based on at least one of the one or more information elements. A new TDD ACK element included in an announce frame may be defined. The TDD ACK element will contain the dialog token field that will be used to identify the association of the ACK request and the ACK response in the announce frame exchange. If some management information requires acknowledgment, the sender will include the TDD ACK element and set the type subfield to 0 to indicate this announce frame requires acknowledgment. After receiving the announce frame containing the TDD ACK element with the type set to ACK request, the receiver will also include a TDD ACK element into the announce frame, and set the type to 1 to indicate this announce frame is an acknowledgment of the previously received announce frame. Moreover, the receiver will set the dialog token field to be exactly the same as the TDD ACK element it received which solicits acknowledgment. In this way, the one-to-one correspondence between the announce frame that solicits acknowledgment and the actual announce frame that is used as an ACK is established. The sender of the management information will be able to identify which management information has been successfully received.

[0076] It is understood that the above descriptions are for purposes of illustration and are not meant to be limiting. [0077] FIG. 4B illustrates a flow diagram of an illustrative process 450 for an mmWave acknowledgment system, in accordance with one or more example embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0078] At block 452, a device (e.g., the user device(s) 120 and/or the AP 102 of FIG. 1) may identify a first announce frame received from an access point, wherein the first announce frame comprises one or more information elements associated with management information. The elements may be included in the announce frames and the reused announce frames to serve as the functions of the new management frames introduced earlier (e.g., heartbeat, UL BW request, and keep alive frames). The benefits of using an announce frame is that the announce frame offers significant flexibility and can be either an action or action no ACK frame. The transmission of the announce frame can be either unicast or broadcast. Some of the information needed for the management frames in mmWave distribution networks is either already included in an announce frame, or can be included in an announce frame by other information elements. For example, an announce frame already includes the timestamp field. The access assignment information, which is carried in the TDD interval schedule element, can be included in the announce frame.

[0079] At block 454, the device may determine that the first announce frame is received during a time division duplex (TDD) slot associated with a millimeter wave (mmWave) distribution network. An enhanced scheduling structure for an mmWave distribution network may be comprised of a new type of scheduling slot with time division data (TDD) client node (CN) access. This enhanced scheduling structure may be dedicated to mmWave distribution networks where the AP and the STAs may perform downlink and uplink communications. New information elements and fields may address the scheduling and access of dedicated allocations that may be used between nodes. For example, one of the four reserved bits in an allocation control subfield in the extended schedule element when an allocation type subfield is 00 (e.g., a slot allocation) may be used to indicate that the allocated slot is a new type of slot dedicated to a distribution mmWave network use case. A slot with a TDD channel access field may indicate whether a scheduled slot is the new enhanced slot with TDD channel access. If the TDD channel access field is 0, it may indicate a conventional slot. In the enhanced slot, a TDD interval scheduling structure may be dedicated to address a distribution mmWave use case, and the associated channel access rules may be used.

[0080] At block 456, the device may cause to send an acknowledgment frame to the access point, wherein the acknowledgment frame is based on at least one of the one or more information elements. A new TDD ACK element included in an announce frame may be defined. The TDD ACK element will contain the dialog token field that will be used to identify the association of the ACK request and the ACK response in the announce frame exchange. If some management information requires acknowledgment, the sender will include the TDD ACK element and set the type subfield to 0 to indicate this announce frame requires acknowledgment. After receiving the announce frame containing the TDD ACK element with the type set to ACK request, the receiver will also include a TDD ACK element into the announce frame, and set the type to 1 to indicate this announce frame is an acknowledgment of the previously received announce frame. Moreover, the receiver will set the dialog token field to be exactly the same as the TDD ACK element it received which solicits acknowledgment. In this way, the one-to-one correspondence between the announce frame that solicits acknowledgment and the actual announce frame that is used as an ACK is established. The sender of the management information will be able to identify which management information has been successfully received.

[0081] It is understood that the above descriptions are for purposes of illustration and are not meant to be limiting.

[0082] FIG. 5 shows a functional diagram of an exemplary communication station 500 in accordance with some embodiments. In one embodiment, FIG. 5 illustrates a functional block diagram of a communication station that may be suitable for use as an AP 102 (FIG. 1) or user device 120 (FIG. 1) in accordance with some embodiments. The communication station 500 may also be suitable for use as a handheld device, a mobile device, a cellular telephone, a smartphone, a tablet, a netbook, a wireless terminal, a laptop computer, a wearable computer device, a femtocell, a high data rate (HDR) subscriber station, an access point, an access terminal, or other personal communication system (PCS) device.

[0083] The communication station 500 may include communications circuitry 502 and a transceiver 510 for transmitting and receiving signals to and from other communication stations using one or more antennas 501. The transceiver 510 may be a device comprising both a transmitter and a receiver that are combined and share common circuitry (e.g., communications circuitry 502). The communications circuitry 502 may include amplifiers, filters, mixers, analog to digital and/or digital to analog converters. The transceiver 510 may transmit and receive analog or digital signals. The transceiver 510 may allow reception of signals during transmission periods. This mode is known as full-duplex, and may require the transmitter and receiver to operate on different frequencies to minimize interference between the transmitted signal and the received signal. The transceiver 510 may operate in a half-duplex mode, where the transceiver 510 may transmit or receive signals in one direction at a time. [0084] The communications circuitry 502 may include circuitry that can operate the physical layer (PHY) communications and/or media access control (MAC) communications for controlling access to the wireless medium, and/or any other communications layers for transmitting and receiving signals. The communication station 500 may also include processing circuitry 506 and memory 508 arranged to perform the operations described herein. In some embodiments, the communications circuitry 502 and the processing circuitry 506 may be configured to perform operations detailed in FIGs. 2, 3, 4A and 4B.

[0085] In accordance with some embodiments, the communications circuitry 502 may be arranged to contend for a wireless medium and configure frames or packets for communicating over the wireless medium. The communications circuitry 502 may be arranged to transmit and receive signals. The communications circuitry 502 may also include circuitry for modulation/demodulation, upconversion/downconversion, filtering, amplification, etc. In some embodiments, the processing circuitry 506 of the communication station 500 may include one or more processors. In other embodiments, two or more antennas 501 may be coupled to the communications circuitry 502 arranged for sending and receiving signals. The memory 508 may store information for configuring the processing circuitry 506 to perform operations for configuring and transmitting message frames and performing the various operations described herein. The memory 508 may include any type of memory, including non-transitory memory, for storing information in a form readable by a machine (e.g., a computer). For example, the memory 508 may include a computer-readable storage device, read-only memory (ROM), random- access memory (RAM), magnetic disk storage media, optical storage media, flash-memory devices and other storage devices and media.

[0086] In some embodiments, the communication station 500 may be part of a portable wireless communication device, such as a personal digital assistant (PDA), a laptop or portable computer with wireless communication capability, a web tablet, a wireless telephone, a smartphone, a wireless headset, a pager, an instant messaging device, a digital camera, an access point, a television, a medical device (e.g., a heart rate monitor, a blood pressure monitor, etc.), a wearable computer device, or another device that may receive and/or transmit information wirelessly.

[0087] In some embodiments, the communication station 500 may include one or more antennas 501. The antennas 501 may include one or more directional or omnidirectional antennas, including, for example, dipole antennas, monopole antennas, patch antennas, loop antennas, microstrip antennas, or other types of antennas suitable for transmission of RF signals. In some embodiments, instead of two or more antennas, a single antenna with multiple apertures may be used. In these embodiments, each aperture may be considered a separate antenna. In some multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) embodiments, the antennas may be effectively separated for spatial diversity and the different channel characteristics that may result between each of the antennas and the antennas of a transmitting station.

[0088] In some embodiments, the communication station 500 may include one or more of a keyboard, a display, a non-volatile memory port, multiple antennas, a graphics processor, an application processor, speakers, and other mobile device elements. The display may be an LCD screen including a touch screen.

[0089] Although the communication station 500 is illustrated as having several separate functional elements, two or more of the functional elements may be combined and may be implemented by combinations of software-configured elements, such as processing elements including digital signal processors (DSPs), and/or other hardware elements. For example, some elements may include one or more microprocessors, DSPs, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), radio-frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) and combinations of various hardware and logic circuitry for performing at least the functions described herein. In some embodiments, the functional elements of the communication station 500 may refer to one or more processes operating on one or more processing elements.

[0090] Certain embodiments may be implemented in one or a combination of hardware, firmware, and software. Other embodiments may also be implemented as instructions stored on a computer-readable storage device, which may be read and executed by at least one processor to perform the operations described herein. A computer-readable storage device may include any non-transitory memory mechanism for storing information in a form readable by a machine (e.g., a computer). For example, a computer-readable storage device may include read-only memory (ROM), random-access memory (RAM), magnetic disk storage media, optical storage media, flash-memory devices, and other storage devices and media. In some embodiments, the communication station 500 may include one or more processors and may be configured with instructions stored on a computer-readable storage device memory.

[0091] FIG. 6 illustrates a block diagram of an example of a machine 600 or system upon which any one or more of the techniques (e.g., methodologies) discussed herein may be performed. In other embodiments, the machine 600 may operate as a standalone device or may be connected (e.g., networked) to other machines. In a networked deployment, the machine 600 may operate in the capacity of a server machine, a client machine, or both in server-client network environments. In an example, the machine 600 may act as a peer machine in peer-to- peer (P2P) (or other distributed) network environments. The machine 600 may be a personal computer (PC), a tablet PC, a set-top box (STB), a personal digital assistant (PDA), a mobile telephone, a wearable computer device, a web appliance, a network router, a switch or bridge, or any machine capable of executing instructions (sequential or otherwise) that specify actions to be taken by that machine, such as a base station. Further, while only a single machine is illustrated, the term "machine" shall also be taken to include any collection of machines that individually or jointly execute a set (or multiple sets) of instructions to perform any one or more of the methodologies discussed herein, such as cloud computing, software as a service (SaaS), or other computer cluster configurations.

[0092] Examples, as described herein, may include or may operate on logic or a number of components, modules, or mechanisms. Modules are tangible entities (e.g., hardware) capable of performing specified operations when operating. A module includes hardware. In an example, the hardware may be specifically configured to carry out a specific operation (e.g., hardwired). In another example, the hardware may include configurable execution units (e.g., transistors, circuits, etc.) and a computer readable medium containing instructions where the instructions configure the execution units to carry out a specific operation when in operation. The configuring may occur under the direction of the execution units or a loading mechanism. Accordingly, the execution units are communicatively coupled to the computer-readable medium when the device is operating. In this example, the execution units may be a member of more than one module. For example, under operation, the execution units may be configured by a first set of instructions to implement a first module at one point in time and reconfigured by a second set of instructions to implement a second module at a second point in time.

[0093] The machine (e.g., computer system) 600 may include a hardware processor 602 (e.g., a central processing unit (CPU), a graphics processing unit (GPU), a hardware processor core, or any combination thereof), a main memory 604 and a static memory 606, some or all of which may communicate with each other via an interlink (e.g., bus) 608. The machine 600 may further include a power management device 632, a graphics display device 610, an alphanumeric input device 612 (e.g., a keyboard), and a user interface (UI) navigation device 614 (e.g., a mouse). In an example, the graphics display device 610, alphanumeric input device 612, and UI navigation device 614 may be a touch screen display. The machine 600 may additionally include a storage device (i.e., drive unit) 616, a signal generation device 618 (e.g., a speaker), an mmWave acknowledgment device 619, a network interface device/transceiver 620 coupled to antenna(s) 630, and one or more sensors 628, such as a global positioning system (GPS) sensor, a compass, an accelerometer, or other sensor. The machine 600 may include an output controller 634, such as a serial (e.g., universal serial bus (USB), parallel, or other wired or wireless (e.g., infrared (IR), near field communication (NFC), etc.) connection to communicate with or control one or more peripheral devices (e.g., a printer, a card reader, etc.)).

[0094] The storage device 616 may include a machine readable medium 622 on which is stored one or more sets of data structures or instructions 624 (e.g., software) embodying or utilized by any one or more of the techniques or functions described herein. The instructions 624 may also reside, completely or at least partially, within the main memory 604, within the static memory 606, or within the hardware processor 602 during execution thereof by the machine 600. In an example, one or any combination of the hardware processor 602, the main memory 604, the static memory 606, or the storage device 616 may constitute machine- readable media.

[0095] The mmWave acknowledgment device 619 may carry out or perform any of the operations and processes (e.g., processes 400 and 450) described and shown above.

[0096] For example, the mmWave acknowledgment device 619 may facilitate a mechanism for providing accurate acknowledgment to one or more management frames that may be sent from a first device to a second device.

[0097] The mmWave acknowledgment device 619 may define an enhanced scheduling structure for an mmWave distribution network, which may be comprised of a new type of scheduling slot with time division data (TDD) access. This enhanced scheduling structure may be dedicated to mmWave distribution networks where the AP and the STAs may perform downlink and uplink communications.

[0098] The mmWave acknowledgment device 619 may facilitate a mechanism to acknowledge received management frames at a receiving device using an announce frame. The announce frame may comprise one or more fields that may indicate whether the announce frame is an acknowledgment to a received frame. The announce frame is an action frame. An action frame is a type of management frame used to trigger an action from a device. The traditional acknowledgment to frames in 802.1 lay works such that if a first device sends a frame to a second device, the second device could send the acknowledgment immediately to the first device acknowledging the received frame. There is no restriction of a unique directional timeslot in that case. In any timeslot, bidirectional traffic is possible in 802.11 ay. However, an mmWave acknowledgment system enforces a TDD access to the channel, which means that the second device would have to wait for a specific timeslot before it can send its acknowledgment to the received frame. This is the case because in the mmWave acknowledgment system only unidirectional traffic is allowed. For example, if a frame is sent in a first TDD interval, and an acknowledgment frame could not immediately be sent to the first device, the second device would have to wait until a different TDD interval is allocated for uplink traffic. Even more, if a plurality of frames is sent from the first device to the second device, there is no way for the second device to specifically acknowledge each received frame because the acknowledgment message is typically without identification information of the frame that was sent. Therefore, if the acknowledgment message is sent at a specific TDD interval after the plurality of frames is sent, the first device would not know which frame the acknowledgment is supposed to be acknowledging.

[0099] The mmWave acknowledgment device 619 may define acknowledgment to management frames in mmWave distribution networks. For example, an mmWave acknowledgment system may reuse existing announce frames in 802.11 ad/ay, but define a new information element that can be included in the announce frames to serve as the management functions in mmWave distribution networks.

[00100] The mmWave acknowledgment device 619 may facilitate that in order to resolve the issue of acknowledgment of management frames, the mmWave distribution network management system may define a new time division duplex (TDD) acknowledgment (ACK) element, which can also be included in the announce frames to serve as the acknowledgment of previously received management frames so that each acknowledgment can be associated with the correct management frame in the sense of one-to-one correspondence.

[00101] The mmWave acknowledgment device 619 may facilitate that the TDD ACK element may include management information in the mmWave distribution networks. An mmWave acknowledgment system may include the elements in the announce frames and the reused announce frames serve as the functions of the new management frame in an mmWave distribution network. The benefits of reusing an announce frame are as follows: (1) an announce frame offers significant flexibility; (2) an announce frame can be either an Action or Action No ACK frame; and (3) the transmission of an announce frame can be either unicast or broadcast, meaning that the announce frame can be sent from one node to another node (one- to-one) or may be sent as a broadcast from one node to multiple nodes (one-to-many). Some of the information needed for the management frames in the mmWave distribution networks is either already included in the announce frame, or can be included in the announce frame by other information elements. For example, an announce frame already includes the timestamp field. The access assignment information, which is carried in the TDD interval schedule element, can be included in the announce frame. This approach allows for minimal change to the existing 802.1 lay specification and meanwhile minimizes overhead.

[00102] The mmWave acknowledgment device 619 may facilitate that the TDD slot schedule element may contain a dialog token field that will be used to identify the association of the ACK request and the ACK response in an announce frame exchange.

[00103] The advantages may be that the mmWave acknowledgment system resolves the acknowledgment correspondence issue associated with the management frames in an mmWave distribution network if there are multiple outstanding management frames that need to be acknowledged. It builds upon the existing 802. Hay specification as much as possible and introduces backward compatibility.

[00104] It is understood that the above are only a subset of what the mmWave acknowledgment device 619 may be configured to perform and that other functions included throughout this disclosure may also be performed by the mmWave acknowledgment device 619.

[00105] While the machine-readable medium 622 is illustrated as a single medium, the term "machine-readable medium" may include a single medium or multiple media (e.g., a centralized or distributed database, and/or associated caches and servers) configured to store the one or more instructions 624.

[00106] Various embodiments may be implemented fully or partially in software and/or firmware. This software and/or firmware may take the form of instructions contained in or on a non-transitory computer-readable storage medium. Those instructions may then be read and executed by one or more processors to enable performance of the operations described herein. The instructions may be in any suitable form, such as but not limited to source code, compiled code, interpreted code, executable code, static code, dynamic code, and the like. Such a computer-readable medium may include any tangible non-transitory medium for storing information in a form readable by one or more computers, such as but not limited to read only memory (ROM); random access memory (RAM); magnetic disk storage media; optical storage media; a flash memory, etc.

[00107] The term "machine-readable medium" may include any medium that is capable of storing, encoding, or carrying instructions for execution by the machine 600 and that cause the machine 600 to perform any one or more of the techniques of the present disclosure, or that is capable of storing, encoding, or carrying data structures used by or associated with such instructions. Non-limiting machine-readable medium examples may include solid-state memories and optical and magnetic media. In an example, a massed machine -readable medium includes a machine-readable medium with a plurality of particles having resting mass. Specific examples of massed machine -readable media may include non-volatile memory, such as semiconductor memory devices (e.g., electrically programmable read-only memory (EPROM), or electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM)) and flash memory devices; magnetic disks, such as internal hard disks and removable disks; magneto-optical disks; and CD-ROM and DVD- ROM disks.

[00108] The instructions 624 may further be transmitted or received over a communications network 626 using a transmission medium via the network interface device/transceiver 620 utilizing any one of a number of transfer protocols (e.g., frame relay, internet protocol (IP), transmission control protocol (TCP), user datagram protocol (UDP), hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP), etc.). Example communications networks may include a local area network (LAN), a wide area network (WAN), a packet data network (e.g., the Internet), mobile telephone networks (e.g., cellular networks), plain old telephone (POTS) networks, wireless data networks (e.g., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 family of standards known as Wi-Fi®, IEEE 802.16 family of standards known as WiMax®), IEEE 802.15.4 family of standards, and peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, among others. In an example, the network interface device/transceiver 620 may include one or more physical jacks (e.g., Ethernet, coaxial, or phone jacks) or one or more antennas to connect to the communications network 626. In an example, the network interface device/transceiver 620 may include a plurality of antennas to wirelessly communicate using at least one of single-input multiple- output (SIMO), multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), or multiple-input single-output (MISO) techniques. The term "transmission medium" shall be taken to include any intangible medium that is capable of storing, encoding, or carrying instructions for execution by the machine 600 and includes digital or analog communications signals or other intangible media to facilitate communication of such software. The operations and processes described and shown above may be carried out or performed in any suitable order as desired in various implementations. Additionally, in certain implementations, at least a portion of the operations may be carried out in parallel. Furthermore, in certain implementations, less than or more than the operations described may be performed.

[00109] The word "exemplary" is used herein to mean "serving as an example, instance, or illustration." Any embodiment described herein as "exemplary" is not necessarily to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other embodiments. The terms "computing device," "user device," "communication station," "station," "handheld device," "mobile device," "wireless device" and "user equipment" (UE) as used herein refers to a wireless communication device such as a cellular telephone, a smartphone, a tablet, a netbook, a wireless terminal, a laptop computer, a femtocell, a high data rate (HDR) subscriber station, an access point, a printer, a point of sale device, an access terminal, or other personal communication system (PCS) device. The device may be either mobile or stationary.

[00110] As used within this document, the term "communicate" is intended to include transmitting, or receiving, or both transmitting and receiving. This may be particularly useful in claims when describing the organization of data that is being transmitted by one device and received by another, but only the functionality of one of those devices is required to infringe the claim. Similarly, the bidirectional exchange of data between two devices (both devices transmit and receive during the exchange) may be described as "communicating," when only the functionality of one of those devices is being claimed. The term "communicating" as used herein with respect to a wireless communication signal includes transmitting the wireless communication signal and/or receiving the wireless communication signal. For example, a wireless communication unit, which is capable of communicating a wireless communication signal, may include a wireless transmitter to transmit the wireless communication signal to at least one other wireless communication unit, and/or a wireless communication receiver to receive the wireless communication signal from at least one other wireless communication unit.

[00111] As used herein, unless otherwise specified, the use of the ordinal adjectives "first," "second," "third," etc., to describe a common object, merely indicates that different instances of like objects are being referred to and are not intended to imply that the objects so described must be in a given sequence, either temporally, spatially, in ranking, or in any other manner.

[00112] The term "access point" (AP) as used herein may be a fixed station. An access point may also be referred to as an access node, a base station, an evolved node B (eNodeB), or some other similar terminology known in the art. An access terminal may also be called a mobile station, user equipment (UE), a wireless communication device, or some other similar terminology known in the art. Embodiments disclosed herein generally pertain to wireless networks. Some embodiments may relate to wireless networks that operate in accordance with one of the IEEE 802.11 standards.

[00113] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with various devices and systems, for example, a personal computer (PC), a desktop computer, a mobile computer, a laptop computer, a notebook computer, a tablet computer, a server computer, a handheld computer, a handheld device, a personal digital assistant (PDA) device, a handheld PDA device, an onboard device, an off-board device, a hybrid device, a vehicular device, a non- vehicular device, a mobile or portable device, a consumer device, a non- mobile or non-portable device, a wireless communication station, a wireless communication device, a wireless access point (AP), a wired or wireless router, a wired or wireless modem, a video device, an audio device, an audio- video (A/V) device, a wired or wireless network, a wireless area network, a wireless video area network (WVAN), a local area network (LAN), a wireless LAN (WLAN), a personal area network (PAN), a wireless PAN (WPAN), and the like.

[00114] Some embodiments may be used in conj unction with one way and/or two-way radio communication systems, cellular radio-telephone communication systems, a mobile phone, a cellular telephone, a wireless telephone, a personal communication system (PCS) device, a PDA device which incorporates a wireless communication device, a mobile or portable global positioning system (GPS) device, a device which incorporates a GPS receiver or transceiver or chip, a device which incorporates an RFID element or chip, a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transceiver or device, a single-input multiple-output (SIMO) transceiver or device, a multiple-input single-output (MISO) transceiver or device, a device having one or more internal antennas and/or external antennas, digital video broadcast (DVB) devices or systems, multi- standard radio devices or systems, a wired or wireless handheld device, e.g., a smartphone, a wireless application protocol (WAP) device, or the like.

[00115] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with one or more types of wireless communication signals and/or systems following one or more wireless communication protocols, for example, radio frequency (RF), infrared (IR), frequency-division multiplexing (FDM), orthogonal FDM (OFDM), time-division multiplexing (TDM), time-division multiple access (TDM A), extended TDMA (E-TDMA), general packet radio service (GPRS), extended GPRS, code-division multiple access (CDMA), wideband CDMA (WCDMA), CDMA 2000, single-carrier CDMA, multi-carrier CDMA, multi-carrier modulation (MDM), discrete multi- tone (DMT), Bluetooth®, global positioning system (GPS), Wi-Fi, Wi-Max, ZigBee, ultra- wideband (UWB), global system for mobile communications (GSM), 2G, 2.5G, 3G, 3.5G, 4G, fifth generation (5G) mobile networks, 3 GPP, long term evolution (LTE), LTE advanced, enhanced data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), or the like. Other embodiments may be used in various other devices, systems, and/or networks.

[00116] Example 1 may include a device comprising memory and processing circuitry configured to: determine a first announce frame comprising one or more information elements, wherein the information elements are associated with management information; cause to send the first announce frame to a station device, wherein the first announce frame may be sent during a time division duplex (TDD) slot associated with a millimeter wave (mmWave) distribution network; and identify an acknowledgment frame from the station device, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be based on at least one of the one or more information elements.

[00117] Example 2 may include the device of example 1 and/or some other example herein, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be identified during a predetermined TDD slot allocated for uplink traffic.

[00118] Example 3 may include the device of example 1 and/or some other example herein, wherein the memory and the processing circuitry are further configured to set a first type subfield, in a TDD acknowledgment (ACK) element of the one or more information elements, to "0" to indicate the first announce frame requires acknowledgment.

[00119] Example 4 may include the device of example 3 and/or some other example herein, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be a second announce frame comprising a second TDD ACK element, wherein the second TDD ACK element comprises a type subfield.

[00120] Example 5 may include the device of example 4 and/or some other example herein, wherein the type subfield of the second TDD ACK element may be set to "1" indicating that it may be an acknowledgment to the first announce frame.

[00121] Example 6 may include the device of example 4 and/or some other example herein, wherein the second TDD ACK element comprises a second type subfield, wherein the second type subfield may be set to 1 to indicate the second announce frame may be an acknowledgment of the first announce frame.

[00122] Example 7 may include the device of example 1 and/or some other example herein, wherein the first announce frame comprises a TDD management element, wherein the TDD management element comprises a type subfield indicating a management frame type for the first announce frame.

[00123] Example 8 may include the device of example 7 and/or some other example herein, wherein the management frame type may include at least one of a heartbeat frame, a keep alive frame, or an uplink bandwidth request.

[00124] Example 9 may include the device of example 7 and/or some other example herein, wherein the type subfield of the TDD management element may be comprised of one or more bit element, wherein the one or more bit element may be set to a first value to indicate a heartbeat or a keep alive management frame type or set to a second value to indicate an uplink bandwidth request.

[00125] Example 10 may include the device of example 1 and/or some other example herein, further comprising a transceiver configured to transmit and receive wireless signals. [00126] Example 11 may include the device of example 10 and/or some other example herein, further comprising one or more antennas coupled to the transceiver.

[00127] Example 12 may include a non-transitory computer-readable medium storing computer-executable instructions which when executed by one or more processors result in performing operations comprising: identifying a first announce frame received from an access point, wherein the first announce frame comprises one or more information elements associated with management information; determining the first announce frame may be received during a time division duplex (TDD) slot associated with a millimeter wave (mmWave) distribution network; and causing to send an acknowledgment frame to the access point, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be based on at least one of the one or more information elements.

[00128] Example 13 may include the non-transitory computer-readable medium of example 12 and/or some other example herein, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be sent during a predetermined TDD slot allocated for uplink traffic.

[00129] Example 14 may include the non-transitory computer-readable medium of example 12 and/or some other example herein, wherein the operations further comprise determining that the first announce frame comprises a first TDD acknowledgment (ACK) element, wherein the first TDD ACK element may be set to "0" to indicate the first announce frame requires acknowledgment.

[00130] Example 15 may include the non-transitory computer-readable medium of example 12 and/or some other example herein, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be a second announce frame comprising a second TDD ACK element wherein the second TDD ACK element comprises a type subfield.

[00131] Example 16 may include the non- transitory computer-readable medium of example 15 and/or some other example herein, wherein the operations further comprise setting a type subfield in the second TDD ACK element to "1" to indicate the acknowledgment frame may be an acknowledgment to the first announce frame.

[00132] Example 17 may include the non-transitory computer-readable medium of example 12 and/or some other example herein, wherein the operations further comprise identifying a first dialog token field included in the first announce frame, wherein the first dialog token field indicates a request to associate with acknowledgments.

[00133] Example 18 may include the non-transitory computer-readable medium of example 17 and/or some other example herein, wherein the operations further comprise determining to set a second dialog token field in the acknowledgment frame, wherein the second dialog token field comprises a same value as the first dialog token field to associate the acknowledgment frame to the first announce frame.

[00134] Example 19 may include a method comprising: determining, by one or more processors, a first announce frame comprising one or more information elements, wherein the information elements are associated with management information; causing to send the first announce frame to a station device, wherein the first announce frame may be sent during a time division duplex (TDD) slot associated with a millimeter wave (mmWave) distribution network; and identifying an acknowledgment frame from the station device, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be based on at least one of the one or more information elements.

[00135] Example 20 may include the method of example 19 and/or some other example herein, wherein the first announce frame comprises a TDD management element, wherein the TDD management element comprises a type subfield indicating a management frame type for the first announce frame.

[00136] Example 21 may include the method of example 19 and/or some other example herein, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be identified during a predetermined time division duplex (TDD) slot allocated for uplink traffic.

[00137] Example 22 may include the method of example 21 and/or some other example herein, further comprising setting a first type subfield, in a TDD acknowledgment (ACK) element of the one or more information elements, to "0" to indicate the first announce frame requires acknowledgment.

[00138] Example 23 may include the method of example 21 and/or some other example herein, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be a second announce frame comprising a second TDD ACK element, wherein the second TDD ACK element comprises a type subfield.

[00139] Example 24 may include the method of example 23 and/or some other example herein, wherein the type subfield of the second TDD ACK element may be set to "1" indicating that it may be an acknowledgment to the first announce frame.

[00140] Example 25 may include the method of example 23 and/or some other example herein, wherein the second TDD ACK element comprises a second type subfield, wherein the second type subfield may be set to 1 to indicate the second announce frame may be an acknowledgment of the first announce frame.

[00141] Example 26 may include the method of example 20 and/or some other example herein, wherein the management frame type may include at least one of a heartbeat frame, a keep alive frame, or an uplink bandwidth request.

[00142] Example 27 may include the method of example 20 and/or some other example herein, wherein the type subfield of the TDD management element may be comprised of one or more bit element, wherein the one or more bit element may be set to a first value to indicate a heartbeat or a keep alive management frame type or set to a second value to indicate an uplink bandwidth request.

[00143] Example 28 may include an apparatus comprising means for performing a method as claimed in any one of examples 19-27.

[00144] Example 29 may include a system comprising at least one memory device having programmed instruction that, in response to execution cause at least one processor to perform the method of any one of examples 19-27.

[00145] Example 30 may include a system comprising at least one memory device having programmed instruction that, in response to execution cause at least one processor to perform the method of any one of examples 19-27.

[00146] Example 31 may include a non-transitory computer-readable medium storing computer-executable instructions which when executed by one or more processors result in performing operations comprising: determining a first announce frame comprising one or more information elements, wherein the information elements are associated with management information; cause to send the first announce frame to a station device, wherein the first announce frame may be sent during a time division duplex (TDD) slot associated with a millimeter wave (mmWave) distribution network; and identifying an acknowledgment frame from the station device, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be based on at least one of the one or more information elements.

[00147] Example 32 may include the non-transitory computer-readable medium of example 31 and/or some other example herein, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be identified during a predetermined TDD slot allocated for uplink traffic.

[00148] Example 33 may include the non-transitory computer-readable medium of example 31 and/or some other example herein, wherein the memory and the processing circuitry are further configured to set a first type subfield, in a TDD acknowledgment (ACK) element of the one or more information elements, to "0" to indicate the first announce frame requires acknowledgment.

[00149] Example 34 may include the non-transitory computer-readable medium of example 33 and/or some other example herein, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be a second announce frame comprising a second TDD ACK element, wherein the second TDD ACK element comprises a type subfield.

[00150] Example 35 may include the non-transitory computer-readable medium of example 34 and/or some other example herein, wherein the type subfield of the second TDD ACK element may be set to "1" indicating that it may be an acknowledgment to the first announce frame.

[00151] Example 36 may include the non- transitory computer-readable medium of example 34 and/or some other example herein, wherein the second TDD ACK element comprises a second type subfield, wherein the second type subfield may be set to 1 to indicate the second announce frame may be an acknowledgment of the first announce frame.

[00152] Example 37 may include the non-transitory computer-readable medium of example 31 and/or some other example herein, wherein the first announce frame comprises a TDD management element, wherein the TDD management element comprises a type subfield indicating a management frame type for the first announce frame.

[00153] Example 38 may include the non-transitory computer-readable medium of example 37 and/or some other example herein, wherein the management frame type may include at least one of a heartbeat frame, a keep alive frame, or an uplink bandwidth request.

[00154] Example 39 may include the non-transitory computer-readable medium of example 37 and/or some other example herein, wherein the type subfield of the TDD management element may be comprised of one or more bit element, wherein the one or more bit element may be set to a first value to indicate a heartbeat or a keep alive management frame type or set to a second value to indicate an uplink bandwidth request.

[00155] Example 40 may include a non-transitory computer-readable medium storing computer-executable instructions which when executed by one or more processors result in performing operations comprising: determining a first announce frame comprising one or more information elements, wherein the information elements are associated with management information; cause to send the first announce frame to a station device, wherein the first announce frame may be sent during a time division duplex (TDD) slot associated with a millimeter wave (mmWave) distribution network; and identifying an acknowledgment frame from the station device, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be based on at least one of the one or more information elements.

[00156] Example 41 may include the non- transitory computer-readable medium of example 31 and/or some other example herein, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be identified during a predetermined TDD slot allocated for uplink traffic.

[00157] Example 42 may include the non-transitory computer-readable medium of example 31 and/or some other example herein, wherein the memory and the processing circuitry are further configured to set a first type subfield, in a TDD acknowledgment (ACK) element of the one or more information elements, to "0" to indicate the first announce frame requires acknowledgment.

[00158] Example 43 may include the non- transitory computer-readable medium of example

33 and/or some other example herein, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be a second announce frame comprising a second TDD ACK element, wherein the second TDD ACK element comprises a type subfield.

[00159] Example 44 may include the non-transitory computer-readable medium of example

34 and/or some other example herein, wherein the type subfield of the second TDD ACK element may be set to "1" indicating that it may be an acknowledgment to the first announce frame.

[00160] Example 45 may include the non-transitory computer-readable medium of example 34 and/or some other example herein, wherein the second TDD ACK element comprises a second type subfield, wherein the second type subfield may be set to 1 to indicate the second announce frame may be an acknowledgment of the first announce frame.

[00161] Example 46 may include the non- transitory computer-readable medium of example 31 and/or some other example herein, wherein the first announce frame comprises a TDD management element, wherein the TDD management element comprises a type subfield indicating a management frame type for the first announce frame.

[00162] Example 47 may include the non- transitory computer-readable medium of example 37 and/or some other example herein, wherein the management frame type may include at least one of a heartbeat frame, a keep alive frame, or an uplink bandwidth request.

[00163] Example 48 may include the non-transitory computer-readable medium of example 37 and/or some other example herein, wherein the type subfield of the TDD management element may be comprised of one or more bit element, wherein the one or more bit element may be set to a first value to indicate a heartbeat or a keep alive management frame type or set to a second value to indicate an uplink bandwidth request.

[00164] Example 49 may include an apparatus comprising means for determining a first announce frame comprising one or more information elements, wherein the information elements are associated with management information; means for cause to send the first announce frame to a station device, wherein the first announce frame may be sent during a time division duplex (TDD) slot associated with a millimeter wave (mmWave) distribution network; and means for identifying an acknowledgment frame from the station device, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be based on at least one of the one or more information elements.

[00165] Example 50 may include the apparatus of example 49 and/or some other example herein, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be identified during a predetermined TDD slot allocated for uplink traffic.

[00166] Example 51 may include the apparatus of example 49 and/or some other example herein, wherein the memory and the processing circuitry are further configured to set a first type subfield, in a TDD acknowledgment (ACK) element of the one or more information elements, to "0" to indicate the first announce frame requires acknowledgment.

[00167] Example 52 may include the apparatus of example 51 and/or some other example herein, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be a second announce frame comprising a second TDD ACK element, wherein the second TDD ACK element comprises a type subfield.

[00168] Example 53 may include the apparatus of example 52 and/or some other example herein, wherein the type subfield of the second TDD ACK element may be set to "1" indicating that it may be an acknowledgment to the first announce frame.

[00169] Example 54 may include the apparatus of example 52 and/or some other example herein, wherein the second TDD ACK element comprises a second type subfield, wherein the second type subfield may be set to 1 to indicate the second announce frame may be an acknowledgment of the first announce frame.

[00170] Example 55 may include the apparatus of example 49 and/or some other example herein, wherein the first announce frame comprises a TDD management element, wherein the TDD management element comprises a type subfield indicating a management frame type for the first announce frame.

[00171] Example 56 may include the apparatus of example 55 and/or some other example herein, wherein the management frame type may include at least one of a heartbeat frame, a keep alive frame, or an uplink bandwidth request.

[00172] Example 57 may include the apparatus of example 55 and/or some other example herein, wherein the type subfield of the TDD management element may be comprised of one or more bit element, wherein the one or more bit element may be set to a first value to indicate a heartbeat or a keep alive management frame type or set to a second value to indicate an uplink bandwidth request.

[00173] Example 58 may include a device comprising memory and processing circuitry configured to: identify a first announce frame received from an access point, wherein the first announce frame comprises one or more information elements associated with management information; determine the first announce frame may be received during a time division duplex (TDD) slot associated with a millimeter wave (mmWave) distribution network; and cause to send an acknowledgment frame to the access point, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be based on at least one of the one or more information elements. [00174] Example 59 may include the device of example 58 and/or some other example herein, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be sent during a predetermined TDD slot allocated for uplink traffic.

[00175] Example 60 may include the device of example 58 and/or some other example herein, wherein the operations further comprise determining that the first announce frame comprises a first TDD acknowledgment (ACK) element, wherein the first TDD ACK element may be set to "0" to indicate the first announce frame requires acknowledgment.

[00176] Example 61 may include the device of example 58 and/or some other example herein, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be a second announce frame comprising a second TDD ACK element wherein the second TDD ACK element comprises a type subfield.

[00177] Example 62 may include the device of example 61 and/or some other example herein, wherein the operations further comprise setting a type subfield in the second TDD ACK element to "1" to indicate the acknowledgment frame may be an acknowledgment to the first announce frame.

[00178] Example 63 may include the device of example 58 and/or some other example herein, wherein the operations further comprise identifying a first dialog token field included in the first announce frame, wherein the first dialog token field indicates a request to associate with acknowledgments.

[00179] Example 64 may include the device of example 63 and/or some other example herein, wherein the operations further comprise determining to set a second dialog token field in the acknowledgment frame, wherein the second dialog token field comprises a same value as the first dialog token field to associate the acknowledgment frame to the first announce frame.

[00180] Example 65 may include the device of example 58 and/or some other example herein, further comprising a transceiver configured to transmit and receive wireless signals.

[00181] Example 66 may include the device of example 65 and/or some other example herein, further comprising one or more antennas coupled to the transceiver.

[00182] Example 67 may include a method comprising: identifying a first announce frame received from an access point, wherein the first announce frame comprises one or more information elements associated with management information; determining the first announce frame may be received during a time division duplex (TDD) slot associated with a millimeter wave (mmWave) distribution network; and causing to send an acknowledgment frame to the access point, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be based on at least one of the one or more information elements. [00183] Example 68 may include the method of example 67 and/or some other example herein, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be sent during a predetermined TDD slot allocated for uplink traffic.

[00184] Example 69 may include the method of example 67 and/or some other example herein, wherein the operations further comprise determining that the first announce frame comprises a first TDD acknowledgment (ACK) element, wherein the first TDD ACK element may be set to "0" to indicate the first announce frame requires acknowledgment.

[00185] Example 70 may include the method of example 67 and/or some other example herein, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be a second announce frame comprising a second TDD ACK element wherein the second TDD ACK element comprises a type subfield.

[00186] Example 71 may include the method of example 70 and/or some other example herein, wherein the operations further comprise setting a type subfield in the second TDD ACK element to "1" to indicate the acknowledgment frame may be an acknowledgment to the first announce frame.

[00187] Example 72 may include the method of example 67 and/or some other example herein, wherein the operations further comprise identifying a first dialog token field included in the first announce frame, wherein the first dialog token field indicates a request to associate with acknowledgments.

[00188] Example 73 may include the method of example 72 and/or some other example herein, wherein the operations further comprise determining to set a second dialog token field in the acknowledgment frame, wherein the second dialog token field comprises a same value as the first dialog token field to associate the acknowledgment frame to the first announce frame.

[00189] Example 74 may include an apparatus comprising means for performing a method as claimed in any one of examples 67-73.

[00190] Example 75 may include a system comprising at least one memory device having programmed instruction that, in response to execution cause at least one processor to perform the method of any one of examples 67-73.

[00191] Example 76 may include a system comprising at least one memory device having programmed instruction that, in response to execution cause at least one processor to perform the method of any one of examples 67-73.

[00192] Example 77 may include an apparatus comprising means for identifying a first announce frame received from an access point, wherein the first announce frame comprises one or more information elements associated with management information; means for determining the first announce frame may be received during a time division duplex (TDD) slot associated with a millimeter wave (mmWave) distribution network; and means for causing to send an acknowledgment frame to the access point, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be based on at least one of the one or more information elements.

[00193] Example 78 may include the apparatus of example 77 and/or some other example herein, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be sent during a predetermined TDD slot allocated for uplink traffic.

[00194] Example 79 may include the apparatus of example 77 and/or some other example herein, wherein the operations further comprise determining that the first announce frame comprises a first TDD acknowledgment (ACK) element, wherein the first TDD ACK element may be set to "0" to indicate the first announce frame requires acknowledgment.

[00195] Example 80 may include the apparatus of example 77 and/or some other example herein, wherein the acknowledgment frame may be a second announce frame comprising a second TDD ACK element wherein the second TDD ACK element comprises a type subfield.

[00196] Example 81 may include the apparatus of example 80 and/or some other example herein, wherein the operations further comprise setting a type subfield in the second TDD ACK element to "1" to indicate the acknowledgment frame may be an acknowledgment to the first announce frame.

[00197] Example 82 may include the apparatus of example 77 and/or some other example herein, wherein the operations further comprise identifying a first dialog token field included in the first announce frame, wherein the first dialog token field indicates a request to associate with acknowledgments.

[00198] Example 83 may include the apparatus of example 82 and/or some other example herein, wherein the operations further comprise determining to set a second dialog token field in the acknowledgment frame, wherein the second dialog token field comprises a same value as the first dialog token field to associate the acknowledgment frame to the first announce frame.

[00199] Example 84 may include an apparatus comprising means for performing a method as claimed in any of the preceding examples.

[00200] Example 85 may include a machine-readable storage including machine -readable instructions, when executed, to implement a method as claimed in any preceding example.

[00201] Example 86 may include a machine-readable storage including machine -readable instructions, when executed, to implement a method or realize an apparatus as claimed in any preceding example. [00202] Certain aspects of the disclosure are described above with reference to block and flow diagrams of systems, methods, apparatuses, and/or computer program products according to various implementations. It will be understood that one or more blocks of the block diagrams and flow diagrams, and combinations of blocks in the block diagrams and the flow diagrams, respectively, may be implemented by computer-executable program instructions. Likewise, some blocks of the block diagrams and flow diagrams may not necessarily need to be performed in the order presented, or may not necessarily need to be performed at all, according to some implementations.

[00203] These computer-executable program instructions may be loaded onto a special- purpose computer or other particular machine, a processor, or other programmable data processing apparatus to produce a particular machine, such that the instructions that execute on the computer, processor, or other programmable data processing apparatus create means for implementing one or more functions specified in the flow diagram block or blocks. These computer program instructions may also be stored in a computer-readable storage media or memory that may direct a computer or other programmable data processing apparatus to function in a particular manner, such that the instructions stored in the computer-readable storage media produce an article of manufacture including instruction means that implement one or more functions specified in the flow diagram block or blocks. As an example, certain implementations may provide for a computer program product, comprising a computer- readable storage medium having a computer-readable program code or program instructions implemented therein, said computer-readable program code adapted to be executed to implement one or more functions specified in the flow diagram block or blocks. The computer program instructions may also be loaded onto a computer or other programmable data processing apparatus to cause a series of operational elements or steps to be performed on the computer or other programmable apparatus to produce a computer-implemented process such that the instructions that execute on the computer or other programmable apparatus provide elements or steps for implementing the functions specified in the flow diagram block or blocks.

[00204] Accordingly, blocks of the block diagrams and flow diagrams support combinations of means for performing the specified functions, combinations of elements or steps for performing the specified functions and program instruction means for performing the specified functions. It will also be understood that each block of the block diagrams and flow diagrams, and combinations of blocks in the block diagrams and flow diagrams, may be implemented by special-purpose, hardware-based computer systems that perform the specified functions, elements or steps, or combinations of special-purpose hardware and computer instructions. [00205] Conditional language, such as, among others, "can," "could," "might," or "may," unless specifically stated otherwise, or otherwise understood within the context as used, is generally intended to convey that certain implementations could include, while other implementations do not include, certain features, elements, and/or operations. Thus, such conditional language is not generally intended to imply that features, elements, and/or operations are in any way required for one or more implementations or that one or more implementations necessarily include logic for deciding, with or without user input or prompting, whether these features, elements, and/or operations are included or are to be performed in any particular implementation.

[00206] Many modifications and other implementations of the disclosure set forth herein will be apparent having the benefit of the teachings presented in the foregoing descriptions and the associated drawings. Therefore, it is to be understood that the disclosure is not to be limited to the specific implementations disclosed and that modifications and other implementations are intended to be included within the scope of the appended claims. Although specific terms are employed herein, they are used in a generic and descriptive sense only and not for purposes of limitation.