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Title:
AIR POLLUTANTS CAPTURING TECHNIQUE THROUGH SMART INVENTIVE FRAMEWORK FOR DOWNSTREAM CHEMICAL PROCESSING
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/220449
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention is regarding bringing out an innovative air pollutant capturing technique or process by which a system could be established in order to capture the air pollutants in a city at suitable locations and send the same through the pipeline system to a processing plant in order to convert it into a useful low carbon transportation fuel or any useful chemical product/by-product or petrochemicals and at the same time reducing pollutants and green house gases affecting the environment. The invention states that a system/technique/method/process is brought to efficiently capture the air pollutants using a vacuum ejector system & other associated equipments and infrastructures at major elevated metro stations or at any place inside an urban landscape and send the same through a network of pipeline system having intermediate boosting stations, in order to take the captured pollutants to a nearby processing plant for producing useful fuel or chemicals.

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Inventors:
SHARMA CHANDAN (IN)
SHARMA PRAVEEN (IN)
SHARMA UJJAWAL (IN)
Application Number:
PCT/IN2019/050157
Publication Date:
November 21, 2019
Filing Date:
February 26, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
SHARMA CHANDAN (IN)
International Classes:
B01D46/00; E01C1/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO1991014827A11991-10-03
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

We claim that

1. An air pollutants innovative capturing technique is needed in today’s day & age for conversion of the same into a useful low carbon transportation fuel or any useful chemical or petrochemicals and at the same time aimed at reducing pollutants and green house gases affecting the environment.

A Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System cum Pollutant Gas Collector System, PCCS- PGCS (QCCS-PGCS) system 100 is being brought for the collection of urban pollutant gases at various elevated metro stations or traffic lights or wherever required, which comprises of: a) Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System 101 which in turn comprises of;

i) at least one number of Main Opening Channel 102 with;

ii) at least one Main Opening Channel 102 on each of the four sides or any side of the

traffic lights/stations/metro stations/any where in a city;

iii) the said individual main opening channel 102 shall be trapezoidal channel type with tapering at the top (or any hollow volumetric shape with tapering at top) for further connections to Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104 b) Vacuum Ejector System 113 consists of at least one Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104 & others; c) At least one Motive fluid (air) compressor 114; d) all connection piping & instruments 115; e) Booster pumping stations & all other associated piping & instruments 116 f) the civil/ structural supports 127

2. Each Main Opening Channel 102 as defined in claim 1, which shall comprise of: a) any number of sub-chimneys {for 8 numbers of sub-chimneys shall be called as Octopus (Poly/Mono) Tentacles type Sub-system 103 i.e 0(P/M)TS}; b) any size/shape of these Poly/Mono Tentacles/Tentacle type Sub-systems 103, extending through the hollow arms so as to put these portions in close proximity to the pollutants emission sources, depending upon the traffic light vicinity or spaces available on the roads/public places; c) Main Opening Channel 102 & 0(P/M)TS 103 along with all piping inlets shall have a retractable/replaceable Bird cum Anti-Pest protection system 118; a) at the top-centre of each of the vertically tapered Main Opening Channels 102 (each of any dimensions dedicated for each road), is the downstream each opening outlet 124; b) Each opening outlet 124 will be reduced to any ratio of any size which shall be one of the numbers of main inlets 125 to the Piping Junction Box 126 preceding the Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104; a) a final circular outgoing pipe/channel 105 of area of any area/diameter shall be considered as an inlet to the Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104; g) the said circular outlet 105, is the last entity feature to carry the pollutant gases (C02, CO, NOx, SPM, VHC etc) along with the normal surrounding air to the Air-Jet Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104.

3. The Bird cum Anti-Pest protection system 118 as defined in claim 2, shall comprise of the followings: a) Each lattice/mesh 119 of the filter 120 shall be approximately 1” to 2” (at most);

b) The filter 120 shall be coated with non-sticky material such as high quality silicon powder, talcum powder, baking powder or any equivalent material which has antipathy towards greasy/waxy vapours

c) Wall Automatic/manual fumigation sprinkler/spray systems 121 for periodic control of pest, insects, mosquitoes, spiders etc;

d) Wall Automatic/manual water cleaning system 122 activation after the above sequence of pest control

4. The Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System 101 in claim 1 comprises of:

Each Main opening channel 102 inlet rim having rectangular shape (or any geometrical shape) of any combination of dimensions, which shall largely depend on the width of the road and also upto to the length to which we want to cover for taking the pollutant gases;

The height of this rim of main inlet channel from the Finished Road (Grade) Level (FRL/FGL) shall be 12 meters or any dimension to suit the height available at the elevated metro station ceiling or traffic lights or anywhere.

5. The Tentacles type Sub-system 103 as defined in claim 2, shall comprises of; a) any number of sub-chimneys 123 on each side of the road, each of approximately of any size, longitudinally placed along the road; b) the said sub-chimney 123 tapered-welded or tapered threaded or tapered connected to the Main opening channel/chimney 102; c) this said sub-chimney 123 main purpose is to get close to the road where air pollutants are more in concentration; d) the minimum height of the outer most rim of these sub-chimneys 123 from the Finished Road(Grade) Level (FRL)/GRL shall be 6 meters or any dimension to suit the heights available on the both sides of that particular road.

6. The Pollutant gas collector system 100 in claim 1, shall have material of construction of all the components and accessories of any material SYNTHETIC OR NATURAL (such as any metal/non metal, alloy metal, composite materials, polymers, elastomers, fibres/glasses, hybrid materials etc). However selection of suitable material shall be done in order to avoid any reaction from the various pollutant gases, providing structural strengths, maintaining other suitability parameters etc.

7. The Vacuum Ejector System 113 as defined in claim 1 shall have motive air/fluid being supplied through a Fluid/ Air (Jet) compressor 114.

8. The Air-Jet Vacuum Ejector 113 as defined in claim 1, shall have its outlet connected to the downstream pipeline 107, further inter-connected to a pipeline system network 108 to take the pollutant gases from various parts of the city or various traffic lights/stations/metro stations/any where in a city to a processing plant in the outskirts of the city or to a remote place.

9. The Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System 101 as defined in claim 1, shall also have provision of a C02 + CO IR Spectrometer system/or any suitable Pollutants monitoring system 109 for percentage volume analysis of the pollutant gas along with a Control cum shutdown valve system 110 comprising of an inlet angle type guided damper valve/a pendulum swing based type flapper valve/ gate type assembly system in each of the collector system for operation/shutdown of the entire system if the percentage of pollutant gas is low/ too low/high/toohigh.

10. The downstream pipeline 107 as defined in claim 1, shall have the flow rate of pollutant gases downstream of the vacuum ejector, measured using an Ultrasonic Flow meter 111 (or any suitable flow meter). The pressure downstream & upstream are also measured using suitable pressure transmitters 112a & 112b respectively, with upstream pressure transmitter 112a in a pressure control loop with a control cum shutdown valve 110 an inlet angle type guided damper valve/a pendulum swing based type flapper valve/ gate type assembly system for redirecting pollutant air to the upstream of vacuum ejector upon very less pressure measurement whereas the content/percentage of C02+CO is not low than a prescribed set value.

11. The Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System cum Pollutant Gas Collector System, PCCS-PGCS (QCCS-PGCS) system 100 as defined in claim 1 shall also have, all instrumentation & control data fed vide cables or wirelessly (having wireless transmitters, routers, gateways etc) to/from an RTU/ Remote Input Output panel 117 placed at the existing metro station room/space available. All the data collected at each metro station from RTU/Remote IO Panel 117 in the same route/ other routes are routed/ interconnected through the fibre optical network 118 to the Main control room/SCADA system etc, part of the dedicated remote control room or main processing plant say 50 km away into outskirts of the city. At each station, there shall be a rack/cabinet hosting at least 1 media convertor, at least 1 Line Interface Unit, etc for interfacing fibre optic cables to next station/boosting station or directly to the Main Control room/SCADA system. The boosting station shall also carry at least 1 highly industrial grade media convertor, at least 1 Line Interface Unit for interface to the Main Control room/SCADA system.

12. The system Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System cum Pollutant Gas Collector System, PCCS-PGCS (QCCS-PGCS) 100 as defined in claim 1 shall also comprise of the following items (Depending upon the length to be covered from the starting station, terrains encountered in route,): a) Downstream pipeline 107 which shall be further extended/connected to outlet piping connections of all the next elevated stations facilities Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System 101 coming in that particular route, where pressure in the main pipeline system shall always be lesser than the incoming inlet at the successive stations. To maintain this requirement necessary pressure lowering cum controlling device 128 i.e an inventive Camera Shutter-Type Orifice Meter with local controller (head/assembly mount) shall be installed in the pipeline system upstream of the next station inlet, as when required, which shall be in interlock for controlling purpose with upstream/downstream pressure transmitter & pressure transmitter in the connecting outlet of the next station:

i)the inventive Camera Shutter type orifice meter 128 as defined above shall have an orifice plate assembly with camera shutter type of sectional plates

ii)shall have the shutter motor with switches, shutter cocking lever, shutter release lever, aperture adjustment lever, shutter speed adjustment ring etc, all integrally interconnected to both the shutter orifice plate assembly and the head mounted localised controller electronics b) Intermediate flow boosting stations 116 (basically small portable compressor systems or a sectionalised valve) shall be taken up for boosting the flow rate of the pollutant gas & quantity shall depend on the length of the pipeline upto the main process unit;

c) Provision of flow meters upstream and downstream of the boosting station 116 along with pressure measurement facilities on either sides of the boosting station 116;

d) The temperature measurement of air cum pollutant gases shall also be part of this facility at appropriate places.

13. There shall be at least one RTU /Remote 10 control system 117 at each station for monitoring of mentioned nearby process parameters at the Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System 101, and control/shutdown of a control cum shutdown valve 110, along with at least one RTU /Remote IO control system 117 at each boosting station 116 for executing interlock logic for shutdown of boosting station 116 upon less upstream flow/pressure measurement. The final shutdown valve after all the arrays of boosting stations shall be controlled from the main SCADA system in the processing plant.

14. Vacuum Ejector systems 113, Motive Fluid/Air compressors 114, various intermediate boosting stations 116 etc along with their on-skid & off-skid interconnecting piping items such as pipes, pipe fittings (expander/reducer, flanges, elbows), valves, manifolds, strainers, filters, screens, tapping, gaskets, studs/nuts, piping accessories etc & all electrical/electronics & instrumentation items are part of this invention as shown in the Process Flow Diagram/ Piping & Instrumentation Diagram, along with their proper selection based on the required Process data derived either experimentally or with simulation method, which in turn shall be based on the end-user main processing plant production requirement however considering the infrastructure available at the pollutant capturing areas also. Material of construction of all the equipments, components and accessories shall of any material SYNTHETIC OR NATURAL (such as any metal/non metal, alloy metal, composite materials, polymers, elastomers, fibres/glasses, hybrid materials etc).

AMENDED CLAIMS

received by the International Bureau on 04 September 2019 (04.09.2019)

We claim that l. [Amended] An air pollutants innovative capturing technique is needed in today’s day & age for collecting & propagating the air pollutants and providing an opportunity for further conversion into a useful low carbon transportation fuel or any useful chemical or petrochemicals, aimed at reducing pollutants and green house gases affecting the environment. A Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System cum Pollutant Gas Collector System, PCCS- PGCS (QCCS-PGCS) system 100 is such an inventive technique being brought for the collection of urban pollutant gases at various elevated metro stations or traffic lights or wherever required, which comprises of the followings: a) Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System 101 which in turn comprises of;

i) at least one number of Main Opening Channel 102 with;

ii) at least one Main Opening Channel 102 on each of the four sides or any side of the

traffic lights/stations/metro stations/any where in a city;

iii) the said individual main opening channel 102 shall be trapezoidal channel type with tapering at the top (or any hollow volumetric shape with tapering at top) for further connections to Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104 b) Vacuum Ejector System 113 consists of at least one Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104 & others; c) At least one Motive fluid (air) compressor 114; d) all connection piping & instruments 115; e) Booster pumping stations & all other associated piping & instruments 116 f) the civil/ structural supports 127 The said components are interconnected in such a way where, the Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System 101 is the first entry component upstream of the Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104, where this second component uses the compressed motive air from Motive fluid (air) compressor 114, with all inter-connection of the piping & instruments 115 among the above said components, wherein the improvement comprises in this new process and various components of suction & propagation of the pollutants using this Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System cum Pollutant Gas Collector System, PCCS-PGCS (QCCS-PGCS) system 100.

2. [Amended] Each Main Opening Channel 102 as defined in claim 1, comprises of the followings: a) any number of sub-chimneys (for 8 numbers of sub-chimneys called as Octopus (Poly/Mono) Tentacles type Sub-system 103 i.e 0(P/M)TS}; b) any size/shape of these Poly/Mono Tentacles/Tentacle type Sub-systems 103, extending through the hollow arms with an adjustable angle, so as to put these portions in close proximity to the pollutants emission sources, depending upon the traffic light vicinity or spaces available on the roads/public places; c) Main Opening Channel 102 & 0(P/M)TS 103 along with all piping inlets having a retractable/replaceable Bird cum Anti-Pest protection system 118; d) at the top-centre of each of the vertically tapered Main Opening Channels 102 (each of any dimensions dedicated for each road), is the downstream each opening outlet 124; e) Each opening outlet 124 will be reduced to any ratio of any size which will be one of the numbers of main inlets 125 to the Piping Junction Box 126 preceding the Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104; f) a final circular outgoing pipe/channel 105 of area of any area/diameter will be considered as an inlet to the Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104; g) the said circular outlet 105, is the last entity feature to carry the pollutant gases (C02, CO, NOx, SPM, VHC etc) along with the normal surrounding air to the Air-Jet Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104.

3. [Amended] The Bird cum Anti-Pest protection system 118 as defined in claim 2, comprises of the followings: a) Each lattice/mesh 119 of the filter 120 will be approximately 1” to 2” (at most);

b) The filter 120 will be coated with non-sticky material such as high quality silicon powder, talcum powder, baking powder or any equivalent material which has antipathy towards greasy/waxy vapours

c) Wall Automatic/manual fumigation sprinkler/spray systems 121 for periodic control of pest, insects, mosquitoes, spiders etc;

d) Wall Automatic/manual water cleaning system 122 activation after the above sequence of pest control

4 [Amended] The Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System 101 as defined in claim 1, comprises of the followings:

Each Main opening channel 102 inlet rim having rectangular shape (or any geometrical shape) of any combination of dimensions, which will largely depend on the width of the road and also upto to the length to which we want to cover for taking the pollutant gases;

The height of this rim of main inlet channel from the Finished Road (Grade) Level (FRL/FGL) will be 12 meters or any dimension to suit the height available at the elevated metro station ceiling or traffic lights or anywhere.

5. [Amended] The Tentacles type Sub-system 103 as defined in claim 2, comprises of the followings; a) any number of sub-chimneys 123 on each side of the road, each of approximately of any size, longitudinally placed along the road; b) the said sub-chimney 123 tapered-welded or tapered threaded or tapered connected to the Main opening channel/chimney 102; c) this said sub-chimney 123 main purpose is to get close to the road where air pollutants are more in concentration; d) the minimum height of the outer most rim of these sub-chimneys 123 from the Finished Road(Grade) Level (FRL)/GRL will be 6 meters or any dimension to suit the heights available on the both sides of that particular road.

6 [Amended] The Pollutant gas collector system 100 as defined in claim 1, will comprise, having material of construction of all the components and accessories of any material SYNTHETIC OR NATURAL (such as any metal/non metal, alloy metal, composite materials, polymers, elastomers, fibres/glasses, hybrid materials etc), wherein selection of suitable material will be done in order to avoid any reaction from various pollutant gases, providing structural strengths, maintaining other suitability parameters etc.

7 [Amended] The Vacuum Ejector System 113 as defined in claim 1, will have motive air/fluid being supplied through a Fluid/ Air (Jet) compressor 114.

8 [Amended] The Air-Jet Vacuum Ejector 113 as defined in claim 1, will comprise having its outlet connected to the downstream pipeline 107, further inter-connected to a pipeline system network 108 to take the pollutant gases from various parts of the city or various traffic lights/stations/metro stations/any where in a city to a processing plant in the outskirts of the city or to a remote place.

9. [Amended] The Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System 101 as defined in claim 1, will also comprise having provision of a C02 + CO IR Spectrometer system/or any suitable Pollutants monitoring system 109 for percentage volume analysis of the pollutant gas along with a Control cum shutdown valve system 110 comprising of an inlet angle type guided damper valve/a pendulum swing based type flapper valve/ gate type assembly system in each of the collector system for operation/shutdown of the entire system if the percentage of pollutant gas is low/ too low/high/toohigh.

lo. [Amended] The downstream pipeline 107 as defined in claim 1, will have the flow rate of pollutant gases downstream of the vacuum ejector, measured using an Ultrasonic Flow meter 111 (or any suitable flow meter). The pressure downstream & upstream are also measured using suitable pressure transmitters 112a & 112b respectively, with upstream pressure transmitter 112a in a pressure control loop with a control cum shutdown valve 110, an inlet angle type guided damper valve/a pendulum swing based type flapper valve/ gate type assembly system, for redirecting pollutant air to the upstream of vacuum ejector upon very less pressure measurement whereas the content/percentage of C02+CO is not low than a prescribed set value.

li. [Amended] The Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System cum Pollutant Gas Collector System, PCCS-PGCS (QCCS-PGCS) system 100 as defined in claim 1 will also have, all instrumentation & control data fed vide cables or wirelessly (having wireless transmitters, routers, gateways etc) to/from an RTU/ Remote Input Output panel 117 placed at the existing metro station room/space available. All the data collected at each metro station from RTU/Remote IO Panel 117 in the same route/ other routes are routed/ interconnected through the fibre optical network 118 to the Main control room/SCADA system etc, part of the dedicated remote control room or main processing plant say 50 km away into outskirts of the city. At each station, there will be a rack/cabinet hosting at least 1 media convertor, at least 1 Line Interface Unit, etc for interfacing fibre optic cables to next station/boosting station or directly to the Main Control room/SCADA system. The boosting station will also carry at least 1 highly industrial grade media convertor, at least 1 Line Interface Unit for interface to the Main Control room/SCADA system.

12. [Amended] The system Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System cum Pollutant Gas Collector System, PCCS-PGCS (QCCS-PGCS) 100 as defined in claim 1, will also comprise of the following items (Depending upon the length to be covered from the starting station, terrains encountered in route,): a) Downstream pipeline 107 which will be further extended/connected to outlet piping connections of all the next elevated stations facilities Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System 101 coming in that particular route, where pressure in the main pipeline system will always be lesser than the incoming inlet at the successive stations. To maintain this requirement necessary pressure lowering cum controlling device 128 i.e an inventive Camera Shutter-Type Orifice Meter with local controller (head/assembly mount) will be installed in the pipeline system upstream of the next station inlet, as when required, which will be in interlock for controlling purpose with upstream/downstream pressure transmitter & pressure transmitter in the connecting outlet of the next station:

i) the inventive Camera Shutter type orifice meter 128 as defined above will have an orifice plate assembly with camera shutter type of sectional plates

ii) will have the shutter motor with switches, shutter cocking lever, shutter release lever, aperture adjustment lever, shutter speed adjustment ring etc, all integrally interconnected to both the shutter orifice plate assembly and the head mounted localised controller electronics b) Intermediate flow boosting stations 116 (basically small portable compressor systems or a sectionalised valve) will be taken up for boosting the flow rate of the pollutant gas & quantity will depend on the length of the pipeline upto the main process unit; c) Provision of flow meters upstream and downstream of the boosting station 116 along with pressure measurement facilities on either sides of the boosting station 116; d) The temperature measurement of air cum pollutant gases will also be part of this facility at appropriate places.

13. [Amended] There will be at least one RTU /Remote 10 control system 117 as defined in claim 11, at each station for monitoring of mentioned nearby process parameters at the Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System 101, and control/shutdown of a control cum shutdown valve 110, along with at least one RTU /Remote IO control system 117 at each boosting station 116 for executing interlock logic for shutdown of boosting station 116 upon less upstream flow/pressure measurement. The final shutdown valve after all the arrays of boosting stations will be controlled from the main SCADA system in the processing plant.

i4. [Amended] Vacuum Ejector systems 113, Motive Fluid/Air compressors 114, various intermediate boosting stations 116 etc as defined in claim 1, along with their on-skid & off-skid interconnecting piping items such as pipes, pipe fittings (expander/reducer, flanges, elbows), valves, manifolds, strainers, filters, screens, tapping, gaskets, studs/nuts, piping accessories etc & all electrical/electronics & instrumentation items, having their proper selection based on the required Process data derived either experimentally or with simulation method, which in turn will be based on the end-user main processing plant production requirement however considering the infrastructure available at the pollutant capturing areas also.

Description:
TITLE OF INVENTION

Air Pollutants Capturing Technique through Smart Inventive Framework for Downstream Chemical Processing

FIELD OF INVENTION

This invention is related to the field of air pollutants capturing technique through vacuum ejection system, which will reduce pollution & shall be an environmental friendly process.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION WITH DRAWBACK ASSOCIATED WITH KNOWN ART

The patent search does not find out any such air pollutant capturing technique which resembles with this entirely new technique. However, air pollution is quite a serious issue with the major sources mainly being fuel wood, biomass burning, fuel adulteration, vehicle emission and traffic congestion.

About 65 % of C02 emissions is from heating, domestic uses and power sector. About 9% C02 emission is from transportation (cars, trains, two wheelers, aeroplanes, others). This affects a huge population density surviving in the major cities in any country. On the other hand, emissions through domestic uses which includes biomass & fuelwood burning, affects a very sparsely populated local population in rural areas only.

OBJECT OF INVENTION

The object of invention is to implement or bring out an innovative air pollutant capturing technique or process by which a system could be implemented in order to capture the air pollutants in a city at suitable locations and send the same through the pipeline system to a processing plant in order to convert it into a useful low carbon transportation fuel or any useful chemical product/by-product or petrochemicals and at the same time reducing pollutants and green house gases affecting the environment. STATEMENT OF INVENTION

The invention states that a system/process is brought to efficiently capture the air pollutants using a vacuum ejector system at major elevated metro stations or at any place inside an urban landscape and send the same through a network of pipeline system having intermediate boosting stations in order to take the captured pollutants to a nearby processing plant for producing useful fuel or chemicals.

A SUMMARY OF INVENTION

A summary of invention is that a system/process is being brought to capture air pollutants using vacuum ejector systems and send the same through a network of pipeline system to a processing plant in the outskirts of the city for producing useful fuel or chemicals.

A BRIEF DISCRETION OF THE ACCOMPANYING DRAWING

This technique will focus on an inventive framework towards utilizing the air pollutants of the urban cities in order to reduce air pollution and simultaneously utilise the same to produce a no or low carbon alternative transportation fuel or any other petro product/chemical. The basic arrangement be as shown in Figure No 1 below.

Figure No 1 : Describes Side-view general arrangement scheme of the Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System cum Pollutant Gas Collector System, PCCS-PGCS (QCCS-PGCS) system

Figure No 2: Describes Top-Iso view of Chimney System with Duo/Quadro/Octo Sub-Chimney Tentacles System

Figure No 3: Describes Top-View of Piping Scheme at the station Figure No 4: Describes Wall Automatic water cleaning system

Figure No 5: a) Describes retractable/replaceable Bird cum Anti -Pest protection system b) Describes Wall Automatic/manual fumigation sprinkler/spray systems

Figure No 6: Describes a basic Piping & Instrumentation Diagram for the entire process

Figure No 7: Describes a basic Network diagram cum Special Camera Shutter type Orifice pressure management controls

Figure No 8: Describes general diagram & configuration diagrams of Special Camera Shutter type Orifice meter assembly

MODE(S) FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION OR A DETAILED DISCRETION OF THE INVENTION

Capturing Pollutant CQ2 through a PCCS-PGCS (QCCS-PGCS) system:

Consider any city or place which has a decent infrastructure but has high air pollution. There will be some metro stations, out of which some would be elevated metro stations or any traffic light. Most of the major traffic lights are also associated with these well-established elevated metro stations. They have platforms along with a network of elevated tracks. These platforms already support one side of the main traffic route with an elevated ceiling or any existing or modified civil infrastructures could be considered or extended also or newly built on other side as well. Hence let us consider provision of a Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System cum Pollutant Gas Collector System, PCCS-PGCS (QCCS-PGCS) system 100, which is being brought through this specification for the collection of urban pollutant gases at various elevated metro stations or traffic lights or wherever required, for converting them into a useful low carbon transportation fuel or any useful chemical or petrochemicals and at the same time reducing pollutants and green house gases affecting the environment. This system shall consist of the following main components: a) The Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System 101 which in turn comprises of the following entities:

i) at least one number of Main Opening Channel 102 with;

ii) at least one Main Opening Channel 102 on each of the four sides or any side of the traffic lights/stations/metro stations or anywhere in a city; iii) the said individual main opening channel 102 shall be trapezoidal channel type with tapering at the top (or any hollow volumetric shape with tapering at top) for further connections to Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104 b) Vacuum Ejector System 113 consists of at least one Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104 & others; c) At least one Motive fluid (air) compressor 114; d) all connection piping & instruments 115; e) Booster pumping stations & all other associated piping & instruments 116 f) the civil/structural supports 127

Refer Figure No 1 for the above.

Further to this, the Main Opening Channel 102 as described above shall comprise of the following components:

a) any number of sub-chimneys (for 8 numbers of sub-chimneys, the same shall be called as Octopus (Poly/Mono) Tentacles type Sub-system 103 i.e in short form called as 0(P/M)TS}; b) any size/shape of these Poly/Mono/Octopus Tentacles/Tentacle type Sub-systems 103 shall be considered, extending through the hollow arms so as to put these portions in close proximity to the pollutants emission sources, depending upon the traffic light vicinity or spaces available on the roads/public places;

c) Main Opening Channel 102 & 0(P/M)TS 103 along with all piping inlets shall have a retractable/replaceable Bird cum Anti -Pest protection system 118;

d) at the top-centre of each of the vertically tapered Main Opening Channels 102 (each of 8 m x 16 m or of any dimension [x into y] at the inlet rim, dedicated for each road), is the downstream each opening outlet 124;

e) Each opening outlet 124 will be reduced to 8: 1 ratio (or of any ratio), of a x b size or of any size, which shall be one of the numbers of main inlets 125 to the Piping Junction Box 126 preceding the Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104; f) a final circular outgoing pipe/channel 105 of area 0.78 m2 (diameter 1 meter) approx or of any area/diameter [v] shall be considered as an inlet to the Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104; g) and hence the said circular outlet 105, is also the last entity feature to carry the pollutant gases (C02, CO, NOx, SPM, VHC etc) along with the normal surrounding air to the Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104.

Refer Figure Nos 2 & 3 for the above.

Now for Main Opening Channel 102 & 0(P/M)TS 103 along with all piping inlets, let us see below how the Bird cum Anti-Pest protection system architecture is considered. Basically, the Bird cum Anti-Pest protection system 118, shall comprise of the followings:

a) the filter 120 shall be consisting of an array of meshes, each lattice/mesh 119 of approximately 1” to 2” (at most);

b) The filter 120 shall be coated with non-sticky material such as high quality silicon powder, talcum powder, baking powder or any equivalent material which has antipathy towards greasy/waxy vapours

c) Wall Automatic/manual fumigation sprinkler/spray systems 121 for periodic control of pest, insects, mosquitoes, spiders etc;

d) Wall Automatic/manual water cleaning system 122 activation after the above sequence of pest control

Refer Figure No 5 for the above.

In the above, Automatic fumigation system 121 and water cleaning system 122, there shall be a pre-build piping cum instrument system (solenoid valves, gauges etc) containing the fumigation spray systems 121 and water sprinkler systems 122 at required positions throughout the circumference at the a particular depth inside the rim of each Main Opening Channel 102. After a certain period, i.e 3 months or any particular time period, the control system in the installed RTET system shall automatically control the above two functions. However on the other hand in manual system, there shall be a system where periodically i.e every 3 months or quarterly or in any time frame, there shall be a Hybrid Mobile Tanker with long hose system, with facilities for performing both these functions as mentioned above. This Hybrid Tanker shall be managed by the authority managing the entire system 100. This Hybrid Mobile Tanker option may be better at most times, as the requirement of fumigation & cleaning is only to be done periodically after several months and for that there shall not be such complex pre-build system for these activities in the system 100 which makes the entire system complex for operation.

Refer Figure No 4 for automatic water sprinkler systems for the above.

Now let us see the various features of Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System 101.

Each Main opening channel 102 inlet rim having rectangular shape (or any geometrical shape) of dimensions approximately 8 meters (width) x 16 meters (length) (or any combination of dimensions}, which shall largely depend on the width of the road and also upto to the length to which we want to cover for taking the pollutant gases.

The height of this rim of main inlet channel 102 from the Finished Road (Grade) Level (FRL/FGL) shall be 12 meters or any dimension to suit the height available at the elevated metro station ceiling or traffic lights or anywhere.

Further, the Tentacles type Sub-system 103, 0(P/M)TS as defined above (which are part of or sub- systems of the Main opening channel 102 ) shall be consisting of the following things such as: a) any number of sub-chimneys 123 on each side of the road, each of approximately 1 meter x 2 meters (or of any size [w into z/2]), longitudinally placed along the road; b) the said sub-chimney 123 tapered-welded or tapered threaded or tapered connected to the Main opening channel/chimney 102; c) this said sub-chimney 123 main purpose is to get close to the road where air pollutants are more in concentration; d) the minimum height of the outer most rim of these sub-chimneys 123 from the Finished Road(Grade) Level (FRL)/GRL shall be 6 meters or any dimension to suit the heights available on the both sides of that particular road.

Refer Figure No 2 for the above. Now above was all about the description of entire system with different components along with all their sub components and their accessories. However, there shall also be a focus on the material of construction of all the components of the system.

The Pollutant gas collector system 100 however shall have material of construction of all the components and accessories of any material either SYNTHETIC or NATURAL (such as any metal/non metal, alloy metal, composite materials, polymers, elastomers, fibres/glasses, hybrid materials etc). However selection of suitable material shall be done in order to avoid any reaction from the various pollutant gases, providing structural strengths, other suitability parameters.

The Vacuum Ejector System 113 shall have air/fluid being supplied through a Fluid/ Air compressor 114. This is basically an integral part of any vacuum ejector system 113, where a motive fluid such as air is necessarily needed in a pressurized condition at the main inlet of Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104 in order to create a small vacuum conditions so as to augment the suction of the air-pollutants mixture through the main inlet of the Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104.

The motive fluid say air shall be supplied to the Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104 through an Air compressor 114. The selection, design of the air compressor 114 shall depend upon the inlet and outlet parameters of the atmospheric air that is available and required at the outlet respectively.

The Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104 shall have its outlet 106 connected to the downstream pipeline 107, which shall be further inter-connected to a pipeline system network 108 to take the pollutant gases from various parts of the city or various traffic lights/stations/metro stations/anywhere in a city to take the collected gases to a processing plant in the outskirts of the city or to a remote place.

In the Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System 101 as defined, there shall be a provision of a C02 + CO IR Spectrometer system/or any suitable Pollutants monitoring system 109 for percentage volume analysis of the pollutant gas along with a Control cum shutdown valve system 110 comprising of an inlet angle type guided damper valve/a pendulum swing based type flapper valve/ gate type assembly system in each of the collector system for operation/shutdown of the entire system if the percentage of pollutant gas is low/ too low/high/toohigh. The pressurized motive fluid for the Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104 is surrounding air only which enters the ejector 104 from another inlet. The suction of air pollutant gases inside the Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104 is mainly due to the vacuum created at the diffuser throat section of the ejector 104 (convergent divergent nozzle system) because of the Bernoulli’s principle. The pressurized motive air is ejected through a small opening where the motive air accelerates to sonic velocity in the nozzle throat (choked flow) with pressure decreasing by quite a factor depending upon the air properties. The air continues to accelerate to MACH >1 in the outlet section of this nozzle, with the pressure reducing to that, required to draw in the entrained pollutant gas, just before the main inlet of the Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104 creating a vacuum for sucking the initial air-pollutant mixture gases. The motive air and entrained pollutant gases have different velocities. In general, greater the ratio of motive air pressure to entrained pollutant gas pressure, the greater the loss of kinetic energy. The mixed gas is still supersonic as it leaves the mixing section. A shock wave then occurs as it enters the diffuser. Flow becomes subsonic and a step change increase in pressure occurs with slightly high velocity. The main inlet also receives high percentage of volume of pollutant gases from the tentacles sub-chimney system 103. The vacuum ejector system 113 ejects the pollutant gases into the main pipeline 107 with a relatively high velocity as compared with the entrant pollutant gases velocity. Primary advantages of Ejectors are No Moving Parts, Low Cost, Versatile, Self Priming and Easy to erect. However the main question arise, is how to meet the requirement of pressurized motive air and the answer is through a basic small centrifugal integrally-geared air compressor 114 or any type of compressor 114. The number of stages of ejector 113 & the overall design of the same shall depend upon the Process requirements, compression ratio & pressure ratio terms of designing a vacuum ejector 113.

Vacuum Ejector systems 113, Motive Fluid/ Air compressors 114, various intermediate boosting stations 116 along with their on-skid & off-skid interconnecting piping items such as pipes, pipe fittings (expander/reducer, flanges, elbows), valves, manifolds, strainers, filters, screens, tappings, gaskets, studs/nuts, piping accessories etc & all instrumentation items are part of this invention as shown in the Process Flow Diagram/ Piping & Instrumentation Diagram, along with their proper selection based on the required Process data derived either experimentally or with simulation method or any testing method, which in turn shall be based on the end-user main processing plant production requirement, however at the same time considering the facilities, resources available at the pollutant capturing areas also. An example of such preliminary experimental assessment is depicted below in the table and accordingly other relevant assessment shall be followed as per the results findings/ requirements. However final selection, sizing, detail engineering, design, manufacturing, inspection & testing etc of the air compressor 114 and vacuum ejector system 113 and their accessories shall depend on the end-user, consultant & manufacturer involved in the physical implementation of this carbon capturing technique.

The downstream pipeline 107, where the flow rate of the pollutant gases downstream of the Air Jet Vacuum Ejector 104 shall be measured using an Ultrasonic Flow meter 111 (or any suitable flow meter). The pressure downstream & upstream are also measured using suitable pressure transmitters 112a & 112b respectively, with upstream pressure transmitter 112a in a pressure control loop with a control cum shutdown valve 110, which shall be an inlet angle type guided damper valve/a pendulum swing based type flapper valve/ gate type assembly system for redirecting pollutant air to the upstream of vacuum ejector upon very less pressure measurement whereas the content/percentage of C02+CO is not low than a prescribed set value.

The Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System cum Pollutant Gas Collector System, PCCS-PGCS (QCCS-PGCS) system 100 shall also have, all instrumentation & control data fed vide cables or wirelessly (having wireless transmitters, routers, gateways etc) to/from a RTU/ Remote Input Output panel 117 placed at the existing metro station room/space available. All the data collected at each metro station from RTU/Remote IO Panel 117 in the same route/ other routes are interconnected/ routed through the fibre optical network 118 to the Main control room/SCADA system etc, part of the dedicated remote control room or main processing plant say 50 km away into outskirts of the city. At each station, there shall be a rack/cabinet hosting atleast 1 media convertor, atleast 1 Line Interface Unit, etc for interfacing fibre optic cables to next station/boosting station or directly to the Main Control room/SCADA system. The boosting station shall also carry atleast 1 highly industrial grade media convertor, atleast 1 Line Interface Unit for interface to the Main Control room/SCADA system.

The system Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System cum Pollutant Gas Collector System, PCCS-PGCS (QCCS-PGCS) 100 as defined shall also comprise of the following items (Depending upon the length to be covered from the starting station, terrains encountered in route): a) Downstream pipeline 107 which shall be further extended/connected to outlet piping connections of all the next elevated stations facilities Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System 101 coming in that particular route, where the overall main pipeline design shall be such that the pressure in the main pipeline system shall always be lesser than the next coming inlet at the successive stations (i.e fluid dynamics arrangement shall be such that, fluid flow going from each branch shall have least resistance path to enter into the main gas pipeline). To maintain this requirement necessary adaptive dynamic pressure lowering cum controlling device 128 i.e an inventive Camera Shutter-Type Orifice Meter with local controller (head/assembly mount) shall be installed in the pipeline system upstream of the next station inlet, as when required, which shall be in interlock for controlling purpose with feedbacks from upstream/downstream pressure transmitter & pressure transmitter in the connecting outlet of the next station. That is to maintain the above lesser pressure in the main pipeline, the camera shutter-type orifice meter 128 shall be accordingly controlled i.e closing it to lower the pressure and opening it to increase the pressure on the downstream side of the orifice;

i)the inventive Camera Shutter type orifice meter 128 as defined above shall have an orifice plate assembly with camera shutter type of sectional plates

ii)shall have the shutter motor with switches, shutter cocking lever, shutter release lever, aperture adjustment lever, shutter speed adjustment ring etc, all integrally interconnected to both the shutter orifice plate assembly and the head mounted localised controller electronics b) Intermediate flow boosting stations (basically small portable compressor systems or sectionalised valve) shall be taken up for boosting the flow rate of the pollutant gas & quantity shall depend on the length of the pipeline upto the main process unit;

c) Provision of flow meters upstream and downstream of the boosting station 116 along with pressure measurement facilities on either sides of the boosting station 116;

d) The temperature measurement of air cum pollutant gases shall also be part of this facility at appropriate places.

There shall be at least one RTU /Remote 10 control system 117 at each station for monitoring of mentioned nearby process parameters at the Poly (Quadruple)-Channel Chimney System 101, and control/shutdown of a control cum shutdown valve 110, along with at least one RTU /Remote IO control system 117 at each boosting station 116 for executing interlock logic for shutdown of boosting station 116 upon less upstream flow/pressure measurement. The final shutdown valve after all the arrays of boosting stations shall be controlled from the main SCADA system in the processing plant. Let us now refer to a table below which shows some tentative experimental assessed data regarding amount of air pollutants at major traffic lights of a metro city: x means multiplication sign and‘n’ means number of 101 Pollutant Gas collector system

*The data in row A have been brought up by Argonne National Laboratory US in collaboration with Ford for Ford Fusion 2011 mid-sized sedan with a petrol 2.5-L, 4-cylinder engine (175 HP) and 6-speed automatic transmission

Other data mentioned in remaining rows have been estimated as per tentative assessment with the help of general mathematics.

Now the total theoretical C02 emitted as per the table above for 30 major traffic lights is coming around 33026579.7 kg.

However, the practical value of C02 entering into one chimney system depends upon many factors listed below which generally will vary from time to time and depend upon topographical factors: a) Size of engines for cars/bikes/trucks/buses (Taking multiplication factor as 1 by logic and cancellation of equivalent and opposite parameters)

b) Temperature/Wind/Surrounding conditions (Taking multiplication factor as 1 by logic and cancellation of equivalent and opposite parameters) c) Type of Fuel used such as petrol or diesel (Taking multiplication factor as 1 for 80% petrol vehicles and 0.8 for 20% diesel vehicles for C02 emissions, 1 for 80% petrol vehicles and 4 for 20% diesel vehicles for NOx, 1 for 80% petrol vehicles and 22 for 20% diesel vehicles for Particulate Matter emissions)

d) Euro standards of fuel or engine used (Taking multiplication factor as 1.25 considering 5% EURO II, 15% EURO III, 80% EURO IV vehicles or other different combinations of these types of EURO standards as relevant to that period of time and further based on survey done)

e) Efficiency of suction of Main chimney & sub-chimney systems (Taking multiplication factor as 0.8 for sub-chimney tentacles system for 50% of pollutant gases and 0.5 for elevated main chimney system for 50% of remaining pollutant gases, depending upon their proximity to the origin of pollutant gases)

Now the final practical amount of C02 & other pollutants available in the pipelines 107 of the 30 major traffic lights are as given below based on the various factors discussed above:

Above values are estimated based on the following formulae which is brought out by the author based on the definitions of the factors at sl no 3,4 & 5

Yco2= [0.8 x 0.5 ( 1.25(0.8 x Z x 1) + 1.25(0.2 x Z x 0.8)}] + [0.5 x 0.5 ( 1.25(0.8 x Z x 1) + 1.25(0.2 x Z x 0.8)}]

= [0.4(Z + 0.2Z}] + [0.25(Z + 0.2Z}] = 0.78 Z Uhoc= [0.8 x 0.5 ( 1.25(0.8 x Z x 1) + 1.25(0.2 x Z x 4)}] + [0.5 x 0.5 ( 1.25(0.8 x Z x 1) + 1.25(0.2 x Z x 4)}]

= [0.4(Z + Z}] + [0.25(Z + Z}] = 1.3 Z

Yspm= [0.8 x 0.5 ( 1.25(0.8 x Z x 1) + 1.25(0.2 x Z x 22)}] + [0.5 x 0.5 ( 1.25(0.8 x Z x 1) + 1.25(0.2 x Z x 22)}]

= [0.4(Z + 5.5Z}] + [0.25(Z + 5.5Z}]

= 4.225 Z

Where Z denotes the values of respective pollutant in row G

The total amount of C02 is 25311253.5 + 449478.66 = 25760732.16 Kg.

This is the total approximate amount of C02 being transmitted, along with other pollutants from all the vacuum ejectors 104 (one on each metro station) installed on 30 major metro stations/ any other traffic juncture etc, through a pipeline 107 supported through the already existing elevated metro train tracks as well as flyovers or using existing/newly constructed civil/structural supports 127 wherever required. Accordingly, for a highly populated urban city, from 90 stations, approximately 75000000 kgs of C02 could well be captured for reducing the air pollutants & thus producing a useful chemical product as well. The main challenge would be the inter-junction point where these metro tracks will either go underground or come on the surface level or flyovers ending up into normal roads. Further routing of the pipeline system 108 shall be done based on detailed technical survey of the city, discussions and finalization whether the crossover of the pipeline 107 shall be underground or through some elevated support structures 127. These pipelines 107 shall then be routed in such a way so as to meet at a single point in the processing plant located at the outskirts of the city. This processing plant need not be a new one but could also be part of some existing refinery, petrochemical, gas plant etc. so as to optimize already available various utilities such as water, electricity, plant air, instrument air, steam etc..

This main aim of the invention is to produce a derived, No or low carbon or a green alternative transportation fuel along with establishing a major pollution reduction measure and will also ensure a sustainable source of an alternative fuel or petrochemicals or energy in any other form.