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Title:
ALPHA-D-GALACTOSIDE INHIBITORS OF GALECTINS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2020/104335
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a compound of the general formula (1). The compound of formula (1) is suitable for use in a method for treating a disorder relating to the binding of a galectin, such as galectin-3 to a ligand in a mammal, such as a human. Furthermore, the present invention concerns a method for treatment of a disorder relating to the binding of a galectin, such as galectin-3 to a ligand in a mammal, such as a human.

Inventors:
ZETTERBERG FREDRIK (DK)
PETERSON KRISTOFFER (SE)
JANSSON KARL (SE)
Application Number:
PCT/EP2019/081539
Publication Date:
May 28, 2020
Filing Date:
November 15, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
GALECTO BIOTECH AB (DK)
International Classes:
C07H19/056; A61K31/7056; A61P11/00; C07H15/26
Domestic Patent References:
WO2016120403A12016-08-04
WO2018011094A12018-01-18
WO2019075045A12019-04-18
WO2005113569A12005-12-01
WO2005113568A12005-12-01
WO2010126435A12010-11-04
WO2014067986A12014-05-08
WO2016120403A12016-08-04
Foreign References:
US20070185041A12007-08-09
US7638623B22009-12-29
US20140099319A12014-04-10
Other References:
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Attorney, Agent or Firm:
LBKPATENT APS (DK)
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Claims:
We Claim:

1. A D-galactopyranose compound of formula (1)

wherein

the pyranose ring is a-D-galactopyranose,

A1 is selected from

wherein Het1 is selected from a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring, optionally substituted with a group selected from Br; F; Cl; I; CN; NR19R20, wherein R19 and R20 are independently selected from H, C1-3 alkyl, cyclopropyl, iso-propyl, - C(=0)-R21, wherein R21 is selected from H and C1-3 alkyl; C1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted with a F; cyclopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; iso-propyl, optionally substituted with a F; O-cyclopropyl optionally substituted with a F; O-isopropyl optionally substituted with a F; OC1-3 alkyl optionally substituted with a F; and SC1-3 alkyl optionally substituted with a F;

wherein R' -R5 are independently selected from H, CN, N¾, Br, Cl, I, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, SCFb optionally substituted with a F, and OCH3 optionally substituted with a F;

wherein R6 is selected from Ci-6 alkyl optionally substituted with a halogen, branched C3-6 alkyl and C3-7 cycloalkyl;

wherein R7 is selected from a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring, optionally substituted with a group selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, and a phenyl optionally substituted with a group selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH3 optionally substituted with a F;

wherein R8-R12 are independently selected from H, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH3 optionally substituted with a F;

wherein R13 is a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring optionally substituted with a group selected from H, OH, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, or an aryl, such as phenyl or naphthyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from H, OH, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH3 optionally substituted with a F;

X is selected from S, SO, SO2, O, C=0, and CR7R8 wherein R7 and R8 are independently selected from hydrogen, OH, or halogen;

wherein R27 is selected from a Ci-6 alkyl, branched C3-6 alkyl, Ci-6 alkoxy and branched C3-6 alkoxy;

B1 is selected from a) a Ci-6 alkyl or branched C3-6 alkyl substituted with a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring, optionally substituted with a substituent selected from CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R14-CONH- wherein R14 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; or a Ci-6 alkyl substituted with a phenyl, optionally substituted with a substituent selected from CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F,

OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R15-CONH- wherein R15 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; b) an aryl, such as phenyl or naphthyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from a halogen; CN; -COOH; - CONR22R23, wherein R22 andR23 are independently selected from H, C1-3 alkyl, cyclopropyl, and iso-propyl, or R22 and R23 together with the nitrogen may form a heterocycloalkyl; C1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted with a F; cyclopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; isopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; OC1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted with a F; O-cyclopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; O- isopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; NR28R29, wherein R28 and R29 are independently selected from H, C1-3 alkyl and isopropyl; OH; and R16-CONH- wherein R16 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; c) a C5-7 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted with a substituent selected from a halogen, CN, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R17-CONH- wherein R17 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; and d) a heterocycle, such as heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from a halogen; a spiro heterocycle, such as N-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl; CN; -COOH; -CONR24R25, wherein R24 and R25 are independently selected from H, C1-3 alkyl, cyclopropyl, and iso-propyl or R24 andR25 together with the nitrogen may form a heterocycloalkyl; C1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted with a F; cyclopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; isopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; OC1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted with a F; O- cyclopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; O-isopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; NR30R31, wherein R30 and R31 are independently selected from H, C1-3 alkyl and isopropyl; OH; R18-CONH- wherein R1 8 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; a pyrimidinyl optionally substituted with a substituent selected from CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F,

OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R71-CONH- wherein R71 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; a pyridinyl optionally substituted with a substituent selected from CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F,

OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R72-CONH- wherein R72 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; a

tetrahydropyridinyl optionally substituted with a substituent selected from CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R73-CONH- wherein R73 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; a pyrrolinyl optionally substituted with a substituent selected from CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R74-CONH- wherein R74 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; an oxazolyl optionally substituted with a substituent selected from CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R75-CONH- wherein R75 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; a thiazolyl optionally substituted with a substituent selected from CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R76-CONH- wherein R76 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; and a C2-4 alkynyl, e) a Cw alkyl or branched C3-6 alkyl;

R50 is selected from the group consisting of a) Ci-6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more halogen, CN, OR51, NR52R53, and CONH2, wherein R5 1 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R54-CONH- wherein R54 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, R52 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R55-CONH- wherein R55 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, and R53 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R56-CONH- wherein R56 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, b) branched C3-6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more halogen, CN, OR57, NR58R59, and CONH2, wherein R57 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R60-CONH- wherein R60 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, R58 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R61-CONH- wherein R61 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, and R59 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R62-CONH- wherein R62 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl , and c) cyclic C3-6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more halogen, CN, OR63, NR64R65, and CONH2, wherein R63 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R66-CONH- wherein R66 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, R64 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R67- CONH- wherein R67 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, and R65 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R68-CONH- wherein R68 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

2. The compound of claim 1 wherein A1 is selected from formula 2 wherein R' -R5 are independently selected from H, Cl, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH3 optionally substituted with a F.

3. The compound of claim 1 or 2 wherein A1 is selected from formula 2 wherein R1 and R5 are H and R2-R4 are independently selected from one or more from the group consisting of F, Cl, and Methyl.

4. The compound of claim 1 or 2 wherein A1 is selected from formula 2 wherein R1,

R4 and R5 are H and R2-R3 are independently selected from one or two from the group consisting of F, Cl, and Methyl.

5. The compound of claim 1 or 2 wherein A1 is selected from formula 2 wherein R1 and R5 are H and R2-R4 are F or wherein R'-R5 are all F or wherein R2 and R3 are F and R1, R4 and R5 are H, or wherein R2 and R4 are F and R1, R3 and R5 are H, or wherein R2 is F and R1, R3-R5 are H, or wherein R2 and R4 are F, R3 is OCH3, and R1 and R5 are H.

6. The compound of claim 1 wherein A1 is selected from formula 3 wherein Het1 is selected from a six membered heteroaromatic ring, optionally substituted with a group independently selected from H, CN, Br, Cl, I, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, and SCFb optionally substituted with a F.

7. The compound of claim 1 or 6 wherein A1 is selected from formula 3 wherein Het1 is selected from a pyridinyl, optionally substituted with a group independently selected from H, CN, Br, Cl, I, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, and SCFb optionally substituted with a F; or a pyrimidyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from H, CN, Br, Cl, I, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, and SCFb optionally substituted with a F.

8. The compound of any one of claims 1-7 wherein X1 is selected from S, SO, SO2, and O, such as S, SO, and SO2, preferably S.

9. The compound of any one of claims 1-8 wherein B1 is selected from a heterocycle, such as heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted with a group independently selected from a halogen; N-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl; CN; methyl optionally substituted with a F; OCFb optionally substituted with a F; OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F; OH; CONH2; NR30R31, wherein R30 and R31 are independently selected from H, C1-3 alkyl and isopropyl; and R18-CONH- wherein R18 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl.

10. The compound of any one of claims 1-9 wherein B1 is selected from a pyridinyl optionally substituted with a group independently selected from a Cl, Br, methyl, CF3, OCH3, N-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl, OH, N¾, CONH2, -CONR24R25, wherein R24 and R25 together with the nitrogen may form a heterocycloalkyl, CN, ethynyl, pyrimidinyl, pyridinyl, tetrahydropyridinyl, pyrrolidinyl,oxazolyl, thiazolyl.

11. The compound of any one of claims 1-9 wherein B1 is selected from an aryl, optionally substituted with a group selected independently from a Cl; Br; CN; - CONR22R23, wherein R22 and R23 are independently selected from H and C1-3 alkyl, or R22 and R23 together with the nitrogen may form a heterocycloalkyl.

12. The compound of any one of claims 1-9 wherein B1 is selected from a phenyl substituted with one, two or three substituents independently selected from a Cl, Br, CN, -CONR22R23, wherein R22 and R23 are independently selected from H and C1-3 alkyl, or R22 and R23 together with the nitrogen may form a heterocyclobutyl or heterocyclohexyl.

13. The compound of any one of claims 1-12 wherein R50 is selected from a) C1-4 alkyl optionally substituted with at least one from the group consisting of halogen, NR52R53 wherein R52 and R53 are independently selected from the group consisting of H and Ci- 4 alkyl, such as methyl, and OR51 wherein R51 is selected from the group consisting of H and methyl, or b) branched C3-4 alkyl optionally substituted with at least one from the group consisting of halogen, OR57 and wherein R57 is selected from the group consisting of H and methyl.

14. The compound of any one of claims 1-13 selected from the group consisting of: 5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-l ,2,3-triazol-l -yl]-2- O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-cyano-pyridin-3 -yl 3-deoxy-3 -[4-(3 -fluoro-4-methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

4-Bromo-N,N-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3 -triazol-l-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

4-Bromo-N,N-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-lH-l,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-l ,2,3-triazol-l -yl]-2- 0-( 1,1,1 -trifluoro-2-hydroxyprop-3-yl)- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-(N-piperidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chloro-phenyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

4-Chloro-N,N-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-lH-l,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl] -3 -deoxy -2-O-trifluoromethyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

4-Chloro-N,N-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-deoxy-2-0-trifluoromethyl-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, 5-Chloro-2-{N-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, 5-Chloro-2-{N-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5- difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyano-pyridin-3 -yl 3-deoxy-3 -[4-(3 ,5-difluoro-4-methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyano-pyridin-3 -yl 3-deoxy-3 -[4-(3 -fluoro-4-methyl-phenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyano-phenyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,5-difluoro-4-methylphenyl)-lH-l ,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyano-pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-2-0-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluoro- phenyl)-lH-l ,2, 3-triazol-l -yl]-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyano-pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl-3- [4-(3,4,5-trifluoro-phenyl)- lH-l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0- ethyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0- isopropyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0- (2-fluoroethyl)- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-<3- [2-(methylamino)ethyl] - 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

3.4-Dichlorophenyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3 ,5-difluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3- deoxy-2-0-(2-hydroxyethyl)- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-6-cyano-2-{A/-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-

3.5-difluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside,

5 -Chloro-6 -cy ano -2- j /Y-(2-oxa)-6-azasp i ro [3.3 ] heptany 1 } -pyridin-3 -y 1 3 -deoxy-3 - [4 - (3 ,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside,

5 -Chloro-2 -(pyrimidin-5 -y l)pyridin-3 -y 1 3 -deoxy-3 - [4 -(3 ,4 , 5 -trifluoropheny 1)- 1 H-

1 ,2, 3-triazol-l -yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, 5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

5-Chloro-2-(l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5 -Chloro-2 -(3 -pyrrolin-3 -y l)pyridin-3 -y 1 3 -deoxy-3 - [4 -(3 ,4 , 5 -trifluoropheny 1)- 1 H-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(oxazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

5-Chloro-2-(thiazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

2,5-Bis(thiazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3- dcoxy-2-O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3- dcoxy-2-O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro-4-mcthylphcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro-4-mcthylphcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3-dcoxy- 2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3-dcoxy- 2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

6-Trifluoromethyl-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl] -3 -deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-(/Y-azctidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophcnyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-(/Y-azctidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophcnyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro-4-methylphenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2- -methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, 5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0- methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(6-fluoro-5-mcthylpyridin-2-yl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(5-chloro-6-mcthylpyridin-2-yl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3- deoxy-2- -methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

3-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-5-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol-

1-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 - yl]-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-Cyano-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 - yl]-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 - yl]-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-

3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3-deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(/Y-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)- l /-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Ethynylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3- deoxy-2- -methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(5-chloro-6-fluoropyridin-2-yl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3 -deoxy-2- -methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-Cyano-5-ethynylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-lH-l,2,3-triazol-l- yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-Cyano-5 -ethynylpyridin-3 -yl 3 -deoxy-3 -[4-(3 ,5 -difluoro-4-methylphenyl)- 1 H-

1.2.3 -triazol-l-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Cyano-6-trifluoromethylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-lH-l,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, 5-Cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-l ,2,3-triazol-l -yl]-2-0- methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5 -Cyanopyridin-3 -yl 3 -[4-(4-chloro-3 ,5 -difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3 -triazol- 1 -yl] -3 - deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-(N-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-bromophenyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3 -triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-(N-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-bromophenyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3 -triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-ethyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3-deoxy -2-O-ethyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-(N-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophenyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3 -triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, and

3 ,4-Dichlorophenyl 3 -[4-(4-chloro-3 ,5 -difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3 - deoxy-2-O-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

15. The compound of any one of claims 1-14 for use as a medicine.

16. A pharmaceutical composition comprising the compound of any one of the previous claims and optionally a pharmaceutically acceptable additive, such as carrier or excipient.

17. The compound of any one of the claims 1-14 for use in a method for treating a disorder relating to the binding of a galectin-3 to a ligand in a mammal, such as a human.

18. The compound for use according to claim 17, wherein said disorder is selected from the group consisting of inflammation; fibrosis, such as pulmonary fibrosis, liver fibrosis, kidney fibrosis, ophthalmological fibrosis and fibrosis of the skin and heart; scarring; keloid formation; aberrant scar formation; surgical adhesions; septic shock; cancer, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, leukemias and lymphomas, such as T-cell lymphomas; metastasising cancers; autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus; metabolic disorders; heart disease; heart failure;

pathological angiogenesis, such as ocular angiogenesis or a disease or condition associated with ocular angiogenesis, e.g. neovascularization related to cancer; and eye diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and corneal neovascularization; atherosclerosis; metabolic diseases such as diabetes; type 2 diabetes; insulin resistens; obesity; Diastolic HF; asthma and other interstitial lung diseases, including

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, mesothelioma; liver disorders, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

19. A method for treatment of a disorder relating to the binding of a galectin-3 to a ligand in a mammal, such as a human, wherein a therapeutically effective amount of at least one compound according to any one of the claims 1-14 is administered to a mammal in need of said treatment.

20. The method of claim 19, wherein said disorder is selected from the group consisting of inflammation; fibrosis, such as pulmonary fibrosis, liver fibrosis, kidney fibrosis, ophthalmological fibrosis and fibrosis of the skin and heart; scarring; keloid formation; aberrant scar formation; surgical adhesions; septic shock; cancer, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, leukemias and lymphomas, such as T-cell lymphomas;

metastasising cancers; autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus

erythematosus; metabolic disorders; heart disease; heart failure; pathological angiogenesis, such as ocular angiogenesis or a disease or condition associated with ocular angiogenesis, e.g. neovascularization related to cancer; and eye diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and comeal neovascularization; atherosclerosis; metabolic diseases such as diabetes; type 2 diabetes; insulin resistens; obesity;

Diastolic (HF) heart failure; asthma and other interstitial lung diseases, including Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, mesothelioma; liver disorders, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Description:
ALPHA-D-GALACTOSIDE INHIBITORS OF GALECTINS

Technical field

The present invention relates to novel compounds, the use of said compounds as medicament and for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of inflammation; fibrosis; scarring; keloid formation; aberrant scar formation; surgical adhesions; septic shock; cancers; autoimmune diseases; metabolic disorders; heart disease; heart failure; pathological angiogenesis; eye diseases; atherosclerosis;

metabolic diseases; asthma and other interstitial lung diseases; and liver disorders in mammals. The invention also relates to pharmaceutical compositions comprising said novel compounds.

Background Art

Galectins are proteins with a characteristic carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) (Leffler et al, 2004). This is a tightly folded b-sandwich of about 130 amino acids (about 15 kDa) with the two defining features 1) a b -galactose binding site and 2) sufficient similarity in a sequence motif of about seven amino acids, most of which (about six residues) make up the b -galactose binding site. However, sites adjacent to the b -galactose site are required for tight binding of natural saccharides and different preferences of these give galectins different fine specificity for natural saccharides.

The recent completion of the human, mouse and rat genome sequences reveal about 15 galectins and galectin-like proteins in one mammalian genome with slight variation between species (Leffler et al., 2004).

Galectin subunits can contain either one or two CRDs within a single peptide chain. The first category, mono-CRDs galectins, can occur as monomers or dimers (two types) in vertebrates. The by far best studied galectins are the dimeric galectin- 1, and galectin-3 that is a monomer in solution but may aggregate and become multimeric upon encounter with ligands (Lepur et al., 2012). These were the first discovered galectins and are abundant in many tissues.

There are now over 5700 publications on galectins in PubMed, with most, as mentioned above, about galectins- 1 (>1400) and -3 (>2800). Strong evidence suggests roles for galectins in e.g. inflammation and cancer, and development (Blidner et al., 2015, Ebrahim et al., 2014). Galectins are synthesized as cytosolic proteins, without a signal peptide on free ribosomes. Their N-terminus is acetylated, a typical modification of cytosolic proteins, and they reside in the cytosol for a long time (not typical of secreted proteins). From there they can be targeted to the nucleus, specific cytososlic sites, or secreted (induced or constitutively) by a non-classical (non-ER-Golgi) pathway, as yet unknown, but possibly similar to the export of e.g. IL-1 (Leffler et al, 2004; Arthur et al., 2015). They can also function in all these compartments; for galectin-3, solid evidence published in well respected journals support roles in RNA splicing in the nucleus, inhibition of apoptosis in the cytosol, accumulation around disrupted vesicles, association with microtubule organizing center of cilia, and a variety of extracellular effects on cell signaling and adhesion (Elola et al. 2015, Funasaka et al., 2014, Aits et al., 2015, Clare et al., 2014). Other galectins also may act in the cytosol by enhancing apoptosis and regulating the cell cycle and differentiation in certain cells. Most galectins act also extracellularly by cross-linking glycoproteins (e.g. laminin, integrins, and IgE receptors) possibly forming supramolecular ordered arrays (Elola et al., 2015) and may thereby modulate cell adhesion and induce intracellular signals. Related to this, recent years have seen the emergence of a molecular mechanism of these galectin functions involving a formation of microdomains (lattices) within membranes, (Elola et al., 2015) which in turn affects intracellular trafficking and cell surface presentation of glycoprotein receptors. This has been documented in cell culture, in null mutant mice, and animals treated with galectin or galectin inhibitors.

Potential therapeutic use of galectin-3 inhibitors

Galectin-3 has been implicated in diverse phenomena and, hence, inhibitors may have multiple uses (Blanchard et al., 2014). It is easy to perceive this as a lack of specificity or lack of scientific focus. Therefore, the analogy with aspirin and the cyclooxygenases (COX-I and II) is useful. The COXs produce the precursor of a wide variety of prostaglandins and, hence, are involved in a diverse array of biological mechanisms. Their inhibitors, aspirin and other NSAIDs (non-steroid anti

inflammatory drugs), also have broad and diverse effects. Despite this, these inhibitors are very useful medically, and they have several different specific utilities.

So if galectins, like COXs, are part of some basic biological regulatory mechanism (as yet unknown), they are likely to be 'used by nature' for different purpose in different contexts. Galectin inhibitors, like NSAIDs, are not expected to wipe out the whole system, but to tilt the balance a bit.

Inhibition of inflammation

A pro-inflammatory role of galectin-3 is indicated by its induction in cells at inflammatory sites, a variety of effects on immune cells (e.g. oxidative burst in neutrophils and chemotaxis in monocytes), and decrease of the inflammatory response, mainly in neutrophils and macrophages, in null mutant mice (Blidner et al., 2015, Arthur et al., 2015). Importantly, recent studies have identified galectin-3 as a key rate-limiting factor in macrophage M2 differentiation and myofibroblast activation, which influences the development of fibrosis (Mackinnon et al, 2008; Mackinnon et al, 2012, Li et al., 2014).

Inflammation is a protective response of the body to invading organisms and tissue injury. However, if unbalanced, frequently it is also destructive and occurs as part of the pathology in many diseases. Because of this, there is great medical interest in pharmacological modulation of inflammation. A galectin-3 inhibitor is expected to provide an important addition to the arsenal available for this.

Treatment of fibrosis-related conditions

The idea of a possible role of galectin-3 in fibrosis comes from cell and ex vivo studies on macrophage differentiation (Mackinnon et al, 2008), as well as from in vivo studies on macrophage differentiation and myofibroblast activation (Mackinnon et al, 2012). Briefly, the hypothesis is as follows: Galectin-3 has been shown to prolong cell surface residence and thus enhance responsiveness of certain receptors (Elola et al., 2015), such as the TGF-B receptor (MacKinnon, 2012), which in turn regulates alternative macrophage differentiation into M2 macrophages and myofibroblast activation.

Hence, as galectin-3 is a good candidate for being an endogenous enhancer of TGF-b signaling and alternative macrophage differentiation and myofibroblast activation, galectin-3 inhibitors may be very useful in treating fibrosis and adverse tissue remodeling.

Treatment of cancer A large number of immunohistochemical studies show changed expression of certain galectins in cancer (Thijssen et al, 2015; Ebrahim et ah, 2014) and for example galectin-3 is now an established histochemical marker of thyroid cancer. The direct evidence for a role of galectin-3 in cancer comes mainly from mouse models. In paired tumor cell lines (with decreased or increased expression of galectin-3), the induction of galectin-3 gives more tumors and metastasis and suppression of galectin- 3 gives less tumors and metastasis. Galectin-3 has been proposed to enhance tumor growth by being anti-apoptotic, promote angiogenesis, or to promote metastasis by affecting cell adhesion. Further, recent evidence have shown that galectin-3 plays a critical role in the tumor microenvironment (Ruvolo, 2015). Galectin-3 is also believed to regulate the interaction between the tumor cells and immune cells, such as T-lymphocytes (T-cells), and inhibition of galectin-3 has been shown to restore T-cell activity (Demotte et al. 2010, Kouo et al. 2015, Menero et al. 2015). From the above it is clear that inhibitors of galectin-3 might have valuable anti-cancer effects. Indeed, saccharides claimed but not proven to inhibit galectin-3 have been reported to have anti-cancer effects. In our own study a fragment of galectin-3 containing the CRD inhibited breast cancer in a mouse model by acting as a dominant negative inhibitor (John et al., 2003). More recently, inhibition of galectin-3 with small molecules have been demonstrated to indeed greatly enhance tumor cell sensitivity towards radiation and standard pro-apoptotic drugs in cell assays and ex vivo (Blanchard et al., 2015).

Also other galectins are frequently over-expressed in low differentiated cancer cells, or induced in specific cancer types (Thijssen et al, 2015; Ebrahim et al.. 2014). Galectin-1 induces apoptosis in activated T-cells and has a remarkable

immunosuppressive effect on autoimmune disease in vivo (Blidner et al., 2015).

Therefore, the over-expression of these galectins in cancers might help the tumor to defend itself against the T-cell response raised by the host.

Null mutant mice for galectins- 1, -3, -7 and -9 have been established and are healthy and reproduce apparently normally in animal house conditions. However, further studies have revealed subtle phenotypes under different type of challenge, mainly in function of immune cells (Blidner et al., 2015), but also other cells types (Viguier et al., 2014) . The differences in site of expression, specificity and other properties make it unlikely that different galectins can replace each other functionally. The observations in the null mutant mice would indicate that galectins are not essential for basic life supporting functions as can be observed in normal animal house conditions. Instead they may be optimizers of normal function and/or essential in stress conditions not found in animal house conditions. The lack of strong effect in null mutant mice may make galectin inhibitors more favorable as drugs. If galectin activity contributes to pathological conditions as suggested above but less to normal conditions, then inhibition of them will have less unwanted side effects.

Treatment of angiogenesis

Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) signaling through VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) is the primary angiogenic pathway. Studies have been published demonstrating that both galectin- 1 (Gal-1) and galectin-3 (Gal-3) are important modulators for VEGF/VEGFR-2 signaling pathway (Croci et ah, 2014). It has also been published that a galectin inhibitor, TDX, is expected have efficacy against pathological angiogenesis. (Chen 2012)

Known inhibitors

Natural ligands

Solid phase binding assays and inhibition assays have identified a number of saccharides and glycoconjugates with the ability to bind galectins (reviewed by Leffler, 2001 and Leffler et al., 2004). All galectins bind lactose with a K d of 0.5 - 1 mM. The affinity of D-galactose is 50 - 100 times lower. X-Acctyllactosaminc and related disaccharides bind about as well as lactose, but for certain galectins, they can bind either worse or up to 10 times better. The best small saccharide ligands for galectin-3 were those carrying blood group A-determinants attached to lactose or LacNAc-residues and were found to bind up to about 50 times better than lactose. Galectin- 1 shows no preference for these saccharides.

Larger saccharides of the polylactosamine type have been proposed as preferred ligands for galectins. In solution, using polylactosamine-carrying glycopeptides, there was evidence for this for galectin-3, but not galectin- 1 (Leffler and Barondes, 1986). A modified plant pectin polysaccharide has been reported to bind galectin-3 (Pienta et al., 1995).

The above-described natural saccharides that have been identified as galectin- 3 ligands are not suitable for use as active components in pharmaceutical

compositions, because they are susceptible to acidic hydrolysis in the stomach and to enzymatic degradation. In addition, natural saccharides are hydrophilic in nature, and are not readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract following oral administration.

Galectin specificity

The studies of galectin specificity using inhibition by small natural saccharides mentioned above indicated that all galectins bound lactose, LacNAc and related disaccharides, but that galectin-3 bound certain longer saccharides much better (Leffler and Barondes, 1986). These longer saccharides were characterized by having an additional sugar residue added to the C-3 position of galactose (in e.g. lactose or LacNAc) that bound an extended binding groove. The shape of this groove varies between galectins, suggesting that the same extensions would not be bound equally by the different galectins.

Synthetic inhibitors

Saccharides coupled to amino acids with anti-cancer activity were first identified as natural compounds in serum, but subsequently, synthetic analogues have been made (Glinsky et al, 1996). Among them, those with lactose or galactose coupled to the amino acid inhibit galectins, but only with about the same potency as the corresponding underivatized sugar. A chemically modified form of citrus pectin (Platt and Raz, 1992) that inhibits galectin-3 shows anti-tumor activity in vivo (Pienta et al., 1995; Nangia-Makker et al., 2002).

Cluster molecules having up to four lactose moieties showed a strong multivalency effect when binding to galectin-3, but not to galectin- 1 and galectin-5 (Vrasidas et al, 2003). Cyclodextrin-based glycoclusters with seven galactose, lactose, or A-accty 1 lactosam i nc residues also showed a strong multivalency effect against galectin-3, but less so against galectins- 1 and -7 (Andre et al, 2004). Starburst dendrimers (Andre et al, 1999) and glycopolymers (Pohl et al, 1999; David et al, 2004), made polyvalent in lactose-residues, have been described as galectin-3 inhibitors with marginally improved potency as compared to lactose. The

aforementioned synthetic compounds that have been identified as galectin-3 ligands are not suitable for use as active components in pharmaceutical compositions, because they are hydrophilic in nature and are not readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract following oral administration. Natural oligosaccharides, glycoclusters, glycodendrimers, and glycopolymers described above are too polar and too large to be absorbed and in some cases are large enough to produce immune responses in patients. Furthermore, they are susceptible to acidic hydrolysis in the stomach and to enzymatic hydrolysis. Thus, there is a need for small synthetic molecules.

Thiodigalactoside is known to be a synthetic and hydrolytically stable, yet polar inhibitor, approximately as efficient as /Y-accty 1 lactosam i nc (Leffler and Barondes, 1986). /Y-Acctyl lactosam i nc derivatives carrying aromatic amides or substituted benzyl ethers at C-3 ' have been demonstrated to be highly efficient inhibitors of galectin-3, with unprecedented IC50 values as low as 4.8 mM, which is a 20-fold improvement in comparison with the natural /Y-accty 1 lactosam i nc

disaccharide (Sorme et al, 2002; Sorme et al, 2003b). These derivatives are less polar overall, due to the presence of the aromatic amido moieties and are thus more suitable as agents for the inhibition of galectins in vivo. Furthermore, C3-triazolyl galactosides have been demonstrated to be as potent inhibitors as the corresponding C3-amides of some galectins. Hence, any properly structured galactose C3 -substituent may confer enhanced galectin affinity.

However, the C3 -amido- and C3-triazolyl-derivatised compounds are still susceptible to hydrolytic degradation in vivo, due to the presence of a glycosidic bond in the galactose and /Y-accty 1 lactosam i nc saccharide moiety and, although they are potent small molecule inhibitors of galectin-3, even further improved affinity and stability is desirable. Accordingly, inhibitors based on 3,3’-diamido- or 3,3’- ditriazolyl-derivatization of thiodigalactoside have been developed, (Cumpstey et al, 2005b; Cumpstey et al., 2008; Salameh et al, 2010; WO/2005/113569 and

US2007185041; WO/2005/113568, US7,638,623 B2, T. Delaine, 2016,

ChemBioChem 10.1002/cbic.201600285)) which lack O-glycosidic hydrolytically and enzymatically labile linkages. These inhibitors also displayed superior affinity for several galectins (down to Kd in the low nM range). Nevertheless, although displaying high affinity for galectins, the 3,3’-derivatized thiodigalactosides still comprise a disadvantage in their multistep synthesis involving double inversion reaction to reach at 3-A-derivatized galactose building blocks. Furthermore, cyclohexane replacement of one galactose ring in thiodigalactoside has been evidenced to mimic the galactose ring and hence to provide galectin- 1 and -3 inhibitors with efficiency approaching those of the diamido- and ditriazolyl- thiodigalactoside derivatives (WO/2010/126435). Replacement of a D- galactopyranose unit with a substituted cyclohexane decreases polarity and most likely also metabolic susceptibility, thus improving drug-like properties.

Some earlier described compounds have the following general formulas

as described in WO/2005/113568,

and

as described in WO/2005/113569, in which R 1 can be a D-galactose.

In recently published US20140099319, WO2014067986 and (T. Delaine, 2016, ChemBioChem 10.1002/cbic.201600285) are disclosed a compound of formula

having fluorine (F) in the meta position on both the phenyl rings in relation to the triazole rings. This compound has been shown to be a promising drug candidate for lung fibrosis, and in particular is very selective on galectin-3 with high affinity.

A series of small Cl or Cl and C 3 -substituted galactopyranosides have been disclosed showing affinity towards galectin-3 and 1. The beta-D- galactopyranosides were reported as having affinity in the same range or less than lactose, which has a Kd of about 91mM towards galectin-3 and 190 mM towards galectin-1. (Giguere, D et. al. 2011, 2008, 2006).

Gal-1 313 mM Gal-1 1 .25 mM lower affinity than lactose Gal-3 >5000 Gal-3 5 mM towards Galectin 1 and 3

There is no disclosure or mentioning of corresponding alpha-anomers having affinity towards galectin-3 or galectin- 1 better than lactose.

Summary of the invention

The compounds of the present invention are novel a-D-galactopyranose compounds that unexpectedly have shown very high affinity for galectin-3 and are considered novel potent drug candidates. Some of these compounds have very good PK properties for e.g. oral administration, such as low clearance and high

bioavailability. Furthermore, introduction of small alkyl substituents, such as straight and/or linear alkyls to the galactoside 2-OH such as compounds of formula (1) results in low or no efflux combined with a high uptake.

In broad aspect the present invention concerns a D-galactopyranose compound of formula (1)

wherein

the pyranose ring is a-D-galactopyranose,

A 1 is selected from

wherein Het 1 is selected from a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring, optionally substituted with a group selected from Br; F; Cl; I; CN; NR 19 R 20 , wherein R 19 and R 20 are independently selected from H, C 1-3 alkyl, cyclopropyl, iso-propyl, - C(=0)-R 21 , wherein R 21 is selected from H and C 1-3 alkyl; C 1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted with a F; cyclopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; iso-propyl, optionally substituted with a F; O-cyclopropyl optionally substituted with a F; O-isopropyl optionally substituted with a F; OC 1-3 alkyl optionally substituted with a F; and SC 1-3 alkyl optionally substituted with a F;

wherein R' -R 5 are independently selected from H, CN, N¾, Br, Cl, I, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, SCFb optionally substituted with a F, and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F;

wherein R 6 is selected from Ci- 6 alkyl optionally substituted with a halogen, branched C 3-6 alkyl and C 3-7 cycloalkyl;

wherein R 7 is selected from a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring, optionally substituted with a group selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, and a phenyl optionally substituted with a group selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F;

wherein R 8 -R 12 are independently selected from H, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F;

wherein R 13 is a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring optionally substituted with a group selected from H, OH, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, or an aryl, such as phenyl or naphthyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from H, OH, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F;

X 1 is selected from S, SO, SO 2 , O, C=0, and CR 7 R 8 wherein R 7 and R 8 are independently selected from hydrogen, OH, or halogen;

wherein R 27 is selected from a Ci-6 alkyl, branched C 3-6 alkyl, Ci-6 alkoxy and branched C 3-6 alkoxy;

B 1 is selected from a) a Ci-6 alkyl or branched C 3-6 alkyl substituted with a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring, optionally substituted with a substituent selected from CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 14 -CONH- wherein R 14 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; or a Ci-6 alkyl substituted with a phenyl, optionally substituted with a substituent selected from CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F,

OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 15 -CONH- wherein R 1 5 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; b) an aryl, such as phenyl or naphthyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from a halogen; CN; -COOH; - CONR 22 R 23 , wherein R 22 andR 23 are independently selected from H, C 1-3 alkyl, cyclopropyl, and iso-propyl, or R 22 and R 23 together with the nitrogen may form a heterocycloalkyl; C 1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted with a F; cyclopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; isopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; OC 1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted with a F; O-cyclopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; O- isopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; NR 28 R 29 , wherein R 28 and R 29 are independently selected from H, C 1-3 alkyl and isopropyl; OH; and R 16 -CONH- wherein R 16 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; c) a C 5-7 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted with a substituent selected from a halogen, CN, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 17 -CONH- wherein R 17 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; and d) a heterocycle, such as heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from a halogen; a spiro heterocycle such as N-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl; CN; -COOH; -CONR 24 R 25 , wherein R 24 and R 25 are independently selected from H, C 1-3 alkyl, cyclopropyl, and iso-propyl or R 24 andR 25 together with the nitrogen may form a heterocycloalkyl; C 1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted with a F; cyclopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; isopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; OC 1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted with a F; O- cyclopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; O-isopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; NR 30 R 31 , wherein R 30 and R 31 are independently selected from H, C 1-3 alkyl and isopropyl; OH; R 1 8 -CONH- wherein R 1 8 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; a pyrimidinyl optionally substituted with a substituent selected from CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F,

OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 71 -CONH- wherein R 71 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; a pyridinyl optionally substituted with a substituent selected from CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F,

OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 72 -CONH- wherein R 72 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; a

tetrahydropyridinyl optionally substituted with a substituent selected from CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 73 -CONH- wherein R 73 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; a pyrrolinyl optionally substituted with a substituent selected from CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F,

OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 74 -CONH- wherein R 74 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; an oxazolyl optionally substituted with a substituent selected from CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 75 -CONH- wherein R 75 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; a thiazolyl optionally substituted with a substituent selected from CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 76 -CONH- wherein R 76 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; and a C 2-4 alkynyl, e) a Cw alkyl or branched C 3-6 alkyl;

R 50 is selected from the group consisting of a) Ci-6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more halogen, CN, OR 51 , NR 52 R 53 , and CONH 2 , wherein R 5 1 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 54 -CONH- wherein R 54 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, R 52 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 55 -CONH- wherein R 55 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, and R 53 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 56 -CONH- wherein R 56 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, b) branched C 3-6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more halogen, CN, OR 57 , NR 58 R 59 , and CONH 2 , wherein R 57 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 60 -CONH- wherein R 60 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, R 58 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 61 -CONH- wherein R 61 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, and R 59 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 62 -CONH- wherein R 62 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl , and c) cyclic C 3-6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more halogen, CN, OR 63 , NR 64 R 65 , and CONH 2 , wherein R 63 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 66 -CONH- wherein R 66 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, R 64 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 67 - CONH- wherein R 67 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, and R 65 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 68 -CONH- wherein R 68 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

In an embodiment the present invention concerns a D-galactopyranose compound of formula (1) wherein

the pyranose ring is a-D-galactopyranose,

A 1 is selected from

wherein Het 1 is selected from a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring, optionally substituted with a group selected from Br; F; Cl; I; CN; NR 19 R 20 , wherein R 19 and R 20 are independently selected from H, C 1-3 alkyl, cyclopropyl, iso-propyl, - C(=0)-R 21 , wherein R 21 is selected from H and C 1-3 alkyl; C 1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted with a F; cyclopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; iso-propyl, optionally substituted with a F; O-cyclopropyl optionally substituted with a F; O-isopropyl optionally substituted with a F; OC 1-3 alkyl optionally substituted with a F; and SC 1-3 alkyl optionally substituted with a F; wherein R' -R 5 are independently selected from H, CN, NH2, Br, Cl, I, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, SCFb optionally substituted with a F, and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F;

wherein R 6 is selected from Ci- 6 alkyl optionally substituted with a halogen, branched C 3-6 alkyl and C 3-7 cycloalkyl;

wherein R 7 is selected from a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring, optionally substituted with a group selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, and a phenyl optionally substituted with a group selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F;

wherein R 8 -R 12 are independently selected from H, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F;

wherein R 13 is a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring optionally substituted with a group selected from H, OH, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, or an aryl, such as phenyl or naphthyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from H, OH, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F;

X 1 is selected from S, SO, SO2, O, C=0, and CR 7 R 8 wherein R 7 and R 8 are independently selected from hydrogen, OH, or halogen;

wherein R 27 is selected from a Ci- 6 alkyl, branched C 3-6 alkyl, Ci- 6 alkoxy and branched C3-6 alkoxy;

B 1 is selected from a) a Ci- 6 alkyl or branched C 3-6 alkyl substituted with a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring, optionally substituted with a substituent selected from CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 14 -CONH- wherein R 14 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; or a Ci- 6 alkyl substituted with a phenyl, optionally substituted with a substituent selected from CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F,

OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 15 -CONH- wherein R 15 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; b) an aryl, such as phenyl or naphthyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from a halogen; CN; -COOH; - CONR 22 R 23 , wherein R 22 andR 23 are independently selected from H, C 1-3 alkyl, cyclopropyl, and iso-propyl, or R 22 and R 23 together with the nitrogen may form a heterocycloalkyl; C 1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted with a F; cyclopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; isopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; OC 1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted with a F; O-cyclopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; O- isopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; NR 28 R 29 , wherein R 28 and R 29 are independently selected from H, C 1-3 alkyl and isopropyl; OH; and R 16 -CONH- wherein R 16 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; c) a C 5-7 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted with a substituent selected from a halogen, CN, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 17 -CONH- wherein R 17 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; and d) a heterocycle, such as heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from a halogen; a spiro heterocycle such as N-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl; CN; -COOH; -CONR 24 R 25 , wherein R 24 and R 25 are independently selected from H, C 1-3 alkyl, cyclopropyl, and iso-propyl; C 1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted with a F; cyclopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; isopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; OC 1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted with a F; O-cyclopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; O-isopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; NR 30 R 31 , wherein R 30 and R 31 are independently selected from H, C 1-3 alkyl and isopropyl; OH; and R 18 -CONH- wherein R 18 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; e) a Ci- 6 alkyl or branched C 3-6 alkyl;

R 50 is selected from the group consisting of a) Ci- 6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more halogen, CN, OR 51 , NR 52 R 53 , and CONH 2 , wherein R 5 1 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 54 -CONH- wherein R 54 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, R 52 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 55 -CONH- wherein R 55 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, and R 53 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 56 -CONH- wherein R 56 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, b) branched C 3-6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more halogen, CN, OR 57 , NR 58 R 59 , and CONH 2 , wherein R 57 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 60 -CONH- wherein R 60 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, R 58 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 61 -CONH- wherein R 61 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, and R 59 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 62 -CONH- wherein R 62 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl , and c) cyclic C 3-6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more halogen, CN, OR 63 , NR 64 R 65 , and CONH 2 , wherein R 63 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 66 -CONH- wherein R 66 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, R 64 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 67 - CONH- wherein R 67 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, and R 65 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 68 -CONH- wherein R 68 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

In an embodiment of the present invention A1 is selected from formula 2 wherein R' -R 5 are independently selected from H, Cl, F, methyl optionally substituted with a fluorine (F), and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F.

In another embodiment of the present invention A1 is selected from formula 2 wherein R 1 and R 5 are selected from H and R 2 -R 4 are selected from F.

In a further embodiment of the present invention A1 is selected from formula 2 wherein R 1 and R 5 are selected from H and R 2 -R 4 are selected from one or more H,

F, Cl, and methyl, such as 3 F, 1 F, 1H and one methyl, 2 F and 1 Cl, 2 F and one methyl.

In a further embodiment of the present invention A1 is selected from formula 2 wherein R 2 and R 3 are F and R 1 , R 4 and R 5 are H, or wherein R 2 and R 4 are F and R 1 , R 3 and R 5 are H, or wherein R 2 is F and R 1 , R 3 -R 5 are H, or wherein R 2 and R 4 are F, R 3 is OCH 3 , and R 1 and R 5 are H. In a further embodiment of the present invention A1 is selected from formula 2 wherein R' -R 5 are independently selected from H and F, provided that at least one of R'-R 5 is F. Preferably from one to five, such as three or five, of R'-R 5 are independently selected from F.

In a further embodiment of the present invention A1 is selected from formula 2 wherein R 1 and R 5 are selected from H and R 2 -R 4 are independently selected from one or more from the group consisting of F, Cl, and Methyl.

In a further embodiment of the present invention A1 is selected from formula 2 wherein R 1 , R 4 and R 5 are selected from H and R 2 -R 3 are independently selected from one or two from the group consisting of F, Cl, and Methyl.

In a still further embodiment of the present invention A1 is selected from formula 3 wherein Het 1 is selected from a six membered heteroaromatic ring, optionally substituted with a group selected from Br, F, and Cl. Typically, Het 1 is selected from a pyridinyl substituted with a F, such as 3 F.

In a further embodiment of the present invention A1 is selected from formula 3 wherein Het 1 is selected from a pyridinyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from H, CN, Br, Cl, I, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, and SCH3 optionally substituted with a F; or a pyrimidyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from H, CN, Br, Cl, I, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, and SCH3 optionally substituted with a F.

In a further embodiment of the present invention A1 is selected from formula 4 wherein R 6 is selected from Ci- 6 alkyl and branched C3-6 alkyl. Typically, R 6 is Ci- 6 alkyl, such as CH3, CH2CH3, CH2CH2CH3 and isopropyl, e.g. CH3, or isopropyl.

In a further embodiment of the present invention A1 is selected from formula

4 wherein R 6 is selected from Ci- 6 alkyl substituted with a halogen, such as one, two or three F, e.g. CH2CF3.

In a still further embodiment of the present invention A1 is selected from formula 5 wherein R 7 is selected from phenyl optionally substituted with a group selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH3 optionally substituted with a F.

In a further embodiment of the present invention A1 is selected from formula

5 wherein R 7 is selected from phenyl substituted with a Cl. In a still further embodiment of the present invention A is selected from formula

6 wherein R 8 -R 12 are independently selected from H and F. Typically, R 8 -R 12 are all H, or R 10 -R n are F and R 8 , R 9 , and R 12 are H.

In a further embodiment of the present invention A1 is selected from formula

7 wherein R 13 is an aryl, such as phenyl or naphthyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from F. Typically, R 13 is phenyl, optionally substituted with one, two or three F.

In a further embodiment of the present invention A1 is selected from formula

8 wherein R 27 is selected from a Ci- 6 alkyl, branched C3-6 alkyl, Ci- 6 alkoxy and branched C3-6 alkoxy. Typically, R 27 is selected from a Ci- 6 alkyl and Ci- 6 alkoxy.

In a further embodiment of the present invention XI is selected from S, SO, SO2, and O. Preferably X is selected from S, SO, and SO2. In a further embodiment XI is selected from S and SO2, such as S.

In a still further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a Ci- 6 alkyl substituted with a phenyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH3 optionally substituted with a F.

In a further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a Ci- 6 alkyl substituted with a phenyl, such as benzyl or CFF-CFb-phenyl.

In a still further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a Ci- 6 alkyl substituted with a phenyl, said phenyl substituted with a group selected from Cl, such as benzyl substituted with one or two Cl, or -CFF-CFb-phenyl substituted with one Cl.

In a further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a Ci- 6 alkyl.

In a still further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from an aryl, such as phenyl or naphthyl, optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from a halogen (e.g. Cl, F, Br, I), methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 16 - CONH- wherein R 16 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl.

In a further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from an aryl, such as phenyl or naphthyl, optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from I, COOH and COMB.

In a further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from an aryl, such as phenyl or naphthyl, optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from NR 28 R 29 , wherein R 28 and R 29 are independently selected from H, C 1-3 alkyl and isopropyl.

In a still further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from an aryl, such as phenyl or naphthyl, optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from CN.

In a further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from an aryl, optionally substituted with a group selected from a Cl; Br; CN; -CONR 22 R 23 , wherein R 22 and R 23 are independently selected from H and C1-3 alkyl, or R 22 and R 23 together with the nitrogen may form a heterocycloalkyl.

In a further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from an unsubstituted phenyl.

In a still further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from an unsubstituted naphthyl.

In a further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a phenyl substituted with one, two or three substituents selected from Cl, F, Br, CN, methyl, OH, CF3, OCH 2 CH 3 , OCH 3, OCF 3, R 16 -CONH- wherein R 16 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl, such as methyl. Such as a phenyl substituted with two substituents selected from Cl, F, Br, CN. Such as a phenyl substituted with three substituents selected from Cl, F, and CN.

In a still further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a phenyl substituted with one, two or three substituents selected from Cl, F, Br, I CN, methyl, OH, CF3, OCH 2 CH 3 , OCH 3, OCF 3, COOH, CONH 2 , and R 16 -CONH- wherein R 16 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl, such as methyl. Such as a phenyl substituted with one substituent selected from I, COOH, and CONH 2 .

In a further embodiment of the present invention B 1 is selected from a phenyl substituted with one, two or three substituents selected from a Cl, Br, CN, -CONR 22 R 23 , wherein R 22 and R 23 are independently selected from H and C1-3 alkyl, or R 22 and R 23 together with the nitrogen may form a heterocyclobutyl or heterocyclohexyl.

In a further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a heterocycle, such as heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from a halogen (e.g. Cl, F, Br, I); methyl optionally substituted with a F; OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F; OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F; CONH 2 ; OH; NR 30 R 31 , wherein R 30 and R 31 are independently selected from H, C1-3 alkyl and isopropyl; and R 18 -CONH- wherein R 18 is selected from Ci -3 alkyl and cyclopropyl.

In a still further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a heterocycle, such as heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from a halogen (e.g. Cl, F, Br, I); methyl optionally substituted with a F; OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F; OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F; OH; and R 18 -CONH- wherein R 18 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl.

In a further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a heterocycle, such as heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from CONH2; OH; Cl; Br; and CF 3 .

In a still further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a heterocycle, such as heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from CN.

In a further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a heterocycle, such as heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted with one to three substituents selected from CONH 2 ; OH; CN; Cl; Br; and CF 3 .

In a still further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from an unsubstituted pyridinyl.

In a further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a pyridinyl substituted with a group independently selected from a Cl, Br, methyl, CF 3, OCH 3, N- (2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl, OH, N¾, CONH 2 , -CONR 24 R 25 , wherein R 24 and R 25 together with the nitrogen may form a heterocycloalkyl, CN, ethynyl, pyrimidinyl, pyridinyl, tetrahydropyridinyl, pyrrolidinyl,oxazolyl, thiazolyl.

In a further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a pyridinyl substituted with one to three, such as two, substituents selected from Cl, Br, CF 3 and CN.

In a still further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a pyridinyl substituted with one to three, such as one or two, substituents selected from CONH2, and OH.

In a further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a pyridinyl substituted with one to three, such as one, substituents selected from NR 30 R 31 , wherein R 30 and R 31 are independently selected from H, C 1-3 alkyl and isopropyl. In a further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a pyridazinyl substituted with one to three, such as two, substituents selected from Cl, OH, OCH 3 , and CN.

In a still further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a thiophenyl substituted with one to three, such as one, substituents selected from halogen, such as Cl.

In a further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a C5-7 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from a halogen (e.g. Cl, F, Br, I), methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 17 -CONH- wherein R 17 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl.

In a still further embodiment of the present invention B1 is a cyclohexyl optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from a halogen.

In a further embodiment of the present invention B1 is a cyclohexyl.

In a still further embodiment of the present invention B1 is a cyclohexyl substituted with one or two substituents selected from a halogen, such as 2 F.

In a further embodiment of the present invention R 50 is selected from the group consisting of a) Ci- 6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more halogen, CN, OR 51 , NR 52 R 53 , and CONH2, wherein R 51 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally

substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 54 - CONH- wherein R 54 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, R 52 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 55 -CONH- wherein R 55 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, and R 53 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 56 -CONH- wherein R 56 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, b) branched C 3-6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more halogen, CN, OR 57 , NR 58 R 59 , and CONH2, wherein R 57 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 60 -CONH- wherein R 60 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, R 58 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 61 -CONH- wherein R 61 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, and R 59 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 62 -CONH- wherein R 62 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl ,

In a still further embodiment of the present invention R 50 is selected from a)

Ci -4 alkyl optionally substituted with at least one from the group consisting of halogen, NR 52 R 53 wherein R 52 and R 53 are independently selected from the group consisting of H and C M alkyl, such as methyl, and OR 51 wherein R 51 is selected from the group consisting of H and methyl, or b) branched C3-4 alkyl optionally substituted with at least one from the group consisting of halogen, OR 57 and wherein R 57 is selected from the group consisting of H and methyl.

In a further embodiment of the present invention, the compound is selected from the group consisting of:

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-l ,2,3-triazol-l -yl]-2- O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-cyano-pyridin-3 -yl 3-deoxy-3 -[4-(3 -fluoro-4-methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

4-Bromo-N,N-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3 -triazol-l-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

4-Bromo-N,N-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-lH-l,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-l ,2,3-triazol-l -yl]-2- 0-( 1,1,1 -trifluoro-2-hydroxyprop-3-yl)- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-(N-piperidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chloro-phenyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

4-Chloro-N,N-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-lH-l,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl] -3 -deoxy -2-O-trifluoromethyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

4-Chloro-N,N-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-deoxy-2-0-trifluoromethyl-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, 5-Chloro-2-(N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-{N-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyridin-3- yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, 5-Chloro-2-{N-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5- difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyano-pyridin-3 -yl 3-deoxy-3 -[4-(3 ,5-difluoro-4-methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyano-pyridin-3 -yl 3-deoxy-3 -[4-(3 -fluoro-4-methyl-phenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyano-phenyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,5-difluoro-4-methylphenyl)-lH-l ,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyano-pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-2-0-2,2,2,-trifluoroethyl-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluoro-phenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyano-pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluoro-phenyl)-lH- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0- ethyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0- isopropyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0- (2-fluoroethyl)- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0- [2-(methylamino)ethyl] - 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

3.4-Dichlorophenyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3 ,5-difluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3- deoxy-2-0-(2-hydroxyethyl)- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-6-cyano-2-{A/-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyri din-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-

3.5-difluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside,

5 -Chloro-6 -cy ano -2- j /V-(2-oxa)-6-azasp i ro [3.3 ] heptany 1 } -pyridin-3 -y 1 3 -deoxy-3 - [4 - (3 ,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside, 5 -Chloro-2 -(pyrimidin-5 -y l)pyridin-3 -y 1 3 -deoxy-3 - [4 -(3 ,4 , 5 -trifluoropheny 1)- 1 H-

1.2.3-txiazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

5-Chloro-2-(l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5 -Chloro-2 -(3 -pyrrolin-3 -y l)pyridin-3 -y 1 3 -deoxy-3 - [4 -(3 ,4 , 5 -trifluoropheny 1)- 1 H-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(oxazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

5-Chloro-2-(thiazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

2,5-Bis(thiazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3- deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3- deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro-4-mcthylphcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro-4-mcthylphcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3-dcoxy- 2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3-dcoxy- 2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

6-Trifluoromethyl-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl] -3 -deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-(/Y-azctidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophcnyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, 2-f/V-azctidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophcnyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro-4-methylphenyl)-

\H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0- methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(6-fluoro-5-mcthylpyridin-2-yl)-l /-l ,2,3-triazol- l-yl]-2- -methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(5-chloro-6-mcthylpyridin-2-yl)-l /-l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3- deoxy-2- -methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

3-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-5-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)-l /-l ,2,3-triazol- l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)-l /-l ,2,3-triazol-

1-yl]-2- -methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)-l /-l ,2,3-triazol- 1 - yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)-l /-l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-Cyano-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)-l /-l ,2,3-triazol- 1 - yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)-l /-l ,2,3-triazol- 1 - yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)-l /-l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-

3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3-deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(/Y-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)-l /- 1, 2, 3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Ethynylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)-l /-l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3- deoxy-2- -methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, and

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(5-chloro-6-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-l /-l ,2,3-triazol- l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

In a still further embodiment of the present invention, the compound is selected from the group consisting of: 2-Cyano-5-ethynylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-lH-l,2,3-triazol-l- yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-Cyano-5 -ethynylpyridin-3 -yl 3 -deoxy-3 -[4-(3 ,5 -difluoro-4-methylphenyl)- 1 H-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranosi de,

5-Cyano-6-trifluoromethylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-lH-l,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-l ,2,3-triazol-l -yl]-2-0- methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5 -Cyanopyridin-3 -yl 3 -[4-(4-chloro-3 ,5 -difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3 -triazol- 1 -yl] -3 - deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-(N-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-bromophenyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3 -triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-(N-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-bromophenyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3 -triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-ethyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3-deoxy -2-O-ethyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-(N-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophenyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3 -triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, and

3 ,4-Dichlorophenyl 3 -[4-(4-chloro-3 ,5 -difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3 - deoxy-2-O-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof. In a further aspect the present invention relates to a compound of formula (1) for use as a medicine.

In a still further aspect the present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising the compound of any one of the previous claims and optionally a pharmaceutically acceptable additive, such as a carrier and/or excipient.

In a further aspect the present invention relates to a compound of formula (1) of the present invention for use in a method for treating a disorder relating to the binding of a galectin-3 to a ligand in a mammal, such as a human. In a further embodiment the disorder is selected from the group consisting of inflammation;

fibrosis, such as pulmonary fibrosis, liver fibrosis, kidney fibrosis, ophthalmological fibrosis and fibrosis of the skin and heart; scarring; keloid formation; aberrant scar formation; surgical adhesions; septic shock; cancer, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, leukemias and lymphomas, such as T-cell lymphomas; metastasising cancers;

autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus; metabolic disorders; heart disease; heart failure; pathological angiogenesis, such as ocular angiogenesis or a disease or condition associated with ocular angiogenesis, e.g.

neovascularization related to cancer; and eye diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and corneal neovascularization; atherosclerosis; metabolic diseases such as diabetes; type 2 diabetes; insulin resistens; obesity; Diastolic HF; asthma and other interstitial lung diseases, including Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, mesothelioma; liver disorders, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

In a still further aspect the present invention relates to a method for treatment of a disorder relating to the binding of a galectin-3 to a ligand in a mammal, such as a human, wherein a therapeutically effective amount of at least one compound of formula (1) of the present invention is administered to a mammal in need of said treatment. In a further embodiment of the present invention, the disorder is selected from the group consisting of inflammation; fibrosis, such as pulmonary fibrosis, liver fibrosis, kidney fibrosis, ophthalmological fibrosis and fibrosis of the skin and heart; scarring; keloid formation; aberrant scar formation; surgical adhesions; septic shock; cancer, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, leukemias and lymphomas, such as T-cell lymphomas; metastasising cancers; autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus; metabolic disorders; heart disease; heart failure;

pathological angiogenesis, such as ocular angiogenesis or a disease or condition associated with ocular angiogenesis, e.g. neovascularization related to cancer; and eye diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and corneal neovascularization; atherosclerosis; metabolic diseases such as diabetes; type 2 diabetes; insulin resistens; obesity; Diastolic HF; asthma and other interstitial lung diseases, including

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, mesothelioma; liver disorders, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Another aspect of the present invention concerns combination therapy involving administering a compound of formula (1) of the present invention together with a therapeutically active compound different from the compound of formula (1) (interchangeable with“a different therapeutically active compound”). In one embodiment the present invention relates to a combination of a compound of formula (1) and a different therapeutically active compound for use in treatment of a disorder relating to the binding of a galectin-3 to a ligand in a mammal. Such disorders are disclosed below.

In an embodiment of the present invention, a therapeutically effective amount of at least one compound of formula (1) of the present invention is administered to a mammal in need thereof in combination with a different therapeutically active compound. In a further embodiment, said combination of a compound of formula (1) together with a different therapeutically active compound is administered to a mammal suffering from a disorder selected from the group consisting of

inflammation; fibrosis, such as pulmonary fibrosis, liver fibrosis, kidney fibrosis, ophthalmological fibrosis and fibrosis of the skin and heart; scarring; keloid formation; aberrant scar formation; surgical adhesions; septic shock; cancer, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, leukemias and lymphomas, such as T-cell lymphomas;

metastasising cancers; autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus

erythematosus; metabolic disorders; heart disease; heart failure; pathological angiogenesis, such as ocular angiogenesis or a disease or condition associated with ocular angiogenesis, e.g. neovascularization related to cancer; and eye diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and comeal neovascularization; atherosclerosis; metabolic diseases such as diabetes; type 2 diabetes; insulin resistens; obesity; Diastolic HF; asthma and other interstitial lung diseases, including Hermansky- Pudlak syndrome, mesothelioma; liver disorders, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

A non-limiting group of cancers given as examples of cancers that may be treated, managed and/or prevented by administration of a compound of formula (1) in combination with a different therapeutically active compound is selected from: colon carcinoma, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, fibrosarcoma, myxosarcoma, liposarcoma, chondrosarcoma, osteogenic sarcoma, chordoma, angiosarcoma, endotheliosarcoma, lymphangeosarcoma,

lymphangeoendothelia sarcoma, synovioma, mesothelioma, Ewing's sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, sweat gland carcinoma, sebaceous gland carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinomas, cystandeocarcinoma, medullary carcinoma, bronchogenic carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, hepatoma, bile duct carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, Wilms' tumor, cervical cancer, testicular tumor, lung carcinoma, small cell lung carcinoma, bladder carcinoma, epithelial carcinoma, glioblastomas, neuronomas, craniopharingiomas, schwannomas, glioma, astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, craniopharyngioma, ependymoma, pinealoma, hemangioblastoma, acoustic neuroama, oligodendroglioma, meningioma, melanoma, neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, leukemias and lymphomas, acute lymphocytic leukemia and acute myelocytic polycythemia vera, multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, and heavy chain disease, acute nonlymphocytic leukemias, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, Hodgkin's Disease, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, rectum cancer, urinary cancers, uterine cancers, oral cancers, skin cancers, stomach cancer, brain tumors, liver cancer, laryngeal cancer, esophageal cancer, mammary tumors, childhood-null acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), thymic ALL, B-cell ALL, acute myeloid leukemia,

myelomonocytoid leukemia, acute megakaryocytoid leukemia, Burkitf s lymphoma, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and T cell leukemia, small and large non-small cell lung carcinoma, acute granulocytic leukemia, germ cell tumors, endometrial cancer, gastric cancer, cancer of the head and neck, chronic lymphoid leukemia, hairy cell leukemia and thyroid cancer. In some aspects of the present invention, the administration of at least one compound of formula (1) of the present invention and at least one additional therapeutic agent demonstrates therapeutic synergy. In some aspects of the methods of the present invention, a measurement of response to treatment observed after administering both at least one compound of formula (1) of the present invention and the additional therapeutic agent is improved over the same measurement of response to treatment observed after administering either the at least one compound of formula (1) of the present invention or the additional therapeutic agent alone.

A further aspect of the present invention concerns combination therapy involving administering a compound of formula (1) of the present invention together with an anti-fibrotic compound different form the compound of formula (1) to a mammal in need thereof. In a further embodiment, such anti-fibrotic compound may be selected from the following non-limiting group of anti-fibrotic compounds:

pirfenidone, nintedanib, simtuzumab (GS-6624, AB0024), BG00011 (STX100), PRM-151, PRM-167, PEG-FGF21, BMS-986020, FG-3019, MN-001, IW001, SAR156597, GSK2126458, PAT-1251 and PBI-4050.

A still further aspect of the present invention concerns combination therapy involving administering a compound of formula (1) in combination with a further conventional cancer treatment such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or treatment with immunostimulating substances, gene therapy, treatment with antibodies and treatment using dendritic cells, to a mammal in need thereof.

In an embodiment the compound of formula (1) is administered together with at least one additional therapeutic agent selected from an antineoplastic chemotherapy agent. In a further embodiment, the antineoplastic chemotherapeutic agent is selected from: all-trans retinoic acid, Actimide, Azacitidine, Azathioprine, Bleomycin, Carboplatin, Capecitabine, Cisplatin, Chlorambucil, Cyclophosphamide, Cytarabine, Daunorubicin, Docetaxel, Doxifluridine, Doxorubicin, Epirubicin, Etoposide, Fludarabine, Fluorouracil, Gemcitabine, Hydroxyurea, Idarubicin, Irinotecan, Lenalidomide, Leucovorin, Mechlorethamine, Melphalan, Mercaptopurine,

Methotrexate, Mitoxantrone, Oxaliplatin, Paclitaxel, Pemetrexed, Revlimid,

Temozolomide, Teniposide, Thioguanine, Valrubicin, Vinblastine, Vincristine, Vindesine and Vinorelbine. In one embodiment, a chemotherapeutic agent for use in the combination of the present agent may, itself, be a combination of different chemotherapeutic agents. Suitable combinations include FOLFOX and IFF. FOFFOX is a combination which includes 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), leucovorin, and oxaliplatin. IFL treatment includes irinotecan, 5-FU, and leucovorin.

In a further embodiment of the present invention, the further conventional cancer treatment includes radiation therapy. In some embodiments, radiation therapy includes localized radiation therapy delivered to the tumor. In some embodiments, radiation therapy includes total body irradiation.

In other embodiments of the present invention the further cancer treatment is selected from the group of immunostimulating substances e.g. cytokines and antibodies. Such cytokines may be selected from the group consisting of, but not limited to: GM-CSF, type I IFN, interleukin 21, interleukin 2, interleukin 12 and interleukin 15. The antibody is preferably an immunostimulating antibody such as anti-CD40 or anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. The immunostimulatory substance may also be a substance capable of depletion of immune inhibitory cells (e.g. regulatory T-cells) or factors, said substance may for example be E3 ubiquitin ligases. E3 ubiquitin ligases (the HECT, RING and U-box proteins) have emerged as key molecular regulators of immune cell function, and each may be involved in the regulation of immune responses during infection by targeting specific inhibitory molecules for proteolytic destruction. Several HECT and RING E3 proteins have now also been linked to the induction and maintenance of immune self-tolerance: c-Cbl, Cbl-b, GRAIL, Itch and Nedd4 each negatively regulate T cell growth factor production and proliferation.

In some embodiments of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is administered together with at least one additional therapeutic agent selected from a checkpoint inhibitor. In some embodiments of the invention, the checkpoint inhibitor is acting on one or more of the following, non-limiting group of targets: CEACAM1, galectin-9, TIM3, CD80, CTLA4, PD-1, PD-L1, HVEM, BTLA, CD 160, VISTA, B7- H4, B7-2, CD155, CD226, TIGIT, CD96, LAG3, GITF, 0X40, CD137, CD40, IDO, and TDO. These are known targets and some of these targets are described in Melero et ah, Nature Reviews Cancer (2015). Examples of check point inhibitors

administered together with the compound of formula (1) are Anti-PD-1 : Nivolumab, Pembrolizumab, Cemiplimab. Anti-PD-Ll : Atezolizumab, Avelumab, Durvalumab and one Anti-CTLA-4: Ipilimumab. Each one of these check point inhibitors can be made the subject of an embodiment in combination with any one of the compounds of formula (1). In some embodiments of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is administered together with at least one additional therapeutic agent selected from an inhibitor of indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO).

In some embodiments of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is administered together with at least one additional therapeutic agent selected from one or more inhibitors of the CTLA4 pathway. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of the CTLA4 pathway is selected from one or more antibodies against CTLA4.

In some embodiments of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is administered together with at least one additional therapeutic agent selected from one or more inhibitors of the PD-l/PD-L pathway. In some embodiments, the one or more inhibitors of the PD-l/PD-L pathway are selected from one or more antibodies against PD-1, PD-L1, and/or PD-L2.

In a still further aspect the present invention relates to a process of preparing a compound of formula 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof comprising the step a comprising the step al-a3):

al) Protecting a compound of the structure I using a protecting group

to form a compound of formula II wherein the OH in the 4 and 6- position is protected by a protective group denoted Y 1 and Y 2 . One example could be reacting I with benzaldehyde dimethylacetal in the prescence an acid such as p- toluenesulphonic acid to give a compound of formula II wherein Y 1 and Y 2 is defined as benzylidene. a2) Reacting a compound of formula II with an R 50 -L' wherein L 1 is a leaving group such as a halide or sulfonate in the presence of a base to give a compound of formula III. One example could be reacting a compound of formula II with methyliodide in the presence of NaH. a3) Reacting a compound of formula III with a chemical that removes the protective group to give a compound of the formula 1. One example could be when a compound of formula III where Y 1 and Y2 is a bensylidene is reacted with an acid such as trifluoroacetic acid to give a compound of formula (1)

Detailed Description of the invention

The present compounds of formula (1) differ from prior art compounds in particular in that the pyranose ring is a-D-galactopyranose and that the C2 carbon has an optionally substituted alkoxy attached that has the potential of reducing polarity of that position. Reduced polarity correlates in general with good uptake. It is important to emphasize that alpha and beta anomers are very different isomers and it is by no means considered to be obvious to the skilled person to expect same or similar activity of both anomers. Consequently, alpha and beta anomers do not in general posses the same activity, and this is common knowledge to the skilled person. In general, the compounds of formula (1) are believed to be >10 fold better with respect to galectin-3 affinity compared to the corresponding beta-anomers.

In a broad aspect the present invention relates to a D-galactopyranose compound of formula (1)

wherein

the pyranose ring is a-D-galactopyranose,

A 1 is selected from

wherein Het 1 is selected from a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring, optionally substituted with a group selected from Br; F; Cl; I; CN; NR 19 R 20 , wherein R 19 and R 20 are independently selected from H, C 1-3 alkyl, cyclopropyl, iso-propyl, - C(=0)-R 21 , wherein R 21 is selected from H and C 1-3 alkyl; C 1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted with a F; cyclopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; iso-propyl, optionally substituted with a F; O-cyclopropyl optionally substituted with a F; O-isopropyl optionally substituted with a F; OC 1-3 alkyl optionally substituted with a F; and SC 1-3 alkyl optionally substituted with a F;

wherein R' -R 5 are independently selected from H, CN, NFF, Br, Cl, I, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, SCFb optionally substituted with a F, and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F;

wherein R 6 is selected from Ci- 6 alkyl optionally substituted with a halogen, branched C 3-6 alkyl and C 3-7 cycloalkyl;

wherein R 7 is selected from a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring, optionally substituted with a group selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, and a phenyl optionally substituted with a group selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F;

wherein R 8 -R 12 are independently selected from H, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH3 optionally substituted with a F;

wherein R 13 is a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring optionally substituted with a group selected from H, OH, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, or an aryl, such as phenyl or naphthyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from H, OH, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F;

X 1 is selected from S, SO, SO2, O, C=0, and CR 7 R 8 wherein R 7 and R 8 are independently selected from hydrogen, OH, or halogen;

wherein R 27 is selected from a Ci- 6 alkyl, branched C 3-6 alkyl, Ci- 6 alkoxy and branched C 3-6 alkoxy;

B 1 is selected from a) a Ci- 6 alkyl or branched C 3-6 alkyl substituted with a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring, optionally substituted with a substituent selected from CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 14 -CONH- wherein R 14 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; or a Ci- 6 alkyl substituted with a phenyl, optionally substituted with a substituent selected from CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F,

OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 1 5 -CONH- wherein R 15 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; b) an aryl, such as phenyl or naphthyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from a halogen; CN; -COOH; - CONR 22 R 23 , wherein R 22 andR 23 are independently selected from H, C 1-3 alkyl, cyclopropyl, and iso-propyl, or R 22 and R 23 together with the nitrogen may form a heterocycloalkyl; C 1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted with a F; cyclopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; isopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; OC 1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted with a F; O-cyclopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; O- isopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; NR 28 R 29 , wherein R 28 and R 29 are independently selected from H, C 1-3 alkyl and isopropyl; OH; and R 16 -CONH- wherein R 16 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; c) a C 5-7 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted with a substituent selected from a halogen, CN, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 17 -CONH- wherein R 17 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; and d) a heterocycle, such as heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from a halogen; CN; -COOH; - CONR 24 R 25 , wherein R 24 andR 25 are independently selected from H, C 1-3 alkyl, cyclopropyl, and iso-propyl; C 1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted with a F; cyclopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; isopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; OC 1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted with a F; O-cyclopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; O-isopropyl, optionally substituted with a F; NR 30 R 31 , wherein R 30 and R 31 are independently selected from H, C 1-3 alkyl and isopropyl; OH; and R 1 8 -CONH- wherein R 18 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; e) a Ci- 6 alkyl or branched C 3- 6 alkyl;

R 50 is selected from the group consisting of a) Ci- 6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more halogen, CN, OR 51 , NR 52 R 53 , and CONH 2 , wherein R 51 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 54 -CONH- wherein R 54 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, R 52 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 55 -CONH- wherein R 55 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, and R 53 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 56 -CONH- wherein R 56 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, b) branched C 3-6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more halogen, CN, OR 57 , NR 58 R 59 , and CONH 2 , wherein R 57 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 60 -CONH- wherein R 60 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, R 58 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 61 -CONH- wherein R 61 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, and R 59 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 62 -CONH- wherein R 62 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl , and c) cyclic C 3- 6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more halogen, CN, OR 63 , NR 64 R 65 , and CONH 2 , wherein R 63 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F,

OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 66 -CONH- wherein R 66 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, R 64 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 67 -CONH- wherein R 67 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl, and R 65 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 68 -CONH- wherein R 68 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl; or

a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

In an embodiment A1 is selected from formula 2 wherein R' -R 5 are independently selected from H, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F. In further embodiments A1 is selected from formula 2 wherein R 1 and R 5 are selected from H and R 2 -R 4 are selected from F or wherein R 1 - R 5 are all F or wherein R 2 and R 3 are F and R 1 , R 4 and R 5 are H, or wherein R 2 and R 4 are F and R 1 , R 3 and R 5 are H, or wherein R 2 is F and R 1 , R 3 -R 5 are H, or wherein R 2 and R 4 are F, R 3 is OCH 3 , and R 1 and R 5 are H. In a further embodiment A1 is selected from formula 2 wherein R 1 and R 5 are H and R 2 -R 4 are independently selected from methyl, Cl and F, such as R 2 and R 4 are F and R 3 is methyl or R 2 and R 4 are F and R 3 is Cl. In a further embodiment A1 is selected from formula 2 wherein R 1 , R 4 and R 5 are H and R 2 and R 3 are independently selected from methyl, F, and Cl, such as R 2 is F and R 3 is Cl, or R 2 is F and R 3 is methyl, or R 2 is methyl and R 3 is Cl.

In another embodiment A1 is selected from formula 3 wherein Het 1 is selected from a six membered heteroaromatic ring, optionally substituted with a group selected from CN, Br, Cl, I, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, and SCH 3 optionally substituted with a F. In a further

embodiment A1 is selected from formula 3 wherein Het 1 is selected from a pyridinyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from CN, Br, Cl, I, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, and SCH 3 optionally substituted with a F. In a further embodiment A1 is selected from formula 3 wherein Het 1 is selected from a pyridinyl substituted with a group independently selected from F, Cl, and methyl, such as pyridinyl substituted with two group selected from F, Cl, and methyl. In a still further embodiment A1 is selected from formula 3 wherein Het 1 is selected from a pyrimidyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from CN, Br, Cl, I, F, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, and SCFb optionally substituted with a F.

In a still further embodiment XI is selected from S, SO, SO 2 , and O, such as S, SO, and SO 2 , preferably S.

In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a heterocycle, such as heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from a halogen; CN; methyl optionally substituted with a F; OCH3 optionally substituted with a F; OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F; OH; CONH2; NR 30 R 31 , wherein R 30 and R 3 1 are independently selected from H, C1-3 alkyl and isopropyl; and R 18 -CONH- wherein R 1 8 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl. In a preferred embodiment B1 is selected from a pyridinyl optionally substituted with a group selected from Cl, Br, CF3, OCH3, OH, NH2, CONH2, and CN. In one example B1 is selected from a pyridinyl substituted with a group independently selected from CF3 and CH3, such as one CF3 and one CH3. In another example B1 is selected from a pyridinyl substituted with a group independently selected from CF3 and CN, such as one CF3 and one CN. In a more preferred embodiment B1 is pyridinyl substituted with a halogen, such as Br or Cl, in particular one Br or one Cl. In a preferred embodiment B1 is pyridinyl substituted with an alkynyl, such as C2-4 alkynyl, preferably one ethynyl. In a further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a pyridinyl substituted with a group independently selected from a Cl, CN, and N-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl, such as one Cl, one CN and one N-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl. In another embodiment B1 is selected from a pyridinyl substituted with two groups selected from one Cl and one CN. In a further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a pyridinyl substituted with a group independently selected from a methyl and CN, such as one methyl and one CN. In another embodiment B1 is selected from a pyridinyl substituted with two groups selected from one Br and one CN. In a stil further embodiment B1 is selected from a pyridinyl substituted with a group independently selected from Cl, pyrimidinyl, pyridinyl, tetrahydropyridinyl, pyrrolidinyl,oxazolyl, and thiazolyl, such as two substituents independently selected from Cl, pyrimidinyl, pyridinyl, tetrahydropyridinyl, pyrrolidinyl,oxazolyl, and thiazolyl; Typically, one substituent is Cl and the other is selected from pyrimidinyl, pyridinyl, tetrahydropyridinyl, pyrrolidinyl,oxazolyl, and thiazolyl. In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a pyridinyl substituted with one or two thiazolyl, such as two thiazolyl. In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a pyridinyl substituted with a group independently selected from Cl, Br and -CONR 24 R 25 , wherein R 24 andR 25 together with the nitrogen form a heterocycloalkyl. In a still further embodiment B 1 is selected from a pyridinyl substituted with two groups independently selected from Cl, Br and -CONR 24 R 25 , wherein R 24 andR 25 together with the nitrogen form a heterocyclobutyl. Typically, B1 is selected from a pyridinyl substituted with two groups selected from one Cl, and one -CONR 24 R 25 , wherein R 24 andR 25 together with the nitrogen form a heterocyclobutyl, or B1 is selected from a pyridinyl substituted with two groups selected from one Br, and one -CONR 24 R 25 , wherein R 24 and R 25 together with the nitrogen form a heterocyclobutyl. In a preferred embodiment B1 is pyridinyl substituted with a group independently selected from CN and C 2-4 alkynyl, such as one CN and one ethynyl. In a further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a pyridinyl substituted with a CN, such as one CN.

In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a phenyl substituted with a group independently selected from a halogen, such as Cl, typically two Cl. In a still further embodiment B1 is selected from a phenyl substituted with a group independently selected from halogen and -CONR 22 R 23 , wherein R 22 and R 23 are independently selected from H, C 1-3 alkyl, cyclopropyl, and iso-propyl, or R 22 and R 23 together with the nitrogen may form a heterocycloalkyl, such as a phenyl substituted with a group independently selected from Cl, Br and -CONR 22 R 23 , wherein R 22 and R 23 together with the nitrogen may form a heterocycloalkyl, such as a heterocyclobutyl or heterocyclohexyl. Typically, B1 is selected from a phenyl substituted with one Cl and one heterocycloalkyl, such as a heterocyclobutyl or heterocyclohexyl, or B1 is selected from a phenyl substituted with one Br and one heterocycloalkyl, such as a heterocyclobutyl or heterocyclohexyl.

In a further embodiment R 50 is selected from C 1-4 alkyl or branched C 3-6 alkyl optionally substituted with at least one from the group consisting of halogen and OR 5 1 wherein R 5 1 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 54 -CONH- wherein R 54 is selected from Ci- 3 alkyl and cyclopropyl. In one embodiment R 50 is selected from branched C 3-6 alkyl, such as isopropyl.

In a still further embodiment R 50 is selected from C 1-4 alkyl, C 1-4 alkyl substituted with at least one from the group consisting of halogen and OR 5 1 wherein R 51 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, a halogen, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH2CH3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 54 -CONH- wherein R 54 is selected from C1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl. In one embodiment R 50 is selected from C1-4 alkyl, such as methyl or ethyl. In another embodiment R 50 is selected from C1-4 alkyl substituted with at least one from the group consisting of halogen, NR 52 R 53 , wherein R 52 and R 53 are independently selected from the group consisting H and methyl, and OH, such as 3F and one OH. In a still further embodiment R 50 is selected from C1-4 alkyl, such as ethyl, substituted with a halogen, such as one F. In a further embodiment R 50 is selected from Ci - 4 alkyl, such as ethyl, substituted with a OH, such as one OH. In a still further embodiment R 50 is selected from C1-4 alkyl, such as ethyl, substituted with a N¾, NHCH3 or N(CH3)2, such as NHCH3. In a further embodiment R 50 is selected from Ci -4 alkyl, such as methyl, substituted with a halogen, such as F.

In a further embodiment the compound of formula (1) is selected from the group consisting of:

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-l ,2,3-triazol-l -yl]-2- O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-cyano-pyridin-3 -yl 3-deoxy-3 -[4-(3 -fluoro-4-methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

4-Bromo-N,N-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3 -triazol-l-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

4-Bromo-N,N-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-lH-l,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-l ,2,3-triazol-l -yl]-2- 0-( 1,1,1 -trifluoro-2-hydroxyprop-3-yl)- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-(N-piperidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chloro-phenyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

4-Chloro-N,N-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-lH-l,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl] -3 -deoxy -2-O-trifluoromethyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

4-Chloro-N,N-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-deoxy-2-0-trifluoromethyl-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, 5-Chloro-2-{N-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, 5-Chloro-2-{N-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5- difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyano-pyridin-3 -yl 3-deoxy-3 -[4-(3 ,5-difluoro-4-methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyano-pyridin-3 -yl 3-deoxy-3 -[4-(3 -fluoro-4-methyl-phenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyano-phenyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,5-difluoro-4-methylphenyl)-lH-l ,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyano-pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-2-0-2,2,2,-trifluoroethyl-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluoro-phenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyano-pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluoro-phenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0- ethyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0- isopropyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0- (2-fluoroethyl)- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0- [2-(methylamino)ethyl] - 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

3.4-Dichlorophenyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3 ,5-difluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3- deoxy-2-0-(2-hydroxyethyl)- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-6-cyano-2-{A/-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyri din-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-

3.5-difluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside,

5 -Chloro-6 -cy ano -2- j /V-(2-oxa)-6-azasp i ro [3.3 ] heptany 1 } -pyridin-3 -y 1 3 -deoxy-3 - [4 - (3 ,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside,

5 -Chloro-2 -(pyrimidin-5 -y l)pyridin-3 -y 1 3 -deoxy-3 - [4 -(3 ,4 , 5 -trifluoropheny 1)- 1 H-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, 5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

5-Chloro-2-(l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5 -Chloro-2 -(3 -pyrrolin-3 -y l)pyridin-3 -y 1 3 -deoxy-3 - [4 -(3 ,4 , 5 -trifluoropheny 1)- 1 H-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(oxazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

5-Chloro-2-(thiazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

2,5-Bis(thiazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3- dcoxy-2-O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3- dcoxy-2-O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro-4-mcthylphcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro-4-mcthylphcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3-dcoxy- 2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3-dcoxy- 2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

6-Trifluoromethyl-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl] -3 -deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-(/Y-azctidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophcnyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-(/Y-azctidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophcnyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro-4-methylphenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2- -methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, 5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-<3- methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(6-fluoro-5-mcthylpyridin-2-yl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(5-chloro-6-mcthylpyridin-2-yl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3- deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

3-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-5-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol-

1-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 - yl]-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-Cyano-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 - yl]-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 - yl]-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-

3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3-deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(/Y-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)- l /- 1, 2, 3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Ethynylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3- deoxy-2- -methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, and

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(5-chloro-6-fluoropyridin-2-yl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvent thereof. Typically, the compound of formula (1) is selected from the group consisting of:

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-l ,2,3-triazol-l -yl]-2- O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-cyano-pyridin-3 -yl 3-deoxy-3 -[4-(3 -fluoro-4-methylphenyl)- 1H-1,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, 4-Bromo-N,N-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranosi de,

4-Bromo-N,N-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-lH-l,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-l ,2,3-triazol-l -yl]-2- 0-( 1,1,1 -trifluoro-2-hydroxyprop-3-yl)- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-(N-piperidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chloro-phenyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

4-Chloro-N,N-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-lH-l,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl] -3 -deoxy -2-O-trifluoromethyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

4-Chloro-N,N-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-deoxy-2-0-trifluoromethyl-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-{N-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyridin-3- yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, 5-Chloro-2-{N-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5- difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyano-pyridin-3 -yl 3-deoxy-3 -[4-(3 ,5-difluoro-4-methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyano-pyridin-3 -yl 3-deoxy-3 -[4-(3 -fluoro-4-methyl-phenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyano-phenyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,5-difluoro-4-methylphenyl)-lH-l,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyano-pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-2-0-2,2,2,-trifluoroethyl-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluoro-phenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyano-pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluoro-phenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-<3- ethyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-<3- isopropyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, 5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-<3- (2-fluoroethyl)- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-<3- [2-(methylamino)ethyl] - 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

3.4-Dichlorophenyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3 ,5-difluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3- deoxy-2-0-(2-hydroxyethyl)- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-6-cyano-2-{/V-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyri din-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-

3.5-difluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside,

5 -Chloro-6 -cy ano -2- {N-(2 -oxa)-6 -azaspiro [3.3] heptany 1 } -pyridin-3 -y 1 3 -deoxy-3 - [4 - (3 ,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside,

5 -Chloro-2 -(pyrimidin-5 -y l)pyridin-3 -y 1 3 -deoxy-3 - [4 -(3 ,4 , 5 -trifluoropheny 1)- 1 H-

1, 2, 3-triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

5-Chloro-2-(l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2- -methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5 -Chloro-2 -(3 -pyrrolin-3 -y l)pyridin-3 -y 1 3 -deoxy-3 - [4 -(3 ,4 , 5 -trifluoropheny 1)- 1 H-

1, 2, 3-triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(oxazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

5-Chloro-2-(thiazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 /- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

2.5-Bis(thiazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3 -deoxy-3 -[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 //- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3- deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l /- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3- deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, 5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro4-mcthylphcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 2-O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro-4-mcthylphcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 2-O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3-dcoxy- 2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3-dcoxy- 2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

6-Trifluoromethyl-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l //- l ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl] -3 -deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-(/V-azctidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophcnyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l //- 1, 2, 3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-(/Y-azctidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophcnyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro-4-methylphenyl)-

\H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2- -methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0- methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(6-fluoro-5-mcthylpyridin-2-yl)- l //- l ,2,3-triazol- l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(5-chloro-6-mcthylpyridin-2-yl)- l //- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3- deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

3-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-5-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- l //- l ,2,3-triazol- l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- l //- l ,2,3-triazol-

1-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l //- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 - yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)- l //- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-Cyano-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l //- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 - yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l //- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 - yl]-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)- l //- l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-

3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, 5-Chloro-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3-deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)-l /-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Ethynylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)-l /-l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3- deoxy-2- -methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(5-chloro-6-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-l /-l ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3 -deoxy-2- -methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-Cyano-5-ethynylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-lH-l,2,3-triazol-l- yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-Cyano-5 -ethynylpyridin-3 -yl 3 -deoxy-3 -[4-(3 ,5 -difluoro-4-methylphenyl)- 1 H-

1.2.3 -triazol-l-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Cyano-6-trifluoromethylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-lH-l,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-l ,2,3-triazol-l -yl]-2-0- methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5 -Cyanopyridin-3 -yl 3 -[4-(4-chloro-3 ,5 -difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3 - deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Bromo-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-(N-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-bromophenyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3 -triazol-l-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-(N-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-bromophenyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3 -triazol-l-yl] -2-O-ethyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-lH-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

5-Chloro-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-lH-

1, 2, 3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, 5-Chloro-2-(N-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3-deoxy -2-O-ethyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside,

2-(N-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophenyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-lH- 1, 2, 3 -triazol-l-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside, and

3 ,4-Dichlorophenyl 3 -[4-(4-chloro-3 ,5 -difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3 - deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside.

In a further embodiment A1 is selected from formula (2) wherein R' -R 5 are independently selected from H, CN, Nth, F, methyl optionally substituted with a fluorine (F), and OCFb optionally substituted with a F. In a further embodiment R 1 is selected from H, CN, N¾, F, methyl optionally substituted with a fluorine (F), and OCFb optionally substituted with a F, such as H, CN, NFb, F, methyl, CF3, OCFb and OCF3. In a further embodiment R 1 is selected from H and F. In a further embodiment R 2 is selected from H, CN, NFb, F, methyl optionally substituted with a fluorine (F), and OCFb optionally substituted with a F, such as H, CN, NFb, F, methyl, CF3, OCFb and OCF3. In a further embodiment R 2 is selected from F. In a further embodiment R 3 is selected from H, CN, NFb, F, methyl optionally substituted with a fluorine (F), and OCFb optionally substituted with a F, such as H, CN, NFb, F, methyl, CF3, OCFb and OCF3. In a further embodiment R 3 is selected from H, OCFb and F. In a further embodiment R 4 is selected from H, CN, NFb, F, methyl optionally substituted with a fluorine (F), and OCFb optionally substituted with a F, such as H, CN, NFb, F, methyl, CF3, OCFb and OCF3. In a further embodiment R 4 is selected from H and F.

In a further embodiment R 5 is selected from H, CN, NFb, F, methyl optionally substituted with a fluorine (F), and OCFb optionally substituted with a F, such as H, CN, NFb, F, methyl, CF3, OCFb and OCF3. In a further embodiment R 5 is selected from H and F.

In another embodiment A1 is selected from formula (3) wherein Het 1 is selected from a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring, optionally substituted with a group selected from Br; F; Cl; CN; NR 19 R 20 , wherein R 19 and R 20 are independently selected from H, Ci - 3 alkyl, cyclopropyl, iso-propyl, -C(=0)-R 21 , wherein R 21 is selected from H and C1-3 alkyl; methyl optionally substituted with a F; and OCFb optionally substituted with a F. In a further embodiment A is selected from formula (3) wherein Heti is selected from a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring, optionally substituted with a group selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCFb optionally substituted with a F. In a further embodiment Het 1 is selected from a five membered heteroaromatic ring. In a further embodiment Het 1 is selected from a five membered heteroaromatic ring substituted with a group selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl, CF 3 , OCH B and OCF 3 .

In a further embodiment Het 1 is selected from a six membered heteroaromatic ring.

In a further embodiment Het 1 is selected from a six membered heteroaromatic ring substituted with a group selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl, CF 3 , OCH 3 and OCF 3 . In a further embodiment Het 1 is selected from a six membered heteroaromatic ring substituted with a group selected from Br, F, and Cl.

In a further embodiment Het 1 is selected from pyridinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, pyridazyl, oxazoyl, thiazoyl, thiadiazoly, oxadiazoyl, thiophenyl, and imidazolyl optionally substituted with a group selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl, CF 3 , OCH 3 and OCF 3 . In a further embodiment Het 1 is selected from pyridinyl substituted with a group selected from Br, F, and Cl. In a further embodiment Het 1 is selected from pyridinyl substituted with a group selected from F, such as one, two or three F, typically 3 F.

In a further embodiment A1 is selected from formula (4) wherein R 6 is selected from Ci- 6 alkyl, branched C 3-6 alkyl and C 3-7 cycloalkyl. In an embodiment R 6 is a Ci - 6 alkyl, such as methyl or ethyl. In another embodiment R 6 is a cyclopropyl, cyclopentyl or cyclohexyl.

In a further embodiment A1 is selected from formula (4) wherein R 6 is selected from Ci- 6 alkyl substituted with a halogen. In a further embodiment R 6 is a Ci- 3 alkyl substituted with one, two or three halogens, such as one, two or three F, e.g.

CH 2 CF 3 .

In a further embodiment A1 is selected from formula (5) wherein R 7 is selected from a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring, optionally substituted with a group selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, and a phenyl optionally substituted with a group selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl optionally substituted with a F, and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F. In a further embodiment R 7 is selected from a five membered heteroaromatic ring. In a further embodiment R 7 is selected from a five membered heteroaromatic ring substituted with a group selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl, CF 3 , OCF 3 and OCH 3 . In a further embodiment R 7 is selected from a six membered heteroaromatic ring. In a further embodiment R 7 is selected from a six membered heteroaromatic ring substituted with a group selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl, CF 3 , OCF3 and OCH3, such as 1, 2 or 3 selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl, CF3, OCF3 and OCH3. In a further embodiment R 7 is selected from a phenyl. In a further embodiment R 7 is selected from a phenyl substituted with a group selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl, CF3, OCF3 and OCH3, such as 1, 2 or 3 selected from Br, F, Cl, methyl, CF3, OCF3 and OCH3. In a further embodiment R 7 is selected from a phenyl substituted with a group selected from Cl.

In a further embodiment A1 is selected from formula (6) wherein R 8 -R 12 are independently selected from H, F, methyl optionally substituted with a fluorine (F), and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F. In a further embodiment R 8 -R 12 are independently selected from H and F. In a further embodiment R 8 -R 12 are H. In a further embodiment R 8 -R 12 are independently selected from H and F, provided that at least two of R 8 -R 12 are F. In a further embodiment R 10 -R n are F and R 8 , R 9 and R 12 are H. In a further embodiment R 8 is selected from H, F, methyl optionally substituted with a fluorine (F), and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, such as H, F, methyl, CF 3 , OCF 3 and OCH 3 . In a further embodiment R 9 is selected from H, F, methyl optionally substituted with a fluorine (F), and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, such as H, F, methyl, CF 3 , OCF 3 and OCH 3 . In a further embodiment R 10 is selected from H, F, methyl optionally substituted with a fluorine (F), and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, such as H, F, methyl, CF 3 , OCF 3 and OCH 3 . In a further embodiment R 11 is selected from H, F, methyl optionally substituted with a fluorine (F), and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, such as H, F, methyl, CF 3 , OCF 3 and OCH 3 . In a further embodiment R 12 is selected from H, F, methyl optionally substituted with a fluorine (F), and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, such as H,

F, methyl, CF 3 , OCF 3 and OCH 3, typically H or methyl.

In a further embodiment A1 is selected from formula (7) wherein R 13 is a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring optionally substituted with a group selected from H, OH, F, methyl optionally substituted with a fluorine (F), and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, or an aryl, such as phenyl or naphthyl, optionally substituted with a group selected from H, OH, F, methyl optionally substituted with a fluorine (F), and OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F. In an embodiment R 13 is a five membered heteroaromatic ring. In another embodiment R 13 is a five membered heteroaromatic ring substituted with a group selected from H, OH, F, methyl, CF 3 , OCF 3 and OCH 3 , such as 1, 2 or 3 selected from OH, F, methyl, CF 3 , OCF 3 and OCH 3 . In an embodiment R 13 is a six membered heteroaromatic ring. In an embodiment R 13 is a six membered heteroaromatic ring substituted with a group selected from H, OH, F, methyl, CF 3 , OCF 3 and OCH 3 , such as 1, 2 or 3 selected from OH, F, methyl, CF 3 , OCF 3 and OCH 3 . In a further embodiment R 13 is a phenyl or naphthyl. In a further embodiment R 13 is a phenyl substituted with a group selected from H, OH, F, CF 3 , OCF 3 and OCH 3 , such as 1, 2 or 3 selected from OH, F, methyl, CF 3 , OCF 3 and OCH 3 . In a further embodiment R 13 is a phenyl substituted with a group selected from F, such as one, two or three F. In a further embodiment R 13 is a naphthyl substituted with a group selected from H, OH, F, CF 3 , OCF 3 and OCH 3 , such as 1, 2 or 3 selected from OH, F, methyl, CF 3 , OCF 3 and OCH 3 .

In a further embodiment A1 is selected from formula (8) wherein R 27 is selected from a Ci- 6 alkyl, branched C3-6 alkyl, Ci- 6 alkoxy and branched C3-6 alkoxy. In a further embodiment R 27 is selected from a Ci- 6 alkyl, such as C1-4 alkyl , e.g.

methyl, ethyl, propyl. In a further embodiment R 27 is selected from a Ci- 6 alkoxy, such as Ci - 4 alkoxy, e.g. methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy.

In a still further embodiment XI is selected from S, SO, SO2, O, C=0, and CR 7 R 8 wherein R 7 and R 8 are independently selected from hydrogen, OH, or halogen (e.g. F, Cl, Br). In a further embodiment XI is selected from S. In a further embodiment XI is selected from SO. In a further embodiment XI is selected from SO2. In a further embodiment XI is selected from O. In a further embodiment XI is selected from C=0. In a further embodiment XI is selected from CR 7 R 8 wherein R 7 and R 8 are independently selected from hydrogen, OH, F, Cl, and Br, such as C¾, CHF, CHC1, CHBr, CHOH, CF 2 , CC1 and CBr 2 .

In a still further embodiment B1 is selected from a Ci- 6 alkyl or branched C 3-6 alkyl substituted with a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring, optionally substituted with a substituent selected from a halogen (e.g. Cl, F, Br, I), CN, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 14 -CONH- wherein R 14 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl. In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a Ci- 6 alkyl substituted with a five membered heteroaromatic ring. In a further embodiment B is selected from a branched C 3-6 alkyl substituted with a five membered heteroaromatic ring. In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a Ci- 6 alkyl substituted with a five membered heteroaromatic ring substituted with a substituent selected from CN, Cl, F, Br, I, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 14 -CONH- wherein R 14 is selected from Ci - 3 alkyl and cyclopropyl. In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a Ci- 6 alkyl substituted with a five membered heteroaromatic ring substituted with a substituent selected from CN, Cl, F, Br, I, methyl, CF 3 , OCH 3 , OCF 3 , OCH 2 CH 3 , OCF 2 CF 3 , OH, and R 14 -CONH- wherein R 14 is selected from methyl. In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a branched C 3-6 alkyl substituted with a five membered heteroaromatic ring substituted with a substituent selected from CN, Cl, F, Br, I, methyl optionally substituted with a F, OCH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OCH 2 CH 3 optionally substituted with a F, OH, and R 14 -CONH- wherein R 14 is selected from C 1-3 alkyl and cyclopropyl. In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a branched C 3-6 alkyl substituted with a five membered heteroaromatic ring substituted with a substituent, such as 1, 2 or 3, selected from CN, Cl, F, Br, I, methyl, CF 3 , OCH 3 , OCF 3 , OCH 2 CH 3 , OCF 2 CF 3 , OH, and R 14 -CONH- wherein R 14 is selected from methyl. In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a Ci- 6 alkyl substituted with a phenyl, such as benzyl or CH 2 CH 2 -phenyl. In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a Ci- 6 alkyl substituted with a phenyl substituted with a substituent, such as 1, 2 or 3, selected from CN, Cl, F, Br, I, methyl, CF , OCH 3 , OCF 3 , OCH 2 CH 3 , OCF 2 CF 3 , OH, and R 15 -CONH- wherein R 15 is selected from methyl. In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a Ci- 6 alkyl substituted with a phenyl substituted with a group selected from Cl, F, Br, methyl, CF 3 , OCH 3 , OCF 3 , such as benzyl substituted with one or two Cl, or CH 2 CH 2 - phenyl substituted with one Cl. In a still further embodiment B1 is selected from a phenyl. In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a naphthyl. In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a naphthyl substituted with a group selected from NR 28 R 29 , wjierein R 28 a nd R 29 are independently selected from H and C 1-3 alkyl. In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a naphthyl substituted with a group selected from NR 28 R 29 , wherein R 28 and R 29 are independently selected from H and CH 3 . In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a naphthyl substituted with a group selected from NR 28 R 29 , wherein R 28 and R 29 selected from CH 3. In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a phenyl substituted with a group, such as 1, 2 or 3, selected from Cl, F, Br, I, methyl, CF , OCH 3 , OCF 3 , OCH 2 CH 3 , OCF 2 CF 3 , OH, and R 16 -CONH- wherein R 16 is selected from methyl. In a still further embodiment B1 is selected from a phenyl substituted with a group, such as 1, 2 or 3, selected from Cl, F, Br, I, CN, methyl, CF 3 , OCH 3 , OCF 3 , OCH 2 CH 3 , OCF 2 CF 3 , OH, and R 16 -CONH- wherein R 16 is selected from methyl. In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a phenyl substituted with a group, such as 1, 2 or 3, selected from COOH and CONH 2 . In a still further embodiment B1 is selected from a naphthyl substituted with a group, such as 1, 2 or 3, selected from Cl, F, Br, I, methyl, CF 3 , OCH 3 , OCF 3 , OCH 2 CH 3 , OCF 2 CF 3 , OH, and R 16 -CONH- wherein R 16 is selected from methyl. In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a naphthyl. In a still further embodiment B1 is selected from a naphthyl substituted with a NR 28 R 29 , wherein R 28 and R 29 are independently selected from H, Ci- 3 alkyl and isopropyl, such as naphthyl substituted with a N(CH 3 ) 2 .

In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a C5-7 cycloalkyl, such as cyclopentyl or cyclohexyl. In a further embodiment B is selected from cyclohexyl. In a still further embodiment B is selected from a C5-7 cycloalkyl, such as cyclohexyl, substituted with a group, such as 1, 2 or 3, selected from CN, Cl, F, Br, I, methyl, CF 3 , OCH 3 , OCF 3 , OCH 2 CH 3 , OCF 2 CF 3 , OH, and R 17 -CONH- wherein R 17 is selected from methyl. In a still further embodiment B1 is selected from a cyclohexyl, substituted with a halogen, such as one or two halogens, typically F.

In a further embodiment of the present invention B1 is selected from a C M alkyl. Typically, B is selected from ethyl, propyl and butyl.

In a still further embodiment B1 is selected from a heterocycle, such as heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl. In a still further embodiment B1 is selected from a heteroaryl substituted with a group, such as 1, 2 or 3, selected from Cl, F, Br, I, methyl CF 3 , OCH 3 , OCF 3 , OCH 2 CH 3 , OCF 2 CF 3 , OH, and R 18 -CONH- wherein R 18 is selected from methyl. In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a heteroaryl substituted with a group, such as 1, 2 or 3, selected from Cl, F, Br, I, CN, methyl,

CF 3 , OCH 3 , OCF 3 , OCH 2 CH 3 , OCF 2 CF 3 , OH, and R 18 -CONH- wherein R 18 is selected from methyl. In a still further embodiment B1 is selected from a

heterocycloalkyl substituted with a group, such as 1, 2 or 3, selected from Cl, F, Br, I, methyl CF 3 , OCH 3 , OCF 3 , OCH 2 CH 3 , OCF 2 CF 3 , OH, and R 18 -CONH- wherein R 18 is selected from methyl. In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a heteroaryl substituted with a group, such as 1, 2 or 3, selected from NR 30 R 31 , wherein R 30 and R 31 are independently selected from H, Ci- 3 alkyl and isopropyl. Typically, B1 is selected from a pyridinyl substituted with a group, such as 1, 2 or 3, selected from NH 2 , such as one NH 2 . In another embodiment B1 is selected from a thiophenyl substituted with a halogen, such as one Cl. In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a pyridazinyl. In a further embodiment B1 is selected from a pyridazinyl substituted with one, two or three, substituents seleted from OCH 3 , CN, OH and Cl. In a further aspect the present invention relates to a compound of formula (1) of the present invention for use as a medicine.

In a still further aspect the present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of formula (1) of the present invention and optionally a pharmaceutically acceptable additive, such as a carrier and/or excipient.

In a further aspect the present invention relates to a compound of formula (1) of the present invention for use in a method for treating a disorder relating to the binding of a galectin-3 to a ligand in a mammal, such as a human. In an embodiment the disorder is selected from the group consisting of inflammation; fibrosis, such as pulmonary fibrosis, liver fibrosis, kidney fibrosis, ophthalmological fibrosis and fibrosis of the skin and heart; scarring; keloid formation; aberrant scar formation; surgical adhesions; septic shock; cancer, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, leukemias and lymphomas, such as T-cell lymphomas; metastasising cancers; autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus; metabolic disorders; heart disease; heart failure; pathological angiogenesis, such as ocular angiogenesis or a disease or condition associated with ocular angiogenesis, e.g. neovascularization related to cancer; and eye diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and corneal neovascularization; atherosclerosis; metabolic diseases such as diabetes; type 2 diabetes; insulin resistens; obesity; Diastolic HF; asthma and other interstitial lung diseases, including Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, mesothelioma; liver disorders, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

A non-limiting group of cancers given as examples of cancers that may be treated, managed and/or prevented by administration of a compound of formula (1) include: colon carcinoma, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, fibrosarcoma, myxosarcoma, liposarcoma, chondrosarcoma, osteogenic sarcoma, chordoma, angiosarcoma, endotheliosarcoma, lymphangeosarcoma,

lymphangeoendothelia sarcoma, synovioma, mesothelioma, Ewing's sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, sweat gland carcinoma, sebaceous gland carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinomas, cystandeocarcinoma, medullary carcinoma, bronchogenic carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, hepatoma, bile duct carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, Wilms' tumor, cervical cancer, testicular tumor, lung carcinoma, small cell lung carcinoma, bladder carcinoma, epithelial carcinoma, glioblastomas, neuronomas, craniopharingiomas, schwannomas, glioma, astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, craniopharyngioma, ependymoma, pinealoma, hemangioblastoma, acoustic neuroama, oligodendroglioma, meningioma, melanoma, neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, leukemias and lymphomas, acute lymphocytic leukemia and acute myelocytic polycythemia vera, multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, and heavy chain disease, acute nonlymphocytic leukemias, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, Hodgkin's Disease, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, rectum cancer, urinary cancers, uterine cancers, oral cancers, skin cancers, stomach cancer, brain tumors, liver cancer, laryngeal cancer, esophageal cancer, mammary tumors, childhood-null acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), thymic ALL, B-cell ALL, acute myeloid leukemia,

myelomonocytoid leukemia, acute megakaryocytoid leukemia, Burkitt's lymphoma, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and T cell leukemia, small and large non-small cell lung carcinoma, acute granulocytic leukemia, germ cell tumors, endometrial cancer, gastric cancer, cancer of the head and neck, chronic lymphoid leukemia, hairy cell leukemia and thyroid cancer. Each of these disorders is considered a single embodiment and may be made the subject of a claim specifically to such disease or disorder.

In a still further aspect the present invention relates to a method for treatment of a disorder relating to the binding of a galectin-3 to a ligand in a mammal, such as a human, wherein a therapeutically effective amount of at least one compound of formula (1) of the present invention is administered to a mammal in need of said treatment. In an embodiment the disorder is selected from the group consisting of inflammation; fibrosis, such as pulmonary fibrosis, liver fibrosis, kidney fibrosis, ophthalmological fibrosis and fibrosis of the skin and heart; scarring; keloid formation; aberrant scar formation; surgical adhesions; septic shock; cancer, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, leukemias and lymphomas, such as T-cell lymphomas;

metastasising cancers; autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus

erythematosus; metabolic disorders; heart disease; heart failure; pathological angiogenesis, such as ocular angiogenesis or a disease or condition associated with ocular angiogenesis, e.g. neovascularization related to cancer; and eye diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and corneal neovascularization; atherosclerosis; metabolic diseases such as diabetes; type 2 diabetes; insulin resistens; obesity;

Diastolic HF; asthma and other interstitial lung diseases, including Hermansky- Pudlak syndrome, mesothelioma; liver disorders, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Each of these disorders are considered a single embodiment and may be made the subject of a claim specifically to such disease or disorder.

The skilled person will understand that it may be necessary to adjust or change the order of steps in the processes al to a3, and such change of order is encompassed by the aspects of the process as described above in the reaction schemes and accompanying description of the process steps.

Furthermore, the skilled person will understand that the processes described above and hereinafter the functional groups of intermediate compounds may need to be protected by protecting groups.

Functional groups that it is desirable to protect include hydroxy, amino and carboxylic acid. Suitable protecting groups for hydroxy include optionally substituted and/or unsaturated alkyl groups (e.g. methyl, allyl, benzyl or tert-butyl), trialkyl silyl or diarylalkylsilyl groups (e.g. t-butyldimethylsilyl, t-butyldipheylsilyl or

trimethylsilyl), AcO(acetoxy), TBS (t-butyldimethylsilyl), TMS(trimethylsilyl), PMB (p-methoxybensyl), and tetrahydropyranyl. Suitable proteting groups for carboxylic acid include (Ci- 6 )-alkyl or benzyl esters. Suitable protecting groups for amino include t-butyloxycarbonyl, benzyloxycarbonyl, 2-(trimethylsilyl)-ethoxy-methyl or 2-trimethylsilylethoxycarbonyl (Teoc). Suitable protecting groups for S include S- C(=N)NH 2 , TIPS.

The protection and deprotection of functional groups may take place before or after any reaction in the above mentioned processes.

Furthermore the skilled person will appreciate, that, in order to obtain compounds of the invention in an alternative, and on some occasions more convenient manner, the individual process steps mentioned hereinbefore may be performed in different order, and/or the individual reactions may be performed at a different stage in the overall route (i.e. substituents may be added to and/or chemical transformations performed upon, different intermediates to those mentioned hereinbefore in conjunction with a particular reaction). This may negate, or render necessary, the need for protecting groups.

In a still further embodiment the compound (1) is on free form.“On free form” as used herein means a compound of formula (1), either an acid form or base form, or as a neutral compound, depending on the substitutents. The free form does not have any acid salt or base salt in addition. In one embodiment the free form is an anhydrate. In another embodiment the free form is a solvate, such as a hydrate.

In a further embodiment the compound (1) is a crystalline form. The skilled person may carry out tests in order to find polymorphs, and such polymorphs are intended to be encompassed by the term“crystalline form” as used herein.

When the compounds and pharmaceutical compositions herein disclosed are used for the above treatment, a therapeutically effective amount of at least one compound is administered to a mammal in need of said treatment.

The term“Ci- X alkyl” as used herein means an alkyl group containing 1-x carbon atoms, e.g. C1-5 or Ci- 6 , such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl or hexyl.

The term“branched C3-6 alkyl” as used herein means a branched alkyl group containing 3-6 carbon atoms, such as isopropyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, isopentyl, 3- methylbutyl, 2,2-dimethylpropyl, n-hexyl, 2-methylpentyl, 2,2-dimethylbutyl, 2,3- dimethylbutyl.

The term“C3-7 cycloalkyl” as used herein means a cyclic alkyl group containing 3-7 carbon atoms, such as cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, and 1-methylcyclopropyl.

The term“C5-7 cycloalkyl” as used herein means a cyclic alkyl group containing 5-7 carbon atoms, such as cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, or cycloheptyl.

The term“C2-4 alkynyl” as used herein means an alkynyl group containing 2-4 carbon atoms and having one triple bond, such as ethynyl, propynyl, butynyl.

The term“Oxo” as used herein means an oxygen atom with double bonds, also indicated as =0.

The term“CN” as used herein means a nitril.

The term“a five or six membered heteroaromatic ring” as used herein means one five membered heteroaromatic ring or one six membered heteroaromatic ring.

The five membered heteroaromatic ring contains 5 ring atoms of which one to four are heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S. The six membered heteroaromatic ring contains 6 ring atoms of which one to five are heteroatoms selected from N, O and S. Examples include thiophene, furan, pyran, pyrrole, imidazole, pyrazole, isothiazole, isooxazole, pyridine, pyrazine, pyrimidine and pyridazine. When such heteroaromatic rings are substituents they are termed thiophenyl, furanyl, pyranyl, pyrrolyl, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, isothiazolyl, isooxazolyl, pyridinyl, pyrazinyl, pyrimidinyl and pyridazinyl. Also included are oxazoyl, thiazoyl, thiadiazoly, oxadiazoyl, and pyridonyl.

The term“a heterocycle, such as heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl” as used herein means a heterocycle consisting of one or more 3-7 membered ring systems containing one or more heteroatoms and wherein such ring systems may optionally be aromatic. The term“a heteroaryl” as used herein means a mono or bicyclic aromatic ringsystem containing one or more heteroatoms, such as 1-10, e.g. 1-6, selected from O, S, and N, including but not limited to oxazolyl, oxadiazolyl, thiophenyl, thiadiazolyl, thiazolyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyridonyl, pyrimidonyl, quinolinyl, azaquionolyl, isoquinolinyl, azaisoquinolyl, quinazolinyl, azaquinazolinyl, bensozazoyl, azabensoxazoyl, bensothiazoyl, or azabensothiazoyl. The term“a heterocycloalkyl” as used herein means a mono or bicyclic 3-7 membered alifatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms, such as 1-7, e.g. 1-5, selected from O, S, and N, including but not limited to piperidinyl, tetrahydropyranyl,

tetrahydrothipyranyl, or piperidonyl.

The term“a spiro heterocycle” as used herein means a two-ring system connected by a common carbon atom, and containing from 5 to 12 ring members wherein from 2 to 11 are carbon atoms and at least one is a heteroatom, such as a hetero atom selected from one or more N, S, O; one example is N-(2-oxa)-6- azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl.

The term“treatment” and“treating” as used herein means the management and care of a patient for the purpose of combating a condition, such as a disease or a disorder. The term is intended to include the full spectrum of treatments for a given condition from which the patient is suffering, such as administration of the active compound to alleviate the symptoms or complications, to delay the progression of the disease, disorder or condition, to alleviate or relief the symptoms and complications, and/or to cure or eliminate the disease, disorder or condition as well as to prevent the condition, wherein prevention is to be understood as the management and care of a patient for the purpose of combating the disease, condition, or disorder and includes the administration of the active compounds to prevent the onset of the symptoms or complications. The treatment may either be performed in an acute or in a chronic way. The patient to be treated is preferably a mammal; in particular a human being, but it may also include animals, such as dogs, cats, cows, sheep and pigs.

The term "a therapeutically effective amount" of a compound of formula (1) of the present invention as used herein means an amount sufficient to cure, alleviate or partially arrest the clinical manifestations of a given disease and its complications. An amount adequate to accomplish this is defined as "therapeutically effective amount". Effective amounts for each purpose will depend on the severity of the disease or injury as well as the weight and general state of the subject. It will be understood that determining an appropriate dosage may be achieved using routine experimentation, by constructing a matrix of values and testing different points in the matrix, which is all within the ordinary skills of a trained physician or veterinary.

In a still further aspect the present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising the compound of formula (1) and optionally a

pharmaceutically acceptable additive, such as a carrier or an excipient.

As used herein“pharmaceutically acceptable additive” is intended without limitation to include carriers, excipients, diluents, adjuvant, colorings, aroma, preservatives etc. that the skilled person would consider using when formulating a compound of the present invention in order to make a pharmaceutical composition.

The adjuvants, diluents, excipients and/or carriers that may be used in the composition of the invention must be pharmaceutically acceptable in the sense of being compatible with the compound of formula (1) and the other ingredients of the pharmaceutical composition, and not deleterious to the recipient thereof. It is preferred that the compositions shall not contain any material that may cause an adverse reaction, such as an allergic reaction. The adjuvants, diluents, excipients and carriers that may be used in the pharmaceutical composition of the invention are well known to a person skilled within the art.

As mentioned above, the compositions and particularly pharmaceutical compositions as herein disclosed may, in addition to the compounds herein disclosed, further comprise at least one pharmaceutically acceptable adjuvant, diluent, excipient and/or carrier. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical compositions comprise from 1 to 99 weight % of said at least one pharmaceutically acceptable adjuvant, diluent, excipient and/or carrier and from 1 to 99 weight % of a compound as herein disclosed. The combined amount of the active ingredient and of the pharmaceutically acceptable adjuvant, diluent, excipient and/or carrier may not constitute more than 100% by weight of the composition, particularly the pharmaceutical composition.

In some embodiments, only one compound as herein disclosed is used for the purposes discussed above.

In some embodiments, two or more of the compounds as herein disclosed are used in combination for the purposes discussed above.

The composition, particularly pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound set forth herein may be adapted for oral, intravenous, topical,

intraperitoneal, nasal, buccal, sublingual, or subcutaneous administration, or for administration via the respiratory tract in the form of, for example, an aerosol or an air-suspended fine powder. Therefore, the pharmaceutical composition may be in the form of, for example, tablets, capsules, powders, nanoparticles, crystals, amorphous substances, solutions, transdermal patches or suppositories.

Further embodiments of the process are described in the experimental section herein, and each individual process as well as each starting material constitutes embodiments that may form part of embodiments.

The above embodiments should be seen as referring to any one of the aspects (such as‘method for treatment’,‘pharmaceutical composition’,‘compound for use as a medicament’, or‘compound for use in a method’) described herein as well as any one of the embodiments described herein unless it is specified that an embodiment relates to a certain aspect or aspects of the present invention.

All references, including publications, patent applications and patents, cited herein are hereby incorporated by reference to the same extent as if each reference was individually and specifically indicated to be incorporated by reference and was set forth in its entirety herein.

All headings and sub-headings are used herein for convenience only and should not be construed as limiting the invention in any way.

Any combination of the above-described elements in all possible variations thereof is encompassed by the invention unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context.

The terms“a” and“an” and“the” and similar referents as used in the context of describing the invention are to be construed to cover both the singular and the plural, unless otherwise indicated herein or clearly contradicted by context. Recitation of ranges of values herein are merely intended to serve as a shorthand method of referring individually to each separate value falling within the range, unless otherwise indicated herein, and each separate value is incorporated into the specification as if it were individually recited herein. Unless otherwise stated, all exact values provided herein are representative of corresponding approximate values e.g ., all exact exemplary values provided with respect to a particular factor or measurement can be considered to also pro-vide a corresponding approximate measurement, modified by "about," where appropriate).

All methods described herein can be performed in any suitable order unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context.

The use of any and all examples, or exemplary language (e.g.,“such as”) provided herein, is intended merely to better illuminate the invention and does not pose a limitation on the scope of the invention unless otherwise indicated. No language in the specification should be construed as indicating any element is essential to the practice of the invention unless as much is explicitly stated.

The citation and incorporation of patent documents herein is done for convenience only and does not reflect any view of the validity, patentability and/or enforceability of such patent documents.

The description herein of any aspect or embodiment of the invention using terms such as“comprising”,“having”,“including” or“containing” with reference to an element or elements is intended to provide support for a similar aspect or embodiment of the invention that“consists of’,“consists essentially of’, or “substantially comprises” that particular element or elements, unless otherwise stated or clearly contradicted by context (e.g. , a composition described herein as comprising a particular element should be understood as also describing a composition consisting of that element, unless otherwise stated or clearly contradicted by context). This invention includes all modifications and equivalents of the subject matter recited in the aspects or claims presented herein to the maximum extent permitted by applicable law.

The present invention is further illustrated by the following examples that, however, are not to be construed as limiting the scope of protection. The features disclosed in the foregoing description and in the following examples may, both separately and in any combination thereof, be material for realizing the invention indiverse forms thereof. Experimental procedures

Evaluation of Kd values The affinity of Example 1-71 for galectins were determined by a fluorescence anisotropy assay where the compound was used as an inhibitor of the interaction between galectin and a fluorescein tagged saccharide probe as described Sorme, P., Kahl-Knutsson, B., Huflejt, M., Nilsson, U. J., and Leffler H. (2004) Fluorescence polarization as an analytical tool to evaluate galectin-ligand interactions. Anal.

Biochem. 334: 36-47, (Sorme et al., 2004) and Monovalent interactions of Galectin-1 By Salomonsson, Emma; Larumbe, Amaia; Tejler, Johan; Tullberg, Erik; Rydberg, Hanna; Sundin, Anders; Khabut, Areej; Frejd, Torbjom; Lobsanov, Yuri D.; Rini, James M.; et al, From Biochemistry (2010), 49(44), 9518-9532, (Salomonsson et al., 2010). The assay was also adapted to be able to measure the high affinity of compounds for galectin-3 by using the below probe constructed to have high affinity for galectin-3 which made it possible to use a low concentration of galectin-3 (50 nM). 100 nM albumin was included as a carrier to prevent protein loss at such low concentration of galectin.

Uptake of compounds of formula 1 over CAC02 monolayers.

Uptake of a drug over the intestine can be predicted measuring the uptake over a monolayer of CACO-2 cells measured as Papp(10 A -6 cm/s). (Shah, P.; Jogani, V.; Bagchi, T.; Misra, A. Role of Caco-2 Cell Monolayers in Prediction of Intestinal Drug Absorption. Biotechnol. Prog. 2006, 22 (1), 186-198.) In general compounds like Ref 1 and 2 where the 2-OH group is unsubstituted have low(Papp<5 10 L -6 cm/s) to medium(Papp=5-10 10 L -6 cm/s) uptake due to efflux from the basolateral to the apical side of the CAC02 membranes. By introduction of small alkyl substituents to the galactoside 2-OH such as compounds of formula (1) results in low or no efflux combined with a high uptake (Papp >10 10 L -6 cm/s) over CACO-2 cells from the apical to the basolateral side of the cells.

References Synthesis of Examples and intermediates

General experimental:

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra were recorded on a 400 MHz Bruker AVANCE III 500 instrument or a Varian instrument at 400 MHz or a 500 MHz Bruker Avance Neo 500 instrument, at 25 °C.

Chemical shifts are reported in ppm (d) using the residual solvent as internal standard. Peak multiplicities are expressed as follow: s, singlet; d, doublet; dd, doublet of doublets; t, triplet; dt, doublet of triplet; q, quartet; p, pentet; m, multiplet; br s, broad singlet. In the case of anomeric mixtures, the shifts of the individual anomers are reported separately and the a/b ratio was calculated based on the integration of the anomeric peaks.

LC-MS were acquired on an Agilent 1200 HPLC coupled with an Agilent MSD mass spectrometer operating in ES (+) ionization mode. Column: XBridge Cl 8 (4.6 x 50 mm, 3.5 pm) or SunFire C18 (4.6 x 50 mm, 3.5 pm). Solvent A water + 0.1% TFA and solvent B Acetonitrile + 0.1% TFA or solvent A water (10 mM Ammonium hydrogen carbonate) and solvent B Acetonitrile. Wavelength: 254 nM. Alternatively, FC-MS were acquired on an Agilent 1100 HPFC coupled with an Agilent MSD mass spectrometer operating in ES (+) ionization mode. Column: Waters symmetry 2.1 x 30 mm Cl 8 or Chromolith RP-18 2 x 50 mm. Solvent A water + 0.1% TFA and solvent B Acetonitrile + 0.1% TFA. Wavelength 254 nm.

GC-MS were acquired on a Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 Ultra. Column: DB-5ms: 0.25 mm*30m*0.25 pm. Injection Temperature: 150 °C; Spilt Ratio: 99: 1; He (1.5 ml/min); Inst Method: 50 °C (1 min)/15 °C/min /260 °C (1 min); Ion Source Temp: 200 °C; Interface Temp: 250 °C.

Preparative HPFC was performed on a Gilson 281. Flow: 20 mF/min Column: X-Select 10 pm 19 x 250 mm column. Wavelength: 254 nm or 214 nm. Solvent A water (10 mM Ammonium hydrogen carbonate) and solvent B Acetonitrile (Method A). Alternatively, preparative HPFC were acquired on a Gilson system. Flow: 12 ml/min Column: kromasil 100-5-C18 column. Wavelength: 220 nm. Solvent A water + 0.1% TFA and solvent B Acetonitrile (Method B).

The following abbreviations are used aq: aqueous

Calcd: Calculated

DCM: dichloromethane

DIEA: N,N-Diisopropylethylamine

DMAP: 4-dimethylaminopyridine

DMF: N,N-dimethylformamide

ESI-MS: Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

Et 3 N: triethylamine

EtOAc: ethyl acetate

h: hours

HATU: 1 - [Bis(dimethy lamino)methy lene] - 1 H- 1 ,2 , 3 -triazolo [4 , 5 -hjpyridinium

3-oxid hexafluorophosphate

HPLC: High Performance liquid chormatography

MeCN: acetonitrile

min: minutes

prep. preparative

PE: petroleum ether

rt: room temperature

SFC: Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

TBS: tert-Butyldimethylsilyl

TBAF: tetrabutylammonium fluoride

TFA: trifluoroacetic acid

THF: tetrahydrofuran

TMS: trimethyl silyl

UV: Ultraviolet

Synthesis of examples 1-71 from their respective intermediates 1-71.

Example 1

5-Br omopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3- [4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] - 2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 4,6-<9-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- l //-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (150 mg, 0.24 mmol) and NaH (60% in oil, 19 mg, 0.48 mmol) were stirred in DMF (3 mL) for 10 min before the addition of iodomethane (22.5 pL, 0.36 mmol). The mixture was stirred 2 h at 40 °C, then diluted with EtOAc and washed twice with water. The organic phase was dried, evaporated and the residue was stirred 1 h in 80 % aq TFA (2 mL). The mixture was concentrated and purified by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc). Further purification by preparative HPLC (Method B) afforded the title compound (50 mg, 38 %) as a white powder. ESI- MS m/z calcd for ^oHisBrFsN^S] [M+H] + : 547.0; found: 547.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, MethanoUE) d 8.71 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 8.59 (s, 2H), 8.40 - 8.36 (m, 1H), 7.70 - 7.62 (m, 2H), 6.28 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.04 (dd, J = 11.3, 2.7 Hz, 1H), 4.65 (dd, J = 11.3, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.46 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.19 (d, J = 2.7 Hz, 1H), 3.75 - 3.66 (m, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H).

Example 2

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3- [4-(3-fluoro-4-methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

Example 3

4-Chloro-ApV-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

A solution of 4-chloro-/V,/V-dimcthyl-bcnzamidc-2-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (190 mg, 0.34 mmol), benzaldehyde dimethylacetal (207 pL, 1.36 mmol) and / -tolucncsulfonic acid monohydrate (5 mg, 0.026 mmol) in MeCN (3.0 mL) were stirred 2 h at rt. The mixture was concentrated and partitioned between EtOAc and water, the organic phase was collected and evaporated. The residue was subjected to chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc) and the obtained material was dissolved in DMF (2.0 mL). Iodomethane (45 pL, 0.72 mmol) followed by NaH (60 % in oil, 15 mg, 0.36 mmol) were added and the mixture was stirred 1 h at rt. The mixture was poured onto ice and HC1 (0.2 M), the precipitate was isolated by filtration. The precipitate was dissolved in 80 % aq TFA (2.0 mL) stirred 1 h at rt before being poured on water and NaOH (20 mL, 2 M). The precipitate was isolated by filtration and purified by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc) to afford the title compound (24 mg, 12 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C24H24CIF3N4O5S] [M+H] + : 573.1; found: 573.2. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.57 (s, 1H), 7.86 (s, 1H), 7.66 (m, 2H), 7.46 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 6.19 (bs, 1H), 4.98 (dd, J = 11.4, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.58 (dd, J = 11.3, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.52 (bt, lH), 4.18 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.78 - 3.64 (m, 2H), 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.13 (s, 3H), 2.89 (s, 3H).

Example 4

4-Chloro-7V,/V-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyr anoside

4-Chloro-A,A-dimcthyl-bcnzamidc-2-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l //- 1 ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]-3-dcoxy- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (34 mg, 0.059 mmol) was dissolved in MeCN (2.0 mL) and benzaldehyde dimethylacetal (36 pL, 0.24 mmol) followed by /;-tolucncsulfonic acid monohydrate (5 mg, 0.023 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 2 h at rt followed by evaporation of the solvent. The residue was dissolved in DMF (1.5 mL), iodomethane (15 pL, 0.24 mmol) followed by NaH (60 % in oil, 5.0 mg, 0.12 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 2.5 h at rt, then poured onto ice and HC1 (0.2 M). The precipitate was isolated by filtration and dried. This material was dissolved in 80 % aq TFA (1.5 mL) and stirred 2 h at rt before being concentrated. The residue was purified by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc) and further purified by preparative HPLC (Method B) afforded the title compound (6.0 mg, 17 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C24H24CI2F2N4O5S] [M+H] + : 589.1; found: 589.2. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.63 (s, 1H), 7.87 (s, 1H), 7.67 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.47 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 6.20 (bs, 1H), 4.99 (dd, J = 11.3, 2.6 Hz, 1H), 4.59 (dd, J = 11.5, 5.1 Hz, 1H), 4.53 (bs, 1H), 4.18 (s, 1H), 3.79 - 3.64 (m, 2H), 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.14 (s, 3H), 2.90 (s, 3H).

Example 5

5-Br omopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3- [4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] - 2-0-(l,l ? l-trifluoro-2-hydroxyprop-3-yl)-l-thio-a-D-galactopyra noside

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 4,6-<9-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- l //- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (1.00 g, 1.6 mmol) and NaH (60% in oil, 77 mg, 1.92 mmol) were stirred 20 min in DMF (10 mL) before l,2-epoxy-3,3,3- trifluoropropane (0.211 mL, 1.91 M solution in THF, 1.76 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 1 h at rt, then water (20 mL) was added. The solids were isolated by filtration and this material was heated in MeOH (10 mL) then cooled to rt. The solids were filtered off, the filtrate was concentrated and purified by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc). The product was treated in 80 % aqueous TFA (3.0 mL) for 2 h, then concentrated and purified by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc). Further purification by preparative HPLC (Method B) yielded the title compound (30 mg, 3 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for ^HwBrFe^OsS] [M+H] + : 645.0; found: 645.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.69 (s, 1H), 8.58 (s, 2H), 8.35 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.69 - 7.59 (m, 2H), 6.28 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 5.09 (d, J = 11.3 Hz, 1H), 4.85 (m, 1H), 4.49 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, 1H), 4.25 (s, 1H), 4.03 (d, J = 10.5 Hz, 1H), 3.96 (m, 1H), 3.76 - 3.65 (m, 2H), 3.60

(m, 1H).

Example 6

2-(7V-piperidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophenyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

2-(/V-pipcridinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophcnyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)-l //-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (25 mg, 0.04 mmol) was dissolved in MeCN (2.0 mL) and benzaldehyde dimethylacetal (24 pL, 0.16 mmol) followed by / -tolucncsulfonic acid monohydrate (5 mg, 0.023 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 2.5 h at rt followed by evaporation of the solvent. The residue was dissolved in DMF (1.5 mL), iodomethane (10 pL, 0.16 mmol) followed by NaH (60 % in oil, 5.0 mg, 0.12 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 1 h at rt, then poured onto ice and HC1 (0.2 M). The precipitate was isolated by filtration and dried. This material was dissolved in 80 % aq TFA (1.2 mL) and stirred 2 h at rt before being concentrated. The residue was purified by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc) and further purified by preparative HPLC (Method B) to afford the title compound (16 mg, 78 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C27H28CI2F2N4O5S] [M+H] + : 629.1; found: 629.2. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) (two conformational isomers) d 8.63 (s, 1H), 7.95 - 7.79 (m, 1H), 7.66 (m, 2H), 7.55 - 7.35 (m, 1H), 7.34 - 7.19 (m, 1H), 6.37 - 6.08 (m, 1H), 4.99 (d, J = 11.0 Hz, 1H), 4.70 - 4.37 (m, 2H), 4.19 (s, 1H), 3.93 - 3.58 (m, 4H), 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.22 (bs, 2H), 1.82 - 1.57 (m, 5H), 1.52 (bs, 1H).

Example 7

4-Chloro-7V,/V-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-trifluoromethyl-l-thio-a- D-galactopyranoside Example 8

4-Chloro-7\yV-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-deoxy-2-0-trifluoromethyl-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] - 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

Example 9

5-Chloro-2-(7V,/V-dimethylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

Example 10

5-Chloro-2-{7V-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2- -methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

2-Bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- l 7/- 1 ,2,3-triazol- l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (75 mg, 0.13 mmol), 2-oxa-6- azaspiro[3.3]heptane oxalic acid (149 mg, 0.52 mmol) and DIEA (0.33 mL, 1.93 mmol) dissolved in MeCN (2.5 mL) was sealed in a microwave vial and stirred 6 h at 130 °C in a microwave reactor. The mixture was concentrated and purified by preparative HPLC (Method B) to afford the title compound (24 mg, 31 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C25H25CIF3N5O5S] [M+H] + : 600.1; found: 600.2.‘H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.60 (s, 1H), 8.03 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.95 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.67 (dd, J = 8.6, 6.7 Hz, 2H), 5.98 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.04 (dd , J = 11.4, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.85 - 4.81 (m, 4H), 4.62 (dd, J = 11.4, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.53 (d, J = 9.4 Hz, 2H), 4.46 - 4.39 (m, 3H), 4.20 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.74 - 3.63 (m, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H).

Example 11 5-Chloro-2-{7V-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5- difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

5-Ch loro-2- {/V-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]hcptanyl }-pyridin-3-yl 4,6-<3-bcnzylidcnc-3- [4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio- a-D-galactopyranoside (115 mg, 0.16 mmol) was dissolved in DCM/TFA (10 mL, 19:1) and stirred 1 h at rt. The mixture was neutralized with EhN and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (55.4 mg, 55 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C25H25CI2F2N5O5S] [M+H] + : 616.1; found: 616.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.92 (s, 1H), 8.06 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.86 - 7.78 (m, 3H), 6.10 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.56 (d, J= 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.88 (dd, J= 11.6, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.76 (t, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.72 - 4.65 (m, 4H), 4.47 (dd, J = 11.6, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.35 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 2H), 4.27 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 2H), 4.24 (d, J= 6A Hz, 1H), 4.03 (dd, J= 6.0, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 3.51 (dt, J= 11.2, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 3.40 (dd, J= 11.2, 6.0 Hz, 1H), 3.32 (s, 3H).

Example 12

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,5-difluoro-4-methylphenyl)-l - l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,5-difluoro-4- mcthylphcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (80.0 mg, 0.13 mmol) was dissolved in DCM/TFA (10 mL, 19:1) and stirred 1 h at rt. The mixture was neutralized with EhN and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (36.2 mg, 53 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C22H20CIF2N5O4S] [M+H] + : 524.1; found: 524.2. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) d 8.60 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.57 (s, 1H), 8.47 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.44 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 2H), 6.51 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.07 (dd, J = 11.6, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.72 (dd, J= 11.6, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.39 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.67 (d, J= 6.0 Hz, 2H), 3.46 (s, 3H), 2.21 (s, 3H).

Example 13

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro-4-methylphenyl)-l//- 1,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3 -yl 4,6-<9-bcnzylidcnc-3 -deoxy-3 -[4-(3 -fluoro-4- mcthylphcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (35.0 mg, 0.059 mmol) was dissolved in DCM/TFA (10 mL, 19:1). The mixture was stirred 1 h at rt and neutralized with EhN. Solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (16.7 mg, 56 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C22H21CIFN5O4S] [M+H] + : 506.1; found: 506. T 'H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) d 8.50 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.41 (s, 1H), 8.38 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.52 - 7.38 (m, 2H), 7.21 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.42 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.97 (dd, = 11.6, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.63 (dd, = 11.6, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.30 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.10 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 3.59 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 3.37 (s, 3H), 2.20 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 3H).

Example 14 5-Chloro-2-cyanophenyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,5-difluoro-4-methylphenyl)-l -l,2,3- triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-cyanophenyl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,5-difluoro-

4-methylphenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (56.0 mg, 0.092 mmol) in the MeOH (3 mL), EhN (2 mL) and water (1 mL) were added. The mixture was stirred 4 h at rt under nitrogen atmosphere. The solvent was removed under the reduced pressure the residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (31.0 mg, 64 %) as a wihte solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C23H21CIF2N4O4S] [M+H] + : 523.1; found: 523.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) d 8.59 (s, 1H), 8.02 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.78 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.54 (dd, J = 8.4, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.47 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.43 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.08 (dd, J = 11.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.74 - 4.70 (m, 1H), 4.45 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 1H), 4.21 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.74 - 3.67 (m, 2H), 3.48 (s, 3H), 2.24 (s, 3H).

Example 15

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-2-0-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] - 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

Example 16

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l - l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

A nitrogen purged solution of 2-bromo-5-chloro-pyri din-3 -yl 3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl-3-[4- (3 ,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (10 mg, 0.017 mmol) in N, A-d i m cth y 1 acctam i dc (0.5 mL) was added to a nitrogen purged solution of Zn (0.5 mg, 0.0084 mmol), Zn(CN)2 (2.0 mg, 0.017 mmol), Pd(dibenzylideneacetone)2 (0.8 mg, 0.0013 mmol) and 1,1’- bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (0.8 mg, 0.0013 mmol) in N, A-d i m cth y 1 acctam i dc (0.5 mL) and the resulting mixture was stirred 23 h at 100 °C. The mixture was purified by preparative HPLC (Method B) to afford the title compound (1.8 mg, 20 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C22H19CIF3N5O4S] [M+H] + : 542.1; found: 541.8. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.60 (s, 2H), 8.47 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 7.67 (dd, J = 8.6, 6.7 Hz, 2H), 6.48 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.08 (dd, J = 11.3, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.80 (dd, J = 11.3, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.39 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.20 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.92 - 3.83 (m, 1H), 3.68 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 3.53 - 3.44 (m, 1H), 1.05 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H).

Example 17

5-Br omopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3- [4-(3 ,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] - 2-0-ethyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 4,6-<9-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- l //- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (200 mg, 0.31 mmol) was stirred in DMF (3.0 mL) and NaH (60 % in oil, 25 mg, 0.61 mmol) followed by ethyl iodide (52 pL, 0.61 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 2 h at rt, then partitioned between EtOAc and water and the organic phase was collected and evaporated. The residue was stirred 1 h in 80 % aq TFA (3.0 mL). The mixture was concentrated to about 1 mL volume, then partitioned between water and EtOAc. NaOH (1 M) was added to pH approximately 10, the organic phase was collected and evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc) to afford the title compound (159 mg, 92 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 2i H 2 oBrF 3 N 4 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 561.0; found: 561.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.67 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.59 (s, 1H), 8.56 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.33 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.71 - 7.61 (m, 2H), 6.24 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.05 (dd, J = 11.3, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.74 (dd, J = 11.3, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.45 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 1H), 4.20 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.85 - 3.76 (m, 1H), 3.75 - 3.64 (m, 2H), 3.49 - 3.40 (m, 1H), 1.03 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H).

Example 18

5-Br omopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3- [4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] - 2-0-isopropyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 4,6-<9-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- l //- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (200 mg, 0.31 mmol), CS2CO3 (200 mg, 0.6 mmol), and isopropyl iodide (91 pL, 0.9 mmol) were stirred in DMF (2.0 mL) 17 h at 90 °C. The mixture was poured onto cold water and the precipitate was collected, then stirred 2 h at rt in 80 % aq TFA (3.0 mL). The mixture was partitioned between EtOAc and NaOH (0.5 M), the organic phase was collected and evaporated. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method B) to afford the title compound (15 mg, 8 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 22 H 22 BrF 3 N 4 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 575.1; found: 575.2.‘H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.67 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 8.61 (s, 1H), 8.56 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.33 (t, J = 1.9 Hz, 1H), 7.66 (dd, J = 8.8, 6.7 Hz, 2H), 6.20 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.03 (dd, J = 11.3, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.79 (dd, J = 11.3, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.43 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.19 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 3.79 (p, J = 6.1 Hz, 1H), 3.74 - 3.62 (m, 2H), 1.13 (d, J = 6.1 Hz, 3H), 0.87 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H).

Example 19

5-Br omopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3- [4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] - 2-0-(2-fluoroethyl)-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 4,6-<9-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- l //- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (200 mg, 0.31 mmol) was stirred in DMF (3.0 mL) and l-fluoro-2-iodo-ethane (82 pL, 0.92 mmol) followed by NaH (60 % in oil, 50 mg, 1.23 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 3 h at rt, then poured onto ice cooled water (30 mL) and HC1 (1 M, 5 mL). The solids were isolated by filtration and purified by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc). The crude was stirred 1 h in 80 % aq TFA (4.0 mL). The mixture was poured on ice and NaOH (1 M), the precipitate was collected by filtration and purified by preparative HPLC (Method B) to afford the title product (63 mg. 35 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 2i Hi 9 BrF 4 N 4 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 579.0; found: 579.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.69 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 8.58 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.57 (s, 1H), 8.35 (t, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.68 - 7.58 (m, 2H), 6.24 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.08 (dd, J = 11.3, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.81 (dd, J = 11.4, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 4.48 (t, 1H), 4.45 (m, 1H), 4.33 (m, 1H), 4.24 (d, J = 2.6 Hz, 1H), 3.96 (m, 1H), 3.73 (m, 1H), 3.73 - 3.67 (m, 2H).

Example 20

5-Br omopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3- [4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] - 2-0-[2-(methylamino)ethyl]-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

2-[(/u/ -Butoxycarbonyl)(mcthyl)amino]cthyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (238 mg, 0.72 mmol) and 5-bromopyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (155 mg, 0.25 mmol) were stirred in DMF (3.0 mL) and NaH (60 % in oil, 40 mg, 1.0 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 5 h at rt, then poured onto ice. The solids were isolated by filtration and purified by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc). The crude was stirred 1 h in 80 % aq TFA (3.0 mL). The mixture was concentrated, poured on ice and NaOH (1 M, pH> 10). The precipitate was collected by filtration and purified by preparative HPLC (Method B) to afford the title product as the TFA salt (57 mg, 32 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for ^ffeBrFsNsCES] [M+H] + : 590.1; found: 589.8. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.71 (s, 1H), 8.63 (s, 1H), 8.61 (s, 1H), 8.39 (d, J = 1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.72 -

7.60 (m, 2H), 6.30 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.14 (dd, J = 11.3, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.90 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.50 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.23 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 4.10 (ddd, J = 10.6, 7.5, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 3.79 - 3.65 (m, 3H), 3.22 - 3.13 (m, 1H), 3.13 - 3.04 (m, 1H),

2.61 (s, 3H).

Example 21

3,4-Dichlorophenyl 3- [4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3- deoxy-2-0-(2-hydroxyethyl)-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 3,4-dichlorophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5- difluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy-2-O-carboxymethyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (50 mg, 0.081 mmol) in THF (0.5 mL) borane THF complex solution (0.5 mL, 1 M in THF, 0.5 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 40 min at rt and then quenched with cold HC1 (1 M). The mixture was extracted with EtOAc, the solvents were removed, and the residue was purified preparative HPLC (Method B) to afford the title compound (33 mg, 67 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C22H20CI3F2N3O5S] [M+H] + : 582.0; found: 582.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, MethanoUE) d 8.68 (s, 1H), 7.82 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.65 (m, 2H), 7.55 (dd, J = 8.4, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.49 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.18 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.04 (dd, J = 11.3, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.80 (dd, J = 11.3, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.48 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 1H), 4.26 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.81 (m, 1H), 3.76 - 3.67 (m, 2H), 3.60 - 3.50 (m, 3H). Example 22

5-Chloro-6-cyano-2-{7V-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyri din-3-yl 3-[4-(4- chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

A solution of 5-chloro-6-cyano-2-{/V-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyri din-3-yl 4,6-di-0-acctyl-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-txiazol- 1 -yl]-3-dcoxy-2- O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (58.0 mg, 0.080 mmol) in MeOH (3 mL), EhN (2 mL) and water (1 mL) was stirred 4 h at rt under a nitrogen atmosphere. The solvent was removed under reduced preesure and the residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (17.6 mg, 34 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C26H24CI2L2N6O5S] [M+H] + : 641.1; found: 641.0. Ή NMII (400 MHZ, CD 3 OD) d 8.57 (s, 1H), 7.96 (s, 1H), 7.57 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 6.14 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.96 (dd, J = 11.6, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.74 (s, 4H), 4.58 - 4.54 (m, 1H), 4.40 - 4.29 (m, 4H), 4.26 - 4.22 (m, 1H), 4.08 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.59 - 3.58 (m, 2H), 3.30 (s, 3H).

Example 23

5-Chloro-6-cyano-2-{7V-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyri din-3-yl 3-deoxy-3- [4-(3, 4, 5-trifluorophenyl)-l //- 1,2, 3-triazol-l -yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-6-cyano-2-{A-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyrid in-3-yl 4,6-di-0-acctyl-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3-dcoxy-2-<9- methyl-1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (54.0 mg, 0.076 mmol) in MeOH (3 mL) EhN (2 mL) and water (1 mL) were added. The mixture was stirred 4 h at rt under a nitrogen atmosphere. The solvent was removed under reduced preesure and the residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (26.5 mg, 56 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C26H24CIL3N6O5S] [M+H] + : 625.1; found: 625.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) d 8.64 (s, 1H), 8.09 (s, 1H), 7.71 - 7.67 (m, 2H), 6.26 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.07 (dd, J = 11.6, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.86 (s, 4H), 4.69 - 4.65 (m, 1H), 4.52 - 4.41 (m, 4H), 4.36 - 4.33 (m, 1H), 4.18 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.71 - 3.68(m, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H).

Example 24

5-Chloro-2-(pyrimidin-5-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//- 1, 2, 3-triazol-l-yl]-2-(9-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-(pyrimidin-5-yl)pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (90.0 mg, 0.14 mmol) was dissolved in DCM/TFA (10 mL, 19: 1) and stirred 1 h at rt. The mixture was neutralized with EhN and then concentrated. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (52.5 mg, 67 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C24H20CIF3N6O4S] [M+H] + : 581.1; found: 581.1. 'El NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) d 9.13 (s, 1H), 9.06 (s, 2H), 8.54 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.44 (s, 1H), 8.36 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.53 (m, 2H), 6.00 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.79 (m, 1H), 4.46 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.13 (t, = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.01 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.56 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 3.07 (s, 3H).

Example 25

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//- 1, 2, 3-triazol-l-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (30.0 mg, 0.045 mmol) was dissolved in DCM/TFA (10 mF, 19:1) and stirred 1 h at rt. The mixture was neutralized with Et3N and then concentrated. The residue was purified by preparative HPFC (Method A) to give the title compound (16.3 mg, 63 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C25H21CIF3N5O4S] [M+H] + : 580.1; found: 580.1. ¾NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) d 8.59 (s, 1H), 8.44 (s, 1H), 8.42 (s, 1H), 8.36 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.89 (m, 1H), 7.75 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 7.60 - 7.50 (m, 2H), 7.46 - 7.37 (m, 1H), 6.10 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.83 (m, 1H), 4.47 (dd, = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.19 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.01 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.64 - 3.52 (m, 2H), 3.09 (s, 3H).

Example 26

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//- 1, 2, 3-triazol-l-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(pyridin-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-3- [4-(3 ,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2 -O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (50 mg, 0.075 mmol) in DCM (3 mL) TFA (0.29 mL) and water (0.5 mL) were added and the mixture was stirred 12 h at rt. The mixture was neutralized with Et3N and then concentrated. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (31 mg, 70 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C25H21CIF3N5O4S] [M+H] + : 580.1, found: 580.2. 'H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.84 (s, 2H), 8.66 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 2H), 8.42 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.07 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.83 (dd, J = 8.8, 7.2 Hz, 2H), 7.56 (dd, J = 7.6, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 6.38 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.59 (s, 1H), 4.77 (dd , J = 11.2, 2.4 Hz, 2H), 4.46 (dd , J = 11.6, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.09 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H ), 3.97 (s, 1H), 3.49 - 3.41 (m, 2H), 3.14 (s, 3H).

Example 27

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//- 1, 2, 3-triazol-l-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(pyridin-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-3- [4-(3 ,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2 -O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (50 mg, 0.075 mmol) in DCM (5.0 mL) TFA (0.5 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred 2 h at rt. The mixture was neutralized with Et3N (1 mL) and then concentrated. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (17 mg, 39 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C25H21CIF3N5O4S] [M+H] + : 580.1; found: 579.8. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) d 8.70 (dd, J = 4.8, 1.6 Hz, 2H),

8.60 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.55 (s, 1H), 8.45 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.76 (dd, J = 4.8, 1.6 Hz, 2H), 7.65 (dd, J = 8.8, 6.8 Hz, 2H), 6.11 (d , J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.89 - 4.83 (m, 1H), 4.57 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.26 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 1H), 4.16 - 4.09 (m, 1H), 3.73 -

3.61 (m, 2H), 3.17 (s, 3H).

Example 28

5-Chloro-2-(l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3- deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (60.0 mg, 0.12 mmol) in DMF (2 mF), trimethyl-[2-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (23.5 mg, 0.10 mmol), (+)- sodium F-ascorbate (18.5 mg, 0.094 mmol), copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (23.3 mg, 0.094 mmol) and CsF (21.3 mg, 0.14 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was filtered, and the filtrate was purified by preparative HPFC (Method A) to give the product (7.8 mg, 14 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C25H25CIF3N5O4S] [M+H] + : 584.1; found: 583.9. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) d 8.62 (s, 1H), 8.39 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.31 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.72 - 7.65 (m, 2H), 6.31 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 6.08 - 5.99 (m, 1H), 5.06 (dd , J = 11.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.38 - 4.29 (m, 1H), 4.21 - 4.14 (m, 1H), 3.75 - 3.56 (m, 4H), 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.18 - 3.13 (m, 2H), 2.64 - 2.50 (m, 2H).

Example 29

5-Chloro-2-(3-pyrrolin-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//- 1, 2, 3-triazol-l-yl]-2-(9-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-[ 1 -(/V-/er/-butoxycarbonyl)-3-pyrrolin-3-yl]pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)-l 7/-1 ,2,3-triazol-l -yl]-2-0- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (50 mg, 0.066 mmol) in DCM (6 mL), TFA (0.49 mL, 6.59 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 2 h at rt and TEA (1 mL) was added. The mixture was concentrated, and the residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the product (13 mg, 37 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 24 H 23 CIF 3 N 5 O 4 S] [M+H] + : 570.1; found: 569.8. ¾ NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) d 8.63 (s, 1H), 8.42 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.31 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.69 (dd, J = 8.8, 6.4 Hz, 2H), 6.95 - 6.85 (m, 1H), 6.33 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.08 (dd, J = 11.6, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.67 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.38 - 4.31 (m, 1H), 4.30 - 4.25 (m, 2H), 4.22 - 4.17 (m, 1H), 4.12 - 4.04 (m, 2H), 3.76 - 3.61 (m, 2H), 3.39 (s, 3H).

Example 30

5-Chloro-2-(oxazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//- 1, 2, 3-triazol-l-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(oxazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-3- [4-(3 ,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2 -O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (80 mg, 0.11 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) TFA (618 mg, 5.42 mmol) and H2O (0.5 mL) were added. The mixture was stirred 12 h at rt before Et3N (1.5 mL) was added dorpwise at 0 °C. The solvent was removed by evaporation and the residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (31 mg, 50 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C23H19CIF3N5O5S] [M+H] + :570.1; found: 570.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de): d 8.91 (s, 1 H), 8.60 (d, J= 2A Hz, 1H), 8.43 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.36 (d, J = 0.8 Hz, 1H), 7.86 - 7.82 (m, 2H), 7.58 (d, J = 0.8 Hz, 1H), 6.70 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.63 (d, J= 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.94 (dd, J= 11.6, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (d, J= 11.2 Hz, lH), 4.56 (dd, J= 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.14 - 4.11 (m, 1H), 4.03 - 4.01 (m, 1H), 3.54 - 3.49 (m, 1H), 3.43 - 3.38 (m, 1H), 3.29 (s, 3H).

Example 31

5-Chloro-2-(thiazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//- 1, 2, 3-triazol-l-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(thiazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3- [4-(3 ,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2 -O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (85 mg, 0.12 mmol) in DCM (6 mL) TFA (0.43 mF) and H2O (0.5 mF) were added. The mixture was stirred 12 h at rt, Et3N (1.5 mF) was added dropwise at 0 °C. The solvent was removed by evaporation and the residue was purified by preparative HPFC (Method A) to give the title compound (11 mg, 16 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for 586.0; found: 586.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) d 8.60 (s, 1H), 8.43 - 8.40 (m, 2H), 8.00 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 7.70 - 7.65 (m, 3H), 6.51 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 5.14 (dd, J = 11.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.70 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.36 - 4.33 (m, 1H), 4.16 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 3.72 - 3.62 (m, 2H), 3.38 (s, 3H).

Example 32

2,5-Bis(thiazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//-l,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2,5-bis(thiazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 4,6-<9-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-3-[4- (3 ,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (125 mg, 53 %, 0.091 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) TFA (0.34 mL) and H2O (0.5 mL) were added. The mixture was stirred 12 h at rt, EhN (1.5 mL) was added dropwise at 0 °C. The solvent was removed by evaporation and the residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (23 mg, 40 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C26H21F3N6O4S3] [M+H] + : 635.1; found: 635.0.‘H NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD): d 8.80 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.52 (s, 1H), 8.23 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.79 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 7.66 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 7.61 - 7.55 (m, 4H), 6.32 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.98 (dd, J = 11.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.57 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.40 - 4.37(m, 1H), 4.10 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 3.61 - 3.59 (m, 2H), 3.33 (s, 3H).

Examples 33 and 34

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3- [4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3- deoxy-2-O-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//-l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-3 - deoxy-2-O-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

A mixture of 5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside and 5-bromopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (115 mg), trimethyl-[2-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (101 mg, 0.42 mmol) and Cul (6.3 mg, 0.033 mmol) were dissolved in MeCN (3 mL). DIEA (0.11 mL, 0.66 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred 16 h at 50 °C. The mixture was diluted with EtOAc and washed with water. The organic phase was dried, evaporated and purified by preparative HPLC (Method B) to afford the two title compounds (65 mg of the chloro analog and 31 mg of the bromo analog).

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//-l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-3 -deoxy-2-0- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C20H18CIF2N4O4S] [M+H] + : 519.1; found: 519.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.67 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.64 (s, 1H), 8.49 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 8.24 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.67 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 6.29 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.05 (dd, J = 11.4, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 4.65 (dd, J = 11.3, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.46 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, lH), 4.19 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.75 - 3.65 (m, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H).

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//-l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-3 -deoxy-2-0- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

ESI-MS m/z calcd for ^oHisB^NrOrS] [M+H] + : 563.0; found: 563.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-dr) d 8.71 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.64 (s, 1H), 8.59 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 8.39 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.67 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 6.29 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.05 (dd, J = 11.4, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 4.65 (dd, J = 11.3, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.46 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, lH), 4.19 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.76 - 3.66 (m, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H).

Examples 35 and 36

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3- [4-(3-fluoro-4-methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1- yl]-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Br omopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3- [4-(3-fluoro-4-methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1- yl]-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

A mixture of 5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside and 5-bromopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (115 mg), trimethyl-[2-(3-fluoro-4-methylphenyl)ethynyl]silane (86 mg, 0.42 mmol) and Cul (6.3 mg, 0.033 mmol) were dissolved in MeCN (3 mL). DIEA (0.11 mL, 0.66 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred 26 h at 50 °C. The mixture was diluted with EtOAc and washed with water. The organic phase was dried, evaporated and purified by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc). Further purification by preparative HPLC (Method B) to afford the two title compounds (25 mg of the chloro analog and 12 mg of the bromo analog).

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro-4-methylphenyl)-l//-l,2,3-triazol-l-y l]-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C21H22CIFN4O4S] [M+H] + : 481.1; found: 481.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-dr) d 8.67 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.49 (s, 2H), 8.25 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.58 - 7.51 (m, 2H), 7.31 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.29 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.03 (dd, J = 11.3, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (dd, J = 11.3, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.46 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.19 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.74 - 3.65 (m, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H), 2.30 (s, 3H).

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro-4-methylphenyl)-l//-l,2,3-triazol-l-y l]-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 2i H 22 BrFN 4 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 525.1; found: 525.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-dr) d 8.71 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.59 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 8.49 (s, 1H), 8.38 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.58 - 7.51 (m, 2H), 7.31 (t, .7 = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.28 (d, = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.03 (dd, J = 11.4, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (dd, J = 11.3, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.46 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 1H), 4.19 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.75 - 3.65 (m, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H), 2.30 (s, 3H).

Examples 37 and 38

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3- [4-(4-chloro-3-fluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3- deoxy-2-O-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Br omopyridin-3-yl 3- [4-(4-chloro-3-fluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3- deoxy-2-O-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

A mixture of 5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside and 5-bromopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (115 mg), trimethyl-[2-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (94 mg, 0.42 mmol) and Cul (6.3 mg, 0.033 mmol) were dissolved in MeCN (3 mL). DIEA (0.11 mL, 0.66 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred 26 h at 50 °C. The mixture was diluted with EtOAc and washed with water. The organic phase was dried, evaporated and purified by chromatography (S1O2, PE/EtOAc). Further purification by preparative HPLC (Method B) to afford the two title compounds (36 mg of the chloro analog and 14 mg of the bromo analog).

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-l//-l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deo xy-2-0-methyl-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C20H19CI2FN4O4S] [M+H] + : 501.1; found: 501.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.67 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.58 (s, 1H), 8.50 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 8.25 (t, J = 2.\ Hz, 1H), 7.77 (dd , J = 10.4, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 7.69 (dd, = 8.4, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.55 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.29 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.05 (dd, J = 11.3, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (dd, J = 11.4, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.46 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 1H), 4.19 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.74 - 3.65 (m, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H).

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-l//-l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deo xy-2-0-methyl-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 2 oHi 9 BrClFN 4 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 545.0; found: 545.0. Ή NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.71 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.60 - 8.57 (m, 2H), 8.38 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.77 (dd, J = 10.4, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 7.69 (dd, J = 8.4, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.55 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.28 (d, = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.04 (dd , J = 11.4, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (dd , J = 11.3, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.46 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.19 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 3.75 - 3.66 (m, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H).

Example 39

6-Trifluoromethyl-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyr anoside

6-Trifluoromethyl-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5- difluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy-2- O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (190 mg, 0.27 mmol was dissolved in solution of DCM/TFA (20 mF, 19: 1) and the mixture was stirred 6 h at rt. EhN was added to neutralize the TFA. The solvent was removed by evaporation and the residue was purified by preparative HPFC (Method A) to give the title compound (111 mg, 73 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 22 H 2O C1F 5 N 4 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 567.1; found: 567. F 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDsOD) d 8.65 (s, 1H), 8.62 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.13 (s, 1H), 7.69 - 7.64 (m, 2H), 6.35 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.06 (dd, J = 11.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.65 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.46 - 4.43 (m, 1H), 4.17 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.70 - 3.68 (m, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H), 2.51 - 2.48 (m, 3H). Example 40

2-(7V-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophenyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyr anoside

2-(/V-azctidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophcnyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l //- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (100 mg, 0.17 mmol), benzaldehyde dimethylacetal (53 pL, 0.35 mmol) and / -tolucncsulfonic acid monohydrate (catalytic amount) were stirred 20 h at rt in MeCN (1.5 mL). The mixture was neutralized with EtsN, water was added, and the precipitate was collected by filtration. The precipitate was dissolved in DMF (2 mL), iodomethane (30 pL, 0.46 mmol) followed by NaH (60 % in oil, 20 mg, 0.46 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 4 h at rt, then poured onto ice/water. The precipitate was isolated by filtration and dried. This material was dissolved in 80 % aq TFA (2.0 mL) and stirred 1 h at rt and poured onto ice/water. The precipitate was collected and purified by preparative HPLC (Method B) to afford the title compound (40 mg, 39 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C25H24CI2F2N4O5S] [M+H] + : 601.1; found: 600.8. Ή NMII (400 MHZ, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.64 (s, 1H), 7.87 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.67 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.44 (dd, J = 8.2, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 6.23 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.03 (dd , J = 11.4, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 4.61 (dd, J = 11.4, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.51 (t, J = 6.2 Hz, 1H), 4.26 - 4.15 (m, 3H), 4.01 (h, J = 8.7 Hz, 2H), 3.77 - 3.62 (m, 2H), 3.42 (s, 3H), 2.36 (p, J = 7.7 Hz, 2H).

Example 41

2-(7V-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophenyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro-4- methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-(/V-azctidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophcnyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3- deoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro-4-methylphenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (125 mg, 0.19 mmol) in DCM (4 mL) TFA (0.70 mL, 9.60 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 24 h at rt before EhN (2 mL) was added at 0 °C. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (40.4 mg, 37 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C26H28CIFN4O5S] [M+H] + : 563.1, found: 563.2. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) d 8.48 (s, 1H), 7.86 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.56 -7.51 (m, 2H), 7.44 (dd, J = 8.0, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.34 - 7.27 (m, 2H), 6.22 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.02 (dd, J = 11.6, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.64 (dd, J = 11.6, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.51 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 4.21 - 4.17 (m, 3H), 4.03 - 3.97 (m, 2H), 4.73 - 3.64 (m, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H), 2.38 - 2.31 (m, 2H), 2.29 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 3H).

Example 42

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3- [4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] - 2-O-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloropyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (100 mg, 0.17 mmol) in DCM (10 mL) TFA (0.63 mL, 8.46 mmol) was added at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred 2 h at rt, then EhN (2 mL) was added at 0 °C. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (47 mg, 55 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 20 H 18 CIF 3 N 4 O 4 S] [M+H] + : 503.1; found: 503.2. ¾ NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) d 8.66 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.60 (s, 1H), 8.48 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.22 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.72 - 7.62 (m, 2H), 6.28 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.04 (dd, J = 11.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.64 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.46 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.75 - 3.66 (m, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H).

Example 43

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(6-fluoro-5-methylpyridin-2-yl)-l//- 1,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloropyridin-3-yl 4,6-<9-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-3-[4-(6-fluoro-5- mcthylpyridin-2-yl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (100 mg, 0.18 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) TFA (0.70 mF, 9.60 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 24 h at rt before Et3N was added at 0 °C. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by preparative HPFC (Method A) to give the title compound (34.3 mg, 41 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 20 H 21 CIFN 5 O 4 S] [M+H] + : 482.1, found: 482.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) d 8.64 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.54 (s, 1H), 8.46 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.21 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.85 (s, 1H), 7.84 (d, J = 4.4 Hz, 1H), 6.27 (d, J = 52 Hz, 1H), 5.07 (dd, = 11.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.65 (dd, J = 11.6, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.47 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.19 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.70 - 3.67 (m, 2H), 3.40 (s, 3H), 2.31 (s, 3H).

Example 44

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3- [4-(5-chloro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] - 3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

TBAF (15 pL, 1 M in THF, 15 mhioΐ) and DIEA (51.4 pL, 300 mhioΐ) were added to 5- chloropyridin-3 -yl 3 -azido-3 -deoxy-2- -methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (52.0 mg, 150 mhioΐ), 3-chloro-2-methyl-6-[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethynyl]pyridine (40.0 mg, 0.187 mhioΐ) and Cul (2.9 mg, 15 mhioΐ) in MeCN (2 mL). The mixture was stirred 1 h at rt and then heated to 50 °C. After additionally 1 h the mixture was cooled to rt and more TBAF (150 pL, 1 M, in THF, 150 mhioΐ) was added. The mixture was stirred for 1 h before it was concentrated. Water (10 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted twice with EtOAc (10 mL). The organic phases were dried and concentrated. Purification by preparative HPLC (Method B) yielded the title compound (36.0 mg, 48 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C20H22CI2N5O4S] [M+H] + : 498.1; found: 498.1, 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.70 - 8.64 (m, 1H), 8.63 (s, 1H), 8.49 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.27 - 8.20 (m, 1H), 7.95 - 7.84 (m, 2H), 6.29 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.08 (dd, J = 11.4, 2.6 Hz, 1H), 4.65 (dd, J = 11.3, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 4.47 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, 1H), 4.26 - 4.16 (m, 1H), 3.78 - 3.64 (m, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H), 2.66 (s, 3H).

Example 45

3-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-5-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//-l,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-6-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (25.0 mg, 0.041 mmol) in MeOH (3 mL) EbN (2 mL) and water (1 mL) were added. The mixture was stirred 3 h at rt. The solvent was removed under the reduced pressure and the residue was purified by preparative HPLC (method A) to give the title compound (10.5 mg, 49 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C21H17CIF3N5O4S] [M+H] + : 528.1; found: 528.0.‘H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) d 8.76 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.63 (s, 1H), 8.40 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.71 - 7.66 (m, 2H), 6.60 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.09 (dd, J = 11.6, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.74 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.35 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 3.72 - 3.70 (m, 2H), 3.42 (s, 3H).

Example 46

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//-l,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

A nitrogen purged solution of 2-bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (75 mg, 0.13 mmol) in N, A-d i m cth y 1 acctam i dc (1 mL) was added to a nitrogen purged solution of Zn (4.2 mg, 0.065 mmol), Zn(CN)2 (15 mg, 0.13 mmol), Pd(dibenzylideneacetone)2 (5.9 mg, 0.010 mmol) and 1,1’- bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (5.8 mg, 0.010 mmol) i n N, A-d i m cth y 1 acctam i dc (0.5 mL) and the resulting mixture was stirred 3 h at 100 °C. The mixture was purified by preparative HPLC (Method B) to afford the title compound (14 mg, 21 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C21H17CIF3N5O4S] [M+H] + : 528.1; found: 528.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.61 - 8.58 (m, 2H), 8.48 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 7.66 (dd, J = 8.7, 6.7 Hz, 2H), 6.52 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.08 (dd, J = 11.3, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.72 (dd, J = 11.3, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.40 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.20 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.69 (d, J = 5.9 Hz, 2H), 3.46 (s, 3H).

Example 47

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//-l,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranosid e

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4, 6-O-bcnzyl idcnc-3-[4-(4-ch loro-3, 5-difl uorophcnyl)- 177-1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3-deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (100 mg, 0.16 mmol) was dissolved in DCM/TFA (10 mL, 19: 1). The mixture was stirred 6 h at rt before Et3N was added. The solvent was removed by evaporation, and the residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (71.0 mg, 83 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C21H17CI2F2N5O4S] [M+H] + : 544.0; found: 544.2. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) d 8.65 (s, 1H), 8.60 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.47 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H),

7.66 (dd, J = 10.4, 2.4 Hz, 2H), 6.51 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.08 (dd, J = 11.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.71 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1 H), 4.41 - 4.38 (m, 1H), 4.18 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H),

3.67 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 3.46 (s, 3H).

Example 48

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3- [4-(4-chloro-3-fluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1- yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-<9-bcnzylidcnc-3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophcnyl)- l 77- 1 ,2,3-txiazol- 1 -yl]-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (97.0 mg, 0.16 mmol) was dissolved in a mixed solution of DCM/TFA (10 mL, 19: 1) and stirred 1 h at rt. The mixture was neutralized with EhN and the solvent was removed by evaporation. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (47.2 mg, 57 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C21H18CI2FN5O4S] [M+H] + : 526.0; found: 526.2. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) d 8.60 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.59 (s, 1H), 8.48 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.76 (dd, J= 10.4, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.71 - 7.64 (m, 1H), 7.61 - 7.49 (m, 1H), 6.52 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.08 (dd, J= 11.2, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.72 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.39 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.19 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 3.68 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 3.46 (s, 3H).

Example 49

2-Cyano-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3- [4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranosid e

2-Cyano-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 4, 6-O-bcnzyl idcnc-3-[4-(4-ch loro-3, 5-difl uorophcnyl)- 177-1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3-deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (80 mg, 0.13 mmol) was dissolved in a mixed solution of DCM/TFA (10 mL, 19:1) and stirred 1 h at rt. The mixture was neutralized with EhN and then evaporated. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (31.6 mg, 46 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C22H20CIF2N5O4S] [M+H] + : 524.1; found: 524.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.96 (s, 1H), 8.52 (s, 1H), 8.24 (s, 1H), 7.84 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 6.51 (d, = 4.4 Hz, 1H), 5.63 (d, = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.95 (d , J = 10.8 Hz, 1H), 4.79 (s, 1H), 4.58 (dd, J = 10.8, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 4.29 (s, 1H), 4.08 (s, 1H), 3.52 (m, 2H), 3.47 (s, 3H), 2.40 (s, 3H).

Example 50

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3- [4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5- difluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy-2- -methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (45.0 mg, 0.067 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) TLA (0.247 mL, 3.32 mmol) was added at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred 2 h at rt before EbN (2 mL) was added at 0 °C. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to afford the title compound (15.0 mg, 38 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C^HivBrCtfySlsCkS] [M+H] + : 588.0; found: 588.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) d 8.70 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.65 (s, 1H), 8.62 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.66 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 2H), 6.50 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.08 (dd, J= 11.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.71 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.40 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.19 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.68 (d, J= 6.0 Hz, 2H), 3.46 (s, 3H).

Example 51

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3- [4-(4-chloro-3-fluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1- yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3- fluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (45.0 mg, 0.068 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) TFA (0.203 mL, 2.73 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere 2 h at rt. EhN (1 mL) was added at 0 °C. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to afford the title compound (21.0 mg, 54 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [^iHisBrClFNsCES] [M+H] + : 570.0; found: 570.0. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) d 8.70 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.62 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.59 (s, 1H), 7.76 (dd, J= 10.4, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.70 - 7.67 (m, 1H), 7.58 - 7.52 (m, 1H), 6.50 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.07 (dd, J = 11.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.72 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.40 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.19 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.68 (d, J= 6.0 Hz, 2H), 3.46 (s, 3H).

Example 52

5-Chloro-2-(7V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5- difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (22.5 mg, 0.052 mmol), trimethyl-[2-(4-chloro- 3,5-difluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (19.2 mg, 0.079 mmol) and Cul (12.5 mg, 0.065 mmol) in MeCN (1.5 mL) DIEA (0.027 mL, 0.16 mmol) was added. The mixturre was stirred 5 h at 50 °C. The mixture was purified by preparative HPLC (Method B) to afford the title compound (8.0 mg, 25 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C24H23CI2F2N5O5S] [M+H] + : 602.1; found: 601.9. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.64 (s, 1H), 8.49 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 8.38 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 7.67 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 6.36 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.07 (dd, J = 11.4, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.65 (dd, J = 11.3, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 4.44 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.27 - 4.16 (m, 5H), 3.73 - 3.65 (m, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H), 2.39 (p, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H).

Example 53

5-Chloro-2-(/V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (22.5 mg, 0.052 mmol), trimethyl-[2-(4-chloro- 3 -fluorophenyl)ethynyl] silane (19.2 mg, 0.079 mmol) and Cul (12.5 mg, 0.065 mmol) in MeCN (1.5 mL) DIEA (0.027 mL, 0.16 mmol) was added. The mixturre was stirred 5 h at 50 °C. The mixture was purified by preparative HPLC (Method B) to afford the title compound (6.6 mg, 22 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C24H24CI2FN5O5S] [M+H] + : 584.1; found: 583.8. Ή NMII (400 MHZ, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.58 (s, 1H), 8.49 (d, J = 1.9 Hz, 1H), 8.38 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 7.77 (d, J = 10.3 Hz, 1H), 7.69 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 7.55 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.36 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.06 (dd, J = 11.1, 2.7 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (dd, J = 11.4, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.44 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.27 - 4.16 (m, 5H), 3.73 - 3.64 (m, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H), 2.39 (p, J = 8.0 Hz, 3H).

Example 54

5-Ethynylpyridin-3-yl 3- [4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3- deoxy-2-O-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-(2-Trimethylsilyl-l-ethynyl)-pyridin-3-yl 3 -[4-(4-ch loro-3, 5-difl uorophcny 1 )- 1 //- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (140 mg, 0.24 mmol) was stirred in THF (2.0 mL) and TBAF (1.0 mL, 1M in THF, 1.0 mmol) for 90 min. The mixture was partitioned between EtOAc, water, and NaOH (6 mL, 1 M). The organic phase was separated, dried, evaporated and the residue was purified by chromatography (S1O2, PE/EtOAc) to give the title compound (108 mg, 88 %). ESI- MS m/z calcd for [C22H19CIF2N4O4S] [M+H] + : 509.1; found: 508.8. Ή NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.71 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 8.64 (s, 1H), 8.54 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 8.20 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.67 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 6.25 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.05 (dd, J = 11.3, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 4.64 (dd, J = 11.3, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.48 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 1H), 4.20 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.84 (s, 1H), 3.75 - 3.64 (m, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H).

Example 55

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3- [4-(5-chloro-6-fluor opyridin-2-yl)- 1 H- 1,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranosid e

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-<3-bcnzylidcnc-3-[4-(5-chloro-6-fluoropyridin-2- yl)-177-l ,2,3-triazol-l -yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (125 mg, 0.20 mmol) was dissolved in a mixed solution of DCM/TFA (10 mL, 19: 1) and stirred 1 h at rt. The mixture was neutralized with EhN and the solvent was removed by evaporation. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (48.3 mg, 45 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C20H17CI2FN6O4S] [M+H] + : 527.0; found: 527.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.86 (s, 1H), 8.72 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.57 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.23 (dd, J = 8.8, 7.2 Hz, 1H), 7.26 (dd, J= 8.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 6.70 (d, = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.01 (dd, = 11.6, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.79 (dd, J= 11.6, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.25 - 4.15 (m, 1H), 4.08 (d, = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.51 (dd, J= 11.2, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 3.46 - 3.42 (m, 3H), 3.36 (s, 3H).

Example 56

2-Cyano-5-ethynylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//-l,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranosid e

2-Cyano-5-(2-trimethylsilyl-l-ethynyl)-pyridin-3-yl 4, 6-di-O-accty 1-3 -[4-(4-ch loro- 3, 5-difl uorophcnyl)- l /- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (85.0 mg, 123 pmol) was dissolved in MeOH (1.23 mL) andNaOMe (1M, 61.6 pL, 61.6 pmol) was added. After 10 min, the reaction was quenched with AcOH (30 pL) and concentrated. Purification by preparative HPLC (Method B) yielded the title compound as a white solid (29.0 mg, 44 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C23H19CIF2N5O4S] [M+H] + : 534.1; found: 534.1, Ή NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.96 (s, 1H), 8.72 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.49 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.83 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 6.71 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.62 (d, = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.95 (dd, = 11.4, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 4.87 (s, 1H), 4.69 (s, 1H), 4.58 (dd, J = 11.4, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.20 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 1H), 4.10 - 4.04 (m, 1H), 3.49 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 3.40 (dd, J = 11.3, 7.2 Hz, 1H), 3.37 (s, 3H).

Example 57

2-Cyano-5-ethynylpyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,5-difluoro-4-methylphenyl)-l//- 1, 2, 3-triazol-l-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

2-Cyano-5-(2-trimethylsilyl-l-ethynyl)-pyridin-3-yl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-deoxy-3-[4- (3,5-difluoro-4-methylphenyl)-177-l ,2,3-triazol-l -yl] -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (92.0 mg, 137 pmol) was dissolved in MeOH (1.37 mL) andNaOMe (1M, 13.7 pL, 13.7 pmol) was added. After 10 min, the reaction was quenched with AcOH (20 pL) and concentrated. Purification by preparative HPLC (Method B) yielded the title compound as a white solid (41.0 mg, 58 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C24H22F2N5O4S] [M+H] + : 514.1; found: 514.0, ¾ NMR (500 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.67 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.59 (s, 1H), 8.46 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.51 - 7.44 (m, 2H), 6.51 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.09 (dd, J = 11.3, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 4.74 (dd, J = 11.3, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.43 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 1H), 4.22 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.16 (s, 1H), 3.71 (dd, J = 10.5, 4.2 Hz, 1H), 3.69 - 3.65 (m, 1H), 3.49 (s, 3H), 2.24 (s, 3H).

Example 58

5-Cyano-6-trifluoromethylpyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyr anoside

DIE A (44.8 pL, 262 pmol) was added to 5-cyano-6-trifluoromethylpyridin-3-yl 3- azido-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (53.0 mg, 131 pmol), trimethyl-[2-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (48.0 mg, 196 pmol) and Cul (2.5 mg, 13.1 mmol) in MeCN (4.64 mL). After 1 h at rt the mixture was heated to 50 °C and stirred 18 h before it cooled to rt and filtered through a plug of celite and concentrated. Purification by chromatography (S1O2, PE/EtOAc) yielded the title compound as a white solid (25.9 mg, 34 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C22H18CIF5N5O4S] [M+H] + : 578.1; found: 577.9, 1 H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 9.03 (d, J= 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.69 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1H), 8.66 (s, 1H), 7.67 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 2H), 6.59 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.09 (dd, J = 11.3, 2.7 Hz, 1H), 4.70 (dd, J = 11.3, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.41 - 4.32 (m, 1H), 4.17 (d, J= 2.2 Hz, 1H), 3.78 - 3.63 (m, 2H), 3.42 (s, 3H).

Example 59

5-Cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3- [4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] - 2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-<9-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- l //- 1 ,2,3-txiazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (80.0 mg, 0.14 mmol) was dissolved in DCM (9.5 mL) and TFA (0.5 mL) and stirred 3 h at rt. The mixture was neutralized with EhN and then the solvent was removed by evaporation. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (33.7 mg, 50 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C21H18F3N5O4S] [M+H] + : 494.1; found: 494.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) d 8.95 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.79 (d, J= 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.59 (s, 1H), 8.49 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.65 (dd, J= 8.8, 6.8 Hz, 2H), 6.34 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.05 (dd, J = 11.6, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.65 (dd, J = 11.6, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.43 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.17 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 3.69 (d, J= 6.0 Hz, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H).

Example 60

5-Cyanopyridin-3-yl 3- [4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3- deoxy-2-O-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5- difluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy-2- O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (80.0 mg, 0.13 mmol) in DCM (6 mL) TFA (0.199 mL, 2.68 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. Then Et3N (0.5 mL) was added at 0 °C. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to obtain the title compound (21.0 mg, 31 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C21H18CIF2N5O4S] [M+H] + : 510.1; found: 510.2.‘H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) d 8.96 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.80 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.64 (s, 1H), 8.50 (t, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.66 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 2H), 6.35 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.06 (dd, J = 11.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.65 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.43 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.16 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 3.68 (d, J= 6.0 Hz, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H).

Example 61

5-Bromo-2-(7V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3- [4-(4-chloro-3 -fluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3-deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (60.0 mg, 0.084 mmol) in DCM (4 mL) TFA (0.205 mL, 2.76 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was neutralized with EbN at 0 °C and then the solvent was removed by evaporation. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to afford the title compound (32.6 mg, 62 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 24 H 24 BrClFN 5 0 5 S] [M+H] + : 628.0; found: 628.0. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) d 8.60 - 8.56 (m, 2H), 8.51 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.76 (dd, J= 10.4, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.68 (dd, J = 8.4, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.54 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.34 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.05 (dd, J = 11.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.65 (dd, J= 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.44 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.28 - 4.10 (m, 5H), 3.73 - 3.61 (m, 2H), 3.40 (s, 3H), 2.46 - 2.32 (m, 2H).

Example 62 5-Bromo-2-( V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-deoxy-3- [4-(3,4,5- trifluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3- dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (95.0 mg, 0.13 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) TFA (0.304 mL, 4.10 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was neutralized with EbN at 0 °C and then the solvent was removed by evaporation. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to afford the title compound (37 mg, 44 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for l^ffeBrFsNsOsS] [M+H] + : 630.1; found: 630.1. ¾ NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) d 8.60 - 8.56 (m, 2H), 8.50 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.66 (dd, J= 8.8, 2.4 Hz, 2H), 6.34 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.04 (dd, J = 11.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.63 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.43 (t , J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.28 - 4.10 (m, 5H), 3.73 - 3.61 (m, 2H), 3.40 (s, 3H), 2.45 - 2.31 (m, 2H).

Example 63

5-Bromo-2-(7V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3- [4-(4-chloro-3 -fluorophenyl)- 177- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3-deoxy -2-O-ethyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (90.0 mg, 0.123 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) TFA (0.302 mL, 4.06 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was neutralized with Et 3 N at 0 °C and then the solvent was removed by evaporation. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to afford the title compound (32.9 mg, 42 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd [C 25 H 26 BrClFN 5 0 5 S] [M+H] + : 642.1; found: 642.0. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) d 8.61 - 8.55 (m, 2H), 8.50 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.76 (dd, J= 10.4, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.68 (dd, J = 8.4, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.54 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.31 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.05 (dd, J = 11.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.74 (dd, J= 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.43 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.30 - 4.07 (m, 5H), 3.89 - 3.75 (m, 1H), 3.75 - 3.62 (m, 2H), 3.49 - 3.37 (m, 1H), 2.51 - 2.29 (m, 2H), 1.03 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H).

Example 64

2-(7V-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-bromophenyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

2-(/V-azctidinyl-carbonyl)-5 -bromophenyl 4,6-<3-bcnzylidcnc-3 -deoxy-3 -[4-(3 ,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 177- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (120 mg, 0.17 mmol) was dissolved in a mixture of DCM/TFA (9.5 mL/0.5 mL) and stirred overnight at rt. The mixture was neutralized with EhN and then the solvent was removed by evaporation. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (60.3 mg, 57 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 25 H 24 BrF 3 N 4 0 5 S] [M+H] + : 629.1; found: 629.2. ¾ NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) d 8.58 (s, 1H), 8.00 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.70 - 7.62 (m, 2H), 7.59 (dd, J = 8.4, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.27 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.21 (d, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H), 5.01 (dd, J= 11.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.59 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.50 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 1H), 4.27 - 4.14 (m, 3H), 4.03 - 3.95 (m, 2H), 3.74 - 3.65 (m, 2H), 3.40 (s, 3H), 2.43 - 2.29 (m, 2H).

Example 65

2-(7V-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-bromophenyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-ethyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

2-(/V-azctidinyl-carbonyl)-5 -bromophenyl 4,6-<3-bcnzylidcnc-3 -deoxy-3 -[4-(3 ,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-ethyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (120 mg, 0.16 mmol) was dissolved in a mixture of DCM/TFA (9.5 mL/0.5 mL) and stirred overnight at rt. The mixture was neutralized with EhN and then the solvent was removed by evaporation. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (64.9 mg, 62 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 26 H 26 BrF 3 N 4 0 5 S] [M+H] + : 643.1; found: 643.2. ¾ NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) d 8.60 (s, 1H), 8.01 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.72 - 7.63 (m, 2H), 7.60 (dd, J = 8.4, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.28 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.19 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.03 (dd, J= 11.6, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.70 (dd, J = 11.6, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.51 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.27 - 4.13 (m, 3H), 4.07 - 3.96 (m, 2H), 3.88 - 3.80 (m, 1H), 3.76 - 3.66 (m, 2H), 3.48 - 3.40 (m, 1H), 2.41 - 2.33 (m, 2H), 1.05 (t, = 6.8 Hz, 3H).

Example 66 5-Chloro-2-(7V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3- dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (100 mg, 0.14 mmol) in DCM (10 mL) TFA (0.5 mL, 6.73 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred overnight at rt. The mixture was neutralized with Et3N at 0 °C and then the solvent was removed by evaporation. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (30.0 mg, 38 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for^lEsClFsNsOsS] [M+H] + : 586.1; found: 586.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDsOD) d 8.58 (s, 1H), 8.48 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.37 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.69 - 7.63 (m, 2H), 6.36 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.05 (dd, J= 11.6, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.64 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.43 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.25 - 4.14 (m, 5H), 3.76 - 3.64 (m, 2H), 3.40 (s, 3H), 2.42 - 2.34 (m, 2H).

Example 67

5-Chloro-2-(7V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-ethyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3- dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2- -cthyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (160 mg, 0.22 mmol) in DCM (16 mL) TFA (0.82 mL, 11.0 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred overnight at rt. The mixture was neutralized with Et3N at 0 °C and then the solvent was removed by evaporation. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (83.0 mg, 63 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for^sfEsClFsNsOsS] [M+H] + : 600.1; found: 600.2. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDsOD) d 8.59 (s, 1H), 8.47 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.36 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.70 - 7.62 (m, 2H), 6.32 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.05 (dd, J= 11.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (dd, J = 11.6, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.43 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.24 - 4.13 (m, 5H), 3.84 - 3.77 (m, 1H), 3.72 - 3.64 (m, 2H), 3.47 - 3.34 (m, 1H), 2.42 - 2.34 (m, 2H), 1.04 - 1.01 (m, 3H).

Example 68

5-Chloro-2-(7V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3- [4-(4-chloro-3 -fluorophenyl)- 177- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3-deoxy -2-O-ethyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (145 mg, 0.21 mmol) in DCM (15 mL) TFA (0.76 mL, 10.2 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred overnight at rt. The mixture was neutralized with Et3N at 0 °C and then the solvent was removed by evaporation. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (79.0 mg, 64 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for^s^eCLFNsOsS] [M+H] + : 598.1; found: 598.2. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) d 8.57 (s, 1H), 8.48 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.36 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.76 (dd, J = 10.4, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.68 (dd, J = 8.4, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.56 - 7.52 (m, 1H), 6.32 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.05 (dd, J= 7.6, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.74 (dd, = 7.2, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 4.43 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.24 - 4.15 (m, 5H), 3.84 - 3.77 (m, 1H), 3.72 - 3.64 (m, 2H), 3.47 - 3.40 (m, 1H), 2.42 - 2.34 (m, 2H), 1.04 - 1.01 (m, 3H).

Example 69

5-Chloro-2-(7V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5- difluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3- [4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3-dcoxy-2-0-cthyl- 1 -thio-a- D-galactopyranoside (100 mg, 0.14 mmol) in DCM (10 mL) TFA (0.51 mL, 6.88 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred overnight at rt. The mixture was neutralized with Et3N at 0 °C and then the solvent was removed by evaporation. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (54.0 mg, 64 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for[C 25 H 25 Cl 2 F 2 N 5 0sS] [M+H] + : 616.1; found: 616.2. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) d 8.67 (s, 1H), 8.50 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.38 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.71 - 7.67 (m, 2H), 6.35 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.08 (dd, J= 11.6, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.76 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.45 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.27 - 4.18 (m, 5H), 3.85 - 3.79 (m, 1H), 3.73 - 3.67 (m, 2H), 3.49 - 3.42 (m, 1H), 2.45 - 2.37 (m, 2H), 1.07 - 1.03 (m, 3H).

Example 70

2-(7V-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophenyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-(/V-azctidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophcnyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3- dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (101 mg, 0.15 mmol) in DCM (8 mL) TFA (0.4 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred 16 h at rt. The mixture was neutralized with EhN and then the solvent was removed by evaporation. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (20 mg, 23 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for[C 25 H 24 ClF 3 N 4 0 5 S] [M+H] + : 585.1; found: 585.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDsOD) d 8.59 (s, 1H), 7.87 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.68 -7.65 (m, 2H), 7.43 (dd, J= 8.0, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.34 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.24 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 5.03 (dd, J = 11.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.62 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.51 (t, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 4.23 - 4.17 (m, 3H), 4.03 - 3.97 (m, 2H), 3.72 - 3.68 (m, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H), 2.38 - 2.31 (m, 2H).

Example 71

3,4-Dichlorophenyl 3- [4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3- deoxy-2-O-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

3,4-Dichlorophenyl 4, 6-O-bcnzy I idcnc-3-[4-(4-ch loro-3, 5-difl uorophcny I )- 1 //- 1 ,2,3- triazol- I -yl]-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (80.0 mg, 0.14 mmol) was dissolved in aq 80 % AcOH (5 mL) and stirred 4 h at 85 °C. The solvent was removed by evaporation and the residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the title compound (47.4 mg, 48 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C21H18CI3F2N3O4S] [M+H] + : 552.1; found: 552.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) d 8.64 (s, 1H), 7.82 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.67 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.54 - 7.48 (m, 2H), 6.18 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.05 (dd, J = 11.2, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.63 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.46 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.18 - 4.17 (m, 1H), 3.74 - 3.65 (m, 2H), 3.39 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 1

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)-l //-l ,2,3-triazol-l -yl]-l - thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (W02016120403) (5.0 g, 9.37 mmol), MeCN (100 mL) and benzaldehyde dimethylacetal (2.88 mL, 19 mmol) were stirred at 40 °C and p- toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (100 mg, 0.53 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 4 h at rt, then cooled to 0 °C, the precipitate was collected by filtration, washed with cold MeCN and dried to afford the product (5.3 g, 91 %). 'H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.85 (s, 1H), 8.67 (d, J = IA Hz, 1H), 8.62 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.27 (s, 1H), 7.83 - 7.74 (m, 2H), 7.40 - 7.29 (m, 5H), 6.24 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 6.16 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 5.57 (s, 1H), 5.12 (dd, J = 11.3, 3.1 Hz, 1H), 4.91 (m, 1H), 4.57 (d, J = 3.1 Hz, 1H), 4.29 (s, 1H), 4.12 (d, J = 12.1 Hz, 1H), 3.92 (d, J = 12.6 Hz, 1H).

Intermediate 3

4-Chloro-7V,/V-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-cyanophenyl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

2,4,6-Tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-P-D-galactopyranosyl chloride (9.6 g, 27.3 mmol),

4-chloro-2-sulfanylbenzonitrile (5.1 g, 30.1 mmol), CS2CO3 (17.8 g, 54.7 mmol) and DMF (40 mL) were stirred 20 h at rt. The mixture was partitioned between ditheyl ether/EtOAc/aq HCl/water, the organic phase was separated, concentrated, and the residue was subjected to chromatography (S1O2, PE/EtOAc) to afford the product (5.63 g, 42 %). Ή NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) d 7.69 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.61 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.39 (dd, J = 8.3, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 6.07 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H), 5.51 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.31 (dd, J = 11.0, 5.5 Hz, 1H), 4.68 - 4.60 (m, 1H), 4.14 (dd, J = 11.7, 5.1 Hz, 1H), 4.05 (dd, J = 11.6, 7.6 Hz, 1H), 3.99 (dd , J = 11.0, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 2.23 (s, 3H), 2.17 (s, 3H), 2.02 (s, 3H).

5-Chloro-2-cyanophenyl 3-deoxy-3- [4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1- yl] - 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-cyanophenyl 2,4,6-tri-0-acctyl-3-azido-3-dcoxy- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (454 mg, 0.94 mmol), trimethyl-[2-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (429 mg, 1.88 mmol) and K2CO3 (1.30 g, 9.41 mmol) were weighed into a glass flask and purged with nitrogen. MeOH (5.0 mL) and THF (5.0 mL) were added followed by a solution of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (40 mg, 0.16 mmol) and (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (70 mg, 0.35 mmol) in water (2.5 mL). The mixture was stirred 8 h at 60 °C and then copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (40 mg, 0.16 mmol) and (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (70 mg, 0.35 mmol) were added. Stirring was continued for 4 h at 60 °C. The mixture was filtered through a pad of silica eluted with EtOAc and concentrated. The residue was purified by chromatography (S1O2, PE/EtOAc) to afford a residue that was recrystallized first from EtO Ac/hexanes and then from EtOH and water to give the product (248 mg, 51 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C21H16CIF3N4O4S] [M+H] + : 513.06; found: 513.1. Ή NMII (400 MHZ, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.55 (s, 1H), 7.98 (d, J= 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.74 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.71 - 7.61 (m, 2H), 7.47 (dd, J = 8.4, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 6.13 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 5.06 (dd, J = 11.4, 2.6 Hz, 1H), 4.99 (dd, J = 11.4, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.42 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 1H), 4.23 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.71 (dd, J = 11.4, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 3.64 (dd, J = 11.3, 6.6 Hz, 1H).

2-Carboxy-5-chlorophenyl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//-l,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] - 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-cyanophenyl 3-deoxy-3 -[4-(3 ,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] - 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (717 mg, 1.39 mmol) was stirred 5 h under nitrogen at 80 °C in a mixture of EtOH (36 mL) and NaOH (18 mL, 3 M). The mixture was concentrated to approximately 25 mL and acidified to approximately pH 1 with HC1 (5 M). The precipitate was isolated by filtration and gave the product (702 mg, 95 %). 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.55 (s, 1H), 7.96 - 7.88 (m, 2H), 7.70 - 7.59 (m, 2H), 7.29 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.00 (d, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 5.09 (dd , J = 11.5, 2.7 Hz, 1H), 4.99 (dd, J = 11.4, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 4.42 (t, J = 6.2 Hz, 1H), 4.22 (s, 1H), 3.76 (dd, J = 11.3, 6.0 Hz, 1H), 3.67 (dd, J = 11.2, 6.3 Hz, 1H).

4-Chloro-7V,/V-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

2-Carboxy-5 -chlorophenyl 3-deoxy-3 -[4-(3 ,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 - yl]-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (473 mg, 0.82 mmol), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole hydrate (195 mg, 1.23 mmol) and 'V-(3-dimcthylaminopropyl)-/V’-cthylcarbodiimidc hydrochloride (243 mg, 1.23 mmol) were stirred in DMF (3 mL) and dimethylamine (0.82 mL, 2M solution in THF, 1.64 mmol) was added followed by DIEA (0.14 mL, 0.82 mmol). The mixture was stirred 6 h at rt, then water (20 mL) was added and decanted. The residue was stirred in EtOH (5 mL) and NaOH (1.0 mL, 2 M) 1 h at rt, then poured onto ice/water and HC1. The precipitate was collected by filtration and purified by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc) to afford the product (268 mg, 58 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C23H22CIF3N4O5S] [M+H] + : 559.1; found: 558.7. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.53 (s, 1H), 7.86 (s, 1H), 7.65 (m, 2H), 7.42 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.27 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 5.92 (d, = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 4.96 (dd, = 11.4, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 4.90 (dd, J = 11.4, 5.0 Hz, 1H), 4.48 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 1H), 4.19 (s, 1H), 3.71 (m, 2H), 3.13 (s, 3H), 2.90 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 4

4-Chloro-7V,/V-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

Bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) dichloride (1.54 g, 2.15 mmol) and Cul (836 mg, 4.39 mmol) were weighed into a glass flask and purged with nitrogen. THF (50 mL), 5-bromo-2-chloro-l,3-difluoro-benzene (10.0 g, 43.1 mmol), trimethylsilylacetylene (7.42 mL, 52.1 mmol), and DIEA (8.28 mL, 47.4 mmol) were added and the mixture was stirred 16 h at 50 °C. The mixture was partitioned between HC1 (0.5 M) and EtOAc. The organic phase was separated, evaporated, and the residue was purified by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc) and gave the product (10.91 g, 100 % yield) as a solid. Ή NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) d 7.11 - 7.04 (m, 2H), 0.26 (s, 9H).

5-Chloro-2-cyanophenyl 3- [4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1- yl]-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-cyanophenyl 2,4,6-tri-0-acctyl-3-azido-3-dcoxy- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (1.02 g, 2.1 mmol), trimethyl-[2-(4-chloro-3,5- difluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (870 mg, 3.2 mmol) and K2CO3 (2.95 g, 21.4 mmol) were weighed into a glass flask and purged with nitrogen. MeOH (10.0 mL) and THF (5.0 mL) were added followed by a solution of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (53 mg, 0.21 mmol) and (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (83 mg, 0.42 mmol) in water (5.0 mL). The mixture was stirred 2 h at 60 °C and then copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (53 mg, 0.21 mmol) and (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (83 mg, 0.42 mmol) were added. Stirring was continued for 4 h at 60 °C. The mixture was partioned between water and EtOAc pH was adjusted to approximately 7 with HC1. The mixture was filtered through celite and the organic phase was evaporated. The residue was purified chromatography (SiCh, EtOAc/MeOH) to afford a residue that was recrystallized from hot EtOH and water to give the product (992 mg, 89 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C21H16CI2F2N4O4S] [M+H] + : 529.0; found: 529.1.‘H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.61 (s, 1H), 7.98 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.74 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.66 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.47 (dd, J = 8.3, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 6.13 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.07 (dd, J = 11.4, 2.6 Hz, 1H), 5.00 (dd, J = 11.4, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.42 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 1H), 4.27 - 4.20 (m, 1H), 3.71 (dd, J = 11.4, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 3.65 (dd, J = 11.4, 6.6 Hz, 1H).

2-Carboxy-5-chlorophenyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//-l,2,3-triazol-l- yl]-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

A solution of 5-chloro-2-cyanophenyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-177-l,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (3.53 g, 6.67 mmol) in EtOH (180 mL) and NaOH (90 mL, 3 M) was stirred 5 h at 80 °C under nitrogen. The mixture was cooled, concentrated to approximately 90 mL and acidified to approximately pH 1 with HC1 (5 M). The precipitate was isolated by filtration, washed with 33 % aq MeOH and dried to give the product (3.19 g, 87 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C21H17CI2F2N3O6S] [M+H] + : 548.0; found: 548.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.60 (s, 1H), 7.96 - 7.86 (m, 2H), 7.66 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.29 (dd, J = 8.4, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 6.00 (d, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 5.10 (dd, J = 11.5, 2.7 Hz, 1H), 4.99 (dd, J = 11.5, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 4.42 (t, J = 6.2 Hz, 1H), 4.26 - 4.18 (m, 1H), 3.76 (dd, J = 11.3, 6.1 Hz, 1H), 3.67 (dd, J = 11.3,

6.3 Hz, 1H).

4-Chloro-7V,/V-dimethyl-benzamide-2-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

2-Carboxy-5 -chlorophenyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3 ,5-difluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -

3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (450 mg, 0.82 mmol), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole hydrate (195 mg, 1.23 mmol) and 'V-(3-dimcthylaminopropyl)-/V’-cthylcarbodiimidc hydrochloride (243 mg, 1.23 mmol) were stirred in DMF (3 mL) and dimethylamine (0.82 mL, 2M solution in THF, 1.64 mmol) was added followed by DIEA (0.14 mL, 0.82 mmol). The mixture was stirred 18 h at rt, then water (8 mL) was added and decanted. The residue was stirred in EtOH (3 mL) and NaOH (0.5 mL, 2 M) 1 h at rt, then neutralized with HC1 (0.5 mL, 2 M) and poured onto water. The precipitate was collected by filtration and purified by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc) to afford the product (328 mg, 70 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C23H22CI2F2N4O5S] [M+H] + : 575.1; found: 575.1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.59 (s, 1H), 7.86 (s, 1H), 7.69 - 7.60 (m, 2H), 7.42 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.27 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 5.92 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 4.97 (dd, J = 11.5, 2.6 Hz, 1H), 4.91 (dd, J = 11.4, 5.1 Hz, 1H), 4.48 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 1H), 4.20 (s, 1H), 3.77 - 3.66 (m, 2H), 3.13 (s, 3H), 2.90 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 6

2-(7V-piperidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophenyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

2-Carboxy-5 -chlorophenyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3 ,5-difluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -

3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (150 mg, 0.27 mmol), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole hydrate (62 mg, 0.39 mmol) and 'V-(3-dimcthylaminopropyl)-/V’-cthylcarbodiimidc hydrochloride (77 mg, 0.39 mmol) were stirred in DMF (1 mL) and piperidine (39 pL, 0.39 mmol) was added followed by Et3N (73 pL, 0.52 mmol). The mixture was stirred 3 h at rt, then water and HC1 (1 M) were added. The precipitate was filtered off and recrystallized from EtOH/water. Further purification by chromatography (S1O2, PE/EtOAc) afforded the product (106 mg, 66 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C26H26CI2F2N4O5S] [M+H] + : 615.1; found: 615.2. Ή NMII (400 MHZ, MethanoUE) (two conformational isomers) d 8.59 (s, 1H), 7.92 - 7.81 (m, 1H), 7.66 (m, 2H), 7.48 - 7.35 (m, 1H), 7.30 - 7.20 (m, 1H), 5.96 - 5.88 (m, 1H), 5.01 - 4.86 (m, 2H), 4.54 - 4.44 (m, 1H), 4.19 (bs, 1H), 3.88 - 3.61 (m, 4H), 3.29 - 3.16 (m, 2H), 1.82 - 1.58 (m, 5H), 1.58 - 1.41 (m, 1H).

Intermediate 10

2-Bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//-l,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

Intermediate 10

2,4,6-Tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-p-D-galactopyranosyl chloride

l,2,4,6-Tetra-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-p-D-galactopyranos ide (12.0 g, 32.1 mmol), PCI5 (7.5 g, 36.0 mmol) and boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (50 gL, 0.41 mmol) were stirred in DCM (150 mL) for 1 h, then partitioned between saturated aq NaHCOs and DCM. The organic phase was dried, concentrated, and the residue was triturated in diethyl ether/PE to afford the product as a crystalline solid (10.2 g, 91 %). ! H NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) d 5.48 (d = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 5.34 (t = 9.2 Hz, 1H), 5.24 (d = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (dd = 11.5, 6.1 Hz, 1H), 4.10 (dd = 11.6, 6.7 Hz, 1H), 3.98 (t = 6.4 Hz, 1H), 3.60 (dd = 10.3, 3.3 Hz, 1H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 2.17 (s, 3H), 2.07 (s, 3H).

Acetyl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranos ide

2,4,6-Tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-p-D-galactopyranosyl chloride (4.0 g, 11.4 mmol) and potassium thioacetate (2.02 g, 17.1 mmol) were stirred in DMF (25 mL) 1 h at 40 Q C. The dark mixture was partitioned between EtOAc and saturated aq NaHCOs, the organic phase was separated, dried and evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography (S1O2, PE/EtOAc) to afford the product (2.90 g, 52 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C14H19N3O8S] [M+Na] + : 412.1; found: 411.9. *H NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) d 6.25 (d, / = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.43 (d, / = 2.9 Hz, 1H), 5.40 (dd, / = 11.0, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.16 - 3.97 (m, 3H), 3.71 (dd , / = 10.9, 3.3 Hz, 1H), 2.43 (s, 3H), 2.16 (s, 3H), 2.08 (s, 3H), 2.04 (s, 3H).

2-Bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of acetyl 2,4,6-tri-0-acctyl-3-azido-3-dcoxy- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside(W02016120403) (2.46 g, 5.05 mmol) and 2-bromo-5-chloro-3- fluoropyridine (1.74 g, 8.0 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) diethylamine (1.60 mL, 15.5 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 1 h at rt, water and HC1 (5.0 mL, 5 M, 25 mmol) was added, the solvents were decanted, the sticky residue was partitioned between DCM and water. The organic phase was evaporated, and the residue was purified by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc) to afford the product (1.36 g, 50 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CivHisBrClN^vS] [M+H] + : 537.0; found: 537.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) d 8.20 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.83 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 6.13 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 5.50 (d, J = 2.9 Hz, 1H), 5.35 (dd, J = 11.0, 5.5 Hz, 1H), 4.54 (dd, J = 7.7, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 4.17 - 3.99 (m, 3H), 2.21 (s, 3H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 1.97 (s, 3H).

2-Bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l -l,2,3- triazol- 1-yl] - 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

A solution of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (63 mg, 0.25 mmol) and (+)-sodium L- ascorbate (100 mg, 0.50 mmol) in water (5 mL) was added to a solution of 2-bromo-5- chloropyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acctyl-3-azido-3-dcoxy- l -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (1.35 g, 2.51 mmol), trimethyl-[2-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (860 mg, 3.77 mmol) and K2CO3 (3.47 g, 25.1 mmol) in MeOH/THF (80 mL). The mixture was stirred 24 h at 50 °C, concentrated and partitioned between EtOAc and water. The organic phase was dried, evaporated and purified by chromatography (S1O2, PE/EtOAc) to afford the product (1.03 g, 72 % yield). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CicTLsBrClFs^CES] [M+H] + : 567.0; found: 567.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.56 (s, 1H), 8.18 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 2H), 7.68 - 7.58 (m, 2H), 6.15 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 5.08 (dd, J = 11.4, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 5.02 (dd, J = 11.4, 5.1 Hz, 1H), 4.36 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 1H), 4.23 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 3.75 - 3.64 (m, 2H). 2-Bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] - 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

2-Bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- l //- 1 ,2,3-triazol-

1-yl]-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (2.04 g, 3.59 mmol) was stirred in MeCN (25 mL) and benzaldehyde dimethylacetal (0.76 mL, 5.04 mmol) followed by /;-tolucncsulfonic acid monohydrate (5 mg, 0.023 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 18 h at rt and EtsN (15 pL, 0.26 mmol) followed by water (15 mL) were added. The solids were filtered off and washed first with 33 % aq MeOH then PE. The solids were dried to afford the product (1.99 g, 85 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 26 Hi 9 BrClF 3 N 4 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 655.0; found: 654.7. 'H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.86 (s, 1H), 8.32 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 8.20 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.79 (m, 2H), 7.42 - 7.30 (m, 5H), 6.48 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 6.29 (d, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 5.58 (s, 1H), 5.18 (dd, J = 11.3, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.98 (m, 1H), 4.59 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, lH), 4.18 (s, 1H), 4.11 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 3.96 (d , J = 12.6 Hz, 1H).

2-Bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l -l,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-2-(9-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

Iodomethane (133 pL, 2.13 mmol) was added to a solution of 2-bromo-5-chloropyridin- 3-yl 4,6-<9-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophcnyl)- l 7/- 1 ,2,3-triazol- l -yl]- l - thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (700 mg, 1.07 mmol) and Ag 2 0 (495 mg, 2.13 mmol) in DMF (8 mL). After stirring 48 h at rt the mixture was diluted with EtOAc, washed twice with water and the organic phase was dried and evaporated. The residue was dissolved in TFA/water (8 mL, 4: 1), stirred 3 h at rt before partitioned between EtOAc and aq NaOH (1 M). The organic phase was dried, evaporated and purified by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc) to afford the product (314 mg, 50 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for ^oHivBrClFsN^S] [M+H] + : 581.0; found: 581.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.60 (s, 1H), 8.24 - 8.21 (m, 2H), 7.66 (dd, J = 8.7, 6.7 Hz, 2H), 6.48 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.08 (dd, J = 11.4, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 4.72 (dd, J = 11.3, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 4.35 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 1H), 4.20 (d, J = 2.6 Hz, 1H), 3.74 - 3.64 (m, 2H), 3.43 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 11

5-Chloro-2-{7V-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-

3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//-l,2,3-triazol-l-yl ]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-bromo-5-chloro-3 -pyridine-3 -yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (770 mg, 1.43 mmol) in MeOH (5.0 mL) catalytical amount of sodium methanolate (pH = 9-10) was added. The reaction was stirred 20 min and neutralized with acidic ion resin and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to give the crude product (350 mg, 78 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CnHi 2 BrClN 4 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 411.0; found: 411.0. 2-Bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a stirred solution of 2-bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (350 mg, 0.66 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) benzaldehyde dimethylacetal (404 mg, 2.65 mmol) was added followed by D(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid (30.8 mg, 0.13 mmol). The mixture was stirred 4 h at 50 °C under vacuum using a water-pump. After cooling to rt, the reaction was poured into water (15 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were concentrated in vacuum and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-5/1, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (300 mg, 91 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [Ci 8 Hi 6 BrClN 4 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 499.0, found: 499.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.09 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.82 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.45 (dd, J = 7.5, 1.9 Hz, 2H), 7.38 - 7.27 (m, 3H), 5.91 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.58 (s, 1H), 4.64 (dt, J = 10.8, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 4.36 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (dd, J = 12.8, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 4.07 - 3.97 (m, 2H), 3.65 (dd, J = 10.8, 3.3 Hz, 1H), 2.59 (d, J = 5.7 Hz, 1H).

2-Bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

2-Bromo-5 -chloro-3 -pyridine-3 -yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3 -deoxy- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (300 mg, 0.60 mmol) was dissolved in DMF (8.0 mL) and Ag 2 0 (696 mg, 3.00 mmol) was added followed by iodomethane (426 mg, 3.00 mmol). The reaction was stirred 48 h at rt and filtered. The filtrares was evaporated in vacuum and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-5/1, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (240 mg, 78 %) as a white solid. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) d 8.08 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.81 (t, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 7.46 (dd, J = 7.5, 1.9 Hz, 2H), 7.31 (ddd, J = 6.7, 5.1 , 1.5 Hz, 3H), 6.09 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.56 (s, 1H), 4.28 - 4.21 (m, 2H), 4.13 (dd, J = 12.7, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 4.07 - 4.04 (m, 1H), 3.96 (s, 1H), 3.76 (dd, J = 10.6, 3.3 Hz, 1H), 3.50 (s, 3H).

5-Chloro-2-{7V-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyridin-3 -yl 3-azido-4,6-0- benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2- O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (400 mg, 0.78 mmol) and 2-oxa-6- azaspiro[3.3]heptane;oxalic acid (736 mg, 3.89 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) DIEA (1.33 mL, 7.79 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 4 h at 130 °C in a microwave reactor. The solvent was removed, and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=5/ 1-2/1, Silica-CS 20 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (190 mg, 46 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C24H26CIN5O5S] [M+H] + : 532.1; found: 532.2. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) d 8.01 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.59 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.54 - 7.45 (m, 2H), 7.40 - 7.32 (m, 3H), 5.84 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.60 (s, 1H), 4.90 - 4.76 (m, 4H), 4.40 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 2H), 4.32 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.27 (d, J= 9.2 Hz, 2H), 4.23 - 4.06 (m, 4H), 3.72 (dd, J= 10.4, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.54 (s, 3H).

5-Chloro-2-{7V-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyridin-3 -yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-

3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//-l,2,3-triazol-l-yl ]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-{/V-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyridin-3-yl 3-azido- 4, 6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (130 mg, 0.244 mmol) and trimethyl-[2-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (60.0 %, 120 mg, 0.29 mmol) in DMF (4 mL) (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (72.6 mg, 0.37 mmol) and copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (30.5 mg, 0.12 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 4 h at rt under a nitrogen atmosphere. After diluting with water (20 mL), the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the product (115 mg, 67 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C32H29CI2F2N5O5S] [M+H] + : 704.1; found: 704.2. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.05 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.98 (s, 1H), 7.63 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.47 - 7.42 (m, 2H), 7.39 (s, 5H), 5.95 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (s, 1H), 5.33 (dd, J = 11.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.87 - 4.79 (m, 4H), 4.50 (d, J= 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.46 (dd, J= 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.40 (d, J= 9.2 Hz, 2H), 4.30 (d, J= 9.2 Hz, 2H), 4.25 (s, 2H), 4.13 (dd, J= 12.8, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 3.29 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 12

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,5-difluoro-4- methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-bromo-5-chloro-3 -pyridine-3 -yl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3- dcoxy-2-O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (230 mg, 0.45 mmol) in DMF (4.0 mL), Zn (14.6 mg, 0.22 mmol), Zn(CN)2 (52.6 mg, 0.45 mmol), 1,1’- bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (20.2 mg, 0.036 mmol) and Pd2(dibenzylideneacetone) 3 (32.8 mg, 0.036 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 3 h at 100°C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-5/1, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (105 mg, 51 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C20H18CIN5O4S] [M+H] + : 460.0, found: 460.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.52 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.06 (d, J = 2.0 Hz , 1H), 7.53 - 7.51 (m, 2H), 7.41 - 7.37 (m, 3H), 6.15 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.64 (s, 1H), 4.37 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.30 (dd, J = 10.8, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 4.15 - 4.12 (m, 2H), 3.79 (dd, J = 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.61 (s, 3H).

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,5-difluoro-4- methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-bromo-5-chloro-3 -pyridine-3 -yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3- deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (100 mg, 0.22 mmol) and trimethyl- [2-(3,5-difluoro-4-methylphenyl)ethynyl]silane (70.0 %, 58.5 mg, 0.18 mmol) in DMF (4 mL) (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (64.6 mg, 0.33 mmol) and copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (27.1 mg, 0.11 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 4 h at rt under a nitrogen atmosphere. After diluting with water (20 mL), the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the product (80.0 mg, 60 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C29H24CIF2N5O4S] [M+H] + : 612.1; found: 612.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.56 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.08 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.97 (s, 1H), 7.44 - 7.36 (m, 5H), 7.31 (m, 2H), 6.24 (d, = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 5.54 (s, 1H), 5.31 (dd, J = 11.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.58 (dd, J= 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.54 (d, J= 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.39 (s, 1H), 4.28 (dd, J= 12.8, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 4.16 (dd, J= 12.8, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 3.37 (s, 3H), 2.22 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 13

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro-4- methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2- O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (110 mg, 0.24 mmol) and trimethyl-[2-(3- fluoro-4-methylphenyl)ethynyl]silane (98.7 mg, 0.48 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) (+)- sodium L-ascorbate (94.8 mg, 0.48 mmol) and copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (29.9 mg, 0.12 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred overnight at rt under nitrogen atmosphere. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the product (35 mg, 25 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C29H25CIFN5O4S] [M+H] + : 594.1; found: 594.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.50 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 1H), 8.02 (s, 1H), 7.92 (s, 1H), 7.38 - 7.34 (m, 7H), 7.17 - 7.14 (m, 1H), 6.18 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 5.49 (s, 1H), 5.25 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 1H), 4.53 (m, 2H), 4.33 (s, 1H), 4.21 (d, J = 12.4 Hz, 1H), 4.11 (d, J = 12.4 Hz, 1H), 3.31 (s, 3H), 2.24 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 3H). Intermediate 14

5-Chloro-2-cyanophenyl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,5-difluoro-4- methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 3-azido-3-deoxy-D-galactopyranose (Lowary, T. L.; Hindsgaul, O. Recognition of Synthetic O-Methyl, Epimeric, and Amino Analogues of the Acceptor A-L-Fucp-(1 2)-B-D-Galp-or Glycosyltransferases. Carbohydrate Research 1994, 251, 33-67.) (16.4 g, 79.9 mmol) in DMF (120 mL) benzaldehyde dimethylacetal (18.2 g, 120 mmol) was added followed by D(+)-10-Camphorsulfonic acid (3.71 g, 16.0 mmol). The mixture was stirred 4 h at 50 °C. The mixture was added dropwise to saturated aq NaHC0 3 (200 mF). The mixture was filtered and the white soild was washed with water and dried in vacuum to afford the product (15.0 g, 64 %, a/b=1 : 1). 3-Azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-a-D-galactopyranose

'H NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) d 7.51- 7.53 (m, 2H), 7.35- 7.39 (m, 3H),

5.65 (s, 1H), 5.25 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H, H-la), 3.35- 3.45 (m, 6H).

3-Azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-beta-D-galactopyranose

'H NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) d 7.51- 7.53 (m, 2H), 7.35- 7.39 (m, 3H),

5.65 (s, 1H), 4.58 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H, H-1b), 3.35- 3.45 (m, 6H).

Methyl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-D-galactopyrano side

To a solution of 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-D-galactopyranose (5.00 g, 17.0 mmol) in DMF (40 mL) NaH (60 % in oil, 1.96 g, 51.1 mmol) was added at 0 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere and the mixture was stirred 20 min. Iodomethane (3.18 mL, 51.1 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred 1 h at rt. After diluting with water (50 mL), the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 20 g, 25 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (5.10 g, 93 %, a/b=0.5: 1).

Methyl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-a-D-galactopyra noside

Ή NMR (400 MHz, CD OD) d 7.42 - 7.44 (m, 2H), 7.27 - 7.29 (m, 3H), 5.56 (s, 1H), 4.99 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H, H-la), 3.62 - 4.27 (m, 4H), 3.44 (s, 3H), 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.32 - 3.40 (m, 1H), 3.23 - 3.25 (m, 1H).

Methyl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0-metliyl-|l-D-galactopy ranoside

Ή NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) d 7.42 - 7.44 (m, 2H), 7.27 - 7.29 (m, 3H), 5.55 (s, 1H), 4.31 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H, H-1b), 3.62 - 4.27 (m, 4H), 3.51 (s, 3H), 3.49 (s, 3H), 3.32 - 3.40 (m, 1H), 3.23 - 3.25 (m, 1H).

Acetyl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-D-galactopyranosi de

To a solution of methyl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-D- galactopyranoside (5.10 g, 15.9 mmol) in acetic anhydride (40.0 mL) and acetic acid (20 mL), drops of concentrated H2SO4 was added at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred 4 h at 0 °C, followed by dropwise addition to a saturated aq NaHCCL solution. The mixture was extracted with DCM (3 x 100 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1 -1/1, Silica-CS 4 g, 12 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254). The obtained material was suspended in EtOAc (4.00 mL). The mixture was heated to 60 °C, then cooled to 25 °C and n-heptane (20.0 mL) was added while stirring. The mixture was cooled to 0°C and stirred for lh, filtered, washed with n- heptane/EtOAc (4: 1, 10 mL), to give the product (1.2 g) as a white solid used as is in the next step. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 6.38 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 5.33 (dd, J = 3.2, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 4.14 - 4.17 (m, 1H), 3.91 - 4.03 (m, 2H), 3.80 (dd, J = 6.4, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.62 (dd, J = 10.4, 3.6 Hz, 1H), 3.43 (s, 3H), 2.11 (s, 3H), 2.10 (s, 3H), 1.98 (s, 3H).

Acetyl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-D-galactop yranoside

To a solution of acetyl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-D- galactopyranoside (1.17 g, 3.39 mmol) in DCM (15 mL) PCb (1.06 g, 5.08 mmol) was added followed by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (0.209 mL, 1.69 mmol) at 30 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The mixture was stirred 30 min at 30 °C followed by dropwise addition to a saturated aq NaHCCb solution. The mixture was extracted with DCM (3 x 100 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was dissolved in DML (4.0 mL) and potassium thioacetate (731 mg, 6.4 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred overnight at rt under a nitrogen atmosphere. After diluting with water (50 mL), the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 30 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-3/1, Silica-CS 20 g, 18 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (1.15 g, 75 %, a/b=0.23: 1).

Acetyl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-azido-2-0-methyl-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galact opyranoside

'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 6.25 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H, H-la), 5.27 - 5.29 (m, 1H), 3.85 - 4.08 (m, 4H), 3.42 - 3.45 (m, 1H), 3.39 (s, 3H), 2.39 (s, 3H), 2.09 (s, 3H), 1.97 (s, 3H).

Acetyl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-azido-2-0-metliyl-3-deoxy-l-tliio-|l-D-gal actopyranoside

Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 5.32 - 5.33 (m, 1H), 5.04 (d, J = 10.0 Hz, 1H, H-1b), 3.85 - 4.08 (m, 3H), 3.57 (dd, J = 9.2, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.52 (s, 3H), 3.33 (t, J = 9.6 Hz, 1H), 2.36 (s, 3H), 2.08 (s, 3H), 1.97 (s, 3H).

5-Chloro-2-cyanophenyl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of acetyl 4,6-di-0-acctyl-3-azido-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-D- galactopyranoside (300 mg, 0.83 mmol) and 4-chloro-2-fluoro-benzonitrile (250 mg, 1.61 mmol) in DMF (5.0 mL) diethylamine (121 mg, 1.66 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred overnight at rt under nitrogen atmosphere. After diluting with water (20 mL), the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SC>4 and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-3/1, Silica-CS 4 g, 12 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (180 mg, 62 %, a/b=0.44/1). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C18H19CIN4O6S] [M+H] + : 455.1; found: 455.0. 5-Chloro-2-cyanophenyl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb): d 7.64 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.57 - 7.53 (m, 1H), 7.33 - 7.27 (m, 1H), 6.04 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H, H-la), 5.34 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.47- 4.46 (m, 1H), 4.08 - 3.78 (m, 3H), 3.54 (s, 3H), 3.44 - 3.34 (m, 1H), 2.09 (s, 3H), 1.98 (s, 3H).

5-Chloro-2-cyanophenyl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-|i-D- galactopyranoside

Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb): d 7.69 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.57 - 7.53 (m, 1H), 7.33 - 7.27 (m, 1H), 5.33 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (d, J= 9.2 Hz, 1H, H-1b), 4.08 - 3.78 (m, 3H), 3.61 (s, 3H), 3.57 - 3.55 (m, 1H), 3.43 - 3.33 (m, 1H), 2.12 (s, 3H), 2.01 (s, 3H).

5-Chloro-2-cyanophenyl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,5-difluoro-4- methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-cyanophenyl 4, 6-di-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy -2-O- methyl- 1-thio-D-galactopyranoside (260 mg, 0.57 mmol) and trimethyl-[2-(3,5- difluoro-4-methylphenyl)ethynyl] silane (247 mg, 1.10 mmol) in DMF (6 mL) copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (71.4 mg, 0.29 mmol) and (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (113 mg, 0.57 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 3 h at rt under nitrogen atmosphere. After diluting with water (20 mL), the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 4 g, 12 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give an anomeric mixture of the product. The mixture was purified by preparative -SFC to give the product (56.0 mg, 16 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C27H25CIF2N4O6S] [M+H] + : 607.1; found: 607.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.74 (s, 1H), 7.69 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.59 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.36 (dd, J = 8.4, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.23 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.25 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.53 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 4.90 - 4.78 (m, 2H), 4.68 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 1H), 4.02 - 3.99 (m, 2H), 3.39 (s, 3H), 2.15 (s, 3H), 2.00 (s, 3H), 1.90 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 16

2-Bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

2-Bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (202 mg, 0.31 mmol) and NaH (60 % in oil, 24 mg, 0.62 mmol) were dissolved in DMF (3 mL) and stirred 10 min before the addition of iodoethane (37 pL, 0.46 mmol). After stirring 3 h at rt the mixture was diluted with EtOAc, washed twice with water and the organic phase was dried and evaporated. Another batch was made in parallel. 2-Bromo-5- chloropyridin-3-yl 4, 6-<9-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-3-[4-(3, 4, 5-trifl uorophcny 1 )- 1 //- 1 ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl]- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (202 mg, 0.31 mmol) and Ag 2 0 (143 mg, 0.62 mmol) were dissolved in DMF (3 mL) and stirred 5 min before the addition of iodoethane (49 iiL, 0.62 mmol). After stirring 20 h at 50 °C the mixture was diluted with EtOAc, washed twice with water and the organic phase was dried and evaporated. The crude from the two batches were pooled and dissolved in TFA/water (4 mL, 4: 1). The mixture was stirred 3 h at rt before being partitioned between EtOAc and aq NaOH (1 M). The organic phase was dried, evaporated and purified by preparative HPLC (Method B) to afford the product (10 mg, 3 %) as a white powder. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 2i Hi 9 BrClF 3 N 4 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 595.0; found: 594.7. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.60 (s, 1H), 8.22 (s, 2H), 7.69 - 7.63 (m, 2H), 6.44 (d, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 5.09 (dd, J = 11.3, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.80 (dd, J = 11.3, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 4.34 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.20 (d, J = 2.6 Hz, 1H), 3.85 - 3.78 (m, 1H), 3.73 - 3.63 (m, 2H), 3.51 - 3.42 (m, 1H), 1.03 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H).

Intermediate 21

3,4-Dichlorophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-carboxymethyl-l-thio-a-D-gal actopyranoside

3,4-Dichlorophenyl 3- [4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3- deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (127 mg, 0.5 mmol) was dissolved in hot water (5.0 mL) and added to (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (198 mg, 1.0 mmol). The resulting brownish dispersion was added to a mixture of 3,4-dichlorophenyl 3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (2.33 g, 4.7 mmol), K2CO3 (6.5 g, 47 mmol), and trimethyl-[2-(4- chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (1.40 g, 5.68 mmol) in MeOH (20 mL) and THF (20 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred 20 h at 50 °C, celite was added, the mixture was filtered, and the filter cake was washed with EtOAc/MeOH. The filtrate was partitioned between EtOAc and aqueous HC1 (0.5 M), the organic phase was concentrated. The residue was purified by chromatography (SiCk, PE/EtOAc) and the crude was triturated in MeCN (30 mL) to give the product (1.73 g, 68 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C20H16CI3F2N3O4S] [M+H] + : 538.0; found: 538.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.60 (s, 1H), 7.80 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.67 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.54 (dd, J = 8.4, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.48 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 5.85 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.99 (dd, J = 11.4, 2.7 Hz, 1H), 4.96 - 4.90 (m, 1H), 4.49 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.20 (d, J = 1.9 Hz, 1H), 3.77 - 3.66 (m, 2H).

3,4-Dichlorophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 3,4-dichlorophenyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l 7/- 1 ,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (1.73 g, 3.2 mmol) in MeCN (40 mL) benzaldehyde dimethylacetal (0.974 mL, 6.46 mmol) followed by p- toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (50 mg, 0.26 mmol) were added. The suspension was stirred 72 h at rt, then cooled to 0 °C and filtered to give the product (1.876 g, 93 %). Ή NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.92 (s, 1H), 7.86 - 7.75 (m, 3H), 7.63 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.52 (dd, J = 8.5, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (dt, J = 11.3, 3.9 Hz, 5H), 6.18 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 6.13 (d, J = 4.7 Hz, 1H), 5.57 (s, 1H), 5.10 (dd, J = 11.3, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.91 (dt, J = 10.9, 5.0 Hz, 1H), 4.56 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, 1H), 4.29 (s, 1H), 4.13 (d, J = 12.1 Hz, 1H), 3.96 (d, J = 12.4 Hz, 1H).

3,4-Dichlorophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-(methoxycarbonyl)methyl-l-th io-a-D- galactopyranoside

3,4-Dichlorophenyl 4, 6-<9-bcnzylidcnc-3-[4-(4-ch loro-3, 5-difl uorophcny 1 )- 17/- 1 ,2,3- triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (800 mg, 1.28 mmol) and NaH (60% in oil, 77 mg, 1.91 mmol) were stirred 5 min in DMF (3.0 mL) before methyl 2- bromoacetate (0.16 mL, 1.66 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 2 h at rt and was then poured onto ice cooled water (30 mL) and HC1 (4 mL, 1 M). The solids were isolated by filtration and recrystallized from EtO Ac/PE to give the product (746 mg, 84%). Ή NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.97 (s, 1H), 7.86 (d, J = 1.9 Hz, 1H), 7.73 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.66 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.54 (dd, J = 8.3, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.34 (s, 5H), 6.61 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.59 (s, 1H), 5.23 (dd, J = 11.5, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.87 (dd, J = 11.4, 5.1 Hz, 1H), 4.61 (d, J = 3.1 Hz, 1H), 4.34 (s, 1H), 4.31 (s, 2H), 4.14 (d, J = 12.6 Hz, 1H), 3.99 (d, J = 12.5 Hz, 1H), 3.54 (s, 3H).

3,4-Dichlorophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-carboxymethyl-l-thio-a-D-gal actopyranoside

3,4-Dichlorophenyl 4, 6-O-bcnzy 1 idcnc-3-[4-(4-ch loro-3, 5-difl uorophcny 1 )- 1 //- 1 ,2,3- triazol- 1 -yl] -3 -deoxy-2-0-(methoxycarbonyl)methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (721 mg, 1.103 mmol) was stirred 30 min in 80% aq TFA (10 mL), the mixture was concentrated and water was added, which resulted in precipitation. The precipitate was collected by filtration and then stirred 2 h in EtOH (5.0 mL) and NaOH (3.0 mL, 2 M). The mixture was neutralized with HC1 (1 M), concentrated, water was added, and pH was adjusted to approximately 1 with HC1 (1 M). The precipitate was collected and then triturated in MeOH/water, the solids were collected and to the crude MeOH (3.0 mL) and 28 % ammonia (0.20 mL) were added. The mixture was concentrated to dryness, then triturated in Et20, the precipitate was collected, and the product was obtained as the ammonium salt (381 mg, 60 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C22H18CI3F2N3O6S] [M+H] + : 596.0; found: 596.1. Ή NMII (400 MHZ, Methanol-d 4 ) d 9.18 (s, 1H), 7.83 (d , J = 1.9 Hz, 1H), 7.67 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 2H), 7.57 (dd, J = 8.4, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.48 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.24 (d, J = 3.9 Hz, 1H), 5.05 (m, 2H), 4.48 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 1H), 4.29 (s, 1H), 4.04 (d, J = 15.7 Hz, 1H), 3.96 (d, J = 15.7 Hz, 1H), 3.76 - 3.63 (m, 2H).

Intermediate 22

5-Chloro-6-cyano-2-{7V-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyri din-3-yl 4,6-di-O- acetyl-3- [4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Bromo-3-chloro-2-cyano-pyridine-/V-oxide

To a solution of 5-bromo-3-chloro-2-cyano-pyridine (1.50 g, 6.90 mmol) in TFA (10 mL) H2O2 (35.0 %, 1.01 g, 10.3 mmol) was slowly added. The mixture was heated to 70 °C and was kept stirring 3 h. The solvent was carefully removed under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc and washed with water, brine, dried over Na 2 S0 4 and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to give the product (1.30 g, 81 %) as a light yellow solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CV.FTBrCl^O] [M+H] + : 232.9; found: 232.9. 5-Bromo-3,6-dichloro-2-cyano-pyridine

To a stirred solution of 5-bromo-3-chloro-2-cyano-pyridinc-A-oxidc (700 mg, 3.00 mmol) in toluene (7 mL) POCI3 (0.823 mL, 9.00 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 3 h at 100 °C. The mixture was cooled to rt and was poured into ice-water under vigorous stirring. The solution was extracted with EtOAc and the organic layer was washed with water, saturated aq NaHCOs, brine, dried over Na 2 S0 4 and concentrated. The residue by was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-3/1, Silica- CS 4 g, 12 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (400 mg, 53 %) as a light yellow solid. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.34 (s, 1H).

5-Bromo-3-chloro-2-cyano-6-{ V-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyridine

To a solution of 5-bromo-3,6-dichloro-2-cyano-pyridine (50.0 mg, 0.20 mmol) and 2- oxa-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptane (21.6 mg, 0.22 mmol) in MeCN (2 mL) K2CO3 (41.1 mg, 0.30 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred overnight at 60 °C. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was dissolved in EtOAc and washed with water, brine, dried over Na 2 SC> 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-3/1, Silica-CS 4 g, 12 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (33.0 mg, 53 %) as a light yellow solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CnH 9 BrClN 3 0] [M+H] + : 314.0; found: 314.2. Ή NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.31 (s, 1H), 4.70 (s, 4H), 4.40 (s, 4H).

5-Chloro-6-cyano-2-{ V-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyridin-3-yl 4,6-di -O- acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 4,6-di-0-acctyl-3-azido-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-D- galactopyranoside (950 mg, 2.63 mmol) and 5-bromo-3-chloro-2-cyano-6-{/V-(2-oxa)- 6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyridine (992 mg, 3.15 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) diethylamine (385 mg, 5.26 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred overnight at rt under nitrogen atmosphere. After diluting with water (20 mL), the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-3/1, Silica-CS 4 g, 12 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (280 mg, 74 %, a/b=0.44: 1). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C22H25CIN6O7S] [M+H] + : 553.1; found: 553.0.

5-Chloro-6-cyano-2-{/V-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyri din-3-yl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-azido-3- deoxy-2-O-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.68 (s, 1H), 5.82 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H, 1-Ha), 5.33 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.78 (s, 4H), 4.38 - 4.26 (m, 5H), 4.08 - 3.72 (m, 3H), 3.49 (s, 3H), 3.33 - 3.32 (m, 1H), 2.09 (s, 3H), 1.92 (s, 3H).

5-Chloro-6-cyano-2-{/V-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyri din-3-yl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-azido-3- deoxy-2-0-methyl- l-thio-|i-D-galactopyranoside

‘H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb): d 7.70 (s, 1H), 5.31 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.77 (s, 4H), 4.49 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 1H, 1-Hb), 4.38 - 4.26 (m, 4H), 4.08 - 3.72 (m, 3H), 3.57 - 3.55 (m, 1H), 3.33- 3.32 (m, 1H), 2.12 (s, 3H), 1.97 (s, 3H).

5-Chloro-6-cyano-2-{7V-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-p yridin-3-yl 4,6-di-O- acetyl-3- [4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-6-cyano-2-{/V-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyri din-3-yl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-D-galactopyranoside (400 mg, 0.72 mmol) and trimethyl-[2-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (215 mg, 0.94 mmol) in DMF (6 mL) copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (90.3 mg, 0.362 mmol) and (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (143 mg, 0.72 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 3 h at rt under nitrogen atmosphere. After diluting with water (20 mL), the mixture was extracted three times with EtOAc (10 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 4 g, 12 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give an anomeric mixture of the product. The mixture was separated by preparative -SFC to give the product (58.0 mg, 11 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C30H28CI2F2N6O7S] [M+H] + : 725.1; found: 725.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.81 (s, 1H), 7.74 (s, 1H), 7.38 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 6.02 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 5.50 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 4.86 - 4.75 (m, 6H), 4.59 - 4.56 (m, 1H), 4.40 - 4.29 (m, 4H), 4.07 - 3.96 (m, 2H), 3.34 (s, 3H), 2.00 (s, 3H), 1.93 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 23

5-Chloro-6-cyano-2-{7V-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyri din-3-yl 4,6-di-O- acetyl-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//-l,2,3-triazo l-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-6-cyano-2-{/V-(2-oxa)-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl}-pyri din-3-yl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-D-galactopyranoside (400 mg, 0.72 mmol) and trimethyl-[2-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (215 mg, 0.94 mmol) in DMF (6 mF) copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (90.3 mg, 0.362 mmol) and (+)-sodium F-ascorbate (143 mg, 0.72 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 3 h at rt under nitrogen atmosphere. After diluting with water (20 mF), the mixture was extracted three times with EtOAc (10 mF). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 4 g, 12 mF/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give an anomeric mixture of the product. The mixture was separated by preparative

-SFC to give the product (54.0 mg, 11 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 30 H 28 CIF 3 N 6 O 7 S] [M+H] + : 709.1; found: 709.0. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.80 (s, 1H), 7.75 (s, 1H), 7.41 - 7.36 (m, 2H), 6.03 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.50 (s, 1H), 4.85 - 4.76 (m, 6H), 4.59 - 4.56 (m, 1H), 4.40- 4.28 (m, 4H), 4.07 - 3.96 (m, 2H), 3.33 (s, 3H), 2.00 (s, 3H), 1.93

(s, 3H).

Intermediate 24

5-Chloro-2-(pyrimidin-5-yl)pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-(pyrimidin-5-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2- O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (350 mg, 0.68 mmol) and 5-(4,4,5,5- tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)pyrimidine (281 mg, 1.36 mmol) in 1,4- dioxane/water (3.3 mL, 10:1) in a microwave tube, bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) chloride (47.8 mg, 0.068 mmol) and K2CO3 (282 mg, 2.04 mmol) were added. The mixture was degassed by bubbling argon through the solution and it was then stirred 1 h at 100 °C in a microwave reactor. The solvent was removed, and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=5/l~l/l, Silica-CS 20 g, 30 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (260 mg, 74 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C23H21CIN6O4S] [M+H] + : 513.1; found: 513.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 9.22 (s, 1H), 9.01 (s, 2H), 8.49 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.03 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.42 (m, 2H), 7.35 - 7.26 (m, 3H), 5.86 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (s, 1H), 4.19 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.12 (dd, J = 10.4, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.07 - 3.93 (m, 2H), 3.72 (s, 1H), 3.54 (dd, J = 10.4, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 3.37 (s, 3H).

5-Chloro-2-(pyrimidin-5-yl)pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(pyrimidin-5-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc- 3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (130 mg, 0.25 mmol) and trimethyl-[2-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (69.4 mg, 0.30 mmol) in DMF (3 mL), (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (100 mg, 0.51 mmol) and copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (31.6 mg, 0.13 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred overnight at rt under nitrogen atmosphere and was then concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the product (90.0 mg, 53 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C31H24CIF3N6O4S] [M+H] + : 669.1; found: 669.1. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.56 (s, 1H), 8.07 (s, 1H), 7.84 (s, 1H), 7.34 - 7.30 (m, 10H), 5.92 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.45 (s, 1H), 5.12 (s, 1H), 4.44 - 4.40 (m, 2H), 4.04 - 4.02 (m, 3H), 3.13 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 25

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2- O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (200 mg, 0.39 mmol) and tributyl(2- pyridyl)stannane (143 mg, 0.39 mmol) in DMF (3 mL) bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) chloride (27.3 mg, 0.039 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 6 h at 1 10 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere. After cooling to rt, the mixture was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the product (25.0 mg, 13 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C24H22CIN5O4S] [M+H] + : 512.1; found: 512.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.65 (s, 1H), 8.39 (s, 1H), 8.15 (m, 1H), 7.93 (m, 1H), 7.83 - 7.69 (m, 1H), 7.54 - 7.40 (m, 2H), 7.37 - 7.26 (m, 4H), 5.91 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 5.55 (s, 1H), 4.29 - 4.12 (m, 3H), 4.09 - 3.99 (m, 2H), 3.72 (dd, J = 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.39 (s, 3H).

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3- deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (50.0 mg, 0.098 mmol) and trimethyl-[2-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (24.5 mg, 0.11 mmol) in DMF (3 mL), (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (38.7 mg, 0.20 mmol) and copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (12.2 mg, 0.049 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred overnight at rt under nitrogen atmosphere and was then purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the product (30.0 mg, 46 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C32H25CIF3N5O4S] [M+H] + : 668.1; found: 668.1.‘H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.15 (s, 1H), 7.92 (s, 2H), 7.47 - 7.26 (m, 11H), 6.11 (s, 1H), 5.45 (s, 1H), 5.32 (d, J = 10.0 Hz, 1H), 4.57 (s, 1H), 4.43 (s, 1H), 4.27 (m, 2H), 4.08 (d, J = 11.8 Hz, 1H), 3.17 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 26

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-2- O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (320 mg, 0.62 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) 3- pyridylboronic acid (153 mg, 1.25 mmol), bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) chloride (91 mg, 0.013 mmol) and K2CO3 (172 mg, 1.25 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 6 h at rt. The mixture was concentrated and purified by column chromatography (DCM/MeOH=10/l, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (150 mg, 47 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C24H22CIN5O4S] [M+H] + : 512.1, found: 512.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.90 (s, 1H), 8.65 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 8.47 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.12 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 8.02 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H),

7.52 - 7.49 (m, 1H), 7.43 - 7.39 (m, 2H), 7.33 - 7.28 (m, 3H), 5.87 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1H),

5.52 (s, 1H), 4.19 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.13 - 4.04 (m, 2H), 3.99 (d, J = 12.8 Hz, 1H), 3.72 (d, J = 4.4 Hz, 1H), 3.57 (dd, J = 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.36 (s, 3H).

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(pyridin-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3- dcoxy-2-O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (72 mg, 0.14 mmol) in DMF (3 mL), trimethyl-[2-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (48 mg, 0.21 mmol), (+)-sodium L- ascorbate (28 mg, 0.14 mmol) and copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (35 mg, 0.14 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 6 h at rt. The mixture was concentrated and was then purified by column chromatography (DCM/MeOH=10/l, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (59.0 mg, 63 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C32H25CIF3N5O4S] [M+H] + : 668.1, found: 668.2.

Intermediate 27

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-bromo-5-chloro-3 -pyridine-3 -yl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3- dcoxy-2-O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (180 mg, 0.35 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (4.0 mL), 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)pyridine (144 mg, 0.70 mmol), K2CO3 (145 mg, 1.05 mmol), bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) chloride (12.3 mg, 0.018 mmol) and H2O (0.5 mL) were added. The mixture was stirred 1 h at 100 °C in a microwave reactor. The solvent was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc (100 mL), washed with water (80 mL), brine (80 mL), dried over Na 2 SC> 4 and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-2/1, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the the product (130 mg, 73 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C24H22CIN5O4S] [M+H] + : 512.1; found: 511.9.

5-Chloro-2-(pyridin-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(pyridin-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3- deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (60.0 mg, 0.12 mmol) in DMF (5 mL), trimethyl-[2-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (53.5 mg, 0.23 mmol), (+)- sodium L-ascorbate (23.2 mg, 0.12 mmol), copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (29.3 mg, 0.12 mmol) and CsF (17.8 mg, 0.12 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred at rt overnight. The mixture was poured into water (20 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 10 mL). the organic layers were washed with water (25 mL), dried with Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 4 g, 10 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (50.0 mg, 64 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C32H25CIF3N5O4S] [M+H] + : 668.1; found: 668.1. Ή NMII (400 MHZ, CDCI3) d 8.60 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.19 - 8.14 (m, 2H), 7.98 - 7.94 (m, 1H), 7.74 - 7.62 (m, 2H), 7.54 - 7.41 (m, 8H), 6.12 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.54 (s, 1H), 5.34 (d, J = 10.0 Hz, 1H), 4.59 - 4.54 (m, 1H), 4.50 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.27 - 4.18 (m, 1H), 4.16 - 4.11 (m, 2H), 3.19 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 28

5-Chloro-2-(l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

-butoxycarbonyl)- 1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl] pyridin-3- zylidene-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-bromo-5-chloro-3 -pyridine-3 -yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3- dcoxy-2-O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (400 mg, 0.78 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (10 mL), /e/t-butyl 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-3,6-dihydro- 277- pyridine-l-carboxylate (361 mg, 1.17 mmol), K2CO3 (215 mg, 1.56 mmol), bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) chloride (546 mg, 0.78 mmol) and H2O (1 mL) were added. The mixture was stirred 1 h at 100 °C in a microwave reactor. The solvent was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc (100 mL), washed with water (80 mL), brine (80 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-3/1, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (220 mg, 46 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C29H34CIN5O6S] [M+Na] + : 638.2; found: 637.9. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.29 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.89 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.48 - 7.45 (m, 1H), 7.35 - 7.27 (m, 4H), 5.99 - 5.82 (m, 2H), 5.56 (s, 1H), 4.26 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.20 (dd, J = 10.4, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.16 - 4.11 (m, 1H), 4.09 - 4.03 (m, 2H), 3.92 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.71 - 3.57 (m, 4H), 3.45 (s, 3H), 2.57 - 2.41 (m, 2H), 1.44 (s, 9H).

5-Chloro-2-(l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-[l-(A-/er/-butoxycarbonyl)-l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyri din-4- yl]pyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- l -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (400 mg, 0.65 mmol) in DCM (15 mL) TFA (2.41 mL, 32.5 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 2 h at rt and Et3N (4 mL) was added at 0 °C followed by concentration of the mixture. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the product (97 mg, 35 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 17 H 22 CIN 5 O 4 S] [M+H] + : 428.1; found: 428.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) d 8.35 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.25 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 6.09 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 6.05 - 5.95 (m, 1H), 4.16 - 4.04 (m, 2H), 4.00 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.73 - 3.55 (m, 5H), 3.51 (s, 3H), 3.18 - 3.13 (m, 2H), 2.61 - 2.48 (m, 2H).

Intermediate 29 5-Chloro-2-[ l-(/V-to -butoxycarbonyl)-3-p\rrolin-3-yl]pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0- benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//-l,2,3-t riazol-l-yl]-2-0- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-[l-(7V-tef -butoxycarbonyl)-3-pyrrolin-3-yl]pyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6- 0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranosid e

To a solution of 2-bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2- O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (100 mg, 0.20 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (10 mL) a solution of /e/ -butyl 3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-2,5- dihydropyrrole-l-carboxylate (91.9 mg, 0.31 mmol), K2CO3 (53.8 mg, 0.39 mmol), bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) chloride (10.9 mg, 0.016 mmol) in water (1 mL) was added. The mixture was stirred 1 h at 100 °C in a microwave reactor. The mixture was concentrated, and the residue was dissolved in EtOAc (100 mL) and washed with water and brine. The organic layer was dried with Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-3/1, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (90 mg, 77 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C28H32CIN5O6S] [M+Na] + : 624.2; found: 623.8. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.35 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.00 - 7.94 (m, 1H), 7.54 - 7.51 (m, 2H), 7.40 - 7.36 (m, 3H), 6.08 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.63 (s, 1H), 4.67 - 4.53 (m, 2H), 4.44 - 4.00 (m, 6H), 3.95 - 3.92 (m, 1H), 3.79 - 3.66 (m, 2H), 3.54 (s, 3H), 1.48 (s, 9H).

5-Chloro-2-[ l-(/V-to -butoxycarbonyl)-3-p\rrolin-3-yl]pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0- benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//-l,2,3-t riazol-l-yl]-2-0- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-[ 1 -(.V-/er/-butoxycarbonyl)-3-pyrrolin-3-yl]pyridin-3-yl 3- azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (90 mg, 0.15 mmol) in DMF (2 mL), trimethyl-[2-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (37.5 mg, 0.16 mmol), (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (29.6 mg, 0.15 mmol), copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (37.3 mg, 0.15 mmol) and CsF (34.1 mg, 0.22 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was filtered and the filtrate was purified by reverse-phase column [CFFCN/watcr (0.01%TFA)=0~65%, Cl 8 40 g, 50 mL/min, UV 254] to give the product (50 mg, 44 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CseHssCIFsNsOeS] [M+H] + : 758.2; found: 758.1. ¾ NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.40 (s, 1H), 8.04 - 7.99 (m, 1H), 7.98 - 7.94 (m, 1H), 7.46 - 7.41 (m, 7H), 6.80 - 6.44 (m, 1H), 6.22 - 6.15 (m, 1H), 5.55 (s, 1H), 5.45 - 5.27 (m, 1H), 4.71 - 4.38 (m, 5H), 4.31 (d, J = 12.8 Hz, 1H), 4.30 - 4.10 (m, 2H), 3.30 (s, 3H), 1.51 (s, 9H).

Intermediate 30

5-Chloro-2-(oxazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

2-Bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-bromo-5-chloro-3 -pyridine-3 -yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3- deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (185 mg, 0.36 mmol) in DMF (3 mL) trimethyl-[2-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (123 mg, 0.54 mmol), copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (45.0 mg, 0.18 mmol) and (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (36 mg, 0.18 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 3 h at rt, water (50 mL) and DCM (50 mL) were added, and the aqueous phase was extracted with DCM (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with water (50 mL) and brine (50 mL) and dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 . The solvent was removed under reduced pressure, and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 20 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (210 mg, 85 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for ^vfLiBrClFsN^S] [M+H] + : 669.0; found: 669.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.97 (s, 1H), 8.36 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.19 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.80 - 7.75 (m, 2H), 7.39 - 7.35 (m, 5H), 6.93 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.60 (s, 1H), 5.23 (dd, J = 11.2, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (dd , J = 11.6, 5.2 Hz, 1 H), 4.60 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.23 (s, 1 H), 4.12 - 3.98 (m, 2H), 3.37 (s, 3H).

5-Chloro-2-(oxazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 4,6-<9-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-3-[4- (3 ,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (180 mg, 0.26 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) tributyl(oxazol-2-yl)stannane (283 mg, 0.79 mmol), tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (37 mg, 0.053 mmol) and CsF (80 mg, 0.53 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 16 h at 60 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The solvent was removed by evaporation and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1-5/7, Silica-CS 20 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (72 mg, 37 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C30H23CIF3N5O5S] [M+H] + : 658.1; found: 658.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.97 (s, 1H), 8.62 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.39 - 8.38 (m, 2H), 7.80 - 7.76 (m, 2H), 7.60 (s, 1H), 7.40 - 7.35 (m, 5H), 6.91 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.58 (s, 1H), 5.22 (dd, J= 11.6, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.72 (dd, J = 7.6, 4.2 Hz, 1H), 4.56 (d, J = 2.8, 1H), 4.18 (s, 1H), 4.09 - 3.96 (m, 2H), 3.37 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 31

5-Chloro-2-(thiazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 4,6-<9-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-3-[4- (3 ,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (200 mg, 0.30 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) tributyl(thiazol-2-yl)stannane (223 mg, 0.6 mmol), tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (63 mg, 0.09 mmol) and CsF (91 mg, 0.9 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 3 h at 100 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere before the solvent was removed by evaporation. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 20 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (85 mg, 39 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C30H23CIF3N5O4S2] [M+H] + : 674.1; found: 674.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.98 (s, 1H), 8.56 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.35 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.14 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 7.94 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 7.81 - 7.77 (m, 2H), 7.41 - 7.35 (m, 5H), 6.92 (d, J = 5.60 Hz, 1H), 5.58 (s, 1H), 5.27 (dd, J = 11.6, 3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.74 (dd, J = 7.6, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.57 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.22 (s, 1H), 4.10 - 3.98 (m, 2H), 3.35 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 32

2,5-Bis(thiazol-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-bromo-5-chloropyridin-3-yl 4,6-<9-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-3-[4- (3 ,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (180 mg, 0.27 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) tributyl(thiazol-2-yl)stannane (302 mg, 0.81 mmol), tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (57 mg, 0.08 mmol) and CsF (122 mg, 0.81 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 3 h at 100 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere before the solvent was removed by evaporation. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1 -1/1, Silica-CS 20 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (125 mg, 34 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 33 H 25 F 3 N 6 O 4 S 3 ] [M+H] + : 722.8; found: 723.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.97 (s, 1H), 8.88 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.33 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.95 - 7.94 (m, 2H), 7.92 - 7.89 (m. 2H), 7.79 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 2H), 7.38 - 7.35 (m, 5H), 6.82 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.76 (s, 1H), 5.22 (dd, J = 11.2, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 4.69 (dd, J = 11.2, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 4.60 (d, J = 3.2, 1H), 4.38 (s, 1H), 4.16 - 3.97 (m, 2H), 3.34 (s, 3H). Intermediates 33 and 34

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside and 5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (mixture)

hiol and 5-Bromopyridine-3-thiol (mixture)

To a solution of 3-bromo-5-chloropyridine (4.52 g, 23.5 mmol) and NaH (60 % in oil, 0.90 g, 23.5 mmol) in DMF (40 mL) benzyl mercaptan (2.51 mL, 21.3 mmol) was added dropwise and the mixture was stirred 2 h at rt. The mixture was concentrated, diluted with EtOAc, washed twice with water and the organic phase was dried and evaporated. The residue was dissolved in toluene (15 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. To the formed suspension, a solution of AlCh (4.83 g, 36.2 mmol) in toluene (55 mL) was added and the mixture reached rt in 30 min, it was then stirred 2 h at rt. The mixture was cooled to 0 °C and quenched by addition of water. The phases were separated, and the organic phase was washed with water, dried and concentrated. The residue was purified by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc) to afford the mixture of products (3.05 g)·

5-Chloropyridine-3-thiol

ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 5 H 4 CINS] [M+H] + : 146.0; found: 145.9.

5-Bromopyridine-3-thiol

ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 5 H 4 BrNS] [M+H] + : 189.9; found: 189.9. 5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside and 5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (mixture)

To a mixture of 5-chloropyridine-3-thiol and 5-bromopyridine-3-thiol (650 mg) was dissolved together with 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-P-D-galactopyranosyl chloride (1.72 g, 4.91 mmol) in DMF (20 mL) NaH (60 % in oil, 428 mg, 11.2 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 3 h at rt before being diluted with EtOAc and washed twice with water and once with brine. The organic phase was dried, concentrated and purified by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc) to afford the mixture of products (1.17 g).

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranos ide

ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C17H19CIN4O7S] [M+H] + : 459.0; found: 459.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) d 8.53 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.50 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 7.84 (t, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.99 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H), 5.50 (d, J = 3.3 Hz, 1H), 5.30 (dd, J = 10.9, 5.5 Hz, 1H), 4.68 - 4.60 (m, 1H), 4.14 (dd, J = 11.7, 4.6 Hz, 1H), 4.03 (dd, J = 11.6, 7.9 Hz, 1H), 3.96 (dd, J = 10.9, 3.4 Hz, 1H), 2.21 (s, 3H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 2.04 (s, 3H). 5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranos ide

ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CnHigBrNrCES] [M+H] + : 503.0; found: 503.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) d 8.60 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.57 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.98 (t, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.99 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H), 5.50 (d, J = 3.3 Hz, 1H), 5.30 (dd, J = 10.9, 5.5 Hz, 1H), 4.68 - 4.60 (m, 1H), 4.14 (dd, J = 11.7, 4.6 Hz, 1H), 4.03 (dd, J = 11.6, 7.9 Hz, 1H), 3.96 (dd, J = 10.9, 3.4 Hz, 1H), 2.21 (s, 3H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 2.04 (s, 3H). 5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside and 5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (mixture)

A mixture of 5-chloropyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-(9-acctyl-3-azido-3-dcoxy- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside and 5-bromopyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio- a-D-galactopyranoside (1.17 g) was dissolved in MeOH (20 mL) and NaOMe (1 mL, 1 M) and stirred 2 h at rt. AcOH (0.2 mL) was added and the mixture was concentrated and the residue was partitioned between EtOAc and NaOH (aq, 1M). The organic phase was dried, evaporated and the residue was dissolved together with / -tolucncsulfonic acid monohydrate (146 mg, 0.77 mmol) in MeCN (100 mL). Benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal (0.77 mL, 5.10 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred 2 h at rt, precipitation was observed. The solids were filtered off and the filtrate was evaporated, diluted with EtOAc and washed with saturated aq NaHCOs. The organic phase was dried and evaporated. The residue and the solid material were dissolved together with NaH (60 % in oil, 164 mg, 4.28 mmol) in DMF (10 mL). The mixture was stirred 5 min before the addition of iodomethane (0.2 mL, 3.21 mmol). After stirring 2 h at rt the mixture was diluted with EtOAc, washed twice with water and the organic phase was dried and evaporated. The residue was stirred 30 min at rt in TFA/water (7.5 mL, 4: 1). The mixture was concentrated to a third of its volume and partitioned between EtOAc and NaOH (aq, 1M). The organic phase was dried, evaporated and purified by chromatography (S1O2, PE/EtOAc) to afford the mixture of products (380 mg).

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C12H15CIN4O4S] [M+H] + : 347.1; found: 347.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.59 (d, J = 1.9 Hz, 1H), 8.44 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 8.15 (t, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 6.07 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.23 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.06 (dd, J = 10.6, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.00 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.70 - 3.60 (m, 3H), 3.53 (s, 3H).

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

ESI-MS m/z calcd for [Ci 2 Hi 5 BrN 4 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 391.0; found: 391.0. Ή NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.63 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.54 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 8.29 (t, J = 1.9 Hz, 1H), 6.07 (d, = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.23 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.06 (dd, J = 10.6, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.00 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.70 - 3.60 (m, 3H), 3.53 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 39

6-Trifluoromethyl-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5- difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

5-Fluoro-3-methyl-2-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine

To a solution of 2-bromo-5-fluoro-3-methylpyridine (3.8 g, 20 mmol) in DMF (20 mL) Cul (6.0 g, 31.5 mmol) and methyl 2,2-difluoro-2-fluorosulfonyl-acetate (11.5 g, 60 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 5 h at 100 °C in a microwave reactor. Water (100 mL) was added, then extracted with diethyl ether (3 x 100 mL). The combined orgniac layers were washed with brine (3 x 100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 and concentrated to afford the product. (2.5 g, 63 %). GC-MS calcd for [C 7 H 5 F N] [M]: 179.0; found: 179.0.

5-Methyl-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine-3-thiol To a solution of 5-fluoro-3-methyl-2-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine (2.5 g, 12.6 mmol) in DMF (20 mL) Na2S (1.96 g, 25.1 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred overnight at rt. The solvent was removed to afford the product (2.0 g, 82 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 7 H 6 F 3 NS] [M-H]-: 192.0; found: 192.0.

6-Trifluoromethyl-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-P-D-galactopyranosyl chloride (3.50 g, 10.0 mmol) and 5-methyl-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine-3-thiol (2.0 g, 10.4 mmol) in DMF (50 mL) CS2CO3 (6.52 g, 20.0 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 6 h at rt before water (200 mL) was added. The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 100 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (3 x 100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 40 g, 40 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (2.6 g, 51 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C19H21F3N4O7S] [M+H] + : 507.1; found: 507.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.50 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.71 (s, 1H), 6.07 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 5.48 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 5.29 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.60 - 4.57 (m, 1H), 4.12 - 3.96 (m, 3H), 2.51 - 2.48 (m, 3H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 2.16 (s, 3H), 1.94 (s, 3H).

6-Trifluoromethyl-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 6-trifluoromethyl-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3- deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (2.6 g, 5.13 mmol) in MeOH (50 mL) NaOMe (0.03 g, 0.51 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 6 h at rt before the solvent was removed by evaporation. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the product (1.90 g, 93 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 13 H 15 F 3 N 4 O 4 S] [M+H] + : 381.1; found: 381.1.‘H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.53 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.04 (d, J = 0.4 Hz, 1H), 5.82 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.40 (dd, J = 10.8, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.24 - 4.20 (m, 1H), 4.03 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 3.70 - 3.62 (m, 2H), 3.54 (dd, J = 10.8, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 2.51 - 2.48 (m, 3H).

6-Trifluoromethyl-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a stirred solution of 6-trifluoromethyl-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (1.90 g, 4.8 mmol) in DMF (15 mF) benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal (2.19 g, 14.4 mmol) was added followed by D(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid (334 mg, 1.44 mmol). The mixture was stirred 2 h at 50 °C. The mixture was added dropwise to aq NaHCCb (200 mF) then filtered. The white soild was collected and dried in vacuum to afford the product (1.10 g, 47 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 20 H 19 F 3 N 4 O 4 S] [M+H] + : 469.1; found: 469.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.52 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.78 (s, 1H), 7.52 - 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.94 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 5.64 (s, 1H), 4.68 - 4.63 (m, 1H), 4.42 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.27 - 4.14 (m, 3H), 3.61 (dd, J = 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 2.51 - 2.48 (m, 3H).

6-Trifluoromethyl-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 6-trifluoromethyl-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3- deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (400 mg, 0.82 mmol) in DMF (8 mL) CS2CO3 (0.534 g, 1.64 mmol) and iodomethane (0.349 g, 2.46 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 6 h at rt. Water (100 mL) was added, and the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The organic layers were washed with brine (3 x 50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1 -1/1, Silica-CS 20 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (350 mg, 82 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C21H21F3N4O4S] [M+H] + : 483.1; found: 483.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.53 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.78 (d, J = 0.8 Hz , 1H), 7.55 - 7.38 (m, 5H), 6.14 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.64 (s, 1H), 4.35 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.28 (dd, J = 10.8, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.24 - 4.01 (m, 3H), 3.77 - 3.73 (m, 1H), 3.57 (s, 3H), 2.51 - 2.48 (m, 3H).

6-Trifluoromethyl-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5- difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 6-trifluoromethyl-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3- dcoxy-2-O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (200 mg, 0.39 mmol) in DMF (6 mL) trimethyl-[2-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (236 mg, 60 %, 0.58 mol), copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (48.2 mg, 0.19 mmol) and (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (38.2 mg, 0.19 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 3 h at rt under nitrogen atmosphere. Water (50 mL) and DCM (50 mL) were added. The aqueous phase was extracted with DCM (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with water (50 mL) and brine (3 x 50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 20 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (200 mg, 73 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C29H24CIF5N4O4S] [M+H] + : 655.1; found: 655.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.57 (d , J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.00 (s, 1H), 7.79 (s, 1H), 7.45 (d, J = 7.6 Hz , 2H), 7.39 (s, 5H), 6.24 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (s, 1H), 5.32 (dd, J = 11.2, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.56 - 4.51 (m, 2H), 4.32 - 4.13 (m, 3H), 3.33 (s, 3H), 2.51 - 2.48 (m, 3H).

Intermediate 40

2-(7V-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophenyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

2-Carboxy-5 -chlorophenyl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3 ,5-difluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -

3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (150 mg, 0.27 mmol), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole hydrate (65 mg, 0.41 mmol) and 'V-(3-dimcthylaminopropyl)-/V’-cthylcarbodiimidc hydrochloride (81 mg, 0.41 mmol) were stirred in DMF (2.0 mL) and azetidine (39 pL, 0.55 mmol) was added followed by EEN (39 pL, 0.27 mmol). The mixture was stirred 5 h at rt, then water (8.0 mL) was added and decanted. The residue was stirred in EtOH (3 mL) and NaOH (0.5 mL, 2 M) 1 h at rt, then neutralized with HC1 (0.5 mL, 2 M) and poured onto water. The precipitate was collected by filtration and further purification by chromatography (S1O2, PE/EtOAc) afforded the product (93 mg, 58 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C24H22CI2F2N4O5S] [M+H] + : 587.1; found: 587.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, MethanoUE) d 8.60 (s, 1H), 7.87 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.66 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.40 (dd, J = 8.2, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 7.32 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 5.93 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.01 (dd, J = 11.5, 2.7 Hz, 1H), 4.93 (dd, = 11.5, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.48 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 1H), 4.26 - 4.15 (m, 3H), 4.03 (m, 2H), 3.72 (m, 2H), 2.34 (m, 2H).

Intermediate 41

2-(7V-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3- fluoro-4-methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-cyanophenyl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-cyanophenyl 2,4,6-tri-0-acctyl-3-azido-3-dcoxy- 1 -thio-a- D-galactopyranoside (1.33 g, 2.75 mmol) in MeOH (5.0 mL) was added catalytical amount of NaOMe (pH=9-10). The mixture was stirred for 20 min before being neutralized with acid ion resin and filtrated. The filtrate was concentrated, and the residue was dissolved in DMF (10 mL). To the solution D(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid (195 mg, 0.84 mmol) and benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal (1.28 g, 8.41 mmol) were added and the mixture was stirred 2 h at 60 °C. The mixture was concentrated and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=2/l~l/l, Silica-CS 12 g, 12 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (768 mg, 62 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C20H17CIN4O4S] [M+H] + : 445.1; found: 445.2. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.76 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.60 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.51 - 7.49 (m, 2H), 7.38 - 7.34 (m, 4H), 5.89 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.63 (s, 1H), 4.67 - 4.62 (m, 1H), 4.42 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.29 - 4.25 (m, 2H), 4.17-4.14 (m, 1H), 3.64 (dd, J= 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 2.48 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 1H).

2-Cyano-5-chlorophenyl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio- a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-cyanophenyl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy- l -thio-a- D-galactopyranoside (768 mg, 1.73 mmol) in DMF (2 mL) iodomethane (490 mg, 3.45 mmol) and CS2CO3 (1.69 g, 5.18 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 16 h at rt under nitrogen atmosphere. The mixture was concentrated, and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=25/ 1-6/1, Silica-CS 12 g, 12 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (407 mg, 51 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C21H19CIN4O4S] [M+H] + : 459.1; found: 459.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.72 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.60 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.51 - 7.49 (m, 2H), 7.36 - 7.34 (m, 4H), 6.11 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.61 (s, 1H), 4.34 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.27 (dd, J= 10.8, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.20 - 4.17 (m, 2H), 4.13 - 4.09 (m, 1H), 3.78 (dd, = 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.60 (s, 3H).

2-Cyano-5-chlorophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro-4- methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-cyano-5-chlorophenyl 3-azido-4,6-(9-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-2-<9- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (338 mg, 0.74 mmol) and trimethyl-[2-(3-fluoro- 4-methylphenyl)ethynyl] silane (0.304 g, 1.47 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) (+)-sodium L- ascorbate (72.9 mg, 0.37 mmol) and copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (92.1 mg, 0.37 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 3 h at rt under nitrogen atmosphere. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-4/1, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (260 mg, 60 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C30H26CIFN4O4S] [M+H] + : 593.1, found: 593.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.95 (s, 1H), 7.74 (d , J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.65 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H) 7.49 - 7.36 (m, 8H), 7.25 (s, 1H), 6.21 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (s, 1H), 5.32 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.57 - 4.41 (m, 2H), 4.35 (s, 1H), 4.29 (dd, J = 12.8, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 4.16 (dd, J = 12.8, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 3.38 (s, 3H), 2.30 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 3H).

2-Carboxy-5-chlorophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro-4- methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

A mixture of 2-cyano-5-chlorophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3-fluoro-4- methylphenyl)-177-l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (250 mg, 0.42 mmol) in ethanol (20 mL) and NaOH (11.4 mL, 3 M) was stirred 5 h at 80 °C. After cooling to rt, the mixture was concentrated to a volume of approx. 12 mL, and then acidified with HC1 (5 M) to pH approximately 1. The precipitation was collected by filtration, washed with 33% aq MeOH, and dried to afford the product (200 mg, 78 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C30H27CIFN3O6S] [M+H] + : 612.1, found: 612.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 13.36 (s, 1H), 8.81 (s, 1H), 7.89 - 7.87 (m, 2H), 7.58 - 7.56 (m, 2H) 7.39 - 7.32 (m, 7H), 6.68 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.56 (s, 1H), 5.18 (dd, J = 11.6, 3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.75 (dd, J = 12.0, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.53 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H) 4.21 (s, 1H), 4.11 - 4.08 (m, 1H), 3.97 - 3.94 (m, 1H), 3.30 (s, 3H), 2.23 (s, 3H).

2-( V-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3- fluoro-4-methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a stirred mixture of 2-carboxy-5-chlorophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3- fluoro-4-methylphenyl)-lf/-l ,2,3-triazol-l -yl]-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (200 mg, 0.33 mmol), azetidine hydrochloride (0.122 g, 1.31 mmol) and Et3N (0.198 g, 1.96 mmol) in DMF (3 mL) 1 -[bis(dimcthylamino)mcthylcnc]- 1 H-

1.2.3-triazolo[4,5-h]pyridinium 3-oxid hexafluorophosphate (0.373 g, 0.98 mol) was added in portions. The mixture was stirred overnight at rt, and was then concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=l/2, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (127 mg, 60 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C33H32CIFN4O5S] [M+H] + : 651.2, found: 651.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.95 (s, 1H), 7.62 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.48 - 7.45 (m, 2H), 7.41 - 7.35 (m, 5H) 7.33 - 7.30 (m, 2H), 7.27 (s, 1H), 6.24 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 5.50 (s, 1H), 5.34 (dd, J = 11.2, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.50 - 4.46 (m, 2H), 4.41 (s, 1H), 4.26 - 4.10 (m, 4H), 3.95 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 3.34 (s, 3H), 2.95 (s, 1H), 2.87 (s, 1H), 2.29 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 42

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//-

1.2.3-triazol-l-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloropyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acctyl-3-azido-3-dcoxy- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (WO2016120403

) (2.80 g, 6.10 mmol) in MeOH (30 mL) NaOMe (330 mg, 6.10 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 2 h at rt, then AcOH was added to adjust pH to 7. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=l/l~0/l, Silica-CS 20 g, 25 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (1.50 g, 74 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C1 1H13CIN4O4S] [M+H] + : 333.0; found: 333.2. 'HNMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.55 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.48 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.09 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 6.01 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.77 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.31 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 1H), 4.68 (t, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.24 (dt, J = 10.4, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 3.98 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 3.94 - 3.88 (m, 1H), 3.54 - 3.45 (m, 1H), 3.43 - 3.34 (m, 1H), 3.34 - 3.18 (m, 1H).

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (1.50 g, 4.51 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal (2.06 g, 13.5 mmol) and D(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid (314 mg, 1.35 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 2 h at 60 °C, then it was cooled to rt and EEN (1 mL) was added. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=l/l~l/3, Silica-CS 20 g, 25 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (1.00 g, 53 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C18H17CIN4O4S] [M+H] + : 421.1; found: 421.2. 'H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de): d 8.57 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.51 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.08 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.48 - 7.33 (m, 5H), 6.23 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 6.05 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.68 (s, 1H), 4.43 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.40 - 4.24 (m, 1H), 4.12 - 4.06 (m, 1H), 4.02 (s, 1H), 3.92 - 3.85 (m, 1H), 3.69 (dd, = 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H).

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-l -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (1.00 g, 2.38 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) NaH (60 % in oil, 190 mg, 4.75 mmol) was added at 0 °C. After 2 min, iodomethane (0.296 mL, 4.75 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred under nitrogen atmosphere 30 min at rt. The mixture was poured into water (20 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The organic layers were washed with brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=2/l~l/2, Silica-CS 20 g, 25 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (420 mg, 41 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C19H19CIN4O4S] [M+H] + : 435.1; found: 435.0. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.53 (s, 1H), 8.44 (s, 1H), 7.84 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.57 - 7.49 (m, 2H), 7.42 - 7.35 (m, 3H), 6.04 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.62 (s, 1H), 4.34 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.30 - 4.20 (m, 2H), 4.17 - 4.09 (m, 2H), 3.72 (dd, J = 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.56 (s, 3H).

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl-

1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (100 mg, 0.230 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) trimethyl-[2- (3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (78.7 mg, 0.35 mmol), (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (45.6 mg, 0.23 mmol), copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (57.4 mg, 0.23 mmol) and CsF (34.9 mg, 0.23 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred under nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was poured into water (20 mL) and extracted twice with EtOAc (50 mL). The organic layers were washed with brine (50 mL), dried over Na 2 SC> 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 4 g, 10 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (100 mg, 74 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C27H22CIF3N4O4S] [M+H] + : 591.1; found: 591.2.‘H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.71 - 8.33 (m, 2H), 7.96

- 7.93 (m, 1H), 7.90 - 7.86 (m, 1H), 7.47 - 7.37 (m, 7H), 6.15 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.54 (s, 1H), 5.31 (dd, J = 10.8, 3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.55 - 4.48 (m, 2H), 4.36 - 4.28 (m, 2H), 4.20

- 4.14 (m, 1H), 3.34 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 43

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(6-fluoro-5-methylpyridin-

2-yl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

A solution of lithium diisopropylamide (6.25 mL, 2 M in THF, 12.5 mmol) was added dropwise to 2-bromo-6-fluoro-pyridine (2.0 g, 11.4 mmol) in THF (6 mL) at -78 °C, and then stirred 30 min. Iodomethane (1.77 g, 12.5 mmol) was added slowly, and then continued to stir 3 h at -78 °C. The mixture slowly reached rt and was then stirred 1 h. The reaction was quenched with EtO Ac/water (50 mL/100 mL) and kept for 1 h. The layers were separated, and the organic layer was concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=20/l~10/l, Silica-CS 20 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (1.00 g, 46 %). 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.47 (t, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.28 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H) 2.23 (s, 3H).

2-Fluoro-3-methyl-6- [2-(trimethylsilyl)ethynyl] pyridine

To a solution of 6-bromo-2-fluoro-3-methylpyridine (1.00 g, 5.26 mmol) and trimethylsilylacetylene (1.03 g, 10.5 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) Cul (50.1 mg, 0.26 mmol), bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) dichloride (185 mg, 0.26 mol) and EhN (1.47 mL, 10.5 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 2 h at 50 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. The solvent was removed to afford the product (300 mg, 28 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C H H M FNSI] [M+H] + : 208.1, found: 208.2.

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(6-fluoro-5-methylpyridin- 2-yl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (114 mg, 0.26 mmol) and 2-fluoro-3-methyl-6-[2- (trimethylsilyl)ethynyl]pyridine (81.6 mg, 0.39 mmol) in DMF (2 mL) (+)-sodium L- ascorbate (25.0 mg, 0.13 mmol) and copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (33.0 mg, 0.13 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 3 h at rt under a nitrogen atmosphere. The solvent was removed, and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-4/1, Silica-CS 12g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (100 mg, 67%). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C27H25CIFN5O4S] [M+H] + : 570.1, found: 570.2. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.74 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.47 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.33 (s, 1H), 7.97 (dd, J = 7.6, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.87 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.69 (dd, J = 9.6, 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.43 - 7.35 (m, 5H), 6.17 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 5.51 (s, 1H), 5.32 (dd, J = 11.2, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.60 (dd, J = 11.6, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.52 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.32 - 4.27 (m, 2H), 4.16 (dd, J = 12.8, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 3.34 (s, 3H), 2.21 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 44

3-Chloro-2-methyl-6-[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethynyl]pyridine

6-Bromo-3-chloro-2 -methyl-pyridine (413 mg, 2 mmol) and trimethylsilylacetylene (416 mΐ, 3 mmol) were added to a solution of bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) dichloride (73.0 mg, 0.10 mmol), Cul (38.1 mg, 0.20 mmol) and EhN (1.36 mL, 10 mmol) in THF (4 mL, degassed). The mixture was stirred 1 h at rt before it was diluted with PE (7 mL) and cooled to -20 °C. The suspension was filtered through a plug of celite and concentrated. Purification by chromatography (S1O2, PE/EtOAc) yielded the product (400 mg, 89 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CnHisClNSi] [M+H] + : 224.1; found: 224.1, Ή NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) d 7.58 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.27 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 2.63 (s, 3H), 0.27 (s, 9H).

5-Chloropyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

NaOMe (2.18 mL, 1M, 2.18 mmol) was added to 5-chloropyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-O- acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (2.00 g, 4.36 mmol) in MeOH (40 mL). After 20 minutes the reaction was quenched with AcOH (200 pL) and concentrated. NaOH (100 mL, 1 M) was added and the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The organic phases were dried and concentrated. The crude was suspended in MeCN (200 mL). Benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal (1.31 mL, 8.72 mmol) and / -tolucncsulfonic acid monohydrate (249 mg, 1.31 mmol) were added. After 2 h additional benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal (1.31 mL, 8.72 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred 45 min before it was concentrated. The crude was suspended in MeCN (200 mL) and benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal (1.31 ml, 8.72 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred overnight and then concentrated. EtOAc (200 mL) was added and the mixture was washed with saturated aq NaHCOs (100 mL) and water (100 ml). The organic phase was concentrated. Toluene was added and the mixture was concentrated once more. The crude was dissolved in DML (20 mL) and NaH (60% in oil, 334 mg, 8.72 mmol) was added. After 5 minutes iodomethane (0.407 mL, 6.54 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred for additionally 45 min. The mixture was diluted with EtOAc (200 mL), washed with water (5 x 200 mL) and concentrated. Water/TLA (15 mL, 1 :4) was added. After 30 min the mixture was diluted with water (25 mL) and TLA was removed under reduced pressure. NaOH (50 mL, 1 M) was added and the mixture was made basic using NaOH (50 %). The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The organic phases were dried and concentrated. Recrystallization from EtOAc:PE yielded the product (1.10 g). The mother liquor was concentrated and purified by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc) to yield the product (501 mg). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C12H16CIN4O4S] [M+H] + : 347.1; found: 347.1, 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.59 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.44 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 8.15 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 6.07 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.23 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.06 (dd, J = 10.5, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.00 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.71 - 3.59 (m, 3H), 3.53 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 45

3-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-5-yl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

3-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-5-yl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio- D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of acetyl 4,6-di-0-acctyl-3-azido-2-mcthyl-3-dcoxy- 1 -thio-D- galactopyranoside (280 mg, 0.78 mmol) and 3-chloro-5-fluoro-pyridine-2-carbonitrile (146 mg, 0.93 mmol) in DMF (5.00 mL) diethylamine (113 mg, 1.55 mmol) was added at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere for 8 h. After diluting with water (20 mL), the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-3/1, Silica-CS 4 g, 12 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (260 mg, 74 %, a/b=0.25: 1). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CivHisCINsOeS] [M+H] + : 456.1; found: 456.1 3-Chloro-2-cyano-pyridine-5-yl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.55 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.08 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 6.02 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 5.34 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.37 - 4.39 (m, 1H), 3.91 - 4.01 (m, 2H), 3.74 (dd, J = 10.4, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.49 (s, 3H), 3.32 - 3.38 (m, 1H), 2.11 (s, 3H), 1.91 (s, 3H).

3-Chloro-2-cyano-pyridine-5-yl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-metliyl-l-tliio-|l-D- galactopyranoside

'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.57 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 5.34 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.68 (d, J = 9.6 Hz, 1H), 3.91 - 4.01 (m, 2H), 3.86 - 3.88 (m, 1H), 3.57 (s, 3H), 3.55 - 3.36 (m, 1H), 3.32 - 3.38 (m, 1H), 2.12 (s, 3H), 2.03 (s, 3H).

3-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-5-yl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 3-chloro-2-cyanopyridin-5-yl 4, 6-di-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy -2-O- methyl- 1-thio-D-galactopyranoside (180 mg, 0.40 mmol) and trimethyl-[2-(3,4,5- tri- fluorophenyl)ethynyl] silane (135 mg, 0.59 mmol) in DMF (3.00 mL) copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (49.3 mg, 0.20 mmol) and (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (78.2 mg, 0.40 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 3 h at rt under nitrogen atmosphere. After diluting with water (20 mL), the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 4 g, 12 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give an anomeric mixture of the product. The mixture was separated by preparative-TLC (PE/EtOAc=l/l) to afford the product (25.0 mg, 10 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C25H21CIF3N5O6S] [M+H] + : 612.1; found:612.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.60 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.98 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.72 (s, 1H), 7.40 - 7.36 (m, 2H), 6.24 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 5.51 (s, 1H), 4.84 - 4.81 (m, 2H), 4.61 - 4.57 (m, 1H), 3.99 - 4.10 (m, 2H), 3.34 (s, 3H), 2.02 (s, 3H), 1.92 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 47

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5- difluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2- O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (100 mg, 0.20 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) trimethyl-[2-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (122 mg, 60 %, 0.3 mmol), (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (40 mg, 0.20 mmol) and copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (50 mg, 0.20 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 3 h at rt under nitrogen atmosphere. Water (50 mL) and DCM (50 mL) were added. The aqueous phase was extracted with DCM (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with water (50 mL) and brine (3 x 50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 20 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (100 mg, 79 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C28H21CI2F2N5O4S] [M+H] + : 632.1; found: 632.0. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.57 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.07 (d, J = 2.0 Hz , 1H), 7.99 (s, 1H), 7.47 - 7.42 (m, 2H), 7.39 (s, 5 H), 6.25 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1 H), 5.54 (s, 1H), 5.31 (dd, J = 11.2, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.59 - 4.54 (m, 2H), 4.39 (s, 1H), 4.30 - 4.14 (m, 2H), 3.38 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 48

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-2- O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (120 mg, 0.26 mmol) and trimethyl-[2-(4- chloro-3-fluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (101 mg, 70 %, 0.31 mmol) in DMF (4 mL) (+)- sodium L-ascorbate (77.5 mg, 0.39 mmol) and copper(II) sulfatepentahydrate (32.6 mg, 0.13 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 4 h at rt under a nitrogen atmosphere. After diluting with water (20 mL), the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 , and concentrated. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the product (97.0 mg, 61 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C28H22CI2FN5O4S] [M+H] + : 614.1; found: 614.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.95 (s, 1H), 8.76 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.52 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.88 - 7.81 (m, 1H), 7.75 - 7.67 (m, 2H), 7.44 - 7.30 (m, 5H), 6.92 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.60 (s, 1H), 5.22 (dd, J= 11.6, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.77 (dd, J= 11.6, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.62 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.30 (s, 1H), 4.12 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.99 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.40 (s, 3H).

Intermadeiate 49 2-Cyano-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5- difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

2-Bromo-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-bromo-3-fluoro-5-methylpyridine (300 mg, 1.58 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) Na2S (246 mg, 3.16 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 1 h at 100 °C in a microwave reactor. The mixture cooled to rt and 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-P- D-galactopyranosyl chloride (300 mg, 0.858 mmol) and CS2CO3 (559 mg, 1.72 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred overnight at rt. The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (30 mL) and washed with brine. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure, and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EA= 10/ 1-5/1, Silica-CS 20 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the crude product. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CisEEiBrl^OvS] [M+H] + : 517.0; found: 517.0.

2-Bromo-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

2-Bromo-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acctyl-3-azido-3-dcoxy- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (300 mg, 56 %, 0.325 mmol) was dissolved in a mixed solution of M cO H/EhN/FEO (9 mL, 5:3: 1). The mixture was stirred overnight at rt. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure, and the residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to afford the product (65.0 mg) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [Ci 2 Hi 5 BrN 4 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 391.0; found: 391.0. Ή NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.00 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.86 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 6.03 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 5.85 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.30 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.60 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.28 (dt, = 10.8, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 3.89 (m, 2H), 3.47 (m 2H), 3.34 (m, 1H), 2.22 (s, 3H).

2-Bromo-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a stirred solution of 2-bromo-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (300 mg, 0.77 mmol) in DMF (6 mL) benzaldehyde dimethylacetal (350 mg, 2.30 mmol) was added followed by D(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid (35.6 mg, 0.15 mmol). The mixture was stirred 3 h at 50 °C under nitrogen atomsphere. The mixture was neutralized with EtsN and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=5/ 1-3/1, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (250 mg, 68 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [Ci 9 Hi 9 BrN 4 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 479.0; found: 479.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) d 8.04 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.71 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.51 - 7.49 (m, 2H), 7.42 - 7.34 (m, 3H), 5.94 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.64 (s, 1H), 4.72 - 4.62 (m, 1H), 4.41 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.24 (dd, J = 13.2, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 4.12 - 4.10 (m, 2H), 3.68 (dd, J = 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 2.46 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 2.28 (s, 3H).

2-Bromo-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-bromo-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (250 mg, 0.52 mmol) and iodomethane (370 mg, 2.61 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) CS2CO3 (510 mg, 1.56 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 4 h at rt and then extracted with EtOAc (30 mL). The solvent was removed, and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=5/ 1-2/1, Silica-CS 20 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (180 mg, 70 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 2 oH 2i BrN 4 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 493.0; found: 493.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.02 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.68 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.55 - 7.48 (m, 2H), 7.41 - 7.33 (m, 3H), 6.14 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.62 (s, 1H), 4.33 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.28 (dd, J = 10.4, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.18 - 4.05 (m, 3H), 3.83 (dd, J = 10.4, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.57 (s, 3H), 2.27 (s, 3H).

2-Cyano-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-bromo-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2- O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (180 mg, 0.37 mmol) in DMF (10.0 mL) Zn (23.9 mg, 0.37 mmol), Pd2(dibenzylideneacetone) 3 , (26.7 mg, 0.029 mmol) Zn(CN) 2 (129 mg, 1.09 mmol) and l,r-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (16.5 mg, 0.029 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 2.5 h at 100 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. The solvent was removed, and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-3/1, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (100 mg, 62 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 2i H 2i Ns0 4 S] [M+H] + : 440.1; found: 440.1.‘H NMR (400 MHz, CDC ) d 8.42 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.83 (d, J = 0.8 Hz, 1H), 7.49 (m, 2H), 7.40 - 7.31 (m, 3H), 6.04 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.60 (s, 1H), 4.34 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.25 (dd, J = 10.6, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.21 (s, 1H), 4.16 (dd, J = 12.8, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 4.11 (dd, J = 12.8, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 3.78 (dd, J = 10.6, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.60 (s, 3H), 2.41 (s, 3H).

2-Cyano-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5- difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution 2-cyano-5-methylpyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (100 mg, 0.23 mmol) and trimethyl-[2-(4-chloro- 3,5-difluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (60.0 %, 111 mg, 0.27 mmol) in DMF (4 mL) (+)- sodium L-ascorbate (67.6 mg, 0.34 mmol) and copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (28.4 mg, 0.11 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 4 h at rt under nitrogen atmosphere before being purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the product (80 mg, 57 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C29H24CIF2N5O4S] [M+H] + : 612.1; found: 612.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.99 (s, 1H), 8.52 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 1H), 8.18 (d, J = 0.8 Hz, 1H), 7.75 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.33 (s, 5H), 6.68 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.58 (s, 1H), 5.20 (dd, J = 11.2, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.69 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.61 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.34 (s, lH), 4.13 (d , J = 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.99 (d , J = 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.39 (s, 3H), 2.42 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 50

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5- difluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

2,5-Dibromopyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of acetyl 2,4,6-tri-0-acctyl-3-azido-3-dcoxy- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (3 g, 7.70 mmol) in DMF (30 mL) 2,5-dibromo-3-fluoropyridine (2.16 g, 8.47 mmol) and diethylamine (1.13 g, 15.4 mmol) were added at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere overnight at rt. The mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The organic layers were washed with brine (100 mL), dried over anhudrous Na 2 SC> 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 40 g, 50 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (2.6 g, 58 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C I V H I H B^^O V S] [M+H] + : 580.9; found: 581.0. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.28 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.94 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 6.12 (d, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H), 5.49 (d, J= 2.8 Hz, 1H), 5.34 (dd, J= 11.2, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.53 (dd, J= 7.6, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 4.15 - 4.11 (m, 1H), 4.04 - 3.98 (m, 2H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 2.17 (s, 3H), 1.97 (s, 3H).

2,5-Dibromopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2,5-dibromopyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acctyl-3-azido-3-dcoxy- 1 -thio-a- D-galactopyranoside (2.60 g, 4.47 mmol) in MeOH (30 mL) EhN (2 mL) and H2O (1 mL) were added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere overnight at rt. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was suspended in DCM (50 mL). The solid was collected and washed by DCM and Et 2 0. The product (1.10 g, 54 %) was obtained as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CnHi 2 Br 2 N 4 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 454.9; found: 455.0. Ή NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.31 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.20 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 6.13 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 6.02 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.33 (d, J= 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.60 (t, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.28 (dt, J= 10.4, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 3.90 (dd, J = 6.0, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.83 (t, J= 6.4 Hz, 1H), 3.55 - 3.44 (m, 2H), 3.35 - 3.32 (m, 1H).

2,5-Dibromopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2,5-dibromopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (1.10 g, 2.41 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal (1.1 g, 7.24 mmol) and D(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid (112 mg, 0.48 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere 2 h at 50 °C. The mixture was cooled to rt and EEN (1 mL) was added. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=l/l~l/3, Silica-CS 20 g, 25 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (1.05 g, 80 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CisHieB^N^S] [M+H] + : 542.9; found: 543.0. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.19 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.94 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.48 - 7.42 (m, 2H), 7.36 - 7.28 (m, 3H), 5.92 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.59 (s, 1H), 4.64 (dt, J = 10.4, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.37 (d, J= 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.19 (dd, J= 12.8, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 4.08 (dd, J = 12.8, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 4.05 - 4.02 (m, 1H), 3.65 (dd, J= 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 2.42 (d , J = 5.6 Hz, 1H). 2,5-Dibromopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio- a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2,5-dibromopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-l -thio- a-D-galactopyranoside (1.05 g, 1.93 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) CS 2 CO 3 (1.86 g, 5.79 mmol) and iodomethane (0.601 mL, 9.65 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere overnight at rt. The mixture was poured into water (100 mL), the precipitate was collected, and dried in vacuo to afford the product (900 mg, 84 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CwHisB^N^S] [M+H] + : 556.9; found: 556.8. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.24 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.99 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.55 - 7.47 (m, 2H), 7.40 - 7.35 (m, 3H), 6.15 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.63 (s, 1H), 4.36 - 4.27 (m, 2H), 4.19 (dd, J= 12.8, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 4.11 - 4.05 (m, 1H), 4.05 - 4.00 (m, 1H), 3.82 (dd, J = 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.57 (s, 3H).

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2,5-dibromopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-2-0- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (400 mg, 0.72 mmol) in DMSO (15 mL) copper(I) cyanide (77.0 mg, 0.86 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere 2 h at 120 °C in a microwave reactor. The mixture was poured into water (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 4 g, 10 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (140 mg, 39 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 2 oHi 8 BrN 5 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 504.0; found: 504.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.61 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.20 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.53 - 7.49 (m, 2H), 7.39 - 7.34 (m, 3H), 6.13 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.62 (s, 1H), 4.35 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.29 - 4.25 (m, 1H), 4.18 - 4.08 (m, 3H), 3.77 (dd, J= 10.4, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.59 (s, 3H).

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5- difluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2- O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (60.0 mg, 0.12 mmol) in DMF (5 mL ) trimethyl-[2-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (58.2 mg, 0.24 mmol), (+)- sodium L-ascorbate (23.6 mg, 0.12 mmol), copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (29.7 mg, 0.12 mmol) and CsF (18.1 mg, 0.12 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere overnight at rt. The mixture was poured into water (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 80 mL). The organic layers were washed with brine (50 mL), dried over Na 2 SC> 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1 , Silica-CS 4 g, 10 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (40.0 mg, 50 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for ^sFLiBrCD^NsCLS] [M+H] + : 676.0; found: 675.9. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.68 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H),

8.24 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.00 - 7.98 (m, 1H), 7.47 - 7.43 (m, 2H), 7.43 - 7.37 (m, 5H),

6.25 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.55 (s, 1H), 5.32 (dd, J= 1 1.2, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.61 - 4.55 (m, 2H), 4.42 - 4.37 (m, 1H), 4.32 - 4.27 (m, 1H), 4.20 - 4.14 (m, 1H), 3.39 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 51

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-2- O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (60.0 mg, 0.12 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) trimethyl-[2-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (40.5 mg, 0.18 mmol), (+)- sodium L-ascorbate (23.6 mg, 0.12 mmol), copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (29.7 mg, 0.12 mmol) and CsF (18.1 mg, 0.12 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere overnight at rt. The mixture was poured into water (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 80 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 4 g, 10 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (40 mg, 51 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 28 H 22 BrClFN 5 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 658.0; found: 658.0. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.67 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.23 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.98 (s, 1H), 7.43 - 7.36 (m, 8H), 6.24 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.55 (s, 1H), 5.31 (dd, = 11.2, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.61 - 4.53 (m, 2H), 4.40 (s, 1H), 4.31 - 4.14 (m, 2H), 3.38 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 52

5-Chloro-2-(7V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

2-(Azetidin-l-ylcarbonyl)-3-bromo-5-chloropyridine

Azetidine (171 pL, 2.54 mmol) was added to a solution of 3-bromo-5-chloropyridine- 2-carboxylic acid (500 mg, 2.11 mmol), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole hydrate (389 mg, 2.54 mmol) and 'V-(3-dimcthylaminopropyl)-/V’-cthylcarbodiimidc hydrochloride (486 mg, 2.54 mmol) in DMF (8 ml) and EhN (0.35 mL, 2.54 mmol). After stirring 26 h at rt the mixture was diluted with EtOAc and washed with water. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc and the combined organic phases were dried and evaporated. Purification of the residue by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc) yielded the product (264 mg, 45 % yield). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CyfEBrCl^O] [M+H] + : 275.0; found: 274.6. Ή NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) d 8.49 - 8.46 (m, 1H), 7.97 - 7.94 (m, 1H), 4.29 - 4.21 (m, 2H), 4.14 - 4.07 (m, 2H), 2.40 - 2.29 (m, 2H).

2-(Azetidin-l-ylcarbonyl)-3-[(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyls ulfanyl]-5- chloropyridine

To a nitrogen purged solution of 2-(azetidin-l-ylcarbonyl)-3-bromo-5-chloropyridine (277 mg, 1.01 mmol), Pd(dibenzylideneacetone)2 (35 mg, 0.060 mmol) and 4,5- bis(diphenylphosphino)-9,9-dimethylxanthene (29 mg, 0.050 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (1 mL) a solution of 2,4-dimethoxybenzyl thiol (278 mg, 1.51 mmol) and DIEA (0.34 mL, 2.00 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (2 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred 4 h at 100 °C. The mixture was purified by chromatography (S1O2, PE/EtOAc) to yield the product (359 mg, 94 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C18H19CIN2O3S] [M+H] + : 379.1; found: 379.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) d 8.49 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.71 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.27 (s, 1H), 6.47 - 6.42 (m, 2H), 4.28 (s, 4H), 4.09 (s, 2H), 3.86 (s, 2H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 2.30 (p, J =7.8 Hz, 2H). 2-(Azetidin-l-ylcarbonyl)-5-chloropyridine-3-thiol

TFA (1.5 mL) was added to a solution of 2-(azetidin-l-ylcarbonyl)-3-[(2,4- dimethoxyphenyl)methylsulfanyl]-5-chloropyridine (359 mg, 0.95 mmol) in DCM (2 mL) and triethylsilane (1.5 mL) and the mixture was stirred 20 h at rt. The mixture was concentrated and purified by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc) to afford the product (199 mg, 92 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C9H9CIN2OS] [M+H] + : 229.0; found: 228.7. Ή NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) d 8.23 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 7.63 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.41 (br s, 5H), 2.34 (p, J =7.8 Hz, 2H).

5-Chloro-2-( V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyndyl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3- deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

NaH (60 % in oil, 70 mg, 1.81 mmol) was added to a solution of 2-(azetidin-l- ylcarbonyl)-5-chloropyridine-3 -thiol (166 mg, 0.73 mmol) and 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3- azido-3-deoxy-P-D-galactopyranosyl chloride (317 mg, 0.91 mmol) in DMF (6 mL) and the mixture was stirred 6 h at rt. The mixture was diluted with EtOAc and washed twice with water and once with brine. The organic phase was dried, concentrated and purified by chromatography (S1O2, PE/EtOAc) to afford the product (315 mg, 67 % yield). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C21H24CIN5O8S] [M+H] + : 542.1; found: 541.9.‘H NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) d 8.31 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.01 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 6.06 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 5.45 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 5.33 (dd, = 11.0, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.62 - 4.49 (m, 2H), 4.45 - 4.36 (m, 1H), 4.24 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 2H), 4.15 - 4.00 (m, 4H), 2.35 (p, J = 7.7 Hz, 2H), 2.16 (s, 6H), 1.91 (s, 3H). 5-Chloro-2-(7V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (275 mg, 0.51 mmol) was dissolved in MeOH (10 mL), Et3N (1.5 mL) and water (0.5 mL) and stirred 24 h at rt. The mixture was concentrated and purified by preparative HPLC (Method B) to afford the product (206 mg, 98 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CisHisCINsOsS] [M+H] + : 416.1; found: 415.8. 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.41 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 8.30 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.83 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H), 4.41 (dd, J = 10.8, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 4.26 - 4.14 (m, 5H), 4.04 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 3.72 - 3.61 (m, 2H), 3.56 (dd, J = 10.8, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 2.38 (p, J = 7.8 Hz, 2H).

5-Chloro-2-(/V-azetidin\lcarbamo\i)-3-pyrid\i 3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-3-deoxy-l -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (200 mg, 0.48 mmol) was dissolved in MeCN (20 mL), p- toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (92 mg, 0.48 mmol) followed by benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal (0.15 mL, 0.96 mmol) were added and the mixture was stirred 2 h at rt. Et3N (0.1 mL, 0.72 mmol) was added and the mixture was concentrated. The residue was partitioned between EtOAc and saturated aq NaHCCL. The organic phase was washed with brine, dried and evaporated. The residue and NaH (60 % in oil, 37 mg, 0.96 mmol) were dissolved in DML (3 mL) and stirred 5 min before the addition of iodomethane (45 pL, 0.72 mmol). After stirring 2 h at rt the mixture was diluted with EtOAc, washed twice with water and the organic phase was dried and evaporated. The residue was stirred 1 h at rt in TFA/water (2.5 mL, 4:1). The mixture was purified by preparative HPLC (Method B) to afford the product (45 mg, 22 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CiefEoClNsOsS] [M+H] + : 430.1; found: 429.9. Ή NMII (400 MHZ, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.44 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 8.31 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 6.15 (d, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 4.26 - 4.14 (m, 5H), 4.06 (dd, J = 10.6, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 3.99 (d, J = 2.6 Hz, 1H), 3.69 - 3.59 (m, 3H), 3.52 (s, 3H), 2.39 (p, J = 7.8 Hz, 2H).

Intermediate 54

5-(2-Trimethylsilyl-l-ethynyl)-pyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l 7/- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3- deoxy-2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (174 mg, 0.30 mmol), bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) chloride (22 mg, 0.03 mmol) and Cul (6.0 mg, 0.03 mmol) were evacuated and purged with nitrogen. THF (3.0 mL) followed by trimethylsilylacetylene (65 pL, 0.45 mmol) and DIE A (79 pL, 0.45 mmol) were added and the mixture was stirred 18 h at 50 °C. Concentration and purification by chromatography (S1O2, PE/EtOAc) gave the product (150 mg, 86 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 25 H 27 ClF 2 N 4 0 4 SSi] [M+H] + : 581.1; found: 580.9. Ή NMII (400 MHZ, Methanol- d 4 ) d 8.68 (s, 1H), 8.64 (s, 1H), 8.51 (s, 1H), 8.14 (s, 1H), 7.66 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 6.25 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.05 (dd, J = 11.3, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.64 (dd, J = 11.3, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.47 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.19 (s, 1H), 3.75 - 3.63 (m, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H), 0.27 (s, 9H).

Intermediate 55

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(5-chloro-6-fluoropyridin- 2-yl)- 1//-1, 2, 3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-D-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 6-bromo-3-chloro-2-fluoro-pyridine (200 mg, 0.95 mmol) and trimethylsilylacetylene (140 mg, 1.43 mmol) in DMF (4 mL) Cul (9.05 mg, 0.048 mmol), bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) dichloride (33.4 mg, 0.048 mmol) and DIEA (0.325 mL, 1.90 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred overnight at rt under a nitrogen atmosphere. The solvent was removed, and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=20/l) to afford the product (165 mg, 76 %). GC- MS calcd for [CioHnClFNSi] [M]: 227.0; found: 227.0.‘H NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) d 7.77 (dd, J= 8.8, 6.8 Hz, 1H), 6.86 (dd, J= 8.8, 3.6 Hz, 1H), 0.28 (s, 9H).

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(5-chloro-6-fluoropyridin- 2-yl)-l//-l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2- O-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (120 mg, 0.26 mmol) 3-chloro-2-fluoro-6-[2- (trimethylsilyl)ethynyl]pyridine (71.3 mg, 0.31 mmol) in DMF (4 mL) (+)-sodium L- ascorbate (77.5 mg, 0.39 mmol) and copper(II) sulfatepentahydrate (32.6 mg, 0.13 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 4 h at rt under a nitrogen atmosphere. After diluting with water (20 mL), the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 , and concentrated. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the product (125 mg, 78 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 27 H 2I C1 2 FN 6 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 615.1; found: 615.2. 'H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.93 (s, 1H), 8.75 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.53 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.22 (dd, J = 8.8, 7.2 Hz, 1H), 7.47 - 7.40 (m, 2H), 7.40 - 7.33 (m, 3H), 7.27 (dd, J= 8.8, 3.6 Hz, 1H), 6.89 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.64 (s, 1H), 5.29 (dd, J= 11.6, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.92 (dd, J= 11.6, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.29 (s, 1H), 4.12 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.99 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.36 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 56

2-Cyano-5-(2-trimethylsilyl-l-ethynyl)-pyridin-3-yl 4,6-d i-0-acety 1-3- [ 4-(4- chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (0.96 mL, 7.78 mmol) was added to acetyl 4,6-di-O- acctyl-3-azido-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl-D-galactopyranosidc (895 mg, 2.59 mmol) in DCM (18 mL) and the mixture was subjected to H 2 S (1 atm). The mixture was stirred vigorously for 21 h. Water (100 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with DCM (3 x 100 mL). The combined organic phases were dried and concentrated. Purification by chromatography (Si0 2 , PE/EtOAc) yielded the product (324 mg, 39 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CnH 2i N0 6 S] [M+NH 4 ] + : 337.0; found: 337.1, 'H NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) d 5.96 (t, J = 3.9 Hz, 1H), 5.40 - 5.34 (m, 1H), 4.55 (t, J = 6.3 Hz, 1H), 4.13 (dd, J = 12.0, 6.7 Hz, 1H), 4.01 (dd , J = 12.0, 7.4 Hz, 1H), 3.84 (dd , J = 10.4, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 3.78 (dd, J = 10.3, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 3.51 (s, 3H), 2.16 (s, 3H), 2.07 (s, 3H), 1.85 (d, = 3.8 Hz, 1H).

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio- a-D-galactopyranoside

DIEA (261 pL, 1.52 mmol) was added to 5-bromo-3-fluoropyridine-2-carbonitrile (245 mg, 1.22 mmol) and 4,6-di-0-acctyl-3-azido-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranose (324 mg, 1.01 mmol) in DMF (4 mL). The mixture was stirred 30 min at rt before it was diluted with EtOAc (40 mL) and washed with HC1 (1 M, 40 mL), water (3 x 40 mL) and brine (40 mL). The organic phase was dried and concentrated. Purification by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc) yielded the product (465 mg, 92 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CivHisBrN^eS] [M+H] + : 500.0; found: 499.8, Ή NMR (500 MHz, Chloroform-d) d 8.67 - 8.62 (m, 1H), 8.22 - 8.18 (m, 1H), 6.11 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 5.42 (d, J = 3.1 Hz, 1H), 4.49 (dd, J = 7.3, 5.0 Hz, 1H), 4.05 (dd, J = 11.7, 4.7 Hz, 1H), 4.00 (dd, J = 9.8, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 3.97 (dd, J = 10.9, 6.9 Hz, 1H), 3.86 (dd, J = 10.4, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.61 (s, 3H), 2.16 (s, 3H), 1.97 (s, 3H).

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

DIEA (79.4 pL, 464 pmol) was added to 5-bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-di-O-acetyl- 3-azido-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (232 mg, 464 pmol), trimethyl-[2-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (96.0 mg, 556 pmol) and Cul (8.8 mg, 46.4 mmol) in MeCN (4.64 mL). After 19 h at 40 °C, the mixture was filtered through a plug of celite and concentrated. Purification by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc) yielded the product (277 mg, 89 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 26 H 22 BrClF 2 N 5 0 6 S] [M+H] + : 672.0; found: 672.0, Ή NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform- d) d 8.70 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.27 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.87 (s, 1H), 7.50 - 7.43 (m, 2H), 6.34 (d, J = 3.9 Hz, 1H), 5.60 (s, 1H), 4.97 - 4.91 (m, 2H), 4.71 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 1H), 4.12 - 4.01 (m, 2H), 3.47 (s, 3H), 2.05 (s, 3H), 1.99 (s, 3H).

2-Cyano-5-(2-trimethylsilyl-l-ethynyl)-pyridin-3-yl 4,6-d i-O-acety 1-3- [ 4-(4- chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-di-0-acctyl-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophcnyl)- l //- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (85 mg, 126 LHTiol) and trimethylsilylacetylene (52.5 pL, 379 pmol) were added to bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) chloride (4.6 mg, 6.3 pmol) and Cul (2.4 mg, 12.6 LHTiol) in THF (0.50 mL) and EhN (83.1 pL, 632 mihoΐ). After 1.5 h the mixture was concentrated. Purification by chromatography (S1O2, PE/EtOAc) yielded the product (72.0 mg, 83 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CsoHsiCfiMNisOeSSi] [M+H] + : 690.1; found: 690.0, 'H NMR (500 MHz, Chloroform-d) d 8.66 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.10 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.88 (s, 1H), 7.52 - 7.43 (m, 2H), 6.35 (d, = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 5.62 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 4.98 (dd, J = 11.0, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.92 (dd, J = 11.0, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.75 (dd, J = 7.0, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.1 1 (dd, J = 11.7, 5.0 Hz, 1H), 4.06 (dd, J = 11.7, 7.5 Hz, 1H), 3.49 (s, 3H), 2.10 (s, 3H), 1.99 (s, 3H), 0.31 (s, 9H).

Intermediate 57

2-Cyano-5-(2-trimethylsilyl-l-ethynyl)-pyridin-3-yl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-deoxy-3-[4- (3, 5-difluoro-4-methylphenyl)- 1//- 1,2, 3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,5-difluoro-4- methylphenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

DIEA (79.4 pL, 464 pmol) was added to 5-bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-di-O-acetyl- 3-azido-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (232 mg, 464 pmol), trimethyl-[2-(3,5-difluoro-4-methylphenyl)ethynyl]silane (84.7 mg, 556 pmol) and Cul (8.8 mg, 46.4 mmol) in MeCN (4.64 mL). After 25 h at rt, the mixture was filtered through a plug of celite and concentrated. Purification by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc) yielded the product (259 mg, 86 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 26 H 25 BrF 2 N 5 0 6 S] [M+H] + : 652.1; found: 652.0,‘H NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) d 8.69 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.27 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.82 (s, 1H), 7.33 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 2H), 6.34 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 5.61 (s, 1H), 4.95 - 4.91 (m, 2H), 4.70 (t, J = 6.2 Hz, 1H), 4.12 - 4.08 (m, 1H), 4.04 (dd, J = 11.7, 7.3 Hz, 1H), 3.46 (s, 3H), 2.23 (s, 3H), 2.09 (s, 3H), 1.98 (s, 3H).

2-Cyano-5-(2-trimethylsilyl-l-ethynyl)-pyridin-3-yl 4,6-di-0-acetyl-3-deoxy-3-[4- (3, 5-difluoro-4-methylphenyl)- 1//- 1,2, 3-triazol- 1-yl] -2- -methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 4, 6-di-O-acctyl -3-[4-(3, 5-difl uoro-4-mcthyl phenyl )- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl] -3-deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (100 mg, 153 gmol) and trimethylsilylacetylene (63.7 pL, 460 pmol) were added to bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) chloride (5.6 mg, 7.7 pmol) and Cul (2.9 mg, 15.3 pmol) in THF (0.50 mL) and EhN (105 pL, 766 pmol). After 1 h the mixture was concentrated. Purification by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc) yielded the product (93.0 mg, 91 %). ESI-MS m/z ealed for [C 3i H 34 F 2 N 5 0eSSi] [M+H] + : 670.2; found: 670.2, 'H NMR (500 MHz, Chloroform-d) d 8.64 (s, 1H), 8.08 (d, J= 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.82 (s, 1H), 7.32 (d, J= 5.4 Hz, 2H), 6.33 (d, J= 5.1 Hz, 1H), 5.65 - 5.55 (m, 1H), 4.95 (s, 1H), 4.89 (dd, J = 10.9, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.77 - 4.66 (m, 1H), 4.09 - 4.06 (m, 1H), 4.04 (dd, J= 11.7, 7.5 Hz, 1H), 3.46 (s, 3H), 2.22 (s, 3H), 2.07 (s, 3H), 1.97 (s, 3H), 0.29 (s, 9H).

Intermediate 58

5-Cyano-6-trifluoromethylpyridin-3-yl 3-azido3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

CuCN (91.8 mg, 1.02 mmol) was added to 3-bromo-5-fluoro-2- (trifluoromethyl)pyridine (200 mg, 0.82 mmol) in DMSO (0.80 mL) and the mixture was heated to 150 °C. After 2 h, the mixture was cooled to rt. EtOAc (20 mL) and water (20 mL) were added and the resulting suspension was filtered. The organic phase was dried and concentrated to afford the product (147 mg, 94 %). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) d 8.78 (d, J= 2.6 Hz, 1H), 7.92 (dd, J= 7.1, 2.5 Hz, 1H).

5-Cyano-6-trifluoromethylpyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido3-deoxy-2-0- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

Et2NH (198 pL, 191 mmol) was added to a solution of acetyl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3- azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (350 mg, 0.76 mmol) and 5-fluoro-2- (trifluoromethyl)pyridine-3-carbonitrile (145 mg, 0.76 mmol) in DMF (3 mL) at 0 °C. The mixture was allowed to reach rt and then stirred for 30 min before it was diluted with EtOAc (30 mL) and washed with HC1 (0.2 M, 30 mL), water (3 x 30 mL) and brine (30 mL). The organic phase was dried and concentrated. Purification by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc) yielded the product (241 mg, 61%). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C19H19F3N5O7S] [M+H] + : 518.1; found: 517.9, 'H NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) d 8.88 (d, J= 2.1 Hz, 1H), 8.25 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 6.18 (d, J= 5.5 Hz, 1H), 5.51 (d, J= 2.9 Hz, 1H), 5.34 (dd, = 10.9, 5.5 Hz, 1H), 4.54 (dd, J= 8.0, 4.1 Hz, 1H), 4.16 (dd, J= 11.8, 4.4 Hz, 1H), 4.03 (dd, J= 11.8, 8.0 Hz, 1H), 3.98 (dd, J= 10.9, 3.3 Hz, 1H), 2.21 (s, 3H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 2.00 (s, 3H).

5-Cyano-6-trifluoromethylpyridin-3-yl 3-azido3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

5-Cyano-6-trifluoromethylpyridin-3-yl 2, 4, 6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido3-deoxy -2-O- methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (242 mg, 0.47 mmol) was dissolved in MeOH (20 mL) and NaOMe (1M, 234 pL) was added. After 45 min the reaction was quenched with AcOH (50 pL) and concentrated. Water (10 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic phases were dried and concentrated. The crude was dissolved in MeCN (25 mL). Benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal (140 pL, 0.94 mmol) and / -tolucncsulfonic acid monohydrate (26.7 mg, 0.14 mmol) were added. After 1.5 h the reaction was quenched with EhN (50 pL) and concentrated. The material was dissolved in EtOAc (25 mL) and washed with saturated aq NaHCOs (25 mL) and brine (25 mL). The organic phase was dried, concentrated and the residue was purified by chromatography (SiCh, PE/EtOAc). The obtained material was dissolved in DCM (3 mL). Proton sponge (301 mg, 1.40 mmol) and trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate (138 mg, 0.94 mmol) were added. The reaction was stirred 18 h at rt before it was quenched with MeOH and concentrated. HC1 (1 M, 20 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic phases were dried and concentrated. TLA (3.35 mL) and water (0.75 mL) were added. After 1 h the mixture was concentrated to—1/3 of its volume and NaOH (1 M, 10 mL) was added. The mixture was basified using NaOH (5 M) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 10 mL). The combined organic phases were dried and concentrated. Purification by chromatography (S1O2, PE/EtOAc) yielded the product (107 mg, 56 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C14H15L3N5O4S] [M+H] + : 406.1; found: 405.9, 'H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d 4 ) d 8.97 (s, 1H), 8.61 (s, 1H), 6.37 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.15 - 4.09 (m, 2H), 3.98 (d, J= 2.2 Hz, 1H), 3.72 - 3.60 (m, 3H), 3.54 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 59

5-Cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromopyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acctyl-3-azido-3-dcoxy- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (1.2 g, 2.38 mmol) in MeOH (20 mL) EbN (1.99 mL, 14.3 mmol) and water (1 mL) were added. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure, and the residue was washed by DCM (20 mL) to givethe product (700 mg, 78 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CnHi 3 BrN 4 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 377.0; found: 377.2. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDsOD) d 8.61 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.51 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.25 (t, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 5.72 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.38 (dd, J= 10.8, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.30 - 4.20 (m, 1H), 4.06 - 4.00 (m, 1H), 3.70 - 3.58 (m, 2H), 3.52 (dd, J= 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H).

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (0.700 g, 1.86 mmol) in DML (10 mL) benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal (847 mg, 5.57 mmol) and D(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid (129 mg, 0.557 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 2 h under a nitrogen atmosphere at 50 °C. The mixture was cooled to rt and poured into water. The solid was collected and dried in vacuum to the product (650 mg, 75 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [Ci 8 Hi 7 BrN 4 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 465.0; found: 465.0. Ή NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.59 - 8.54 (m, 2H), 8.18 (t, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.42 - 7.33 (m, 5H), 6.20 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 6.02 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.66 (s, 1H), 4.41 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.33 - 4.25 (m, 1H), 4.10 - 4.05 (m, 1H), 4.00 (s, 1H), 3.89 - 3.82 (m, 1H), 3.67 (dd, J= 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H).

5-Bromopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy- l -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (400 mg, 0.86 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) sodium hydride (60 % in oil, 68.8 mg, 1.72 mmol) was added at 0 °C. After 20 min, iodomethane (0.214 mL, 3.44 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 30 min under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt. The mixture was poured into water (20 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (50 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=3/l~l/l, Silica-CS 20 g, 25 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (350 mg, 85 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [Ci 9 Hi 9 BrN 4 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 479.0; found: 479.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO- e) d 8.62 - 8.57 (m, 2H), 8.27 - 8.21 (m, 1H), 7.50 - 7.30 (m, 5H), 6.42 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.67 (s, 1H), 4.41 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.13 - 3.98 (m, 3H), 3.90 - 3.74 (m, 2H), 3.44 (s, 3H).

5-Cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (500 mg, 1.04 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) Zn (68.2 mg, 1.04 mmol), Zn(CN)2 (368 mg, 3.13 mmol), 1 , r-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (58.9 mg, 0.10 mmol) and Pd 2 (dibenzylideneacetone) 3 (95.4 mg, 0.104 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 2.5 h at 100 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere. After diluting with water (20 mL), the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-2/1, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (200 mg, 45 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C20H19N5O4S] [M+H] + : 426.1; found: 426.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.83 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.72 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.07 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.55 - 7.48 (m, 2H), 7.41 - 7.33 (m, 3H), 6.08 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.62 (s, 1H), 4.34 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.26 (dd, J = 10.8, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.21 (dd, J = 12.8, 1.6 Hz, lH), 4.12 (dd, J = 12.8, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 4.05 (s, 1H), 3.71 (dd, J= 10.8, 3.6 Hz, 1H), 3.56 (s, 3H).

5-Cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-l//- 1, 2, 3-triazol-l-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (80.0 mg, 0.19 mmol) and trimethyl-[2-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (51.5 mg, 0.23 mmol) in DMF (4.0 mL) (+)-sodium L- ascorbate (55.9 mg, 0.28 mmol) and copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (23.5 mg, 0.094 mmol). The mixture was stirred 4 h at rt under a nitrogen atmosphere. After diluting with water (20 mL), the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC (Method A) to give the product (80.0 mg, 73 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C28H22F3N5O4S] [M+H] + : 582.1; found: 582.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.89 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.77 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.13 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.97 (s, 1H), 7.50 - 7.36 (m, 7H), 6.22 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.54 (s, 1H), 5.31 (dd, J= 11.2, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.61 - 4.50 (m, 2H), 4.35 - 4.27 (m, 2H), 4.19 - 4.13 (m, 1H), 3.33 (s, 3H).

Intermediate 60

5-Cyanopyridin-3-yl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyr anoside

To a solution of 5-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (80.0 mg, 0.19 mmol) and trimethyl-[2-(4-chloro-3,5- difluorophenyl)ethynyl] silane (69.0 mg, 0.28 mmol) in DMF (4 mL) (+)-sodium L- ascorbate (55.9 mg, 0.28 mmol) and copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (23.5 mg, 0.094 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 4 h at rt under a nitrogen atmosphere. After diluting with water (20 mL), the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 20 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (80.0 mg, 71 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C28H22CIF2N5O4S] [M+H] + : 598.1; found: 598.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 9.02 - 8.70 (m, 2H), 8.14 - 8.09 (m, 1H), 8.01 - 7.94 (m, 1H), 7.46 - 7.40 (m, 7H), 6.21 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.55 (s, 1H), 5.31 (dd, J = 11.2, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.58 - 4.47 (m, 2H), 4.33 - 4.27 (m, 2H), 4.20 - 4.11 (m, 1H), 3.33 (s, J= 10.6 Hz, 3H).

Intermediate 61

5-Bromo-2-( V-azetidin\lcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro- 3-fluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of acetyl 2,4,6-tri-0-acctyl-3-azido-3-dcoxy- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (4.00 g, 10.3 mmol) in DMF (30 mL) 5-bromo-3-fluoro-pyridine-2- carbonitrile (4.13 g, 20.5 mmol) and /Y-cth y 1 cth an am i n c (1.50 g, 20.5 mmol) were added at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was poured into water (150 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (200 mL). The organic layer was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous NaySCL, filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 40 g, 50 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (3.0 g, 55 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CisHisBrNsCES] [M+H] + : 528.0; found: 528.1. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.66 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.18 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 6.11 (d, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (d, J= 2A Hz, 1H), 5.31 (dd, J= 11.2, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.60 (dd, J= 7.2, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 4.17 - 4.11 (m, 1H), 4.04 - 3.98 (m, 2H), 2.24 (s, 3H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 2.02 (s, 3H).

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (3.00 g, 5.68 mmol) in MeOH (50 mL) EbN (3.96 mL, 28.4 mmol) and water (2 mL) were added. The mixture was stirred 16 h at rt. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the obtained residue was washed by DCM (20 mL). The solid was collected and dried in vacuum to afford the product (1.80 g, 79 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CAHiyBrNsCbS] [M+H] + : 402.0; found: 402.1. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) d 8.62 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.52 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 6.01 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.43 (dd, J= 10.8, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.13 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.04 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.65 - 3.58 (m, 3H).

5-Bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (1.80 g, 4.48 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal (2.04 g, 13.4 mmol) and D(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid (312 mg, 1.34 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere 2 h at 50 °C. The mixture was cooled to rt and poured into water. The solid was collected and dried in vacuum to give the product (2.0 g, 91 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CiyHi f .BrNsCES] [M+H] + : 490.0; found: 490.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.61 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.24 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.52 - 7.47 (m, 2H), 7.39 - 7.34 (m, 3H), 5.93 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.64 (s, 1H), 4.67 (dd, J= 10.8, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.43 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.23 - 3.89 (m, 3H), 3.67 (dd, J= 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H).

5-Bromo-2-carboxypyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (2.00 g, 4.08 mmol) in EtOH (80 mL) and water (40 mL) NaOH (2.45 mg, 61.2 mmol) was added. The mixture was kept stirring overnight at 80 °C. Then EtOH was removed under reduced pressure. The mixture was acidified by 1M HC1 to pH = 6. The mixture was filtered, and the solid was dried in vacuum to give the product (1.20 g, 58 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CiyHivBrNrChS] [M+H] + : 509.0; found: 509.0. Ή NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.46 (s, 1H), 8.16 (s, 1H), 7.50 - 7.26 (m, 5H), 5.87 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.64 (s, 1H), 4.49 - 3.65 (m, 7H).

5-Bromo-2-(7V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3- deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-carboxypyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (1.00 g, 1.96 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) azetidine hydrochloride (367 mg, 3.93 mmol), DIEA (1.68 mL, 9.82 mmol) and HATU (1344 mg, 3.53 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The organic layers were washed with water (50 mL), brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=l/l~0/l, Silica-CS 20 g, 25 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (620 mg, 58 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CAlfeBrNsOsS] [M+H] + : 548.1; found: 548.0. Ή NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.52 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.35 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.45 - 7.34 (m, 5H), 6.07 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.67 (s, 1H), 4.50 - 3.64 (m, 11H), 2.26 (dt, J= 15.2, 7.6 Hz, 2H).

5-Bromo-2-(7V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3- deoxy-2-O-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-4,6-0- benzylidene-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (440 mg, 0.80 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) CS2CO3 (523 mg, 1.60 mmol) and iodomethane (0.321 mL, 4.41 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The organic layers were washed with water (50 mL), brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (250 mg, 55 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 23 H 24 BrN 5 0sS] [M+H] + : 562.1; found: 562.2. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.41 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.22 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.55 - 7.49 (m, 2H), 7.42 - 7.32 (m, 3H), 6.08 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.61 (s, 1H), 4.32 - 4.06 (m, 9H), 3.87 (dd, J= 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.54 (s, J= 4.0 Hz, 3H), 2.47 - 2.21 (m, 2H).

5-Bromo-2-( V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyndyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro- 3-fluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-4,6-0- benzylidene-3-deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (110 mg, 0.20 mmol) in DMF (4 mL) were added trimethyl-[2-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (66.5 mg, 0.29 mmol), copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (47.6 mg, 0.19 mmol) and (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (37.8 mg, 0.19 mmol). The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (100 mL). The organic layer was washed with water (50 mL), brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 4 g, 10 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (60 mg, 43 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CsifLsBrClFNsOsS] [M+H] + : 716.1; found: 716.2. ΉNMII (400 MHZ, CDCb) d 8.44 (d, J =2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.20 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.04 (s, 1H), 7.63 (dd, J = 10.0, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.54 (dd, J= 8.4, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.48 - 7.39 (m, 1H), 7.39 - 7.30 (m, 5H), 6.27 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.49 (s, 1H), 5.40 (dd, J = 11.2, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.61 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.51 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.42 - 4.06 (m, 7H), 3.33 (s, 3H), 2.32 (p, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H).

Intermediate 62

5-Bromo-2-(7V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4- (3,4,5-trifluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-4,6-0- benzylidene-3-deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (110 mg, 0.20 mmol) in DMF (4 mL) were added trimethyl-[2-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (66.5 mg, 0.29 mmol), copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (47.6 mg, 0.19 mmol) and (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (37.8 mg, 0.19 mmol). The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (100 mL). The organic layer was washed with water (50 mL), brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 4 g, 10 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (95 mg, 68 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [Chi FEvBrFiNsOsS] [M+H] + : 718.1; found: 718.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) d 8.46 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.20 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.00 - 7.92 (m, 1H), 7.48 - 7.40 (m, 2H), 7.38 - 7.33 (m, 5H), 6.27 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.50 (s, 1H), 5.40 (dd, J = 11.2, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.59 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.51 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.42 - 4.19 (m, 6H), 4.16 - 4.09 (m, 1H), 3.34 (s, 3H), 2.34 (p, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H).

Intermediate 63

5-Bromo-2-(7V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro- 3-fluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

5-Bromo-2-( V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyndyl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3- deoxy-2-O-ethyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-4,6-0- benzylidene-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (200 mg, 0.37 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) CS2CO3 (238 mg, 0.73 mmol) and iodoethane (0.146 mL, 1.82 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The organic layers were washed with water (50 mL), brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1 -1/1, Silica-CS 4 g, 10 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (120 mg, 57 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 24 H 26 BrN 5 0sS] [M+H] + : 576.1; found: 576.1. Ή NMII (400 MHZ, CDCb) d 8.39 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.18 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.53 - 7.47 (m, 2H), 7.38 - 7.31 (m, 3H), 6.06 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.58 (s, 1H), 4.44 - 4.31 (m, 2H), 4.31 - 4.02 (m, 7H), 3.89 (dd, J = 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.84 - 3.68 (m, 1H), 3.68 - 3.52 (m, 1H), 2.40 - 2.24 (m, 2H), 1.25 (t, = 6.8 Hz, 3H).

5-Bromo-2-( V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyndyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro- 3-fluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-4,6-0- benzylidene-3-deoxy -2-O-ethyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (110 mg, 0.19 mmol) in DMF (4 mL) trimethyl-[2-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (64.9 mg, 0.29 mmol), copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (47.6 mg, 0.19 mmol) and (+)-sodium L- ascorbate (37.8 mg, 0.19 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (100 mL). The organic layer was washed with water (50 mL), brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 4 g, 10 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (90 mg, 65 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 32 H 3 oBrClFN 5 0 5 S] [M+H] + : 730.1; found: 730.0. Ή NMII (400 MHZ, CDCb) d 8.48 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.19 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.99 - 7.95 (m, 1H), 7.63 (dd, J = 10.0, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.54 (dd, J = 8.4, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.46 - 7.33 (m, 6H), 6.23 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (s, 1H), 5.41 (d, J= 11.2 Hz, 1H), 4.65 (dd, J= 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.58 - 4.05 (m, 8H), 3.78 - 3.64 (m, 1H), 3.38 - 3.23 (m, 1H), 2.50 - 2.21 (m, 2H), 1.01 (t, = 6.8 Hz, 3H).

Intermediate 64

2-(7V-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-bromophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Bromo-2-cyanophenyl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of acetyl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-P-D-galactopyranosyl chloride (3.70 g, 10.6 mmol) 4-bromo-2-sulfanylbenzonitrile (4.13 g, 20.5 mmol) in DMF (25 mL) CS2CO3 (6.89 g, 21.2 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at rt overnight. Water (100 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (150 mL). The organic phase was washed with brine, dried and concentracted. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-3/1, Silica-CS 40 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (2.50 g, 45 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [Ci 9 Hi 9 BrN 4 0 7 S] [M+H 2 O] + :544.0; found: 544.0. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.82 (d, J= 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.59 - 7.46 (m, 2H), 6.06 (d, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H), 5.49 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 5.29 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.75 - 4.48 (m, 1H), 4.12 (dd, J = 11.6, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.00 - 4.05 (m, 1H), 3.97 (dd, J = 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 2.21 (s, 3H), 2.16 (s, 3H), 2.01 (s, 3H). 5-Bromo-2-cyanophenyl 3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Bromo-2-cyanophenyl 2,4,6-tri-0-acctyl-3-azido-3-dcoxy- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (1.30 g, 2.47 mmol) was dissolved in a mixed solution of MeOH/EtsNTEO (18 mL, v/v/v=5/3/l). The mixture was stirred overnight at rt. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the obtained solid was washed with DCM to afford the product (850 mg, 86 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [Ci 3 Hi 3 BrN 4 0 4 S] [M+H 2 0] + : 418.0; found: 418.0.‘H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.01 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.74 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.60 (dd, J = 8.4, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 6.10 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 6.00 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.32 (d, J= 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.62 (t, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.27 (dt, J = 10.4, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 3.97 - 3.85 (m, 2H), 3.54 - 3.44 (m, 2H), 3.36 - 3.25 (m, 1H).

5-Bromo-2-cyanophenyl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-cyanophenyl 3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (850 mg, 2.12 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal (967 mg, 6.36 mmol) was added followed by D(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid (98.4 mg, 0.42 mmol). The mixture was stirred 3 h at 50 °C under reduced pressure. The mixture was neutralized with EhN and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=5/ 1-3/1, Silica-CS 20 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (900 mg, 87 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 2 oHi 7 BrN 4 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 489.0; found: 489.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) d 7.92 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.54 - 7.47 (m, 4H), 7.39 - 7.32 (m, 3H), 5.89 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.63 (s, 1H), 4.64 (dd, J = 10.8, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.42 (d, J= 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.25 - 4.28 (m, 2H), 4.15 (dd, J= 12.4, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 3.62 (dd, J= 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H).

5-Bromo-2-cyanophenyl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a- D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-cyanophenyl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy- l -thio- a-D-galactopyranoside (450 mg, 0.92 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) CS2CO3 (599 mg, 1.84 mmol) was added followed by iodomethane (653 mg, 4.60 mmol). The mixture was stirred overnight at rt and then partitioned between water and EtOAc. The organic phase was washed with brine, concentracted and purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-5/1, Silica-CS 20 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (226 mg, 49 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 2i Hi 9 BrN 4 0 4 S] [M+H] + : 503.0; found: 503.0. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.88 (s, 1H), 7.57 - 7.46 (m, 4H), 7.43 - 7.33 (m, 3H), 6.10 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.61 (s, 1H), 4.33 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.26 (dd, J= 10.4, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.22 - 4.16 (m, 2H), 4.10 - 4.13 (m, 1H), 3.76 (dd, J= 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.60 (s, 3H).

2-( V-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-bromophenyl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2- 0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-cyanophenyl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy-2-0- methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (226 mg, 0.45 mmol) in ethanol (18 mL) and H2O (6 mL) NaOH (269 mg, 6.73 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred overnight at 80 °C. Ethanol was removed under reduced pressure, the pH of the solution was adjusted to 5-6 with 1M HC1 and then extracted with EtOAc (2 x 30 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over Na 2 S0 4 and concentracted. The obtained material was dissolved in together with azetidine hydrochloride (108 mg, 1.15 mmol) in DMF (5 mL). To the solution HATU (335 mg, 0.88 mmol) was added followed by DIEA (0.377 mL, 2.20 mmol). The reaction was stirred 2 h at rt and then partitioned between water and EtOAc. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 and concentracted. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=5/l~l/2, Silica-CS 20 g, 30 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (130 mg, 52 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 24 H 25 BrN 4 0 5 S] [M+H] + : 561.1; found: 561.2. Ή NMII (400 MHZ, CDCb) d 7.75 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.49 - 7.51 (m, 2H), 7.41 (dd, J = 8.0, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.39 - 7.31 (m, 3H), 7.15 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.13 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.58 (s, 1H), 4.30 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.26 - 4.13 (m, 5H), 4.08 (dd, J= 12.8, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 3.92 (td, J= 8.0, 2.8 Hz, 2H), 3.77 (dd, J= 10.4, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.56 (s, 3H), 2.37 - 2.27 (m, 2H).

2-(7V-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-bromophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-(/V-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-bromophenyl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc- 3-dcoxy-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (130 mg, 0.23 mmol) and trimethyl-[2-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (63.4 mg, 0.28 mmol) in DMF (4 mL) (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (68.8 mg, 0.35 mmol) and copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (28.9 mg, 0.12 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 4 h at rt under a nitrogen atmosphere. After diluting with water (20 mL), the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=2/l~l/2, Silica-CS 20 g, 30 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (120 mg, 72 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CAfb H BrU^OsS] [M+H] + : 717.1; found: 716.7. Ή NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.94 (s, 1H), 7.97 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.77 (dd, J= 8.8, 6.8 Hz, 2H), 7.57 (dd, J= 8.4, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.41 - 7.29 (m, 6H), 6.59 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.59 (s, 1H), 5.14 (dd, J= 11.2, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.64 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.59 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.36 (s, 1H), 4.20 - 4.13 (m, 1H), 4.06 (t, J= 7.7 Hz, 2H), 4.00 - 3.85 (m, 3H), 3.37 (s, 3H), 2.32 - 2.17 (m, 2H).

Intermediate 65

2-(7V-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-bromophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-ethyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Bromo-2-carboxyphenyl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-cyanophenyl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy- l -thio- a-D-galactopyranoside (400 mg, 0.82 mmol) in ethanol (18 mL) and H2O (6 mL) NaOH (490 mg, 12.3 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred overnight at 80 °C. Ethanol was removed under reduced pressure, the pH of the solution was adjusted to 5-6 with 1M HC1 and then extracted with EtOAc (2 x 30 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over Na 2 SC> 4 and concentracted. The residue was purified by reversed-phase chromatography (MeCNTEO =1/20-3/1, C-18 column, 20 mL/min, UV 254) to give the product (300 mg, 60 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 2 oHisBrN 3 0 6 S] [M-H] : 506.0; found: 506.0. Ή NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 7.72 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.56 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.50 - 7.35 (m, 5H), 7.31 (dd, J = 8.0, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 5.77 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.64 (s, 1H), 4.38 (d, = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.31 (dd, J= 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.13 - 3.86 (m, 4H), 3.71 (dd, J= 11.2, 3.2 Hz, 1H).

2-(7V-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-bromophenyl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-carboxyphenyl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy- l -thio- a-D-galactopyranoside (300 mg, 0.59 mmol) and azetidine hydrochloride (144 mg, 1.54 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) HATU (449 mg, 1.18 mmol) was added followed by DIEA (0.505 mL, 2.95 mmol). The mixture was stirred overnight at rt and then partitioned between water and EtOAc. The organic layer was dried, concentracted and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=5/l~l/2, Silica-CS 20 g, 30 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (240 mg, 74 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 23 H 23 BrN 4 0 5 S] [M+H] + : 547.1; found: 546.7. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) d 7.84 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.55 - 7.48 (m, 2H), 7.46 (dd, J = 8.0, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.40 - 7.32 (m, 3H), 7.15 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 5.85 (d, = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.61 (s, 1H), 4.61 (dd, = 10.8, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.35 - 4.10 (m, 6H), 4.03 - 3.90 (m, 2H), 3.58 (dd, J= 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 2.39 - 2.27 (m, 2H).

2-( V-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-bromophenyl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2- 0-ethyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-(/V-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-bromophenyl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc- 3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (240 mg, 0.44 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) CS2CO3 (429 mg, 1.32 mmol) was added followed by iodoethane (342 mg, 2.19 mmol). The mixture was stirred overnight at rt, diluted with EtOAc (30 mL) and washed with water (3 x 30 mL). The organic layer was dried with anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentracted. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=5/l-l/2, Silica-CS 20 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (110 mg, 44 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for ^sfEvBr^OsS] [M+H] + : 575.1; found: 574.8. Ή NMII (400 MHZ, CDCI 3 ) d 7.76 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.56 - 7.48 (m, 2H), 7.43 (dd, J = 8.4, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.40 - 7.31 (m, 3H), 7.16 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.13 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.60 (s, 1H), 4.34 (dd, J = 10.8, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.30 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.27 - 4.03 (m, 5H), 4.02 - 3.78 (m, 4H), 3.66 - 3.62 (m, 1H), 2.38 - 2.30 (m, 2H), 1.31 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H).

2-(7V-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-bromophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-ethyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 2-(/V-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-bromophenyl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene- 3-dcoxy-2-0-cthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (110 mg, 0.19 mmol) and trimethyl- [2-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (52.4 mg, 0.23 mmol) in DMF (4 mL) (+)- sodium L-ascorbate (56.8 mg, 0.29 mmol) and copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (23.9 mg, 0.096 mmol). The mixture was stirred 4 h at rt under a nitrogen atmosphere before diluting with water (20 mL) and extracting with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=2/l~l/2, Silica-CS 20 g, 30 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (120 mg, 86 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [CssfLoBrFs^OsS] [M+H] + : 731.1; found: 730.6. 'H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.93 (s, 1H), 7.95 (d, J= 1.6 Hz, 2H), 7.79 (dd, J= 8.8, 6.4 Hz, 2H), 7.57 (dd, J = 8.4, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.45 - 7.26 (m, 5H), 6.55 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.58 (s, 1H), 5.13 (dd, J = 11.6, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.71 (dd, J= 11.6, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.59 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.40 - 4.32 (m, 1H), 4.20 - 4.13 (m, 1H), 4.05 - 4.09 (m, 2H), 3.99 - 3.70 (m, 4H), 3.49 (dq, J = 14.0, 7.2 Hz, 1H), 2.26 - 2.22 (m, 2H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H).

Intermediate 66

5-Chloro-2-(7V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro- 3-fluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of acetyl 2,4,6-tri-0-acctyl-3-azido-3-dcoxy- 1 -thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (4.50 g, 11.5 mmol) in DMF (30 mL) 5-chloro-3-fluoro-pyridine-2- carbonitrile (1.81 g, 11.5 mmol) and /Y-cth y 1 cth an am i n c (1.69 g, 23.0 mmol) were added at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was poured into water (150 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 200 mL). The organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SC>4, filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 40 g, 50 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (3.30 g, 59 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C18H18CIN5O7S] [M+H] + : 484.1; found: 484.0. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) d 8.64 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.28 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 6.17 (d, = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 5.54 (d, J= 2.8 Hz, 1H), 5.29 (dd, J= 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.68 (dd, J= 7.6, 4.0 Hz, 1H), 4.27 (dd, J= 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.15 (dd, J= 7.6, 4.0 Hz, 1H), 3.98 (dd, J = 11.6, 8.0 Hz, 1H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 2.14 (s, 3H), 2.14 (s, 3H).

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 2,4,6-tri-0-acetyl-3-azido-3-deoxy-l- thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (3.30 g, 6.83 mmol) in MeOH (30 mL) EhN (12 mL, 86.2 mmol) and water (3 mL) were added. The mixture was stirred overnight at rt. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the obtained residue was washed by DCM (20 mL). The solid was collected to afford the product (2.20 g, 90 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C12H12CIN5O4S] [M+H] + : 358.0; found: 358.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) d 8.51 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.37 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 6.03 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.43 (dd, = 6.8, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 4.12 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.04 (d, J= 2A Hz, 1H), 3.66 - 3.58 (m, 3H).

5-Chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside (2.20 g, 6.15 mmol) in DMF (15 mL) benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal (2.81 g, 18.4 mmol) and D(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid (429 mg, 1.84 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere 2 h at 50 °C. The mixture was cooled to rt and poured into water. The solid was collected and dried in vacuum to give the product (2.0 g, 70 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C 19 H 16 CIN 5 O 4 S] [M+H] + : 446.1; found: 446.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.51 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.08 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.51 - 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.92 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.64 (s, 1H), 4.66 (dd, J= 10.8, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.44 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.25 - 4.13 (m, 3H), 3.67 (dd, J = 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H).

5-Chloro-2-carboxypyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-cyanopyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-bcnzylidcnc-3-dcoxy- l - thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (2.00 g, 4.33 mmol) in EtOH (50 mL) and water (20 mL) NaOH (2.6 mg, 64.9 mmol) was added. The mixture was kept stirring overnight at 80 °C. Then EtOH was removed under reduced pressure. The mixture was acidified by 1M HC1 to pH=6. The mixture was filtered, and the solid was dried in vacuum to give the product (1.80 g, 90 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C19H17CIN4O6S] [M+H] + : 465.1; found: 465.1. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) d 8.34 - 8.28 (m, 2H), 7.49 - 7.34 (m, 5H), 5.94 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.63 (s, 1H), 4.57 (dd, J = 12.0, 4.0 Hz, 1H), 4.41 (s, 1H), 4.14 - 4.00 (m, 3H), 3.73 (dd, J= 8.4, 2.8 Hz, 1H). 5-Chloro-2-( V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3- deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-carboxypyridin-3-yl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (1.80 g, 3.87 mmol) in DMF (20 mL) azetidine hydrochloride (2.21 g, 5.81 mmol), EhN (2.70 mL, 19.4 mmol) and HATU (724 mg, 7.74 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The organic layers were washed with water (50 mL), brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=l/l~0/l, Silica-CS 80 g, 50 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (1.20 g, 55 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C22H22CIN5O5S] [M+H] + : 504.1; found: 504.1. Ή NMII (400 MHZ, CDCb) d 8.35 (d, J= 2A Hz, 1H), 8.10 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.53 - 7.34 (m, 5H), 5.86 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.63 (s, 1H), 4.65 (dd, J = 10.8, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.48 - 4.42 (m, 1H), 4.36 - 4.11 (m, 7H), 3.67 (dd, J= 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 2.38 - 2.30 (m, 2H).

5-Chloro-2-( V-azetidin\lcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3- deoxy-2-O-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-4,6-0- benzylidene-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (200 mg, 0.36 mmol) in DMF (8 mL) CS2CO3 (348 mg, 1.07 mmol) and iodomethane (0.111 mL, 1.78 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The organic layers were washed with water (50 mL), brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 20 g, 25 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (120 mg, 60 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C23H24CIN5O5S] [M+H] + : 518.1; found: 518.1. Ή NMII (400 MHZ, CDCI3) d 8.31 (d, J= 2A Hz, 1H), 8.09 (d, J= 2A Hz, 1H), 7.54 - 7.26 (m, 5H), 6.09 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 5.61 (s, 1H), 4.52 - 4.41 (m, 1H), 4.31 - 4.08 (m, 8H), 3.88 (dd, J= 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.54 (s, 3H), 2.38 - 2.30 (m, 2H).

5-Chloro-2-(7V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4- (3,4,5-trifluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(/V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-4,6-0- benzylidene-3-deoxy -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (120 mg, 0.22 mmol) in DMF (8 mL) trimethyl-[2-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (73.5 mg, 0.32 mmol), copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (26.8 mg, 0.11 mmol) and (+)-sodium L- ascorbate (21.2 mg, 0.11 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The organic layers were washed with water (50 mL), brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 S0 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1 -1/1, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (100 mg, 63 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C31H27CIF3N5O5S] [M+H] + : 674.1; found: 674.1. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.38 (s, 1H), 8.08 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.95 (s, 1H), 7.47 - 7.40 (m, 7H), 6.26 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.53 (s, 1H), 5.42 (d, J= 10.8 Hz, 1H), 4.57 (dd, J= 10.8, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 4.51 - 4.11 (m, 8H), 3.34 (s, 3H), 2.38 - 2.34 (m, 2H).

Intermediate 67

5-Chloro-2-(7V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro- 3-fluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-ethyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-(/V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3- deoxy-2-O-ethyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-4,6-0- benzylidene-3-deoxy-l-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (880 mg, 1.56 mmol) in DMF (16 mF) CS2CO3 (1.02 g, 3.13 mmol) and iodoethane (732 mg, 4.69 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was poured into water (100 mF) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mF). The organic layers were washed with water (50 mF), brine (50 mF), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 40 g, 35 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (620 mg, 71 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C24H26CIN5O5S] [M+H] + : 532.1; found: 531.8. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.30 (s, 1H), 8.05 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.53 - 7.25 (m, 5H), 6.07 (d, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H), 5.59 (s, 1H), 4.46 - 4.06 (m, 9H), 3.91 (dd, J = 10.8, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.84 - 3.77 (m, 1H), 3.64 - 3.57 (m, 1H), 2.38 - 2.30 (m, 2H), 1.28 - 1.24 (m, 3H).

5-Chloro-2-(7V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4- (3,4,5-trifluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-4,6-0- benzylidene-3-deoxy -2-O-ethyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (200 mg, 0.36 mmol) in DMF (8 mL) trimethyl-[2-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (122 mg, 0.54 mmol), copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (44.6 mg, 0.18 mmol) and (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (35.4 mg, 0.18 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The organic layers were washed with water (50 mL), brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-1/1, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (160 mg, 62 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C32H29CIF3N5O5S] [M+H] + : 688.2; found: 687.7. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.36 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.05 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.95 (s, 1H), 7.46 - 7.25 (m, 7H), 6.24 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.51 (s, 1H), 5.41 (dd, J= 11.6, 3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.65 (dd, J= 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.51 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.39 - 4.20 (m, 6H), 4.12 (dd, J = 12.8, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.75 - 3.67 (m, 1H), 3.34 - 3.27 (m, 1H), 2.38 - 2.31 (m, 2H), 1.02 - 0.99 (m, 3H). Intermediate 68

5-Chloro-2-( V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro- 3-fluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-4,6-0- benzylidene-3-deoxy -2-O-ethyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (200 mg, 0.36 mmol) in DMF (8 mL) trimethyl-[2-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (121 mg, 0.54 mmol), copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (44.6 mg, 0.18 mmol) and (+)-sodium L- ascorbate (35.4 mg, 0.18 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The organic layers were washed with water (50 mL), brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (145 mg, 57 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C32H30CI2FN5O5S] [M+H] + : 686.1; found: 685.7. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.37 (s, 1H), 8.05 (d, J= 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.97 (s, 1H), 7.62 (dd, J= 10.0, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.53 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.46 - 7.36 (m, 6H), 6.23 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (s, 1H), 5.41 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (dd, J = 11.2, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.52 - 4.11 (m, 8H), 3.72 - 3.68 (m, 1H), 3.33 - 3.16 (m, 1H), 2.39 - 2.32 (m, 2H), 1.03 - 0.99 (m, 3H).

Intermediate 69

5-Chloro-2-( V-azetidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro- 3,5-difluor ophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -3-deoxy-2-0-methyl- 1-thio-a-D- galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-(/V-azctidinylcarbamoyl)-3-pyridyl 3-azido-4,6-0- benzylidene-3-deoxy -2-O-ethyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (200 mg, 0.36 mmol) in DMF (8 mL) trimethyl-[2-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)ethynyl]silane (131 mg, 0.54 mmol), copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (44.6 mg, 0.18 mmol) and (+)-sodium L- ascorbate (35.4 mg, 0.18 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt overnight. The mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The organic layers were washed with water (50 mL), brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/1- 1/1, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (100 mg, 40 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C32H29CI2F2N5O5S] [M+H] + : 704.1; found: 703.7.‘H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.37 (d, J = 2.0 Hz 1H), 8.05 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.98 (s, 1H), 7.47 - 7.44 (m, 2H), 7.41 - 7.25 (m, 5H), 6.23 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (s, 1H), 5.42 (dd, J = 11.2, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.65 (dd, J = 11.6, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.51 (d, = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.59 - 4.20 (m, 6H), 4.12 (dd, J = 12.8, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 3.74 - 3.67 (m, 1H), 3.34 - 3.26 (m, 1H), 2.39 - 2.31 (m, 2H), 1.02 - 0.99 (m, 3H).

Intermediate 70

2-(7V-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

5-Chloro-2-cyanophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

To a solution of 5-chloro-2-cyanophenyl 3-azido-4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-2-0- ethyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (220 mg, 0.53 mmol) and trimethyl-[2-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)ethynyl] silane (179 mg, 0.78 mmol) in DMF (4 mL) copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (65.4 mg, 0.26 mmol) and (+)-sodium L-ascorbate (51.8 mg, 0.26 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred 6 h under a nitrogen atmosphere at rt. The mixture concentrated and purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-1/1, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to afford the product (220 mg, 68 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C29H22CIF3N4O4S] [M+H] + : 615.1; found: 615.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.94 (s, 1H), 7.75 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.65 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H) 7.46 - 7.36 (m, 8H), 6.22 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (s, 1H), 5.32 (dd, J = 11.6, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.56 - 4.52 (m, 2H), 4.45 (s, 1H), 4.27 - 4.09 (m, 2H), 3.40 (s, 3H).

2-(7V-azetidinyl-carbonyl)-5-chlorophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophenyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1-yl] -2-O-methyl- 1-thio-a-D-galactopyranoside

A solution of 5-chloro-2-cyanophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-deoxy-3-[4-(3,4,5- trifluorophcnyl)- 1 H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-2-0-mcthyl- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranosidc (220 mg, 0.36 mmol) in ethanol (10 mL) and NaOH (3 M aq, 4 mL) was stirred 16 h at 80 °C. After cooling to rt the mixture was concentrated to approximately 10 mL, and then acidified with HC1 (3 M) to pH ~3. The solid precipitate was collected by filtration, washed with 33 % aq MeOH and dried. To a solution of the obtained material, HATU (204 mg, 0.54 mmol) and EhN (109 mg, 1.07 mmol) in DMF (3 mL) azetidine hydrochloride (122 mg, 1.31 mmol) was added. The was stirred at rt overnight, and then concentracted. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc=5/l~l/2, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (101 mg, 42 %). ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C32H28CIF3N4O5S] [M+H] + : 673.1; found: 673.0. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.95 (s, 1H), 7.60 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.44 -7.29 (m, 9H), 6.26 (d, J= 4.8 Hz, 1H), 5.50 (s, 1H), 5.35 (dd, J= 11.6, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.50 - 4.46 (m, 2H), 4.42 (s, 1H), 4.26 - 4.10 (m, 4H), 3.94 - 3.90 (m, 2H), 3.36 (s, 3H), 3.38 - 3.30 (m, 2H).

Intermediate 71

3,4-Dichlorophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5-difluorophenyl)-l//- l,2,3-triazol-l-yl]-3-deoxy-2-0-methyl-l-thio-a-D-galactopyr anoside

To a stirred solution of 3,4-dichlorophenyl 4,6-0-benzylidene-3-[4-(4-chloro-3,5- difluorophenyl)- \H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl]-3 -deoxy- 1 -thio-a-D-galactopyranoside (140 mg, 0.22 mmol) in DMF (2 mL) NaH (60 % in oil, 24.0 mg, 0.63 mmol) was added at 0 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The mixture was stirred 10 min at 0 °C, then iodomethane (0.0278 mL, 0.45 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred 2 h at rt. After diluting with water (20 mL), the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na 2 SC> 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE/EtOAc= 10/ 1-4/1, Silica-CS 12 g, 20 mL/min, silica gel, UV 254) to give the product (114 mg, 80 %) as a white solid. ESI-MS m/z calcd for [C28H22CI3F2N3O4S] [M+Na] + : 663.1; found: 663.2. 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.91 (s, 1H), 7.57 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.39 - 7.29 (m, 9H), 6.07 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.46 (s, 1H), 5.22 (dd, J = 11.2, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.45 - 4.41 (m, 2H), 4.27 - 4.24 (m, 2H), 4.11 - 4.08 (m, 1H), 3.26 (s, 3H).

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