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Title:
ANTI-DAMPING APPARATUS FOR KEEPING A PENDULUM OSCILLATION PERIOD CONSTANT.
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2016/135096
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A pendulum (1) comprises a cord (2) to which a permanent magnet pendulum weight (3) is attached and at least one anti-damping apparatus (8) comprising a second (6) and a third (9) permanent magnet weights which are mounted on a rod constrained to oscillate rotatively about a pivot (47) by a spring. Magnetic attraction occurs between the second weight (6) and the pendulum weight (3) in a standing end stop positions of the pendulum weight while the spring is maximally stretched, followed by relaxation of the spring and a phase of magnetic repulsion between the third weight (9) and the pendulum weight (3) during the downward phase of the pendulum weight.

Inventors:
POLENTA RENATO (IT)
Application Number:
PCT/EP2016/053669
Publication Date:
September 01, 2016
Filing Date:
February 22, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
POLENTA RENATO (IT)
International Classes:
F03G3/06; G04B1/02; G04C3/027
Foreign References:
KR20070030010A2007-03-15
KR20070079214A2007-08-06
KR20040021749A2004-03-11
JPH09222072A1997-08-26
GB2442585A2008-04-09
Other References:
WILLIAM BADDELEY JUNIOR: "Perpetual motion by magnetism", MECHANICS MAGAZINE, vol. 10, no. 282, 3 January 1829 (1829-01-03), London, pages I, 353, 360 - 361, XP002753329, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20160118]
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MITTLER, Enrico et al. (Viale Lombardia 20, Milano, IT)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A pendulum (1) comprising at least one anti-damping apparatus (8), the pendulum (1) comprises a cord (2) to which a first weight (3) of the pendulum (1) is attached, said first weight (3) comprises a south pole (31) and a north pole (32), said first weight (3) oscillates between two standing end stop positions of oscillation, a first standing end stop position of oscillation and a second standing end stop position of oscillation, said at least one anti-damping apparatus (8) comprises a second weight (6) comprising a south pole (61) and a north pole (62), said second weight (6) oscillates passing from a closest approach position to the first weight (3) to a maximum distancing position from the first weight (3), in at least one of the two standing end stop positions of oscillation, the first weight (3) electromagnetically attracts the second weight (6) passing it into the closest approach position to the first weight (3), said second weight (6) is constrained to rotate about a fixed pivot (47), during a downward phase of the first weight (3) the second weight (6) passes into the maximum distancing position from the first weight (3), the anti-damping apparatus (8) comprises a third weight (9) comprising a south pole (91) and a north pole (92), said third weight (9) is constrained to rotate about the fixed pivot (47), said third weight (9) oscillates from a first standing end stop position of oscillation, corresponding to the closest approach position of the second weight (6) to the first weight (3) to a second standing end stop position of oscillation corresponding to the maximum distancing position of the second weight (6) from the first weight (3) and to the downward phase of the first weight (3), said third weight (9) in said second standing end stop position of oscillation electromagnetically pushes the first weight (3), characterized in that said second weight (6) is attached to an elastic return element (5) which passes from a stretching position to a relaxing position, said stretching position corresponds to the closest approach position of the second weight (6) to the first weight (3) and said relaxing position corresponds to the maximum distancing position of the second weight (6) from the first weight (3), in at least one of the two standing end stop positions of oscillation, the first weight (3) electromagnetically attracts the second weight (6) passing the elastic return element (5) to the stretching position, in a downward phase of the first weight (3) the elastic return element (5) returns to the relaxing position moving away the second weight (6) from the first weight (3), the anti-damping apparatus (8) comprises a rod (7), said rod (7) is attached at a first end (76) in a coupling point (67) midway between the south pole (61) and the north pole (62) of the second weight (6), said rod (7) is constrained to rotate about a fixed pivot (47), said rod (7) is attached at a second end (79) to the third weight (9) in a coupling point (97) on a top of one of the two poles (91, 92), the first standing end stop position of oscillation of the third weight (9) corresponding to the stretching position of the elastic return element (5), the second standing end stop position of oscillation of the third weight (9) corresponding to the relaxing position of the elastic return element (5) and to the downward phase of the first weight (3), the first weight (3), the second weight (6) and the third weight (9) are permanent magnets and a lower end (23) of the cord (2) is attached to the first weight (3) midway between the south pole (31) and the north pole (32) of the first weight (3).

2. A pendulum (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that the stretching position of the elastic return element (5) corresponds to the position of maximum stretching of the elastic return element (5).

3. A pendulum (1) according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that in the stretching position of the elastic return element (5), the rod (7) is constrained in its rotational movement by an end stop block (46) for preventing the first weight (3) from hitting against the second weight (6) in said at least one of the two standing end stop positions of oscillation of the first weight (3).

4. A pendulum (1) according to any one of the claims 1-3, characterized in that the cord (2) in said at least one of the two standing positions of oscillation of the first weight (3) identifies a cord axis (F), said cord axis (F) forms an angle (a) with a longitudinal axis (L) positioned along the elastic return element (5), said angle (a) is from 45 to 135 sexagesimal degrees.

5. A pendulum (1) according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the elastic return element (5) is a strongly damped oscillator.

6. A pendulum (1) according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a center of the rod (7) is pivoted to the pivot (47).

7. A pendulum (1) according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a second elastic return element pivots the rod (7) on the pivot (47) causing the rod (7) to oscillate from a first position corresponding to the closest approach position of the second weight (6) to the first weight (3) to a second position corresponding to the maximum distancing position of the second weight (6) from the first weight (3).

8. A pendulum (1) according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the south pole (31) of the first weight (3) is arranged in the direction of the second standing end stop position of oscillation and the north pole (32) of the first weight (3) is arranged in the direction of the first standing end stop position of oscillation, the south pole (61) of the second weight (6) is arranged in the direction of the north pole (32) of the first weight (3) and the north pole (62) of the second weight (6) is arranged in the direction of a second application point (1 1) of the elastic return element (5), the north pole (92) of the third weight (9) faces the north pole (32) of the first weight (3) in the downward phase of the first weight (3).

9. A pendulum (1) according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at the second standing end stop position of oscillation of the first weight (3), there is another of said at least one anti-damping apparatus (8) arranged diametrically opposite to the first of said at least one anti-damping apparatus (8), the south pole (31) of the first weight (3) is arranged in the direction of the second standing end stop position of oscillation and the north pole (32) of the first weight (3) is arranged in the direction of the first standing end stop position of oscillation, the north pole (62) of the second weight (6) is arranged in the direction of the south pole

(31) of the first weight (3) and the south pole (61) of the second weight (6) is arranged in the direction of a second application point (11) of the elastic return element (5), the north pole (92) of the third weight (9) faces the north pole (32) of the first weight (3) in the downward phase of the first weight (3).

Description:
"Anti-damping apparatus for keeping a pendulum oscillation period constant"

* * * *

The present invention relates to an anti-damping apparatus for keeping a pendulum oscillation period constant.

Anti-damping apparatuses for keeping a pendulum oscillation period constant are known from the prior art, e.g. from GB-2442585, which describes a pendulum comprising a cord comprising an upper end attached to an application point and a lower end mounting a weight. The weight mounts two permanent magnets, a first permanent magnet facing a first end stop and a second permanent magnet facing a second end stop. The pendulum has an oscillation period which is kept constant by two electromagnets applied near both the end stops of the weight attached to the pendulum cord. The two electromagnets and the two permanent magnets form an anti-damping apparatus to keep the pendulum period constant. Indeed, with the electromagnets off, the weight oscillates to one of the two end stop positions. The weight stops for an instant in an end stop position and returns along its path in a downward phase to a pushing position. In said pushing position of the weight, the electromagnet closest to the weight is switched on and generates a repulsive electromagnetic push on the permanent magnet of the weight facing in its direction. Said repulsive electromagnetic push is such as to push the weight downwards to give back to the weight the same power it had during the upward phase and lost by friction during an upward phase of the oscillation. The electromagnet is switched off for a period of time equal to the pendulum period. Disadvantageously, the switching on and off of the electromagnets must be timed with the period of the pendulum, thus complicating the timing and the actual retention of power, period and oscillation amplitude of the pendulum.

It is the object of the present invention to provide a simpler anti- damping apparatus which allows the oscillation amplitude and the oscillation period of a pendulum to be kept constant, inputting less power from the outside and saving power, which is less subject to wear and is more stable over a long time of operation of the pendulum.

According to the invention, such an object is achieved by a pendulum comprising at least one anti-damping apparatus, the pendulum comprises a cord to which a first weight of the pendulum is attached, said first weight comprises a south pole and a north pole, said first weight oscillates between two standing end stop positions of oscillation, a first standing end stop position of oscillation and a second standing end stop position of oscillation, characterized in that said at least one anti-damping apparatus comprises a second weight comprising a south pole and a north pole, said second weight oscillates passing from a closest approach position to the first weight to a maximum distancing position from the first weight, in at least one of the two standing positions of oscillation, the first weight electromagnetically attracts the second weight passing it to the closest approach position to the first weight, said second weight is constrained to rotate about a fixed pivot, during a downward phase of the first weight the second weight passes to the maximum distancing position from first weight, the anti-damping apparatus comprises a third weight comprising a south pole and a north pole, said third weight is constrained to rotate about the fixed pivot, said third weight oscillates from a first standing position of oscillation corresponding to the closest approach position of the second weight to the first weight to a second standing position of oscillation corresponding to the maximum distancing position of the second weight from the first weight and to the downward phase of the first weight, said third weight in said second standing position of oscillation electromagnetically pushes the first weight.

These and other features of the present invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description of a practical embodiment thereof, shown by way of non-limitative example in the accompanying drawings, in which: Figure 1 shows a front plan view of a pendulum in a first standing end stop position of oscillation,

Figure 2 shows a pendulum in a second position of oscillation in a first downward phase from the first standing end stop position of oscillation to a second standing end stop position of oscillation in the opposite direction,

Figure 3 shows an enlarged detail A in figure 1,

Figure 4 shows an enlarged detail B in figure 2.

With reference to the figures listed above, a pendulum 1 can be observed comprising a cord 2 hanging downward in the direction of a vertical axis Y. Cord 2 comprises an upper end 20 attached to a first application point 10 fixed to a horizontal wall and a lower end 23 mounting a first weight 3. The horizontal wall identifies a horizontal axis X perpendicular to the vertical axis Y.

The first weight 3 performs a complete oscillation of amplitude V and period P between two standing end stop positions of oscillation: from a first position of oscillation corresponding to a first standing end stop position of oscillation, as shown in figures 1 and 3, to a second position of oscillation corresponding to a second standing end stop position of oscillation (not shown in the figures), to return to the first standing end stop position of oscillation. The first weight 3 stops for an instant in the first and second standing end stop positions. The complete oscillation of the first weight 3 corresponds to a first period of oscillation P, and the first and second standing end stop positions of oscillation correspond to the oscillation amplitude V of the first weight 3.

The first weight 3 is a permanent magnet with a south pole 31 in the direction of the second standing end stop position of oscillation and a north pole 32 in the direction of the first standing end stop position of oscillation. The lower end 23 of cord 2 is attached to a portion 33 of the first weight 3 midway between the south pole 31 and the north pole 31.

There is an anti-damping apparatus 8 near the first standing end stop position of oscillation.

The anti-damping apparatus 8 of pendulum 1 comprises the first weight 3 of pendulum 1, a second weight 6, a third weight 9, an elastic return element 5, a rod 7 and a pivot 47. The anti-damping apparatus 8 also comprises an end stop block 46.

The elastic return element 5 is a spring 5. Said elastic return element 5 comprises a first end 51 attached to a second fixed application point 11 and a second end 56 mounting the second weight 6.

The second weight 6 is a permanent magnet with a south pole 61 in the direction of the north pole 32 of the first weight 3 and with a north pole 62 in the direction of the second application point 11.

The application point 11 is preferably on a longitudinal axis L identified by a geometric line lying on a geometric plane XY identified by the vertical axis Y and by the horizontal axis X, as shown in figure 1. Said geometric line which describes the longitudinal axis L is a geometric conjunction line between the first standing position of oscillation of the first weight 3 and the application point 11. The longitudinal axis L is positioned along the elastic return element 5.

The cord 2 in the first standing position of oscillation of the first weight 3 identifies a cord axis F. The cord axis F forms an angle a with the longitudinal axis L. Said angle a is from 45 to 135 sexagesimal degrees on the geometric plane XY. Preferably, the angle a is 90 sexagesimal degrees to advantageously maximize the electromagnetic attraction between the first weight 3 and the second weight 6.

The second weight 6 is attached to the elastic return element 5 by means of an attachment point 65 of the second weight 6, which is attached at the second end 56 of the elastic return element 5. The first end 76 of rod 7 is applied to a lower pole 67 of the second weight 6 midway between the south pole 61 and the north pole 62.

The coupling point 65 between the second weight 6 and the elastic return element 5 is preferably positioned on a polar portion of the north pole 62 of the second weight 6.

The elastic return element 5 is a strongly damped oscillator. Indeed, the second weight 6 performs a strongly damped oscillation from a stretching position of the elastic return element 5 corresponding to the first standing end stop position of oscillation, as shown in figures 1, 3, to a relaxing position of the elastic return element 5, as shown in Figures 2, 4.

The complete oscillation of the second weight 6 corresponds to a second strongly damped oscillation period S.

The second weight 6 comprises the lower pole 67 which identifies an application point to which the upper end 76 of rod 7 is attached, which upper end 76 is rigid and adapted to move on the geometric plane XY being rotationally constrained to a fixed pivot 47 on the geometric plane XY, as shown in figures 1-4. A center of rod 7 is pivoted on pivot 47. A third weight 9 is attached to a lower end 79 of rod 7. The third weight 9 is attached to the lower end 79 of rod 7 near an upper pole 97 of the third weight 9.

The third weight 9 is a permanent magnet with a north pole 92 facing the direction of the first weight 3 and a south pole 91 in the opposite direction.

The second end 79 of rod 7 is applied to the upper pole 97 midway the third weight 9 between the south pole 91 and the north pole 92.

Advantageously, the permanent magnets of the weight 3, 6, 9 do not need to change polarity, as described instead in the documents of the prior art.

The third weight 9 rotates about pivot 47 which also constrains the movement of rod 7. Another constraint of the rotary movement of the third weight 9 is the elastic return element 5 to which the second weight 6 is attached, the rod 7 being connected to said second weight.

The third weight 9 performs a complete oscillation from a first position of oscillation corresponding to a first standing end stop position of oscillation, as shown in figures 1, 3, to a second position of oscillation corresponding to a second standing end stop position of oscillation, as shown in figures 2, 4, to return to the first standing end stop position. The third weight 9 stops for an instant in the first and second standing end stop positions. The complete oscillation of the third weight 9 corresponds to a third period of oscillation T, and the first and second standing end stop position of oscillation correspond to a third oscillation amplitude of the third weight 9.

As shown in Figure 2, when the first weight 3 is in a second standing position of oscillation in a first downward phase from the first standing end stop position of the first weight 3 to the second standing end stop position of the first weight 3 in the opposite direction, the elastic return element 5 is in the relaxing position, corresponding to the first standing end stop position of the second weight 6, and the third weight 9 is in a second standing end stop position to advantageously exploit the electromagnetic repulsion force between the first weight 3 and the third weight 9 thus allowing the push of the first weight 3 to be increased during the downward phase and to contribute even more advantageously to keeping the power of the first weight 3 constant, thus keeping the first oscillation amplitude and the first oscillation period P with a yet lower push power.

Rod 7 is subjected to an external return force by the elastic return element 5.

In the stretching position of the elastic element 5, the rotary movement of rod 7 is blocked by an end stop block 46 fixed on the geometric plane XY, as shown in Figures 1, 3.

With regard to the operation of the anti-damping apparatus 8 of pendulum 1 , we will analyze the motion of pendulum 1 passing from Figure 1 to Figure 2 in two different moments of the oscillation period P of the first weight 3. As shown in figure 1, the first weight 3 is in the first standing end stop position of oscillation. The second weight 6 is electromagnetically attracted by the first weight 3 in the second standing end stop position corresponding to the stretching position of the elastic element 5. The rotary movement of rod 7 about pivot 47 is blocked by an end stop block 46. The third weight 9 is in the first standing end stop position. The first weight 3 has a north pole 32 facing the south pole 61 of the second weight 6 which mutually electromagnetically attract to the extent of stretching the elastic element 5 to its stretching position.

As shown in figure 2, the first weight 3 is in the second standing position of oscillation in the first downward phase, the elastic return element

5 is in the relaxing position, because it is strongly damped, and the second weight 6 does not have sufficient force to compress the elastic return element 5 into a compression position. Instead, only when the second weight

6 is electromagnetically attracted by the first weight 3 when it is in the first standing end stop position of oscillation, it is able to stretch the elastic element 5 to its stretched position.

By passing from the stretched position to the relaxing position the elastic element 5 pulls back the second weight 6 along the longitudinal axis L in a direction opposite to the first standing position of the first weight 3, thus moving the second weight 3 away from the second weight 6. The third weight 9 is in the second standing end stop position to advantageously increase the push of the first weight 3 in order to keep the first oscillation period P of the first weight 3 of pendulum 1 constant. Indeed, the north pole 92 of the third weight 9 faces the north pole 32 of the first weight 3 in the first downward phase of the first weight 3, thus contributing to pushing the first weight 3 towards the second standing end stop position of oscillation.

Advantageously, the anti-damping apparatus 8 allows both the first oscillation amplitude V and the first period of oscillation P to be kept constant for the entire operating time of pendulum 1 for the first weight 3 of pendulum 1.

Advantageously, the anti-damping apparatus 8 allows to save power, by inputting less power from the outside with respect to the anti-damping apparatuses 8 of the prior art.

Advantageously, the anti-damping apparatus 8 is less subject to wear and more stable over the long time of operation of pendulum 1.

Advantageously, the anti-damping apparatus 8 of pendulum 1 also allows to be easily and simply mounted with pendulum 1 and is easily and simply adjustable.

Alternatively, near the second standing end stop position of oscillation there is another anti-damping apparatus 8 diametrically opposite so as to advantageously contribute to more easily keeping the period P and the oscillation amplitude V of the first weight 3 of pendulum 1. In said alternative, another second weight 6 puts its south pole 61 facing the south pole 31 of the first weight 3. After the first weight 3 has passed from the second standing end stop position of oscillation and is descending in a second downward phase of the first weight 3, another third weight 9 puts its south pole 91 facing the south pole 31 of the first weight 3 to contribute to pushing it electromagnetically downwards.

Again alternatively, there could be no end stop block 46. The stretching position of the elastic element 5 preferably identifies a maximum stretching position of the elastic element 5. In said preferential alternative, it is not necessary to use the end stop block 46 to stop the rotary movement of rod 7 about pivot 47.

Alternatively, the longitudinal axis L is parallel to the horizontal axis

X.

Again, in another alternative, at least one weight included in the list comprising the first weight 3, the second weight 6 and the third weight 9 is an electromagnet.

In a further alternative, the elastic return element 5 and the rod 7 can be applied in different manners on the second weight 3 and/or on the third weight 9. In said further alternative, pendulum 1 comprises at least one anti- damping apparatus 8, pendulum 1 comprising the cord 2 to which the first weight 3 of pendulum 1 is attached. Said first weight 3 comprises the south pole 31 and the north pole 32. Said first weight 3 oscillates between two standing end stop positions of oscillation, a first standing end stop position of oscillation and a second standing end stop position of oscillation. Said at least one anti-damping apparatus 8 comprises the second weight 6 comprising the south pole 61 and the north pole 62. Said second weight 6 oscillates by passing from a closest approach position to the first weight 3 to a maximum distancing position from the first weight 3. In at least one of the two standing end stop positions of oscillation, the first weight 3 electromagnetically attracts the second weight 6 passing it to the closest approach position to the first weight 3. Said second weight 6 is constrained to rotate about the fixed pivot 47. In the downward phase of the first weight 3, the second weight 6 passes to the closest approach position to the first weight 3. The anti-damping apparatus 8 comprises a third weight 9 comprising the south pole 91 and the north pole 92. Said third weight 9 is constrained to rotate about the fixed pivot 47. Said third weight 9 oscillates from a first standing end stop position of oscillation, corresponding to the closest approach position of the second weight 6 to the first weight 3, to a second standing end stop position of oscillation corresponding to the maximum distancing position of the second weight 6 from the first weight 3 and to the downward phase of the first weight 3. Said third weight 9 in said second standing end stop position of oscillation electromagnetically pushes the first weight 3. Said stretching position of the return element 5 corresponds to the closest approach position of the second weight 6 to the first weight 3 and said relaxing position of the return element 5 corresponds to the maximum distancing position of the second weight 6 from the first weight 3. According to a further embodiment, a second elastic return element (not shown in the figures) pivots rod 7 on pivot 47, thus causing rod 7 to oscillate from a first position corresponding to the closest approach position of the second weight 6 to the first weight 3 to a second position corresponding to the maximum distancing position of the second weight 6 from the first weight 3.