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Title:
ANTICANCER COMPOUNDS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2020/127194
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Anticancer compounds of formula (I) and derivatives thereof are provided.

Inventors:
MARTÍN LÓPEZ MARÍA JESÚS (ES)
RODRÍGUEZ ACEBES RAQUEL (ES)
CRUZ LÓPEZ PATRICIA GEMA (ES)
FRANCESCH SOLLOSO ANDRÉS M (ES)
CUEVAS MARCHANTE MARIA DEL CARMEN (ES)
Application Number:
PCT/EP2019/085544
Publication Date:
June 25, 2020
Filing Date:
December 17, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
PHARMA MAR SA (ES)
International Classes:
C07D401/12; A61K31/351; A61K31/422; A61K31/427; A61K31/4412; A61K31/7068; A61P35/00; C07D407/12; C07D413/12; C07D417/12; C07H15/26
Domestic Patent References:
WO2010137351A12010-12-02
WO2009054983A12009-04-30
WO2002066046A12002-08-29
WO2010137351A12010-12-02
WO2005014537A22005-02-17
Foreign References:
Other References:
KEITH P. REBER ET AL: "Total Synthesis of Pyrophen and Campyrones A-C", JOURNAL OF NATURAL PRODUCTS., vol. 81, no. 2, 23 February 2018 (2018-02-23), US, pages 292 - 297, XP055680822, ISSN: 0163-3864, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.7b00720
YAMAGUCHI ET AL.: "reported the isolation of althiomycin from a Streptomyces assigned", STREPTOMYCES ALTHIOTICUS, 1957
YAMAGUCHI, H ET AL., J. OF ANTIBIOTICS A, vol. 10, 1957, pages 195 - 200
UMEZAWA ET AL., J. OF ANTIBIOTICS, vol. 27, 1974, pages 897 - 899
MARFEY, P., CARLSBERG RES. COMMUN., vol. 49, 1984, pages 591 - 596
SINGH ET AL., J. ORG. CHEM., vol. 69, 2004, pages 4551 - 4554
RECENT RES. DEVEL. ORGANIC CHEM., vol. 8, 2004, pages 323 - 339
BIOORG. MED. CHEM., vol. 21, 2013, pages 4839 - 4845
YAMADA, T. ET AL.: "Establishment of a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line (PSN-1) with amplifications of both c-myc and activated c-Ki-ras by a point mutation", BIOCHEM. BIOPHYS. RES. COMMUN., vol. 140, 1986, pages 167 - 173, XP024842588, DOI: 10.1016/0006-291X(86)91072-7
V. VICHAIK. KIRTIKARA, NATURE PROTOC., vol. 1, 2006, pages 1112 - 1116
BOYD MRPAULL KD, DRUG DEV. RES., vol. 34, 1995, pages 91 - 104
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MARKS & CLERK LLP (GB)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS 1. A compound of formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof

wherein: R1 is selected from hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, and substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; R2 is selected from hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C24 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C24 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C24 alkynyl, -ORa, -OSO2Rb, - NRcRd, -NRc(C=O)Rf, and -NRcSO2Rb, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; R3 is selected from halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl and substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl-C1-C12 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx and the halogen substituents are one or more substituents independently selected from F, Cl, Br and I; R4 is selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl and substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; R5 is selected from -C(ORe)2Rg, -C(SRe)2Rg, -CH(ORa)Rg, -CH(O-(C=O)Rf)Rg, -CH(NRcRd)Rg, - CH(NRc-(C=O)Rf)Rg, -CH(NRc-ORh)Rg, -(C=O)Rg, -(C=NRc)Rg, -(C=N-ORh)Rg, -(C=N-O- (C=O)Rf)Rg, -(C=N-O-(C=O)ORa)Rg, -(C=N-O-[(P=O)(ORa)2])Rg, -(C=N-NRcRd)Rg, -(C=O)ORa, -

(C=O)NRc-ORh, -(C=O)NRcRd, -(C=CH2)Rg, and -(C=CH2)ORa; or R5 is a group where m is 0, 1 or 2 and each E group is independently selected from O and S; Y and Z are independently selected from -O-, -S-, -(NH)-, and -(NProtNH)-, where ProtNH is a protecting group for amino; each group Ra is independently selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for OH, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C24 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C24 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C24 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6cycloalkyl-C1-C12alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, -(CH2CH2O)pCH2CH3, and -(CH2CH2O)pCH3 wherein p is from 1 to about 25 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rb is independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, and substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rc and Rd is independently selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for amino, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, and substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or Rc and Rd together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic group; each group Re is substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl group, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rf is independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, -CH2O(CH2CH2O)pCH2CH3, -CH2O(CH2CH2O)pCH3 wherein p is from 1 to about 25 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx, and a group of formula:

where each R group is, at each occurrence, independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl group, substituted or unsubstituted –(C=O)-(C1-C6)alkyl, and substituted or unsubstituted–(C=O)NH(C1-C6)alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or two adjacent OR groups form an isopropylidene ketal or an acetal group selected from methylene-, methoxymethylene-, ethoxymethylene-, ethylidene-, benzylidene-, and p-methoxybenzylidene- acetals; each group Rg is independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl and substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rh is independently selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for OH, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6cycloalkyl-C1-C12alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclo-C1-C12alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, -(CH2CH2O)pCH2CH3, -(CH2CH2O)pCH3 wherein p is from 1 to about 25, and substituted or unsubstituted monosaccharide residue, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; substituents Rx are selected from the group consisting of C1-C12 alkyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group Ry, C2-C12 alkenyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group Ry, C2-C12 alkynyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group Ry, halogen atoms, oxo groups, thio groups, cyano groups, nitro groups, ORy, OCORy, OCOORy, CORy, COORy, OCONRyRz, CONRyRz, SRy, S(=O)Ry, SO2Ry, OSO2ORy, SSRy, P(=O)(Ry)ORz, OP(=O)(ORy)2, NRyRz, NRyC(=O)Rz, NRyC(=O)ORz, NRyC(=O)NRyRz, NRyC(=NRy)NRyRz, aryl groups having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms in one or more rings which may optionally be substituted with one or more substituents which may be the same or different selected from the group consisting of Ry, ORy, OCORy, OCOORy, NRyRz, NRyCORz, and NRyC(=NRy)NRyRz, aralkyl groups comprising an alkyl groups having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms substituted with an optionally substituted aryl group as defined above, aralkyloxy groups comprising an alkoxy group having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms substituted with an optionally substituted aryl group as defined above, and a 5- to 14- membered saturated or unsaturated heterocyclic group having one or more rings and comprising at least one oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur atom in said ring(s), said heterocyclic group optionally being substituted with one or more substituents Ry, and where there is more than one optional substituents on any given group the optional substituents Ry may be the same or different; and each Ry and Rz is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1-C12 alkyl groups, C1-C12 alkyl groups that are substituted with at least one halogen atom, aralkyl groups comprising a C1-C12 alkyl group that is substituted with an aryl group having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms in one or more rings and heterocycloalkyl group comprising a C1-C12 alkyl group that is substituted with a 5- to 14- membered saturated or unsaturated heterocyclic group having one or more rings and comprising at least one oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur atom in said ring(s). 2. The compound according to claim 1 which also has formula

wherein R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, Y, and Z are as defined in claim 1; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. 3. The compound according to claim 1 or 2 wherein R1 is selected from hydrogen, halogen and substituted or unsubstituted C2-C6 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. 4. The compound according to claim 1 which also have formula Ia:

,

wherein R2, R3, R4, R5, Y, and Z are as defined in claim 1; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. 5. The compound according to claim 4 which also has formula Ib:

wherein R2, R3, R4, R5, Y and Z are as defined in claim 1; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. 6. The compound according to any preceding claim wherein R2 is selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C6 alkenyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx, -ORa, and -NRcRd, where Ra is selected from hydrogen, a silylether protecting group for OH, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6cycloalkyl-C1-C6alkyl, -(CH2CH2O)pCH2CH3 where p is from 1 to about 15 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; and Rc and Rd are independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. 7. The compound according to claim 6, wherein R2 is selected from hydrogen, methyl, vinyl, allyl, NEt2, and ORa where Ra is selected from hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, n-butyl, n-heptyl, allyl, propargyl, cyclopropylmethyl, -(CH2)3NHBoc, -(CH2)3NH2, and -(CH2CH2O)3CH2CH3; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. 8. The compound according to any preceding claim, wherein R3 is selected from halogen- substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl and substituted or unsubstituted C3-C4 cycloalkyl-C1-C4 alkyl wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx and the halogen substituents are one or more substituents independently selected from F, Cl, Br, and I; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. 9. The compound according to claim 8, wherein R3 is selected from n-propyl, 3,3,3- trifluoropropyl, and isobutyl; or pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. 10. The compound according to any preceding claim, wherein R4 is selected from hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. 11. The compound according to claim 10, wherein R4 is hydrogen or methyl; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. 12. The compound according to any preceding claim, wherein R5 is selected from -C(ORe)2Rg, - CH(NRcRd)Rg, -(C=O)Rg, -(C=NRc)Rg, -(C=N-ORh)Rg, -(C=N-O-(C=O)Rf)Rg, -(C=N-O- (C=O)ORa)Rg, -(C=N-O-[(P=O)(ORa)2])Rg, -(C=N-NRcRd)Rg, -(C=CH2)Rg, and -(C=CH2)ORa wherein: Rh is selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for OH, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2- C6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclo-C1-C6alkyl, -(CH2CH2O)pCH2CH3 where p is from 1 to about 15 and a substituted or unsubstituted monosaccharide residue of formula:

where each R group is, at each occurrence, independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl group, substituted or unsubstituted–(C=O)- (C1-C6)alkyl, and substituted or unsubstituted–(C=O)NH(C1-C6)alkyl; wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or two adjacent OR groups form an isopropylidene ketal or an acetal group selected from methylene-, methoxymethylene-, ethoxymethylene-, ethylidene-, benzylidene-, and p- methoxybenzylidene- acetals; Rg is substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; Rc and Rd are independently selected from hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; Ra is substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; Re is substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; and Rf is selected from substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, -CH2O(CH2CH2O)pCH3 where p is from 1 to about 15 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx, and a group of formula:

where each R group is, at each occurrence, independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl group, substituted or unsubstituted–(C=O)- (C1-C6)alkyl, and substituted or unsubstituted –(C=O)NH(C1-C6)alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or two adjacent OR groups form an isopropylidene ketal or an acetal group selected from methylene-, methoxymethylene-, ethoxymethylene-, ethylidene-, benzylidene-, and p- methoxybenzylidene- acetals; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. 13. The compound according to claim 12 wherein R5 is selected from -CH(NH2)Me, -(C=O)Me, - (C=NRc)Me, -(C=N-ORh)Me, -(C=N-O-(C=O)Rf)Me, -(C=N-NH2)Me, -(C=N-O-(C=O)ORa)Me, - (C=N-O-[(P=O)(ORa)2])Me, -(C=CH2)Me, or -(C=CH2)ORa where Ra is ethyl or benzyl, Rc is– (CH2)3NHBoc, Rf is -(CH2)5-NHBoc, -CH2O(CH2CH2O)2Me or a group of formula:

and Rh is selected from hydrogen, methyl, allyl, propargyl, -(CH2)3NHBoc, -(CH2)3NH2, - (CH2)3SH, -(CH2)4OH, -(CH2)4OP(=O)(OH)2, -(CH2)4OP(=O)(Ot-Bu)2, -(CH2)4-[4 l2-morpholine], - (CH2)3--[1-methyl-4 l2-piperazine], -(CH2CH2O)3CH2CH3, and a monosaccharide residue of formula:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. 14. The compound according to any preceding claim, wherein Z is –S- or –O-; or pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. 15. The compound according to claim 14, wherein Z is–S-; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. 16. The compound according to any preceding claim, wherein Y is–O- or–NH-; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. 17. The compound according to claim 16, wherein Y is–O-; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. 18. The compound according to claim 1 selected from

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

, , , , , , , , ,

, and ; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. 19. The compound according to claim 1, of formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof

wherein: R1 is selected from hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, and substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; R2 is selected from hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C24 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C24 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C24 alkynyl, -ORa, -OSO2Rb, - NRcRd, -NRc(C=O)Rf, and -NRcSO2Rb, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; R3 is selected from halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl and substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl-C1-C12 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx and the halogen substituents are one or more substituents independently selected from F, Cl, Br and I; R4 is selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl and substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; R5 is selected from

CH(NRc-(C=O)Rf)Rg

(C=O)Rf)Rg, -(C=N-

group where m is 0, 1 or 2 and each E group is independently selected from O and S; Y and Z are independently selected from -O-, -S-, -(NH)-, and -(NProtNH)-, where ProtNH is a protecting group for amino; each group Ra is independently selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for OH, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C24 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C24 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C24 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6cycloalkyl-C1-C12alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, -(CH2CH2O)pCH2CH3, and -(CH2CH2O)pCH3 wherein p is from 1 to about 25 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rb is independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, and substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rc and Rd is independently selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for amino, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, and substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or Rc and Rd together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic group; each group Re is substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl group, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rf is independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, -CH2O(CH2CH2O)pCH2CH3 and -CH2O(CH2CH2O)pCH3 wherein p is from 1 to about 25 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rg is independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl and substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rh is independently selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for OH, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6cycloalkyl-C1-C12alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, -(CH2CH2O)pCH2CH3, -(CH2CH2O)pCH3 wherein p is from 1 to about 25, and substituted or unsubstituted monosaccharide residue, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; substituents Rx are selected from the group consisting of C1-C12 alkyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group Ry, C2-C12 alkenyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group Ry, C2-C12 alkynyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group Ry, halogen atoms, oxo groups, thio groups, cyano groups, nitro groups, )Ry, SO2Ry, SSRy aryl groups having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms in one or more rings which may optionally be substituted with one or more substituents which may be the same or different selected from the group consisting of Ry, ORy, OCORy, OCOORy, NRyRz, NRyCORz, and NRyC(=NRy)NRyRz, aralkyl groups comprising an alkyl groups having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms substituted with an optionally substituted aryl group as defined above, aralkyloxy groups comprising an alkoxy group having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms substituted with an optionally substituted aryl group as defined above, and a 5- to 14- membered saturated or unsaturated heterocyclic group having one or more rings and comprising at least one oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur atom in said ring(s), said heterocyclic group optionally being substituted with one or more substituents Ry, and where there is more than one optional substituents on any given group the optional substituents Ry may be the same or different; and each Ry and Rz is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1-C12 alkyl groups, C1-C12 alkyl groups that are substituted with at least one halogen atom, aralkyl groups comprising a C1-C12 alkyl group that is substituted with an aryl group having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms in one or more rings and heterocycloalkyl group comprising a C1-C12 alkyl group that is substituted with a 5- to 14- membered saturated or unsaturated heterocyclic group having one or more rings and comprising at least one oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur atom in said ring(s).

20. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound as defined in any of claims 1 to 19, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. 21. A dosage form comprising a pharmaceutical composition as defined in claim 20. 22. A compound as defined in any of claims 1 to 19 or a pharmaceutical composition as defined in claim 20 or dosage form as defined in claim 21 for use as a medicament. 23. A compound as defined in any of claims 1 to 19, a pharmaceutical composition as defined in claim 20 or a dosage form as defined in claim 21 for use in the treatment of cancer. 24. The compound, composition or dosage form as claimed in claim 23, wherein the cancer is selected from solid tumours, lung cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer and pancreas cancer. 25. A method of treating a patient in need thereof, comprising administering a therapeutically acceptable amount of a compound as defined in any of claims 1 to 19, a pharmaceutical composition as defined in claim 20 or a dosage form as defined in claim 21. 26. The method according to claim 25, wherein the method is a method of treating cancer in a patient in need thereof. 27. The method according to claim 26, wherein the cancer is selected from solid tumours, lung cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer and pancreas cancer. 28. A process for obtaining a compound as defined in any of claims 1 to 19 comprising the coupling of a compound of formula II with a compound of formula III in accordance to Scheme 1

wherein R1 is as defined for the compounds of formula I in claim 1 or 3 or an appropriately protected group as needed and R2, R3, R4, R5, Y, and Z are as defined for the compounds of formula I in any of claims 1 or 6 to 17 or an appropriately protected group as needed. 29. An intermediate compound of formula IIa wherein: R1 is selected from hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, and substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; R2 is selected from hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C24 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C24 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C24 alkynyl, -ORa, OSO2Rb, -NRcRd, -NRc(C=O)Rf, and -NRcSO2Rb, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; R3 is selected from halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl and substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl-C1-C12 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx and the halogen substituents are one or more substituents independently selected from F, Cl, Br, and I; R6 is selected from hydrogen and a carbamate protecting group for amino; Y is selected from -O-, -S-, -(NH)-,and -(NProtNH)-, where ProtNH is a protecting group for amino, with the proviso that when R2 is hydrogen, then Y is selected from -O- and -S-; Ra is selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for OH, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C24 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C24 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C24 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6cycloalkyl-C1-C12alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, -(CH2CH2O)pCH2CH3, and -(CH2CH2O)pCH3 wherein p is from 1 to about 25 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rb is independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, and substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rc and Rd are independently selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for amino, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, and substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or Rc and Rd together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic group; Rf is independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, -CH2O(CH2CH2O)pCH2CH3, and -CH2O(CH2CH2O)pCH3 wherein p is from 1 to about 25 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; substituents Rx are selected from the group consisting of C1-C12 alkyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group Ry, C2-C12 alkenyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group Ry, C2-C12 alkynyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group Ry, halogen atoms, oxo groups, thio groups, cyano groups, nitro groups, ORy, OCORy, OCOORy, CORy, COORy, OCONRyRz, CONRyRz, SRy, S(=O)Ry, SO2Ry, OSO2ORy, SSRy, P(=O)(Ry)ORz, OP(=O)(ORy)2, NRyRz, NRyC(=O)Rz, NRyC(=O)ORz, NRyC(=O)NRyRz, NRyC(=NRy)NRyRz, aryl groups having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms in one or more rings which may optionally be substituted with one or more substituents which may be the same or different selected from the group consisting of Ry, ORy, OCORy, OCOORy, NRyRz, NRyCORz, and NRyC(=NRy)NRyRz, aralkyl groups comprising an alkyl groups having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms substituted with an optionally substituted aryl group as defined above, aralkyloxy groups comprising an alkoxy group having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms substituted with an optionally substituted aryl group as defined above, and a 5- to 14- membered saturated or unsaturated heterocyclic group having one or more rings and comprising at least one oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur atom in said ring(s), said heterocyclic group optionally being substituted with one or more substituents Ry, and where there is more than one optional substituents on any given group the optional substituents Ry may be the same or different; and each Ry and Rz is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1-C12 alkyl groups, C1-C12 alkyl groups that are substituted with at least one halogen atom, aralkyl groups comprising a C1-C12 alkyl group that is substituted with an aryl group having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms in one or more rings and heterocycloalkyl group comprising a C1-C12 alkyl group that is substituted with a 5- to 14- membered saturated or unsaturated heterocyclic group having one or more rings and comprising at least one oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur atom in said ring(s); or a salt thereof. 30. An intermediate compound of formula IIIa wherein R4 is selected from unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl and unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl; R5 is selected from -C(ORe)2Rg, -C(SRe)2Rg, -CH(ORa)Rg, -CH(O-(C=O)Rf)Rg, -CH(NRc- (C=O)Rf)Rg, -CH(NRc-ORh)Rg, -(C=O)Rg, -(C=NRc)Rg, -(C=N-ORh)Rg, -(C=N-O-(C=O)Rf)Rg, - (C=N-O-(C=O)ORa)Rg, -(C=N-O-[(P=O)(ORa)2])Rg, -(C=N-NRcRd)Rg, -(C=O)ORa, -(C=O)NRc- ORh, -(C=O)NRcRd, -(C=CH2)Rg, and -(C=CH2)ORa; or R5 is a group where m is 0, 1, or 2 and each E group is independently selected from O and S; Z is selected from -O-, -S-, -(NH)-, and -(NProtNH)-, where ProtNH is a protecting group for amino; each group Ra is independently selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for OH, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6cycloalkyl-C1-C12alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, -(CH2CH2O)pCH2CH3, and -(CH2CH2O)pCH3 wherein p is from 1 to about 25 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rc and Rd is independently selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for amino, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or Rc and Rd together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic group; each group Re is substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl group, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rf is independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, -CH2O(CH2CH2O)pCH2CH3, -CH2O(CH2CH2O)pCH3 wherein p is from 1 to about 25 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx, and a group of formula: , or where each R group is, at each occurrence, independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl group, substituted or unsubstituted –(C=O)-(C1-C6)alkyl, and substituted or unsubstituted–(C=O)NH(C1-C6)alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or two adjacent OR groups form an isopropylidene ketal or an acetal group selected from methylene-, methoxymethylene-, ethoxymethylene-, ethylidene-, benzylidene-, and p-methoxybenzylidene- acetals; each group Rg is independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl and substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rh is independently selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for OH, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6cycloalkyl-C1-C12alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclo-C1-C12alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, -(CH2CH2O)pCH2CH3, -(CH2CH2O)pCH3, wherein p is from 1 to about 25, and substituted or unsubstituted monosaccharide residue, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; substituents Rx are selected from the group consisting of C1-C12 alkyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group Ry, C2-C12 alkenyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group Ry, C2-C12 alkynyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group Ry, halogen atoms, oxo groups, thio groups, cyano groups, nitro groups, ORy, OCORy, OCOORy, CORy, COORy, OCONRyRz, CONRyRz, SRy, S(=O)Ry, SO2Ry, OSO2ORy, SSRy, P(=O)(Ry)ORz, OP(=O)(ORy)2, NRyRz, NRyC(=O)Rz, NRyC(=O)ORz, NRyC(=O)NRyRz, NRyC(=NRy)NRyRz, aryl groups having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms in one or more rings which may optionally be substituted with one or more substituents which may be the same or different selected from the group consisting of Ry, ORy, OCORy, OCOORy, NRyRz, NRyCORz, and NRyC(=NRy)NRyRz, aralkyl groups comprising an alkyl groups having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms substituted with an optionally substituted aryl group as defined above, aralkyloxy groups comprising an alkoxy group having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms substituted with an optionally substituted aryl group as defined above, and a 5- to 14- membered saturated or unsaturated heterocyclic group having one or more rings and comprising at least one oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur atom in said ring(s), said heterocyclic group optionally being substituted with one or more substituents Ry, and where there is more than one optional substituents on any given group the optional substituents Ry may be the same or different; and each Ry and Rz is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1-C12 alkyl groups, C1-C12 alkyl groups that are substituted with at least one halogen atom, aralkyl groups comprising a C1-C12 alkyl group that is substituted with an aryl group having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms in one or more rings and heterocycloalkyl group comprising a C1-C12 alkyl group that is substituted with a 5- to 14- membered saturated or unsaturated heterocyclic group having one or more rings and comprising at least one oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur atom in said ring(s); or a salt thereof.

Description:
ANTICANCER COMPOUNDS The present invention relates to new anticancer compounds, their use as anticancer agents, their pharmaceutical compositions and methods for their synthesis. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION In 1957 Yamaguchi et al. reported the isolation of althiomycin from a Streptomyces assigned to Streptomyces althioticus, n. sp (Yamaguchi, H et al. J. of Antibiotics A, 1957, 10, 195-200). This paper also disclosed its antibiotic activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Its structure was elucidated in 1974 by Umezawa et al. (J. of Antibiotics 1974, 27, 897- 899).

The cytotoxic activity of althiomycin against several gastric and liver cancer cell lines was described in international patent application publication WO2002066046. In particular althiomycin had IC50 values in the micro molar range against gastric cancer cell lines SNU-638, SNU-216 and AGS (0.77 mM, 0.77 mM and 0.85 mM, respectively) and against liver cancer cell lines HepG2, Hep3B and SK-HEP-1 (1.43 mM, 0.88 mM and 0.81 mM, respectively). International patent application publication WO2010137351 discloses compounds A-D, which have blocking activities of T-type calcium channels or voltage sodium channels as the tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) blockers such as NaV1.3 and NaV1.7 with IC50 values in the micro molar range. This patent application also discloses the use of these compounds in the treatment of several diseases, including cancer.

International patent application publication WO2005014537 discloses compounds of general formula:

wherein R 1 -R 10 , R 15 -R 19 , R 24 -R 25 , X, Y, Z, m and n take several meanings; which are modulators of chemokine receptor activity and their use in the prevention or treatment of inflammatory and immunoregulatory disorders and diseases. Since cancer is a leading cause of death in animals and humans, efforts have been and continue to be undertaken in order to obtain further anticancer therapies which are both active and safe to be administered to patients suffering from cancer. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In a first aspect, the present invention is directed to a compound of formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof

wherein: R1 is selected from hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, and substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; R 2 is selected from hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 24 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 24 alkynyl, -ORa, -OSO2Rb, - NRcRd, -NRc(C=O)Rf, and -NRcSO2Rb, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; R 3 is selected from halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl and substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 12 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx and the halogen substituents are one or more substituents independently selected from F, Cl, Br, and I; R 4 is selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl and substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; R 5 is selected from -C(ORe)2Rg, -C(SRe)2Rg, -CH(ORa)Rg, -CH(O-(C=O)Rf)Rg, -CH(NRcRd)Rg, - CH(NRc-(C=O)Rf)Rg, -CH(NRc-ORh)Rg, -(C=O)Rg, -(C=NRc)Rg, -(C=N-ORh)Rg, -(C=N-O- (C=O)Rf)Rg, -(C=N-O-(C=O)ORa)Rg, -(C=N-O-[(P=O)(ORa)2])Rg, -(C=N-NRcRd)Rg, -(C=O)ORa, -

(C=O)NRc-ORh, -(C=O)NRcRd, -(C=CH 2 )Rg, and -(C=CH 2 )ORa; or R5 is a group where m is 0, 1 or 2 and each E group is independently selected from O and S; Y and Z are independently selected from -O-, -S-, -(NH)-, and -(NProt NH )-, where Prot NH is a protecting group for amino; each group Ra is independently selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for OH, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 24 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 24 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 , and -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 3 wherein p is from 1 to about 25 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents R x ; each group R b is independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, and substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents R x ; each group Rc and Rd is independently selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for amino, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, and substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or Rc and Rd together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic group; each group Re is substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl group, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rf is independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, -CH 2 O(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 O(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 3 wherein p is from 1 to about 25 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx, and a group of formula:

where each R group is, at each occurrence, independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl group, substituted or unsubstituted –(C=O)-(C 1 -C 6 )alkyl, and substituted or unsubstituted–(C=O)NH(C 1 -C 6 )alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or two adjacent OR groups form an isopropylidene ketal or an acetal group selected from methylene-, methoxymethylene-, ethoxymethylene-, ethylidene-, benzylidene-, and p-methoxybenzylidene- acetals; each group Rg is independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl and substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rh is independently selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for OH, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclo-C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 , -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 3 wherein p is from 1 to about 25, and substituted or unsubstituted monosaccharide residue, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; substituents Rx are selected from the group consisting of C 1 -C 12 alkyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group R y , C 2 -C 12 alkenyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group R y , C 2 -C 12 alkynyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group R y , halogen atoms, oxo groups, thio groups, cyano groups, nitro groups, OR y , OCOR y , OCOOR y , COR y , COOR y , OCONR y Rz, CONR y Rz, SR y , S(=O)R y , SO2R y , OSO2OR y , SSR y , P(=O)(R y )ORz, OP(=O)(OR y )2, NR y Rz, NR y C(=O)Rz, NR y C(=O)ORz, NR y C(=O)NR y Rz, NR y C(=NR y )NR y Rz, aryl groups having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms in one or more rings which may optionally be substituted with one or more substituents which may be the same or different selected from the group consisting of R y , OR y , OCOR y , OCOOR y , NR y Rz, NR y CORz, and NR y C(=NR y )NR y Rz, aralkyl groups comprising an alkyl groups having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms substituted with an optionally substituted aryl group as defined above, aralkyloxy groups comprising an alkoxy group having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms substituted with an optionally substituted aryl group as defined above, and a 5- to 14- membered saturated or unsaturated heterocyclic group having one or more rings and comprising at least one oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur atom in said ring(s), said heterocyclic group optionally being substituted with one or more substituents R y , and where there is more than one optional substituents on any given group the optional substituents R y may be the same or different; and each R y and Rz is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C 1 -C 12 alkyl groups, C 1 -C 12 alkyl groups that are substituted with at least one halogen atom, aralkyl groups comprising a C 1 -C 12 alkyl group that is substituted with an aryl group having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms in one or more rings, and heterocycloalkyl group comprising a C 1 -C 12 alkyl group that is substituted with a 5- to 14- membered saturated or unsaturated heterocyclic group having one or more rings and comprising at least one oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur atom in said ring(s). In a further aspect, the present invention is directed to a compound of formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof

wherein: R1 is selected from hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, and substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; R2 is selected from hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 24 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 24 alkynyl, -ORa, -OSO2Rb, - NRcRd, -NRc(C=O)Rf, and -NRcSO2Rb, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; R3 is selected from halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl and substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 12 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx and the halogen substituents are one or more substituents independently selected from F, Cl, Br, and I; R4 is selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl and substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; R5 is selected from -C(ORe)2Rg, -C(SRe)2Rg, -CH(ORa)Rg, -CH(O-(C=O)Rf)Rg, -CH(NRcRd)Rg, - CH(NRc-(C=O)Rf)Rg, -CH(NRc-ORh)Rg, -(C=O)Rg, -(C=NRc)Rg, -(C=N-ORh)Rg, -(C=N-O- (C=O)Rf)Rg, -(C=N-NRcRd)Rg, -(C=O)ORa, -(C=O)NRc-ORh, and -(C=O)NRcRd; or R5 is a group where m is 0, 1 or 2 and each E group is independently selected from O and S; Y and Z are independently selected from -O-, -S-, -(NH)-, and -(NProt NH )-, where Prot NH is a protecting group for amino; each group Ra is independently selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for OH, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 24 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 24 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 , and -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 3 wherein p is from 1 to about 25 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rb is independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, and substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rc and Rd is independently selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for amino, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, and substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or Rc and Rd together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic group; each group R e is substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl group, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rf is independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, -CH 2 O(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 and -CH 2 O(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 3 wherein p is from 1 to about 25 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rg is independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkenyl and substituted or unsubstituted C2-C12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rh is independently selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for OH, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 , -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 3 wherein p is from 1 to about 25, and substituted or unsubstituted monosaccharide residue, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; substituents Rx are selected from the group consisting of C 1 -C 12 alkyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group R y , C 2 -C 12 alkenyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group R y , C 2 -C 12 alkynyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group R y , halogen atoms, oxo groups, thio groups, cyano groups, nitro groups, )R y , SO2R y , SSR y aryl groups having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms in one or more rings which may optionally be substituted with one or more substituents which may be the same or different selected from the group consisting of R y , OR y , OCOR y , OCOOR y , NR y Rz, NR y CORz, and NR y C(=NR y )NR y Rz, aralkyl groups comprising an alkyl groups having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms substituted with an optionally substituted aryl group as defined above, aralkyloxy groups comprising an alkoxy group having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms substituted with an optionally substituted aryl group as defined above, and a 5- to 14- membered saturated or unsaturated heterocyclic group having one or more rings and comprising at least one oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur atom in said ring(s), said heterocyclic group optionally being substituted with one or more substituents R y , and where there is more than one optional substituents on any given group the optional substituents R y may be the same or different; and each R y and Rz is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C 1 -C 12 alkyl groups, C 1 -C 12 alkyl groups that are substituted with at least one halogen atom, aralkyl groups comprising a C 1 -C 12 alkyl group that is substituted with an aryl group having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms in one or more rings, and heterocycloalkyl group comprising a C 1 -C 12 alkyl group that is substituted with a 5- to 14- membered saturated or unsaturated heterocyclic group having one or more rings and comprising at least one oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur atom in said ring(s). In a further aspect of the present invention, there is provided a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound according to the present invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, there is provided a dosage form comprising a pharmaceutical composition according to the present invention. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, there is provided a compound, pharmaceutical composition or dosage form according to the present invention for use as a medicament. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, there is provided a compound, pharmaceutical composition or dosage form according to the present invention for use in the treatment of cancer. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, there is provided the use of a compound, pharmaceutical composition or dosage form according to the present invention for the manufacture of a medicament, preferably for the treatment of cancer. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method for the prevention or treatment of cancer, comprising administering an effective amount of a compound according to the present invention, administering an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition according to the present invention, or administering an effective amount of a dosage form according to the present invention to a patient in need thereof, notably a human. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, there is provided the use of a compound according to the present invention for the treatment of cancer. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, there is provided a kit comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a compound according to the present invention and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The kit is preferably for use in the treatment of cancer. I n a yet further aspect of the present invention, there is provided a process for obtaining compounds of formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof, comprising the coupling of a compound of formula II with a compound of formula III in accordance to Scheme I:

Scheme I wherein R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, Y, and Z are as defined in the compound of formula I or an appropriately protected group as needed. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, there is provided the use of intermediate compounds of formula II or a salt thereof:

, wherein R1, R2, R3, and Y are as defined for compounds of formula I, or an appropriately protected group as needed, in the manufacture of compounds of formula I as defined herein or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, there are provided intermediate compounds of formula IIa:

wherein: R1 is selected from hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, and substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; R2 is selected from hydrogen, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 24 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 24 alkynyl, -ORa, -OSO2Rb, - NRcRd, -NRc(C=O)Rf, and -NRcSO2Rb, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; R3 is selected from halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, and substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 12 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx and the halogen substituents are one or more substituents independently selected from F, Cl, Br, and I; R6 is selected from hydrogen and a carbamate protecting group for amino; Y is selected from -O-, -S-, -(NH)-, and -(NProtNH)-, where ProtNH is a protecting group for amino, with the proviso that when R2 is hydrogen, then Y is selected from -O- and -S-; Ra is selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for OH, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 24 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 24 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 , and -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 3 wherein p is from 1 to about 25 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rb is independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, and substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rc and Rd is independently selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for amino, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, and substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or Rc and Rd together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic group; Rf is independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, -CH 2 O(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 , and -CH 2 O(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 3 wherein p is from 1 to about 25, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; substituents Rx are selected from the group consisting of C 1 -C 12 alkyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group R y , C 2 -C 12 alkenyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group R y , C 2 -C 12 alkynyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group R y , halogen atoms, oxo groups, thio groups, cyano groups, nitro groups, OR y , OCOR y , OCOOR y , COR y , COOR y , OCONR y Rz, CONR y Rz, SR y , S(=O)R y , SO2R y , OSO2OR y , SSR y , P(=O)(R y )ORz, OP(=O)(OR y )2, NR y Rz, NR y C(=O)Rz, NR y C(=O)ORz, NR y C(=O)NR y Rz, NR y C(=NR y )NR y Rz, aryl groups having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms in one or more rings which may optionally be substituted with one or more substituents which may be the same or different selected from the group consisting of R y , OR y , OCOR y , OCOOR y , NR y Rz, NR y CORz, and NR y C(=NR y )NR y Rz, aralkyl groups comprising an alkyl groups having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms substituted with an optionally substituted aryl group as defined above, aralkyloxy groups comprising an alkoxy group having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms substituted with an optionally substituted aryl group as defined above, and a 5- to 14- membered saturated or unsaturated heterocyclic group having one or more rings and comprising at least one oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur atom in said ring(s), said heterocyclic group optionally being substituted with one or more substituents R y , and where there is more than one optional substituents on any given group the optional substituents R y may be the same or different; and each R y and Rz is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C 1 -C 12 alkyl groups, C 1 -C 12 alkyl groups that are substituted with at least one halogen atom, aralkyl groups comprising a C 1 -C 12 alkyl group that is substituted with an aryl group having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms in one or more rings and heterocycloalkyl group comprising a C 1 -C 12 alkyl group that is substituted with a 5- to 14- membered saturated or unsaturated heterocyclic group having one or more rings and comprising at least one oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur atom in said ring(s); or a salt thereof. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, there is provided the use of intermediate compounds of formula IIc or a salt thereof:

, wherein R1, R2, R3, and Y are as defined for compounds of formula I, or an appropriately protected group as needed, and R6 is selected from hydrogen and a carbamate protecting group for amino, in the manufacture of compounds of formula I as defined herein or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, there is provided the use of intermediate compounds of formula III or a salt thereof:

, wherein R4, R5, and Z are as defined for the compounds of formula I, or an appropriately protected group as needed, in the manufacture of compounds of formula I as defined herein or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, there are provided intermediate compounds of formula IIIa:

wherein R4 is selected from unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl and unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl; R5 is selected from -C(ORe)2Rg, -C(SRe)2Rg, -CH(ORa)Rg, -CH(O-(C=O)Rf)Rg, -CH(NRc- (C=O)Rf)Rg, -CH(NRc-ORh)Rg, -(C=O)Rg, -(C=NRc)Rg, -(C=N-ORh)Rg, -(C=N-O-(C=O)Rf)Rg, - (C=N-O-(C=O)ORa)Rg, -(C=N-O-[(P=O)(ORa)2])Rg, -(C=N-NRcRd)Rg, -(C=O)ORa, -(C=O)NRc-

ORh, -(C=O)NRcRd , -(C=CH 2 )Rg, and -(C=CH 2 )ORa; or R5 is a group where m is 0, 1, or 2 and each E group is independently selected from O and S; Z is selected from -O-, -S-, -(NH)-, and -(NProt NH )-, where Prot NH is a protecting group for amino; each group Ra is independently selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for OH, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 , and -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 3 wherein p is from 1 to about 25 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rc and Rd is independently selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for amino, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, and substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or Rc and Rd together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic group; each group Re is substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl group, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rf is independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, -CH 2 O(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 O(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 3 wherein p is from 1 to about 25 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx, and a group of formula:

where each R group is, at each occurrence, independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl group, substituted or unsubstituted –(C=O)-(C 1 -C 6 )alkyl, and substituted or unsubstituted–(C=O)NH(C 1 -C 6 )alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or two adjacent OR groups form an isopropylidene ketal or an acetal group selected from methylene-, methoxymethylene-, ethoxymethylene-, ethylidene-, benzylidene-, and p-methoxybenzylidene- acetals; each group Rg is independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl and substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; each group Rh is independently selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for OH, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclo-C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 , -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 3 , wherein p is from 1 to about 25, and substituted or unsubstituted monosaccharide residue, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; substituents Rx are selected from the group consisting of C 1 -C 12 alkyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group R y , C 2 -C 12 alkenyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group R y , C 2 -C 12 alkynyl groups which may be optionally substituted with at least one group R y , halogen atoms, oxo groups, thio groups, cyano groups, nitro groups, OR y , OCOR y , OCOOR y , COR y , COOR y , OCONR y Rz, CONR y Rz, SR y , S(=O)R y , SO2R y , OSO2OR y , SSR y , P(=O)(R y )ORz, OP(=O)(OR y )2, NR y Rz, NR y C(=O)Rz, NR y C(=O)ORz, NR y C(=O)NR y Rz, NR y C(=NR y )NR y Rz, aryl groups having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms in one or more rings which may optionally be substituted with one or more substituents which may be the same or different selected from the group consisting of R y , OR y , OCOR y , OCOOR y , NR y Rz, NR y CORz, and NR y C(=NR y )NR y Rz, aralkyl groups comprising an alkyl groups having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms substituted with an optionally substituted aryl group as defined above, aralkyloxy groups comprising an alkoxy group having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms substituted with an optionally substituted aryl group as defined above, and a 5- to 14- membered saturated or unsaturated heterocyclic group having one or more rings and comprising at least one oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur atom in said ring(s), said heterocyclic group optionally being substituted with one or more substituents Ry, and where there is more than one optional substituents on any given group the optional substituents R y may be the same or different; and each R y and Rz is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C 1 -C 12 alkyl groups, C 1 -C 12 alkyl groups that are substituted with at least one halogen atom, aralkyl groups comprising a C 1 -C 12 alkyl group that is substituted with an aryl group having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms in one or more rings and heterocycloalkyl group comprising a C 1 -C 12 alkyl group that is substituted with a 5- to 14- membered saturated or unsaturated heterocyclic group having one or more rings and comprising at least one oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur atom in said ring(s); or a salt thereof. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, it is provided the isolation of compound 1 from a sponge of the order Lithistida, family Theonellidae, genus Discodermia (du Bocage 1869), and the formation of derivatives from the isolated compound. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, there is provided purified compound 1. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, there is provided isolated compound 1. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, there is provided compound 1 at a purity of above about 80%, above about 90%, above about 95%, above about 98%, above about 99%, above about 99.5% or above about 99.9%. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, there is provided compound 1 in amorphous form. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, there is provided compound 1 in crystalline form. In a further aspect, there is provided a composition comprising compound 1 in crystalline form. In a yet further embodiment, the composition may comprise compound 1 in at least 30% crystalline form, in at least 50% crystalline form, in at least 75% crystalline form, in at least 90% crystalline form, in at least 95% crystalline form, in at least 99% crystalline form, or in about 100% crystalline form. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, there is provided a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of compound 1. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, there is provided a solvate of compound 1, for example a hydrate. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, there is provided a stable composition of compound 1. I n a yet further aspect of the present invention, there is provided a solid pharmaceutical composition (including a tablet, pill, capsule, or granule) or a liquid composition (including a solution, suspension or emulsion) of compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. In a yet further aspect of the present invention there is provided a pharmaceutical composition adapted for oral, topical or parenteral administration of compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS The following embodiments apply to all aspects of the present invention. In the compounds defined by a Markush formula in this specification, the groups can be selected in accordance with the following guidance: Alkyl groups may be branched or unbranched, and preferably have from 1 to about 24 carbon atoms. One preferred class of alkyl groups has from 1 to about 12 carbon atoms. One more preferred class of alkyl groups has from 1 to about 8 carbon atoms or from 1 to about 6 carbon atoms. Even more preferred are alkyl groups having 1, 2, 3 or 4 carbon atoms. Methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, t-butyl, sec-butyl and isobutyl are particularly preferred alkyl groups in the compounds of the present invention. As used herein, the term alkyl, unless otherwise stated, refers to both cyclic and noncyclic groups, although cyclic groups will comprise at least three carbon ring members. Cycloalkylalkyl groups are non-cyclic alkyl groups substituted with a cycloalkyl group. A preferred class of cycloalkylalkyl group has a cycloalkyl moiety with from 3 to about 6 carbon ring atoms and an alkyl moiety with from 1 to about 12 carbon atoms. One more preferred class of cycloalkylalkyl groups has a cycloalkyl moiety with from 3 to about 4 carbon ring atoms and an alkyl moiety with from 1 to about 6 carbon atoms. Cyclopropylmethyl is a particularly preferred cycloalkyl group in the compounds of the present invention. Preferred alkenyl and alkynyl groups in the compounds of the present invention may be branched or unbranched, have one or more unsaturated linkages and from 2 to about 12 carbon atoms. One more preferred class of alkenyl and alkynyl groups has from 2 to about 8 carbon atoms or from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms. Even more preferred are alkenyl and alkynyl groups having 2, 3 or 4 carbon atoms. The terms alkenyl and alkynyl as used herein refer to both cyclic and noncyclic groups, although cyclic groups will comprise at least three carbon ring members. Suitable aryl groups in the compounds of the present invention include single and multiple ring compounds, including multiple ring compounds that contain separate and/or fused aryl groups. Typical aryl groups contain from 1 to 3 separated and/or fused rings and from 6 to about 18 carbon ring atoms. Preferably aryl groups contain from 6 to about 14 carbon ring atoms. Specially preferred aryl groups include substituted or unsubstituted phenyl, substituted or unsubstituted naphthyl, substituted or unsubstituted biphenyl, substituted or unsubstituted phenanthryl and substituted or unsubstituted anthryl. The most preferred aryl group is substituted or unsubstituted phenyl. Suitable heterocyclic groups may be saturated or unsaturated and include heteroaromatic and heteroalicyclic groups, the latter of which may be partially unsaturated, both the aromatic and the alicyclic heterocyclic groups containing from 1 to 3 separated and/or fused rings and from 5 to about 18 ring atoms. Preferably heteroaromatic and heteroalicyclic groups contain from 5 to about 10 ring atoms, more preferably 5, 6 or 7 ring atoms. Suitable heteroaromatic groups in the compounds of the present invention contain one, two or three heteroatoms selected from N, O or S atoms and include, e.g., coumarinyl including 8- coumarinyl, quinolyl including 8-quinolyl, isoquinolyl, pyridyl, pyrazinyl, pyrazolyl, pyrimidinyl, furyl, pyrrolyl, thienyl, thiazolyl, isothiazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, isoxazolyl, oxazolyl, imidazolyl, indolyl, isoindolyl, indazolyl, indolizinyl, phthalazinyl, pteridinyl, purinyl, oxadiazolyl, thiadiazolyl, furazanyl, pyridazinyl, triazinyl, cinnolinyl, benzimidazolyl, benzofuranyl, benzofurazanyl, benzothiophenyl, benzothiazolyl, benzoxazolyl, quinazolinyl, quinoxalinyl, naphthyridinyl and furopyridyl. Suitable heteroalicyclic groups in the compounds of the present invention contain one, two or three heteroatoms selected from N, O or S atoms and include, e.g., pyrrolidinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, dihydrofuranyl, tetrahydrothienyl, tetrahydrothiopyranyl, piperidyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, thioxanyl, piperazinyl, azetidinyl, oxetanyl, thietanyl, homopiperidinyl, oxepanyl, thiepanyl, oxazepinyl, diazepinyl, thiazepinyl, 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridyl, 2-pyrrolinyl, 3-pyrrolinyl, indolinyl, 2H-pyranyl, 4H-pyranyl, dioxanyl, 1,3-dioxolanyl, pyrazolinyl, dithianyl, dithiolanyl, dihydropyranyl, dihydrothienyl, dihydrofuranyl, pyrazolidinyl, imidazolinyl, imidazolidinyl, 3- azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexyl, 3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]heptyl, 3H-indolyl, and quinolizinyl. Heterocycloalkyl groups are non-cyclic alkyl groups substituted with a heterocyclic group. A preferred class of heterocycloalkyl group has a heterocyclic moiety with from 5 to about 10 ring atoms and 1 or 2 heteroatoms independently selected from O, N and S, and an alkyl moiety with from 1 to about 6 carbon atoms. One more preferred class of cycloalkylalkyl groups has a heterocyclic moiety with from 5 to 6 ring atoms and 1 or 2 heteroatoms independently selected from O and N and an alkyl moiety with from 1 to about 6 carbon atoms. Even more preferred are substituted or unsubstituted morpholino-C3-C5 alkyl and substituted or unsubstituted piperazinyl-C3-C5alkyl. [4 l 2 -morpholine]-(CH 2 )4- and [1-methyl-4 l 2 -piperazine]- (CH 2 )3 are most preferred heterocycloalkyl groups in the compounds of the present invention. Suitable monosaccharides include aldoses, a saccharide bearing an aldehyde functional group at the terminal position, and more particularly an aldohexose, a saccharide with 6 carbon atoms, or an aldopentose, a saccharide with 5 carbon atoms, preferably an aldohexose. It will thus be in particular allose, altrose, glucose, mannose, gulose, idose, galactose, talose, ribose, arabinose, xylose or lyxose, in D or L form. The monosaccharide will be preferably in a cyclized form, in particular in a pyranose form, a 6-member ring, or in a furanose form, a 5 member ring. In these cases, the aldehyde functional group borne by the saccharide is in a hemiacetal form, also called a pseudoaldehyde functional group. It is particular preferred the piranose form. By“monosaccharide residue” is meant, in the context of the present invention, the part of the monosaccharide, as defined above, that is connected to the rest of the molecule via its carbon atom 1 following a condensation reaction between the aldehyde, or pseudoaldehyde, functional group of the monosaccharide and a hydroxy (OH) functional group. Suitable halogen groups or substituents in the compounds of the present invention include F, Cl, Br and I. Fluorine is the most preferred halogen group in the compounds of the present invention. The term halogen-substituted group refer to a group substituted with one or more halogen atoms at one or more suitable positions, wherein the halogen atoms at each halogen- substituted group may be the same or different. The terms“pharmaceutically acceptable salt” and“ester” refers to any pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester which, upon administration to the patient is capable of providing (directly or indirectly) a compound as described herein. However, it will be appreciated that non- pharmaceutically acceptable salts also fall within the scope of the invention since those may be useful in the preparation of pharmaceutically acceptable salts. The preparation of salts can be carried out by methods known in the art. For instance, pharmaceutically acceptable salts of compounds provided herein are synthesized from the parent compound, which contains a basic or acidic moiety, by conventional chemical methods. Generally, such salts are, for example, prepared by reacting the free acid or base forms of these compounds with a stoichiometric amount of the appropriate base or acid in water or in an organic solvent or in a mixture of both. Generally, nonaqueous media like ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, 2-propanol or acetonitrile are preferred. Examples of the acid addition salts include mineral acid addition salts such as, for example, hydrochloride, hydrobromide, hydroiodide, sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, and organic acid addition salts such as, for example, acetate, trifluoroacetate, maleate, fumarate, citrate, oxalate, succinate, tartrate, malate, mandelate, methanesulfonate and p-toluenesulfonate. Examples of the alkali addition salts include inorganic salts such as, for example, sodium, potassium, calcium and ammonium salts, and organic alkali salts such as, for example, ethylenediamine, ethanolamine, N,N- dialkylenethanolamine, triethanolamine and basic aminoacids salts. The compounds of the invention may be in amorphous form or in crystalline form either as free compounds or as solvates (e.g. hydrates) and it is intended that all forms are within the scope of the present invention. Methods of solvation are generally known within the art. Stereoisomerism about the asymmetric carbons with unspecified stereochemistry is possible, therefore in such cases the asymmetric carbon can have (R) or (S) configuration. All diastereomers generated by a specific configuration of such asymmetric carbons in conjunction with the other asymmetric carbons present in the molecule, and mixtures thereof, are considered within the scope of the present invention. Stereoisomerism about the double bond (geometric isomerism) is also possible, therefore in some cases the molecule could exist as (E)- isomer or (Z)-isomer. If the molecule contains several double bonds, each double bond will have its own stereoisomerism, that could be the same or different than the stereoisomerism of the other double bonds of the molecule. Furthermore, compounds referred to herein may exist as atropoisomers. The single stereoisomers including diastereoisomers, geometric isomers and atropoisomers of the compounds referred to herein, and mixtures thereof fall within the scope of the present invention. In addition, compounds referred to herein may exist in isotopically-labelled forms. All pharmaceutically acceptable salts, esters and isotopically labelled forms of the compounds referred to herein, and mixtures thereof, are considered within the scope of the present invention. P rotected forms of the compounds disclosed herein are considered within the scope of the present invention. Suitable protecting groups are well known for the skilled person in the art. A general review of protecting groups in organic chemistry is provided by Wuts, P.G.M. and Greene T.W. in Protecting Groups in Organic Synthesis, 4 th Ed. Wiley-Interscience, and by Kocienski P.J. in Protecting Groups, 3 rd Ed. Georg Thieme Verlag. These references provide sections on protecting groups for OH and amino groups. All these references are incorporated by reference in their entirety. Within the scope of the present invention a protecting group for OH is defined to be the O-bonded moiety resulting from the protection of the OH group through the formation of a suitable protected OH group. Examples of such protected OH groups include ethers, silyl ethers, esters, sulfonates, sulfenates and sulfinates, carbonates, and carbamates. In the case of ethers the protecting group for the OH can be selected from methyl, methoxymethyl, methylthiomethyl, (phenyldimethylsilyl)methoxymethyl, benzyloxymethyl, p-methoxybenzyloxymethyl, [(3,4-dime- thoxybenzyl)oxy]methyl, p-nitrobenzyloxymethyl, o-nitrobenzyloxymethyl, [(R)-1-(2-nitrophe- nyl)ethoxy]methyl, (4-methoxy-phenoxy)methyl, guaiacolmethyl, [(p-phenylphenyl)oxy]methyl, t-butoxy-methyl, 4-pentenyloxymethyl, siloxymethyl, 2-methoxyethoxymethyl, 2-cyanoethoxymethyl, bis(2-chloroethoxy)methyl, 2,2,2-trichloroethoxymethyl, 2-(trimethyl- silyl)ethoxymethyl, menthoxymethyl, O-bis(2-acetoxyethoxy)methyl, tetrahydropyranyl, fluorous tetrahydropyranyl, 3-bromotetrahydropyranyl, tetrahydrothiopyranyl, 1-methoxycyclohexyl, 4-methoxytetrahydropyranyl, 4-methoxytetrahydrothiopyranyl, 4-methoxy-tetrahydrothiopyranyl S,S-dioxide, 1-[(2-chloro-4-methyl)-phenyl]-4-methoxypiperidin-4-yl, 1-(2-fluorophenyl)-4-metho- xypiperidin-4-yl, 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-methoxypiperidin-4-yl, 1,4-dioxan-2-yl, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydrothiofuranyl, 2,3,3a,4,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-7,8,8-trimethyl-4,7-methanobenzo furan-2-yl, 1-ethoxyethyl, 1-(2-chloroethoxy)ethyl, 2-hydroxyethyl, 2-bromoethyl, 1-[2-(trimethylsi- lyl)ethoxy]ethyl, 1-methyl-1-methoxyethyl, 1-methyl-1-benzyloxyethyl, 1-methyl-1-benzyloxy-2- fluoroethyl, 1-methyl-1-phenoxyethyl, 2,2,2-trichloroethyl, 1,1-dianisyl-2,2,2-trichloroethyl, 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-phenylisopropyl, 1-(2-cyanoethoxy)ethyl, 2-trimethylsilylethyl, 2-(benzylthio)ethyl, 2-phenylselenyl)ethyl, t-butyl, cyclohexyl, 1-methyl-1’-cyclopropylmethyl, allyl, prenyl, cinnamyl, 2-phenallyl, propargyl, p-chlorophenyl, p-methoxyphenyl, p-nitrophenyl, 2,4-dinitrophenyl, 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl, benzyl, p-methoxybenzyl, 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl, 2,6-dimethoxybenzyl, o-nitrobenzyl, p-nitrobenzyl, pentadienylnitrobenzyl, pentadienyl-nitropiperonyl, halobenzyl, 2,6-dichlorobenzyl, 2,4-dichlorobenzyl, 2,6-difluorobenzyl, p-cyanobenzyl, fluorous benzyl, 4-fluorousalkoxybenzyl, trimethylsilylxylyl, p-phenylbenzyl, 2-phenyl-2-propyl, p-acylaminobenzyl, p-azidobenzyl, 4-azido-3-chlorobenzyl, 2-trifluoromethylbenzyl, 4-trifluoromethylbenzyl, p-(methylsulfinyl)benzyl, p-siletanylbenzyl, 4-acetoxybenzyl, 4-(2-trimethylsilyl)ethoxymethoxybenzyl, 2-naphthylmethyl, 2-picolyl, 4-picolyl, 3-methyl-2-picolyl N-oxide, 2-quinolinylmethyl, 6-methoxy-2-(4-methylphenyl-4-quinolinemethyl, 1-pyrenylmethyl, diphenylmethyl, 4-methoxydiphenylmethyl, 4-phenyldiphenylmethyl, p,p’-dinitrobenzhydryl, 5-dibenzosuberyl, triphenylmethyl, tris(4-t-butylphenyl)methyl, a-naphthyldiphenylmethyl, p-methoxyphenyldiphenylmethyl, di(p-methoxyphenyl)phenylmethyl, tri(p-methoxyphenyl)methyl, 4-(4’-bromophenacyloxy)phenyldiphenylmethyl, 4,4’,4’’-tris(4,5- dichlorophthalimidophenyl)methyl, 4,4’,4’’-tris(levulinoyloxyphenyl)methyl, 4,4’,4’’-tris(benzoyl- oxyphenyl)methyl, 4,4’-dimethoxy-3’’-[N-(imidazolylmethyl)]trityl, 4,4’-dimethoxy-3’’-[N-(imidazol- ylethyl)carbamoyl]trityl, bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-1’-pyrenylmethyl, 4-(17-tetrabenzo[a,c,g,i]fluo- renylmethyl)-4,4’’-dimethoxytrityl, 9-anthryl, 9-(9-phenyl)xanthenyl, 9-phenylthioxanthyl, 9-(9-phenyl-10-oxo)anthryl, 1,3-benzodithiolan-2-yl, and 4,5-bis(ethoxycarbo- nyl)-[1,3]-dioxolan-2-yl, benzisothiazolyl S,S-dioxide. In the case of silyl ethers the protecting group for the OH can be selected from trimethylsilyl, triethylsilyl, triisopropylsilyl, dimethylisopropylsilyl, diethylisopropylsilyl, dimethylthexylsilyl, 2-norbornyldimethylsilyl, t-butyldimethylsilyl, t-butyldiphenylsilyl, tribenzylsilyl, tri-p-xylylsilyl, triphenylsilyl, diphenylmethylsilyl, di-t-butylmethylsilyl, bis(t-butyl)-1-pyrenylmethoxysilyl, tris(trimethylsilyl)silyl, (2-hydroxystyryl)dimethylsilyl, (2-hydroxystyryl)diisopropylsilyl, t-butylmethoxyphenylsilyl, t-butoxydiphenylsilyl, 1,1,3,3-tetraisopropyl-3-[2-(triphenylmethoxy)ethoxy]disilox ane-1-yl, and fluorous silyl. In the case of esters the protecting group for the OH together with the oxygen atom of the unprotected OH group to which it is attached form an ester that can be selected from formate, benzoylformate, acetate, chloroacetate, dichloroacetate, trichloroacetate, trichloroacetamidate, trifluoroacetate, methoxyacetate, triphenylmethoxyacetate, phenoxyacetate, p-chlorophenoxyacetate, phenylacetate, diphenylacetate, 3-phenylpropionate, bisfluorous chain type propanoyl, 4-pentenoate, 4-oxopentanoate, 4,4-(ethylenedithio)pentanoate, 5-[3-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)hydroxymethylphenoxy]levulinate, pivaloate, 1-adamantoate, crotonate, 4-methoxycrotonate, benzoate, p-phenylbenzoate, 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoate, 4-bromobenzoate, 2,5-difluorobenzoate, p-nitrobenzoate, picolinate, nicotinate, 2-(azidomethyl)benzoate, 4-azidobutyrate, (2-azidomethyl)phenylacetate, 2-{[(tritylthio)oxy]methyl}benzoate, 2-{[(4-methoxytritylthio)oxy]methyl}benzoate, 2-{[methyl(trityl- thio)amino]methyl}benzoate, 2-{{[(4-methoxytrityl)thio]methylamino}-methyl}benzoate, 2-(allyl- oxy)phenylacetate, 2-(prenyloxymethyl)benzoate, 6-(levulinyloxymethyl)-3-methoxy-2-nitroben- zoate, 6-(levulinyloxymethyl)-3-methoxy-4-nitrobenzoate, 4-benzyloxybutyrate, 4-trialkylsi- lyloxybutyrate, 4-acetoxy-2,2-dimethylbutyrate, 2,2-dimethyl-4-pentenoate, 2-iodobenzoate, 4-nitro-4-methylpentanoate, o-(dibromomethyl)benzoate, 2-formylbenzenesulfonate, 4-(methylthiomethoxy)butyrate, 2-(methylthiomethoxymethyl)benzoate, 2-(chloroacetoxy- methyl)benzoate, 2-[(2-chloroacetoxy)ethyl]benzoate, 2-[2-(benzyloxy)ethyl]benzoate, 2-[2-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)ethyl]benzoate, 2,6-dichloro-4-methylphenoxyacetate, 2,6-dichlo- ro-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenoxyacetate, 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl)phenoxyacetate, chlorodiphenylacetate, isobutyrate, monosuccinoate, (E)-2-methyl-2-butenoate, o-(methoxycarbonyl)benzoate, a-naphthoate, nitrate, alkyl N,N,N’,N’-tetramethyl- phosphorodiamidate, and 2-chlorobenzoate. In the case of sulfonates, sulfenates and sulfinates the protecting group for the OH together with the oxygen atom of the unprotected OH group to which it is attached form a group that can be selected from sulfate, allylsulfonate, methanesulfonate, benzylsulfonate, tosylate, 2-[(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]sulfonate, 2-trifluoromethylbenzenesulfonate, 4-monomethoxytritylsulfenate, alkyl 2,4-dinitrophe- nylsulfenate, and 2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidin-3-one-1-sulfinate. In the case of carbonates the protecting group for the OH together with the oxygen atom of the unprotected OH group to which it is attached from a carbonate group that can be selected from methyl carbonate, methoxymethyl carbonate, 9-fluorenylmethyl carbonate, ethyl carbonate, bromoethyl carbonate, 2-(methylthiomethoxy)ethyl carbonate, 2,2,2-trichloroethyl carbonate, 1,1-dimethyl-2,2,2-trichloroethyl carbonate, 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl carbonate, 2-[dimethyl(2-naphthylmethyl)silyl]ethyl carbonate, 2-(phenylsulfonyl) ethyl carbonate, 2-(triphenylphosphonio)ethyl carbonate, cis-[4-[[(methoxytrityl)sulfenyl]oxy]-tetrahydrofuran-3- yl]oxy carbonate, isobutyl carbonate, t-butyl carbonate, vinyl carbonate, allyl carbonate, cinnamyl carbonate, propargyl carbonate, p-chlorophenyl carbonate, p-nitrophenyl carbonate, 4-ethoxy-1-naphthyl carbonate, 6-bromo-7-hydroxycoumarin-4-ylmethyl carbonate, benzyl carbonate, o-nitrobenzyl carbonate, p-nitrobenzyl carbonate, p-methoxybenzyl carbonate, 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl carbonate, anthraquinon-2-ylmethyl carbonate, 2-dansylethyl carbonate, 2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl carbonate, 2-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)ethyl carbonate, 2-(2-nitrophenyl)propyl carbonate, alkyl 2-(3,4-methylenedioxy-6-nitrophenyl)propyl carbonate, 2-cyano-1-phenylethyl carbonate, 2-(2-pyridyl)amino-1-phenylethyl carbonate, 2-[N-methyl-N-(2-pyridyl)]amino-1-phenylethyl carbonate, phenacyl carbonate, 3’,5’-dimethoxybenzoin carbonate, methyl dithiocarbonate, and S-benzyl thiocarbonate. And in the case of carbamates the protecting group for the OH together with the oxygen atom of the unprotected OH group to which it is attached form a carbamate that can be selected from dimethylthiocarbamate, N-phenylcarbamate, N-methyl-N-(o-nitrophenyl)carbamate. Within the scope of the present invention an amino protecting group is defined to be the N-bonded moiety resulting from the protection of the amino group through the formation of a suitable protected amino group. Examples of such protected amino groups include carbamates, ureas, amides, heterocyclic systems, N-alkyl amines, N-alkenyl amines, N-alkynyl amines, N- aryl amines, imines, enamines, N-metal derivatives, N-N derivatives, N-P derivatives, N-Si derivatives, and N-S derivatives. In the case of carbamates the protecting group for the amino group together with the nitrogen atom of the unprotected amino group to which it is attached form a carbamate that can be selected from methylcarbamate, ethylcarbamate, 9- fluorenylmethylcarbamate, 2,6-di-t-butyl-9-fluorenylmethylcarbamate, 2,7- bis(trimethylsilyl)fluorenylmethylcarbamate, 9-(2-sulfo)fluorenylmethylcarbamate, 9-(2,7- dibromo)fluorenylmethylcarbamate, 17-tetrabenzo[a,c,g,i]fluorenylmethylcarbamate, 2-chloro-3- indenylmethylcarbamate, benz[f]inden-3-ylmethylcarbamate, 1,1-dioxobenzo[b]-thiophene-2- ylmethylcarbamate, 2-methylsulfonyl-3-phenyl-1-prop-2-enylcarbamate, 2,7-di-t-butyl-[9-(10,10- dioxo-10,10,10,10-tetrahydrothioxanthyl)]methylcarbamate, 2,2,2-trichloroethylcarbamate, 2- trimethylsilylethylcarbamate, (2-phenyl-2-trimethylsilyl)ethylcarbamate, 2-phenylethylcarbamate, 2-chloroethylcarbamate, 1,1-dimethyl-2-haloethylcarbamate, 1,1-dimethyl-2,2- dibromoethylcarbamate, 1,1-dimethyl-2,2,2-trichloroethylcarbamate, 2-(2'- pyridyl)ethylcarbamate, 2-(4'-pyridyl)ethylcarbamate, 2,2-bis(4'-nitrophenyl)ethylcarbamate, 2- [(2-nitrophenyl)dithio]-1-phenylethylcarbamate, 2-(N,N-dicyclohexylcarboxamido)ethylcarbama- te, t-butylcarbamate, C8F19CH 2 CH 2 C(CH 3 )2-carbamate, 1-adamantylcarbamate, 2- adamantylcarbamate, 1-(1-adamantyl)-1-methylethylcarbamate, 1-methyl-1-(4- byphenylyl)ethylcarbamate, 1-(3,5-di-t-butylphenyl)-1-methylethylcarbamate, triisopropyl- silylcarbamate, vinylcarbamate, allylcarbamate, prenylcarbamate, 1-isopropylallylcarbamate, cinnamylcarbamate, 4-nitrocinnamylcarbamate, 3-(3'-pyridyl)prop-2-enylcarbamate, hexadienylcarbamate, propargylcarbamate, but-2-ynylbiscarbamate, 8-quinolylcarbamate, N- hydroxypiperidinylcarbamate, alkyldithiocarbamate, benzylcarbamate, 3,5-di-t- butylbenzylcarbamate, p-methoxybenzylcarbamate, p-nitrobenzylcarbamate, p- bromobenzylcarbamate, p-chlorobenzylcarbamate, 2,4-dichlorobenzylcarbamate, 4- methylsulfinylbenzylcarbamate, 4-trifluoromethylbenzylcarbamate, C8F17CH 2 CH 2 -C6H4-CH 2 - carbamate, (C8F17CH 2 CH 2 )3Si-C6H4-CH 2 -carbamate, 2-naphthylmethylcarbamate, 9- anthrylmethylcarbamate, diphenylmethylcarbamate, 4-phenylacetoxybenzylcarbamate, 4- azidobenzylcarbamate, 4-azido-methoxybenzylcarbamate, m-chloro-p-acyloxybenzylcarbamate, p-(dihydroxyboryl)benzylcarbamate, 5-benzisoxazolylmethylcarbamate, 2-(trifluoromethyl)-6- chromonylmethylcarbamate, 2-methylthioethylcarbamate, 2-methylsulfonylethylcarbamate, 2-(p- toluenesulfonyl)ethylcarbamate, 2-(4-nitrophenylsulfonyl)ethylcarbamate, 2-(2,4- dinitrophenylsulfonyl)ethylcarbamate, 2-(4-trifluoromethylphenylsulfonyl)ethylcarbamate, [2-(1,3- dithianyl)]methylcarbamate, 2-phosphonioethylcarbamate, 2-[phenyl(methyl)sulfonio]e- thylcarbamate, 1-methyl-2-(triphenylphosphonio)ethylcarbamate, 1,1-dimethyl-2- cyanoethylcarbamate, 2-dansylethylcarbamate, 2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethylcarbamate, 4- methylthiophenylcarbamate, 2,4-dimethylthiophenylcarbamate, m-nitrophenylcarbamate, 3,5- dimethoxybenzylcarbamate, 1-methyl-1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylcarbamate, a- methylnitropiperonylcarbamate, o-nitrobenzylcarbamate, 3,4-dimethoxy-6-nitrobenzylcarbamate, phenyl(o-nitrophenyl)methylcarbamate, 2-nitrophenylethylcarbamate, 6-nitroveratrylcarbamate, 4-methoxyphenacylcarbamate, 3',5'-dimethoxybenzoincarbamate, 9-xanthenylmethylcarbamate, t-amylcarbamate, 1-methylcyclobutylcarbamate, 1-methylcyclohexylcarbamate, 1-methyl-1- cyclopropylmethylcarbamate, cyclobutylcarbamate, cyclopentylcarbamate, cyclohexylcarbamate, isobutylcarbamate, isobornylcarbamate, cyclopropylmethylcarbamate, p- decyloxybenzylcarbamate, diisopropylmethylcarbamate, 2,2-dimethoxycarbonylvinylcarbamate, o-(N,N-dimethylcarboxamido)benzylcarbamate, 1,1-dimethyl-3-(N,N-dimethylcarboxamido)pro- pylcarbamate, butynylcarbamate, 1,1-dimethylpropynylcarbamate, 2-iodoethylcarbamate, 1- methyl-1-(4'-pyridyl)ethylcarbamate, 1-methyl-1-(p-phenylazophenyl)ethylcarbamate, p-(p'- methoxyphenylazo)benzylcarbamate, p-(phenylazo)benzylcarbamate, 2,4,6- trimethylbenzylcarbamate, isonicotinylcarbamate, 4-(trimethylammonium)benzylcarbamate, p- cyanobenzylcarbamate, di(2-pyridyl)methylcarbamate, 2-furanylmethylcarbamate, phenylcarbamate, 2,4,6-tri-t-butylphenylcarbamate, 1-methyl-1-phenylethylcarbamate, and S- benzyl thiocarbamate. In the case of ureas the protecting groups for the amino group can be selected from phenothiazinyl-(10)-carbonyl, N'-p-toluenesulfonylaminocarbonyl, N'- phenylaminothiocarbonyl, 4-hydroxyphenylaminocarbonyl, 3-hydroxytryptaminocarbonyl, and N'-phenyl-aminothiocarbonyl. In the case of amides the protecting group for the amino group together with the nitrogen atom of the unprotected amino group to which it is attached form an amide group that can be selected from formamide, acetamide, chloroacetamide, trichloroacetamide, trifluoroacetamide, phenylacetamide, 3-phenylpropanamide, pent-4- enamide, picolinamide, 3-pyridylcarboxamide, N-benzoylphenylalanyl, benzamide, p- phenylbenzamide, o-nitrophenylacetamide, 2,2-dimethyl-2-(o-nitrophenyl)acetamide, o- nitrophenoxyacetamide, 3-(o-nitrophenyl)propanamide, 2-methyl-2-(o-nitrophenoxy)- propanamide, 3-methyl-3-nitrobutanamide, o-nitrocinnamide, o-nitrobenzamide, 3-(4-t-butyl-2,6- dinitrophenyl)-2,2-dimethylpropanamide, o-benzoyloxymethyl)benzamide, 2- (acetoxymethyl)benzamide, 2-[(t-butyldiphenylsiloxy)methyl]benzamide, 3-(3',6'-dioxo-2',4',5'- trimethylcyclohexa-1',4'-diene)-3,3-dimethylpropionamide, o-hydroxy-trans-cinnamide, 2-methyl- 2-(o-phenylazophenoxy)propanamide, 4-chlorobutanamide, acetoacetamide, 3-(p- hydroxyphenyl)propanamide, (N'-dithiobenzyloxycarbonylamino)acetamide, and N- acetylmethionine amide. In the case of heterocyclic systems the protecting group for the amino group together with the nitrogen group of the unprotected amino group to which it is attached form a heterocyclic system that can be selected from 4,5-diphenyl-3-oxazolin-2-one, N- phthalimide, N-dichlorophthalimide, N-tetrachlorophthalimide, N-4-nitrophthalimide, N- thiodiglycoloyl, N-dithiasuccinimide, N-2,3-diphenylmaleimide, N-2,3-dimethylmaleimide, N-2,5- dimethylpyrrole, N-2,5-bis(triisopropylsiloxy)pyrrole, N-1,1,4,4-tetramethyldisilylazacyclopentane adduct, N-1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-1,3-disilaisoindoline, N-diphenylsilyldiethylene, N-5-substituted- 1,3-dimethyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexan-2-one, N-5-substituted-1,3-benzyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexan- 2-one, 1-substituted 3,5-dinitro-4-pyridone, and 1,3,5-dioxazine. In the case of N-alkyl, N- alkenyl, N-alkynyl or N-aryl amines the protecting group for the amino group can be selected from N-methyl, N-t-butyl, N-allyl, N-prenyl, N-cinnamyl, N-phenylallyl, N-propargyl, N- methoxymethyl, N-[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl, N-3-acetoxypropyl, N-cyanomethyl, N-2- azanorbornenes, N-2,4-dinitrophenyl, o-methoxyphenyl, p-methoxyphenyl, N-benzyl, N-4- methoxybenzyl, N-2,4-dimethoxybenzyl, N-2-hydroxybenzyl, N-9-phenylfluorenyl, N-fluorenyl, N-ferrocenylmethyl, N-2-picolylamine N'-Oxide, N-7-methoxycoumar-4-ylmethyl, N- diphenylmethyl, N-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)methyl, N-5-dibenzosuberyl, N-triphenylmethyl, N-(4- methylphenyl)diphenylmethyl, and N-(4-methoxyphenyl)diphenylmethyl. In the case of imines the protecting group for the amino group can be selected from N-1,1-dimethylthiomethylene, N- benzylidene, N-p-methoxybenzylidene, N-diphenylmethylene, N-[2-pyridyl)mesityl]methylene, N-(N',N'-dimethylaminomethylene), N-(N',N'-dibenzylaminomethylene), N-(N'-t- butylaminomethylene), N,N'-isopropylidene, N-p-nitrobenzylidene, N-salicylidene, N-5- chlorosalicylidene, N-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)phenylmethylene, N-cyclohexylidene, and N-t- butylidene. In the case of enamines the protecting group for the amino group can be selected from N-(5,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-1-cyclohexenyl), N-2,7-dichloro-9-fluorenylmethylene, N-1-(4,4- dimethyl-2,6-dioxocyclohexylidene)ethyl, N-(1,3-dimethyl-2,4,6-(1H,3H,5H)-trioxopyrimidine-5- ylidene)methyl, N-4,4,4-trifluoro-3-oxo-1-butenyl, and N-(1-isopropyl-4-nitro-2-oxo-3-pyrrolin-3- yl). In the case of N-metal derivatives the protecting group for the amino group together with the nitrogen atom of the unprotected amino group form a derivative that can be selected from N- borane derivative, N-diphenylborinic acid derivative, N-diethylborinic acid derivative, N-9- borabicyclononane derivative, N-difluoroborinic acid derivative, and 3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)phenylboronic acid derivative; and also including N- [phenyl(pentacarbonylchromium)]carbenyl, N-[phenyl(pentacarbonyltungsten)]carbenyl, N- [methyl(pentacarbonylchromium)]carbenyl, N-[methyl(pentacarbonyltungsten)]carbenyl, N- copper chelate, N-zinc chelate, and a 18-crown-6-derivative. In the case of N-N derivatives the protecting group for the amino group together with the nitrogen atom of the unprotected amino group to which it is attached form a derivative that can be selected from N-nitro derivative, N- nitroso derivative, N-oxide derivative, azide derivative, triazene derivative, and N- trimethylsilylmethyl-N-benzylhydrazine derivative. In the case of N-P derivatives the protecting group for the amino group together with the nitrogen group of the unprotected amino group to which it is attached form a N-P derivative that can be selected from N-diphenylphosphinamide, dimethylthiophosphinamide, diphenylthiophosphinamide, dialkyl phosphoramidate, dibenzyl phosphoramidate, diphenyl phosphoramidate, and iminotriphenylphosphorane. In the case of N- Si derivatives the protecting group for the amino group can be selected from t-butyldiphenylsilyl and triphenylsilyl. In the case of N-S derivatives the protecting group for the amino group together with the nitrogen atom of the unprotected amino group to which it is attached from a N- S derivative that can be selected from N-sulfenyl or N-sulfonyl derivatives. The N-sulfenyl derivatives can be selected from benzenesulfenamide, 2-nitrobenzenesulfenamide, 2,4- dinitrobenzenesulfenamide, pentachlorobenzenesulfenamide, 2-nitro-4-methoxybenzenesul- fenamide, triphenylmethylsulfenamide, 1-(2,2,2)-trifluoro-1,1-diphenyl)ethylsulfenamide, and N- 3-nitro-2-pyridinesulfenamide. The N-sulfonyl derivatives can be selected from methanesulfonamide, trifluoromethanesulfonamide, t-butylsulfonamide, benzylsulfonamide, 2- (trimethylsilyl)ethanesulfonamide, p-toluenesulfonamide, benzenesulfonamide, o- anisylsulfonamide, 2-nitrobenzenesulfonamide, 4-nitrobenzenesulfonamide, 2,4- dinitrobenzenesulfonamide, 2-naphthalenesulfonamide, 4-(4',8'-dimethoxynaphthylmethyl)ben- zenesulfonamide, 2-(4-methylphenyl)-6-methoxy-4-methylsulfonamide, 9-anthracenesul- fonamide, pyridine-2-sulfonamide, benzothiazole-2-sulfonamide, phenacylsulfonamide, 2,3,6- trimethyl-4-methoxybenzenesulfonamide, 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzenesulfonamide, 2,6-dimethyl-4- methoxybenzenesulfonamide, pentamethylbenzenesulfonamide, 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-4- methoxybenzenesulfonamide, 4-methoxybenzenesulfonamide, 2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesul- fonamide, 2,6-dimethoxy-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide, 3-methoxy-4-t-butylbenzenesulfona- mide, and 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethylchroman-6-sulfonamide. The mention of these groups should not be interpreted as a limitation of the scope of the invention, since they have been mentioned as a mere illustration of protecting groups for OH and amino, but further groups having said function may be known by the skill person in the art, and they are to be understood to be also encompassed by the present invention. Suitable coupling agents are well known for the skilled person in the art. Examples of coupling agents are N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC), N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'- ethylcarbodiimide (EDC) and its salts, 1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-3-ethylcarbodiimide methiodide (EDC methiodide), N,N'-diisopropylcarbodiimide, 1-t-butyl-3-ethyl carbodiimide, N- cyclohexyl-N'-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide metho-p-toluenesulfonate (CMC), N,N'-di-t- butylcarbodiimide, 1,3-Di-p-tolylcarbodiimide, 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI), 1,1'-carbonyl-di- (1,2,4-triazole) (CDT), oxalic acid diimidazolide, 2-chloro-1,3-dimethylimidazolidinium chloride (DMC), 2-chloro-1,3-dimethylimidazolidinium tetrafluoroborate (CIB), 2-chloro-1,3- dimethylimidazolidinium hexafluorophosphate (CIP), 2-fluoro-1,3-dimethylimidazolidinium hexafluorophosphate (DFIH), (benzotriazol-1-yloxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (BOP), (benzotriazol-1-yloxy)tripyrrolidinophosphonium hexafluorophosphate, 7-azabenzotriazol-1-yloxy)tripyrrolidinophosphonium hexafluorophosphate (PyAOP), bromotris(dimethylamino)-phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (BRoP), chlorotripyrrolidinophosphonium hexafluorophosphate (PyClOP), bromotripyrrolidinophosphonium hexafluorophosphate, 3-(diethoxyphosphoryloxy)-1,2,3- benzotriazin-4(3H)-one (DEPBT), O-(benzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HBTU), O-(benzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyluronium tetrafluoroborate (TBTU), O-(7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HATU), O-(benzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N',N'-bis(tetramethylene)uronium hexafluorophosphate (HBPyU), O-benzotriazol-1-yl-N,N,N',N'-bis(pentamethylene)uronium hexafluorophosphate (HBPipU), (benzotriazol-1-yloxy)dipiperidinocarbenium tetrafluoroborate (TBPipU), O-(6-chlorobenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HCTU), O-(6-chloro-benzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyluronium (TCTU), O-(3,4-dihydro-4- oxo-1,2,3-benzotriazin-3-yl)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyluronium tetrafluoroborate (TDBTU), O-(2-oxo- 1(2H)pyridyl)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyluronium tetrafluoroborate (TPTU), O- [(ethoxycarbonyl)cyanomethylenamino]-N,N,N',N'-tetramethylur onium hexafluorophos-phate (HOTU), O-[(ethoxycarbonyl)cyanomethylenamino]-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl uro-nium tetrafluoroborate (TOTU), N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-O-(N-succinimidyl)uronium hexafluorophosphate (HSTU), N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-O-(N-succinimidyl)uronium tetrafluoroborate (TSTU), dipyrrolidino(N-succinimidyloxy)carbenium (HSPyU), and S-(1-oxido- 2-pyridyl)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethylthiouronium tetrafluoroborate (TOTT). To provide a more concise description, some of the quantitative expressions given herein are not qualified with the term "about". It is understood that, whether the term "about" is used explicitly or not, every quantity given herein is meant to refer to the actual given value, and it also meant to refer to the approximation of such given value that would reasonable be inferred based on the ordinary skill in the art, including equivalents and approximations due to experimental and/or measurement conditions for such given value. Particularly preferred stereochemistry of said compounds of formula I is the following

In another embodiment, particularly preferred compounds of formula I are those also having formula Ia or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof

wherein R2, R3, R4, R5, Y, and Z have the same meanings given above. Particularly preferred stereochemistry of said compounds of formula Ia is the following

In another embodiment, the compound of formula I, Ia, or Ib is not a natural product, more preferably the compound of formula I, Ia, or Ib is not compound 1 of formula

In compounds of formula I, particularly preferred R1 is selected from hydrogen, halogen and substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C6 alkynyl, being more preferred R1 hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C6 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; being hydrogen the most preferred R1 group. In compounds of formula I, Ia and Ib, particularly preferred R2 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 24 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, -ORa, and -NRcRd, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; wherein Ra, Rc and Rd are defined herein. Further particularly preferred R2 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C6 alkenyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; -ORa, and -NRcRd; where Ra is selected from hydrogen, a silylether protecting group for OH, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3- C6cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 6 alkyl, -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 where p is from 1 to about 15, and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; and Rc and Rd are independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. Particularly preferred Ra is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C8 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C8 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C8 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C4 cycloalkyl-C 1 -C4alkyl, -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 where p is from 1 to about 10 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx, and a silylether protecting group for OH selected from trimethylsilyl, triethylsilyl, triisopropylsilyl, dimethylisopropylsilyl, diethylisopropylsilyl, dimethylhexylsilyl, 2-norbornyldimethylsilyl, t- butyldimethylsilyl (TBS), t-butyldiphenylsilyl, tribenzylsilyl, tri-p-xylylsilyl, triphenylsilyl, diphenylmethylsilyl, di-t-butylmethylsilyl, bis(t-butyl)-1-pyrenylmethoxysilyl, tris(trimethylsilyl)silyl, (2-hydroxystyryl)dimethylsilyl, (2-hydroxystyryl)diisopropylsilyl, t-butylmethoxyphenylsilyl, t- butoxydiphenylsilyl, 1,1,3,3-tetraisopropyl-3-[2-(triphenylmethoxy)ethoxy]disilox ane-1-yl, and fluorous silyl. Particularly preferred Rc and Rd are independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C4 alkyl wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. More preferred R2 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted vinyl, substituted or unsubstituted allyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx, -ORa, and -NRcRd where Ra is selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted n- heptyl, substituted or unsubstituted allyl, substituted or unsubstituted 1-methyl-2-propenyl, substituted or unsubstituted 2-methyl-2-propenyl, substituted or unsubstituted 2-butenyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3-butenyl, substituted or unsubstituted propargyl, substituted or unsubstituted 1-methyl-2-propynyl, substituted or unsubstituted 2-butynyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3-butynyl, substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropylmethyl, substituted or unsubstituted 2-cyclopropylethyl, and -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 wherein p is from 1 to about 5 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; and Rc and Rd are selected from substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n- butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, and substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. Most preferred R2 is hydrogen, methyl, vinyl, allyl, NEt2, and ORa where Ra is selected from hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, n-butyl, n-heptyl, allyl, propargyl, cyclopropylmethyl, -(CH 2 ) 3 NHBoc, - (CH 2 )3NH2, and -(CH 2 CH 2 O)3CH 2 CH 3 . In another embodiment, in compounds of formula I, Ia and Ib, particularly preferred R2 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 24 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, -ORa, and -NRcRd, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; wherein Ra, Rc and Rd are defined herein, other than when R2 is -ORa, Ra is not unsubstituted methyl. Further particularly preferred R2 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C6 alkenyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx, -ORa, and -NRcRd; where Ra is selected from hydrogen, a silylether protecting group for OH, substituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, unsubstituted C2-C12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3- C6cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 6 alkyl, -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 where p is from 1 to about 15 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; and Rc and Rd are independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. Particularly preferred Ra is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C8 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C8 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C8 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C4 cycloalkyl-C 1 -C4alkyl, -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 wherein p is from 1 to about 10 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx, and a silylether protecting group for OH selected from trimethylsilyl, triethylsilyl, triisopropylsilyl, dimethylisopropylsilyl, diethylisopropylsilyl, dimethylhexylsilyl, 2-norbornyldimethylsilyl, t- butyldimethylsilyl (TBS), t-butyldiphenylsilyl, tribenzylsilyl, tri-p-xylylsilyl, triphenylsilyl, diphenylmethylsilyl, di-t-butylmethylsilyl, bis(t-butyl)-1-pyrenylmethoxysilyl, tris(trimethylsilyl)silyl, (2-hydroxystyryl)dimethylsilyl, (2-hydroxystyryl)diisopropylsilyl, t-butylmethoxyphenylsilyl, t- butoxydiphenylsilyl, 1,1,3,3-tetraisopropyl-3-[2-(triphenylmethoxy)ethoxy]disilox ane-1-yl, and fluorous silyl. Particularly preferred Rc and Rd are independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C4 alkyl wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. More preferred R2 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted vinyl, substituted or unsubstituted allyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx, -ORa, and -NRcRd where Ra is selected from hydrogen, substituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-heptyl, substituted or unsubstituted allyl, substituted or unsubstituted 1-methyl-2-propenyl, substituted or unsubstituted 2-methyl-2-propenyl, substituted or unsubstituted 2-butenyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3-butenyl, substituted or unsubstituted propargyl, substituted or unsubstituted 1- methyl-2-propynyl, substituted or unsubstituted 2-butynyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3-butynyl, substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropylmethyl, substituted or unsubstituted 2-cyclopropylethyl, and -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 wherein p is from 1 to about 5 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; and Rc and Rd are selected from substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, and substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. Most preferred R2 is hydrogen, methyl, vinyl, allyl, NEt2, and ORa where Ra is selected from hydrogen, ethyl, n-butyl, n-heptyl, allyl, propargyl, cyclopropylmethyl, -(CH 2 )3NHBoc, -(CH 2 )3NH2, and -(CH 2 CH 2 O)3CH 2 CH 3 . In compounds of formula I, Ia and Ib, particularly preferred R3 is selected from halogen- substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl and substituted or unsubstituted C3-C4 cycloalkyl-C 1 -C4 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx and the halogen substituents are one or more substituents independently selected form F, Cl, Br, and I. More preferred R3 is halogen-substituted or unsubstituted methyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl and halogen-substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx and the halogen substituents are one or more substituents independently selected from F, Cl, Br, and I. Most preferred R3 is n-propyl, 3,3,3-trifluoropropyl, and isobutyl. In compounds of formula I, Ia and Ib, particularly preferred R4 is hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. More preferred R4 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, and substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. Most preferred R4 is hydrogen and methyl. In compounds of formula , Ia and Ib, particularly preferred R5 is selected from - C(ORe)2Rg, -CH(NRcRd)Rg, -(C=O)Rg, -(C=NRc)Rg, -(C=N-ORh)Rg, -(C=N-O-(C=O)Rf)Rg, -(C=N- O-(C=O)ORa)Rg, -(C=N-O-[(P=O)(ORa)2])Rg, -(C=N-NRcRd)Rg, -(C=CH2)Rg, and -(C=CH2)ORa; or R5 is selected from -CH(ORa)Rg, -CH(NRcRd)Rg, -(C=NRc)Rg, -(C=N-ORh)Rg, -(C=N- NRcRd)Rg; or R5 is selected from -CH(ORa)Rg, -(C=NRc)Rg, -(C=N-ORh)Rg; wherein: Rh is selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for OH, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 - C6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclo-C 1 C6alkyl, -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 where p is from 1 to about 15 and a substituted or unsubstituted monosaccharide residue of formula: , or where each R group is, at each occurrence, independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl group, substituted or unsubstituted–(C=O)- (C 1 -C 6 )alkyl, and substituted or unsubstituted–(C=O)NH(C 1 -C 6 )alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or two adjacent OR groups form an isopropylidene ketal or an acetal group selected from methylene-, methoxymethylene-, ethoxymethylene-, ethylidene-, benzylidene-, and p- methoxybenzylidene- acetals; Rg is substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; Rc and Rd are independently selected from hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; Ra is substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; Re is substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; and Rf is selected from substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl, -CH 2 O(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 3 where p is from 1 to about 15 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx, and a group of formula:

where each R group is, at each occurrence, independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl group, substituted or unsubstituted–(C=O)- (C 1 -C 6 )alkyl, and substituted or unsubstituted –(C=O)NH(C 1 -C 6 )alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or two adjacent OR groups form an isopropylidene ketal or an acetal group selected from methylene-, methoxymethylene-, ethoxymethylene-, ethylidene-, benzylidene-, and p- methoxybenzylidene- acetals. More preferred Rh is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclo-C 1 -C 6 alkyl, -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 where p is from 1 to about 10, and a substituted or unsubstituted monosaccharide residue of formula ,

wherein each R group is, at each occurrence, independently selected from hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted –(C=O)-(C 1 -C 6 )alkyl; wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or two adjacent OR groups form an isopropylidene ketal or an acetal group selected from methylene-, methoxymethylene-, ethoxymethylene-, ethylidene-, benzylidene-, and p-methoxybenzylidene- acetals; More preferred Rg is substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, and substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. More preferred Ra is selected from substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, and substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. More preferred Rc and Rd are independently selected from hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, and substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. More preferred Re is substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, and substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. More preferred Rf is substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, -CH 2 O(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 3 where p is from 1 to about 10 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx, and a group of formula:

, where each R group is, at each occurrence, independently selected from hydrogen, and substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl group; or two adjacent OR groups form an isopropylidene ketal or an acetal group selected from methylene-, methoxymethylene-, ethoxymethylene-, ethylidene-, benzylidene-, and p-methoxybenzylidene- acetals. More preferred R5 is selected from -CH(NRcRd)Rg, -(C=O)Rg, -(C=NRc)Rg, -(C=N- ORh)Rg, -(C=N-O-(C=O)Rf)Rg, -(C=N-O-(C=O)ORa)Rg, -(C=N-O-[(P=O)(ORa)2])Rg, - (C=N-NRcRd)Rg, -(C=CH 2 )Rg, and -(C=CH 2 )ORa wherein: Rh is selected from hydrogen, a protecting group for OH, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C6 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 - C6 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclo-C 1 -C 6 alkyl, -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 where p is from 1 to about 15, and a substituted or unsubstituted monosaccharide residue of formula:

where each R group is, at each occurrence, independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl group, substituted or unsubstituted–(C=O)- (C 1 -C 6 )alkyl, and substituted or unsubstituted–(C=O)NH(C 1 -C 6 )alkyl; wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or two adjacent OR groups form an isopropylidene ketal or an acetal group selected from methylene-, methoxymethylene-, ethoxymethylene-, ethylidene-, benzylidene-, and p- methoxybenzylidene-acetals; Rg is substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; Ra is substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; Rc and Rd are independently selected from hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; and Rf is selected from substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl and -CH 2 O(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 3 w here p is from 1 to about 15 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. Even more preferred R5 is -CH(NRcRd)Rg, -(C=O)Rg, -(C=NRc)Rg, -(C=N-ORh)Rg, - (C=N-O-(C=O)Rf)Rg, -(C=N-O-(C=O)ORa)Rg, -(C=N-O-[(P=O)(ORa)2])Rg, -(C=N-NRcRd)Rg, - (C=CH 2 )Rg, and -(C=CH 2 )ORa wherein: Rh is selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted allyl, substituted or unsubstituted propargyl, substituted or unsubstituted morpholino-n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted piperazinyl-n- propyl, -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 where p is from 1 to about 5, and a substituted or unsubstituted monosaccharide residue of formula: ,

wherein each R group is, at each occurrence, independently selected from hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted –(C=O)-(C 1 -C 6 )alkyl; wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; or two adjacent OR groups may form an isopropylidene ketal; each Rg group is independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or u nsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, and substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; Ra is selected from substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, and substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; Rc and Rd are independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, and substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; and Rf is substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, -CH 2 O(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 3 where p is from 1 to about 5 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx and a group of formula:

, where each R group is, at each occurrence, hydrogen or two adjacent OR groups form an isopropylidene ketal. Most preferred R5 is -CH(NH2)Me, -(C=O)Me, -(C=NRc)Me, -(C=N-ORh)Me, -(C=N- O(C=O)Rf)Me, -(C=N-NH2)Me, -(C=N-O-(C=O)ORa)Me, -(C=N-O-[(P=O)(ORa)2])Me, - (C=CH 2 )Me, or -(C=CH 2 )ORa where Ra is ethyl or benzyl, Rc is–(CH 2 )3NHBoc, Rf is -(CH 2 )5- NHBoc, -CH 2 O(CH 2 CH 2 O)2Me or a group of formula:

,

and Rh is selected from hydrogen, methyl, allyl, propargyl, -(CH 2 )3NHBoc, -(CH 2 )3NH2, - (CH 2 )3SH, -(CH 2 )4OH, -(CH 2 )4OP(=O)(OH)2, -(CH 2 )4OP(=O)(O t- Bu)2, -(CH 2 )4-[4 l 2 -morpholine], - (CH 2 )3--[1-methyl-4 l 2 -piperazine], -(CH 2 CH 2 O)3CH 2 CH 3 , and a monosaccharide residue of formula: In compounds of formula I, Ia, and Ib particularly preferred Y is -O- or -NH-. Most preferred Y is -O-. In compounds of formula I, Ia, and Ib particularly preferred Z is -S- or -O-. Most preferred Z is -S-. In additional preferred embodiments, the preferences described above for the different substituents are combined. The present invention is also directed to such combinations of preferred substitutions in the formula I, Ia or Ib above. Particularly preferred compounds of formula I, Ia or Ib are compounds:

, or pharmaceutically acceptable salts or esters thereof.

More preferred compounds of the invention are compounds

,

o r pharmaceutically acceptable salts or esters thereof.

Even more preferred compounds of the invention are selected from

or pharmaceutically acceptable salts or esters thereof. Particularly preferred compounds include compounds 1, 2, 64, 70, 71, 71a, 72, 72a, 73a, 74, 74a, 75, 75a, 76, 76a, 78, 93, 94, 95, 98, 107, 110, 111, 113, 115, 116, 128, 136, 137, 141, 144, 145, 147, 148, 149, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 161, 163, 164, 165, 166, 170, 172, 175, 178, 179, 182, 183, 185, 191, and 192 or pharmaceutically acceptable salts or esters thereof. Further preferred compounds include compounds 71, 74, 74a, 75, 75a, 76, 76a, 113, 115, 149, 153, 154, 156, 158, 161, 163, 170, 179 and 192, or pharmaceutically acceptable salts or esters thereof. Preferred compounds of formula I further include compounds wherein:

R 1 is selected from hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 6 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; being hydrogen the most preferred R1 group;

R3 is selected from halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl and substituted or unsubstituted C 3 -C 4 cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 4 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx and the halogen substituents are one or more substituents independently selected form F, Cl, Br, and I; being most preferred n-propyl, 3,3,3-trifluoropropyl, and isobutyl; and R2, R4, R5, Y and Z are defined herein.

Further preferred compounds of formula I include compounds wherein:

R1 is selected from hydrogen, and substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C6 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; being hydrogen the most preferred R1 group;

R3 is selected from halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl and substituted or unsubstituted C3-C4 cycloalkyl-C 1 -C4 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx and the halogen substituents are one or more substituents independently selected form F, Cl, Br, and I; being most preferred n-propyl, 3,3,3-trifluoropropyl, and isobutyl;

R4 is selected from hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl; being most preferred hydrogen and methyl. and R2, R5, Y and Z are defined herein.

Further preferred compounds of formula I include compounds wherein:

R1 is selected from hydrogen, and substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C6 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; being hydrogen the most preferred R1 group;

R3 is selected from halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl and substituted or unsubstituted C3-C4 cycloalkyl-C 1 -C4 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx and the halogen substituents are one or more substituents independently selected form F, Cl, Br, and I; being most preferred n-propyl, 3,3,3-trifluoropropyl, and isobutyl;

R4 is selected from hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl; being most preferred hydrogen and methyl;

Y is O;

and R2, R5, and Z are defined herein.

Further preferred compounds of formula I include compounds wherein:

R1 is selected from hydrogen, and substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C6 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; being hydrogen the most preferred R1 group;

R3 is selected from halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl and substituted or unsubstituted C3-C4 cycloalkyl-C 1 -C4 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx and the halogen substituents are one or more substituents independently selected form F, Cl, Br, and I; being most preferred n-propyl, 3,3,3-trifluoropropyl, and isobutyl;

R4 is selected from hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl; being most preferred hydrogen and methyl;

Y is O;

Z is S;

and R2 and R5 are defined herein.

Further preferred compounds of formula I include compounds wherein:

R1 is selected from hydrogen, and substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C6 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; being hydrogen the most preferred R1 group;

R3 is selected from halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl and substituted or unsubstituted C3-C4 cycloalkyl-C 1 -C4 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx and the halogen substituents are one or more substituents independently selected form F, Cl, Br, and I; being most preferred n-propyl, 3,3,3-trifluoropropyl, and isobutyl;

R4 is selected from hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl; being most preferred hydrogen and methyl;

Y is O;

Z is S;

R2 is selected from hydrogen, methyl, vinyl, allyl, NEt2, and ORa where Ra is selected from hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, n-butyl, n-heptyl, allyl, propargyl, cyclopropylmethyl, - (CH 2 )3NHBoc, -(CH 2 )3NH2, and -(CH 2 CH 2 O)3CH 2 CH 3 ;

and R5 is defined herein.

Further preferred compounds of formula I include compounds wherein:

R1 is selected from hydrogen, and substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C6 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; being hydrogen the most preferred R1 group;

R3 is selected from halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl and substituted or unsubstituted C3-C4 cycloalkyl-C 1 -C4 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx and the halogen substituents are one or more substituents independently selected form F, Cl, Br, and I; being most preferred n-propyl, 3,3,3-trifluoropropyl, and isobutyl;

R4 is selected from hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl; being most preferred hydrogen and methyl;

Y is O;

Z is S;

R5 is selected from -CH(NH2)Me, -(C=O)Me, -(C=NRc)Me, -(C=N-ORh)Me, -(C=N- O(C=O)Rf)Me, -(C=N-NH2)Me, -(C=N-O-(C=O)ORa)Me, -(C=N-O-[(P=O)(ORa)2])Me, - (C=CH2)Me, or -(C=CH2)ORa where Ra is ethyl or benzyl, Rc is–(CH2)3NHBoc, Rf is -(CH2)5- NHBoc, -CH 2 O(CH 2 CH 2 O)2Me or a group of formula:

and R h is selected from hydrogen, methyl, allyl, propargyl, -(CH 2 ) 3 NHBoc, -(CH 2 ) 3 NH 2 , - (CH 2 )3SH, -(CH 2 )4OH, -(CH 2 )4OP(=O)(OH)2, -(CH 2 )4OP(=O)(O t- Bu)2, -(CH 2 )4-[4 l 2 -morpholine], - (CH 2 )3--[1-methyl-4 l 2 -piperazine],-(CH 2 CH 2 O)3CH 2 CH 3 , and a monosaccharide residue of formula: , , , or and R2 is defined herein.

Compounds of formula I

,

wherein R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, Y, and Z are as defined above, can be obtained synthetically by coupling an amine of formula II with a carboxylic acid of formula III

wherein R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, Y, and Z in the compounds of formula II and III are as defined above in the compounds of formula I or an appropriately protected group as needed. I n the process for the manufacture of a compound of formula I, particularly preferred R 1 , R2, R3, and Y in the intermediates of formula II and particularly preferred R4, R5, and Z in the intermediates of formula III are as defined above in preferred embodiments of compounds of formula I or an appropriately protected group as needed; and particularly preferred R5 is selected from -C(ORe)2Rg and a group where m is 0, 1 or 2 and each E group is independently selected from O and S, Re is substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx, and Rg is selected from hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. More preferred R5 is a - C(ORe)2Rg group where Rg and Re are independently substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. More preferred Rg and Re are independently substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, and substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. Most preferred R5 is -C(OEt)2Me. Moreover, when the compound of formula I has a R5 group of formula -C(ORe)2Rg this process can further comprise a deprotection step to give a compound of formula I where R5 is - (C=O)Rg. Moreover, when the compound of formula I has a R5 group of formula -(C=O)Rg, the process can further comprise a reaction with hydroxylamine, with an hydrazine, with a primary amine, with a methylenation reagent or with an orthoester to give a compound of formula -(C=N- OH)Rg or -(C=N-NRcRd)Rg,–(C=NRc)Rg, -(C=CH 2 )Me, or -(C=CH 2 )ORa, respectively. Moreover, when the compound of formula I has a R5 group of formula -(C=N-OH)Rg, the process can further comprise alkylation, acylation, or phosphorylation of the OH group of the oxime to give the corresponding ether, ester or phosphate. In addition, with this invention there are provided novel intermediates of formula IIa:

wherein R1, R2, R3, R6 and Y are as defined above in the previous disclosure of intermediates of formula IIa. In another embodiment, particularly preferred intermediates of formula IIa are those also having formula IIb or a salt thereof

. In intermediates of formula IIa, particularly preferred R1 is selected from hydrogen, halogen and substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C6 alkynyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; being hydrogen the most preferred R1 group. In intermediates of formula IIa, IIb or IIc, particularly preferred R2 is selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C2-C6 alkenyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx, -ORa, -OSO2Rb, and -NRcRd; where Ra is selected from hydrogen, a silylether protecting group for OH, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C 12 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6cycloalkyl-C 1 -C 6 alkyl, and -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 where p is from 1 to about 15 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; Rb is selected from substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl and substituted or unsubstituted aryl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; and Rc and Rd are independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. Particularly preferred Ra is selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C8 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C8 alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -C8 alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3- C4cycloalkyl-C 1 -C4 alkyl, -(CH 2 CH 2 O)pCH 2 CH 3 where p is from 1 to about 10 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx, and a silyl ether protecting group for OH selected from trimethylsilyl, triethylsilyl, triisopropylsilyl, dimethylisopropylsilyl, diethylisopropylsilyl, dimethylhexylsilyl, 2-norbornyldimethylsilyl, t-butyldimethylsilyl (TBS), t-butyldiphenylsilyl, tribenzylsilyl, tri-p-xylylsilyl, triphenylsilyl, diphenylmethylsilyl, di-t-butylmethylsilyl, bis(t-butyl)-1- pyrenylmethoxysilyl, tris(trimethylsilyl)silyl, (2-hydroxystyryl)dimethylsilyl, (2- hydroxystyryl)diisopropylsilyl, t-butylmethoxyphenylsilyl, t-butoxydiphenylsilyl, 1,1,3,3- tetraisopropyl-3-[2-(triphenylmethoxy)ethoxy]disiloxane-1-yl , and fluorous silyl. Particularly preferred Rb is selected from substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl and substituted or unsubstituted phenyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. Particularly preferred Rc and Rd are independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C4 alkyl wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. More preferred R2 is selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted vinyl, substituted or unsubstituted allyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx, -ORa, - OSO2Rb, and -NRcRd; where Ra is selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-heptyl, substituted or unsubstituted allyl, substituted or unsubstituted 1-methyl- 2-propenyl, substituted or unsubstituted 2-methyl-2-propenyl, substituted or unsubstituted 2- butenyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3-butenyl, substituted or unsubstituted propargyl, substituted or unsubstituted 1-methyl-2-propynyl, substituted or unsubstituted 2-butynyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3-butynyl, substituted or unsubstituted cyclopropylmethyl, substituted or unsubstituted 2-cyclopropylethyl, and -(CH2CH2O)pCH2CH3 wherein p is from 1 to about 5 and the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; Rb is selected from substituted or unsubstituted methyl and substituted or unsubstituted phenyl wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx; and Rc and Rd are independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n- butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, and substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. Most preferred R2 is selected from hydrogen, methyl, vinyl, allyl, OTosyl, ONs, OTf, NEt2, and ORa where Ra is hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, n-butyl, n-heptyl, allyl, propargyl, cyclopropylmethyl, -(CH 2 )3NHBoc, -(CH 2 )3NH2, and -(CH 2 CH 2 O)3CH 2 CH 3 . In intermediates of formula IIa, IIb or IIc, particularly preferred R3 is selected from halogen-substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl and substituted or unsubstituted C3-C4 cycloalkyl-C 1 -C4 alkyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx and the halogen substituents are one or more substituents independently selected from F, Cl, Br, and I. Particularly preferred R3 is an halogen substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl, wherein the halogen substituents are one or more substituents independently selected from F, Cl, Br, and I. More preferred R3 is selected from halogen-substituted or unsubstituted methyl, halogen- substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, halogen- substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, halogen- substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, halogen-substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl and halogen- substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, wherein the halogen substituents are one or more substituents independently selected from F, Cl, Br and I. Most preferred R3 is n-propyl, 3,3,3- trifluoropropyl and isobutyl. In intermediates of formula IIa, IIb or IIc particularly preferred R6 is hydrogen or t- butoxycarbonyl. In intermediates of formula IIa, IIb or IIc particularly preferred -Y- is -O- or -NH- with the proviso that when R2 is hydrogen then Y is -O-. Most preferred Y is -O-. In additional preferred embodiments, the preferences described above for the different substituents are combined. The present invention is also directed to such combinations of preferred substitutions in the formula IIa, IIb or IIc above. Particularly preferred intermediates of formula IIa, IIb or IIc are selected from:

or salts thereof.

In addition, with this invention we provide novel intermediates of formula IIIa

wherein R4, R5 and Z are as defined above in the previous disclosure of intermediates of formula IIIa. Particularly preferred stereochemistry of said intermediates of formula IIIa is the following

In intermediates of formula IIIa or IIIb, particularly preferred R4 is unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl. More preferred R4 is selected from unsubstituted methyl, unsubstituted ethyl, unsubstituted n-propyl, unsubstituted isopropyl, unsubstituted n-butyl, unsubstituted t-butyl, unsubstituted isobutyl, and unsubstituted sec-butyl. Most preferred R 4 is methyl.

In intermediates of formula IIIa or IIIb, particularly preferred R5 is selected from - C(ORe)2Rg and a group where m is 0, 1 or 2, and each E group is independently selected from -O- and -S-; where each Rg and Re groups are, independently, a substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl group, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. Particularly preferred Rg and Re are substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n- butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, and substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. Particularly preferred m is 0 or 1 and particularly preferred E is -O-. More preferred R5 is - C(OR e ) 2 R g , wherein R e and R g are independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted methyl, substituted or unsubstituted ethyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-propyl, substituted or unsubstituted isopropyl, substituted or unsubstituted n-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted t-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted isobutyl, and substituted or unsubstituted sec-butyl, wherein the optional substituents are one or more substituents Rx. Most preferred R5 is -C(OEt)2Me. In intermediates of formula IIIa or IIIb particularly preferred Z group is -O- or -S-. Most preferred Z group is -S-. In additional preferred embodiments, the preferences described above for the different substituents are combined. The present invention is also directed to such combinations or preferred substitutions in the formula IIIa and IIIb above. A particularly preferred intermediate of formula IIIa is .

Even more preferred intermediate of formula IIIb is .

In the present description and definitions, when there are several groups R, Ra, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, R, Rx, R y or Rz present in the compounds of the invention, and unless it is stated explicitly so, it should be understood that they can be each independently different within the given definition, i.e. Ra does not represent necessarily the same group simultaneously in a given compound of the invention. Compound 1 was originally isolated from a sponge of the order Lithistida, family Theonellidae, genus Discodermia (du Bocage 1869). This sponge was collected by hand using Rebreather diving system in Halmahera, Indonesia (2º 16.307' N / 127º 44.466' E) at depths ranging between 6 and 73 m. A sample of the specimen was deposited at the Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes in Girona, Spain, with the reference code HALM-706. Description: massive irregular sponge, with many fouling organisms, red in color, approximately of 5 cm thick in average, 12 x 6 cm in diameter. Widely separated and irregularly distributed oscula, which are oval and measure 0.5-0.8 mm across. With smaller round pores, 0.20-0.25 mm in diameter, widely separated and irregularly distributed over the whole surface. Megascleres:

- Discotriaenes 250-350 mm in diameter with short conical rhabd measuring 87-108 mm long.

- Desmas tetraclones are about 300-450 mm in size and 100-110 mm thick.

Microscleres:

- Acanthorhabds smaller ones are fusiform, massive, 15-22 mm long and 2-4.5 mm thick. Skeletal arrangement: Surfaces are smooth and covered with a dense crust of ectosomal round to oval discotriaenes. Desmas form a relatively dense skeleton with meshes about 500-600 mm wide. Additionally, compounds of the invention can be obtained by total synthesis, or by modifying compound 1 already obtained from the natural source or by further modifying those already modified by using a variety of chemical reactions. Thus, hydroxyl groups can be acylated by standard coupling or acylation procedures, for instance by using acetic acid, acetyl chloride or acetic anhydride in pyridine or the like. Formate groups can be obtained by heating hydroxyl precursors with isocyanates. Hydroxyl groups can be converted into halogen groups through intermediate sulfonates for iodide, bromide or chloride, or directly using a sulfur trifluoride for fluorides; or they can be reduced to hydrogen by reduction of intermediate sulfonates. Hydroxyl groups can also be converted into alkoxy groups by alkylation using an alkyl bromide, iodide or sulfonate, or into amino lower alkoxy groups by using, for instance, a protected 2-bromoethylamine. Amido groups can be alkylated or acylated by standard alkylation or acylation procedures, for instance by using, respectively, KH and methyl iodide or acetyl chloride in pyridine or the like. Ester groups can be hydrolyzed to carboxylic acids or reduced to aldehyde or to alcohol. Carboxylic acids can be coupled with amines to provide amides by standard coupling or acylation procedures. When necessary, appropriate protecting groups can be used on the substituents to ensure that reactive groups are not affected. The procedures and reagent needed to prepare these derivatives are known to the skilled person and can be found in general textbooks such as March's Advanced Organic Chemistry 6 th Edition 2007, Wiley Interscience. An important feature of the above described compounds of formula I, Ia or Ib is their bioactivity and in particular their cytotoxic activity against tumor cells. Thus, with this invention we provide pharmaceutical compositions of compounds of formula I, Ia or Ib, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof that possess cytotoxic activities and their use as anticancer agents. The present invention further provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising a compound of formula I, Ia or Ib, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof, with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent. Examples of pharmaceutical compositions include any solid (tablets, pills, capsules, granules, etc.) or liquid (solutions, suspensions or emulsions) composition for oral, topical or parenteral administration. Administration of the compounds of formula I, Ia, or Ib or compositions of the present invention may be by any suitable method, such as intravenous infusion, oral preparations, and intraperitoneal and intravenous administration. The correct dosage of the compounds will vary according to the particular formulation, the mode of application, and the particular situs, host and tumour being treated. Other factors like age, body weight, sex, diet, time of administration, rate of excretion, condition of the host, drug combinations, reaction sensitivities and severity of the disease shall be taken into account. Administration can be carried out continuously or periodically within the maximum tolerated dose. The compound of the invention have anticancer activity against several cancer types which include, but are not limited to, solid tumours, lung cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer and pancreas cancer. Thus, in alternative embodiments of the invention, the pharmaceutical composition comprising the compounds of formula I and the kits as defined above is for the treatment of solid tumours, lung cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer and pancreas cancer. In the present application, by“cancer” it is meant to include tumors, neoplasias and any other malignant disease having as cause malignant tissue or cells. The term“treating”, as used herein, unless otherwise indicated, means reversing, attenuating, alleviating or inhibiting the progress of the disease or condition to which such term applies, or one or more symptoms of such disorder or condition. The term“treatment”, as used herein, unless otherwise indicated, refers to the act of treating as“treating” is defined immediately above. The compounds and compositions according to the present invention can be administered to an animal that has also undergone surgery as treatment for the cancer. In one embodiment of the present invention, the additional method of treatment is radiation therapy. In a specific embodiment of the present invention, the compound or composition according to the present invention is administered concurrently with radiation therapy. In another specific embodiment, the radiation therapy is administered prior or subsequent to administration of the compound or composition of the present invention, preferably at least an hour, three hours, five hours, 12 hours, a day, a week, a month, more preferably several months (e.g. up to three months) prior or subsequent to administration of a compound or composition of the present invention. Any radiation therapy protocol can be used depending upon the type of cancer to be treated. For example, but not by way of limitation x-ray radiation can be administered; in particular, high-energy megavoltage (radiation of greater than 1 MeV energy) can be used for deep tumors, and electron beam and orthovoltage x-ray radiation can be used for skin cancers. Gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes, such as radioactive isotopes of radium, cobalt and other elements can also be administered. EXAMPLES EXAMPLE 1: DESCRIPTION OF THE MARINE ORGANISM AND COLLECTION SITE

A sponge of the genus Discodermia du Bocage, 1869 was collected by hand using Rebreather diving system in Halmahera, Indonesia (2º 16.307' N / 127º 44.466' E) at depths ranging between 6 and 73 m. The animal material was identified by Dr. María Jesús Uriz (Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes). A sample of the specimen was deposited at the Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes in Girona, Spain, with the reference code HALM-706. Description: massive irregular sponge, with many fouling organisms, red in color, approximately of 5 cm thick in average, 12 x 6 cm in diameter. Widely separated and irregularly distributed oscula, which are oval and measure 0.5 - 0.8 mm across. With smaller round pores, 0.20 - 0.25 mm in diameter, widely separated and irregularly distributed over the whole surface.

Megascleres:

- Discotriaenes 250-350 mm in diameter with short conical rhabd measuring 87-108 mm long.

- Desmas tetraclones are about 300-450 mm in size and 100-110 mm thick.

Microscleres:

- Acanthorhabds smaller ones are fusiform, massive, 15-22 mm long, 2-4.5 mm thick. Skeletal arrangement:

Surfaces are smooth and covered with a dense crust of ectosomal round to oval discotriaenes. Desmas form a relatively dense skeleton with meshes about 500-600 mm wide. EXAMPLE 2: ISOLATION OF COMPOUND 1

The frozen specimen of Example 1 was diced and extracted at room temperature under magnetic stirring, firstly with a mixture of 1:1 CH 2 Cl 2 /CH 3 OH (3 x 500 mL) and later with H 2 O (1 x 300 mL). Organic and aqueous extracts were evaporated to provide a dry residue of 5.3 g and 213 mg, respectively. The organic extract was subjected to step gradient VLC on Lichroprep RP-18 from H2O to CH 3 OH and subsequently from CH 3 OH to CH 2 Cl 2 . The fraction eluted with H2O/CH 3 OH 1:3 (80.4 mg) was subjected to semipreparative reversed phase HPLC (XBridge C 1 8, 5 mm, 10 x 150mm, isocratic H2O + 0.04% TFA/CH 3 CN + 0.04% TFA (65:35) for 3 minutes, gradient from 35 to 60% CH 3 CN + 0.04% TFA in 19 minutes and from 65 to 100% CH 3 CN + 0.04% TFA in 3 minutes, UV detection, flow 3 mL/min). Fraction H5, with a retention time of 14.2 min, was subsequently purified with semi- preparative reversed phase HPLC (SymmetryPrep C 1 8, 7 mm, 7.8 x 150 mm, isocratic H2O + 0 .04% TFA/CH3CN + 0.04% TFA (75:25) for 3 minutes, gradient from 25 to 80% CH3CN + 0.04% TFA in 18 min, UV detection, flow 2.8 mL/min) to afford compound 1 (14.1 mg, retention time 11.3 min).

Compound 1: White powder. (+)ESIMS m/z 382.3 [M+H] + , 404.1 [M+Na] + , 785.2 [2M+Na] + , 157.2 [C6H9N2OS] + , 181.2 [C 1 0H13O3] + ; (+)HRESIMS m/z 382.1430 [M+H] + (cald for C17 H 24 N 3 O 5 S 382.1431, ^= 0.36 ppm); 1H (500 MHz) and 13C NMR (125 MHz) see Table 1.

Compound 1

Table 1. 1 H and 13 C NMR data of Compound 1 in CD3OD and CD3CN.

Absolute configuration of the aminoacid residues in compound 1 was determined by Marfey’s analysis (Marfey, P. Carlsberg Res. Commun.1984, 49, 591-596). 0.3 mg of compound 1 were dissolved in 0.5 mL of 6N HCl in a sealed vial and heated at 110 ºC for 16 h. The solvent was evaporated under a N2 stream, the residue was dissolved in 50 mL of water, and 0.7 mg of fluorodinitrophenyl-5-L-alaninamide (L-FDAA, Marfey’s reagent) in 100 mL of acetone and 40 mL of 1N aqueous NaHCO3 were added. The resulting mixture was heated at 40 ºC for 1 h and, after cooling at room temperature, neutralised with 100 mL of 2N HCl. Finally, the mixture was diluted with 700 mL of water and filtrated (45 mm filter) prior to HPLC-MS analysis. Standards of all stereoisomers of the aminoacid residues present in compound 1 were derivatized in the same manner as the compound hydrolysed. Racemic methyl 4-methyl-2- (pyridin-3-yl)-4,5-dihydrothiazole-4-carboxylate was prepared following the procedure described by Singh et al. in J. Org. Chem.2004, 69, 4551-4554. Relative retention times to unreacted L-FDAA of both, the derivative hydrolysed and the derivative aminoacid standards, were determined by reversed phase HPLC-MS: Symmetry C 1 8, 5 mm, 4.6×150 mm, gradient H2O + 0.04% TFA/CH 3 CN + 0.04% TFA from 20% to 50% CH 3 CN + 0.04% TFA in 30 min, UV (215 and 350 nm) and (+)ESIMS detection, flow 0.8 mL/min. Comparison of these retention times unambiguously confirmed the presence in compound 1 of 2-methyl-L-cysteine. Norvaline residue could not be obtained by simple hydrolysis of compound 1, and therefore the compound was first subjected to an oxidative ozonolysis protocol. To do that, a stream of ozone in O2 was bubbled through a solution of compound 1 (0.3 mg) in CH 2 Cl 2 (3 mL) for 5 min. The solvent was evaporated under a N2 stream and the residue was dissolved in 2 mL of hydrogen peroxide (35%) : formic acid (1:9) at 0 ºC and kept for 2h. Then, the solvent was removed under a stream of N2; the resultant residue was hydrolyzed in acidic conditions and immediately subjected to Marfey’s derivatization as described above. Finally, it was analyzed by HPLC-MS in same conditions previously depicted for non-oxidized sample. Comparison of relative retention times of authentic standards of L- and D-norvaline derivatized following de same procedure with the aminoacid residue of natural sample confirmed the presence of D-norvaline in compound 1. These results have been confirmed by the total synthesis of compound 1 described in Example 7. EXAMPLE 3: SCALE-UP OF ISOLATION OF COMPOUND 1

A second group of samples of the specimen of Example 1 (926 g) was diced and extracted at room temperature under magnetic stirring, firstly with a mixture of 1:1 CH 2 Cl 2 /CH 3 OH (6 x 500 mL) and later with H2O (2 x 300 mL). Organic extract was evaporated to provide three dry residues A (19.5 g), B (16.8 g) and C (10.7 g), while the aqueous extract gave a residue of 2.4 g. Residues A, B and C were subjected to step gradient VLC on Lichroprep RP-18 from H2O to CH 3 OH and subsequently from CH 3 OH to CH 2 Cl 2 . For residue A, fractions eluted with H2O/CH 3 OH 1:3 (172.0 mg), CH 3 OH (800.0 mg) and CH 3 OH/CH 2 Cl 2 1:1 (619.8 mg) contained compound 1. For residues B and C, fractions eluted with CH 3 OH/H2O 1:1 (445.6 mg B, 225.1 mg C), CH 3 OH/H2O 3:1 (286.3 mg B, 149.5 mg C), CH 3 OH (2.1 g B, 962.5 mg C) and CH 3 OH/CH 2 Cl 2 1:1 (3. 26 g B, 618.8 mg C) were the ones containing compound 1. All these fractions were subjected to flash chromatography normal phase (12 g Silica column, isocratic n- Hex/EtOAc 70:30 for 8-9 minutes, from 30 to 70% EtOAc in 27-29 minutes, isocratic 70% EtOAc for 6-8 minutes and from 70 to 100% EtOAc in 4-7 minutes, wavelength 254 and 280 nm, flow 30 mL/min) to afford Compound 1 (196 mg, retention time 8-13 min). EXAMPLE 4: METHYLATION OF COMPOUND 1

To a solution of Compound 1 (1.4 mg) in anhydrous DMF 1.5 mL) was added Cs2CO3 (5 mg) and methyl iodide (40 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Then, the solution was subjected to analytical HPLC (Symmetry C 1 8, 5 mm, 4.6 x 150mm, isocratic H2O + 0.04% TFA/CH 3 CN + 0.04% TFA (75:25) for 3 minutes, gradient from 25 to 80% CH 3 CN + 0.04% TFA in 18 min, UV detection, flow 1 mL/min) to give Compound 2 (0.5 mg). Compound 2: White powder. (+)ESIMS m/z 396.2 [M+H] + , 418.1 [M+Na] + ; (+)HRESIMS m/z 396.1582 [M+H] + (cald for C 1 8H26N3O5S 396.1588, D= 1.5 ppm); 1 H (500 MHz) see Table 2.

Table 2. 1 H NMR data of compound 2 in CD3OH and CDCl3.

EXAMPLE 5: SYNTHESIS OF INTERMEDIATES OF FORMULA II

Scheme 2 provides some examples of the synthesis of intermediates of formula II and of some (S)-analogs used to confirm the stereochemistry of compound 1.

Synthesis of intermediate (R)-3

To a solution of Boc-D-norvaline (20 g, 92.0 mmol, commercial

c hemical from Chem-impex) in 2-Me-THF (368 mL, 4 mL/mmol)

under nitrogen atmosphere at 23 ºC was added 1,1¢- carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) (15.7 g, 96.6 mmol, 1.05 equiv). The

reaction mixture was for 2 hours at 23 ºC. A solution of 2,2,6- trimethyl-4H-1,3-dioxin-4-one (30.55 mL, 230 mmol, 2.5 equiv) in 2- Me-THF (368 mL, 4 mL/mmol) was slowly added to a precooled at -78 ºC dilution of LiHMDS (368 mL, 1.0 M in THF, 368 mmol, 4.0 equiv) in 2-Me-THF (368 mL, 4 mL/mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at -78 ºC for 1 hour. ZnCl2 (31.3 g, 230 mmol, 2.5 equiv) was added in one portion and the reaction mixture was stirred at -78 ºC for 30 minutes. Finally, the solution of the intermediate previously prepared was added, by cannula, at -78 ºC. The reaction mixture was stirred at -78 ºC for 4 hours. An aqueous saturated solution of NH4Cl was added and the aqueous layers were extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous NaSO4, filtered and concentrated under vacuum. The crude obtained was purified by column chromatography (CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc, 9:1) to give pure (R)-3 (12.9 g, 41% yield).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 5.35 (s, 1H), 5.02 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 4.27 (td, J = 7.9, 4.7 Hz, 1H), 3.43 (s, 2H), 1.77 (m, 2H), 1.68 (s, 6H), 1.58-1.28 (m, 2H), 1.43 (s, 9H), 0.94 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H). 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3): d 203.2, 164.5, 160.8, 155.7, 107.4, 97.1, 80.4, 59.8, 43.9, 33.0, 28.5, 25.2, 18.8, 13.9.

MS (ES): m/z 364.3 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.13 (Hex:EtOAc 4:1). Synthesis of analog (S)-3 In a first flask, CDI (3.9 g, 24.15 mmol) was added in portions to a

solution of Boc-L-norvaline (5.0 g, 23 mmol, commercial chemical

from Chem-impex) in 2-Me-THF (92 mL), with gas evolution. This

mixture was stirred for 2 h. In another flask, at -78 ºC, 2,2,6-trimethyl- 4H-1,3-dioxin-4-one (7.6 mL, 57 mmol) in 2-Me-THF (92 mL) was

added slowly to a solution of LiHMDS (57.5 mL, 1.0 M in THF, 57.5

mmol) in 2-Me-THF (92 mL). After stirring at the same temperature

for 1h, the first mixture was added via canula. The reaction was stirring at -78 ºC for 4 h and then quenched with saturated aqueous solution of NH4Cl. Extraction with EtOAc, and dryness of the organic layers over Na2SO4 gave a crude which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hexane/EtOAc 9/1 to 7/3) to afford (S)-3 (2.0 g, 64% yield).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 5.35 (s, 1H), 5.02 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 4.27 (td, J = 7.9, 4.7 Hz, 1H), 3.43 (s, 2H), 1.77 (m, 2H), 1.69 (s, 6H), 1.58-1.28 (m, 2H), 1.43 (s, 9H), 0.94 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H). 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 203.2, 164.5, 160.8, 155.7, 107.4, 97.1, 80.4, 59.8, 43.9, 33.0, 28.5, 25.2, 18.8, 13.9.

MS (ES): m/z 364.3 [M+Na] + , 705.2 [2M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.5 (Hex:EtOAc 6:4). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-4

In a first flask, CDI (1.66 g, 10.29 mmol) was added in portions to a

s olution of Boc-D-leucine (2.27 g, 9.8 mmol) in Et2O (40 mL), with

gas evolution. This mixture was stirred for 2 h. In another flask, at -78

ºC, a solution of 2,2,6-trimethyl-4H-1,3-dioxin-4-one (4.2 mL, 29.4

mmol) in Et2O (30 mL) was added slowly to a solution of LiHMDS

(29.4 mL, 1.0 M in THF, 29.4 mmol) in Et2O (29.4 mL). After stirring

at the same temperature for 1 h, ZnCl2 (2.67 g, 29.4 mmol) was added in one portion. After 30 min, the first mixture was added via canula. The reaction was stirring at -78 ºC for 4 h and then quenched with saturated aqueous solution of NH4Cl. Extraction with EtOAc, and dryness of the organic layers over Na2SO4 gave a crude which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 /EtOAc 9/1) to afford pure (R)-4 (0.42 g, 12% yield).

1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 5.35 (s, 1H), 4.87 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 4.38-4.21 (m, 1H), 3.44 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, 2H), 1.70 (s, 6H), 1.55 (m, 2H), 1.44 (s, 9H), 1.37 (m, 1H), 0.96 (d, J = 6.5 Hz, 6H). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-5 A solution of (R)-3 (330 mg, 0.97 mmol), NH4OAc (373 mg, 4.85

mmol) in ethanol (4 mL) was stirred at 23 ºC for 24 h. After

evaporating the solvent, the crude was triturated with EtOAc to

remove the solids by filtration. The solvent was evaporated to obtain (R)-5 (329 mg, 100% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 5.53 (s, 1H), 4.92 (s, 1H), 4.75 (s, 1H), 4.53 (s, 1H), 3.91 (s, 1H), 1.74 (s, 6H), 1.73-1.53 (m, 1H), 1.44 (s, 2H), 1.43 (s, 9H), 1.49-1.31 (m, 1H), 0.94 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (101 MHz, CDCl3): d 168.0, 162.9, 157.5, 155.9, 105.7, 86.6, 28.4, 25.7, 25.5, 19.5, 13.8.

MS (ES): m/z 341.3 [M+H] + . Synthesis of intermediate (R)-6

A solution of (R)-5 (329 mg, 0.96 mmol) in toluene (100 mL) was stirred in

a bath at 130 ºC for 2 h. Evaporation of the solvent under vacuo gave a

crude which purified by flash chromatography over silica gel

(CH

2Cl 2 /CH 3 OH 98/2) to give (R)-6 (93 mg, 34% yield).

1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD): d 5.95 (d, J = 2.21 Hz, 1H), 5.66 (d, J = 2.2

Hz, 1H), 4.36 (s, 1H), 1.71-1.55 (m, 4H), 1.43 (s, 12H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (125 MHz, CD3OD): d 171.1, 168.0, 157.8, 153.4, 99.2, 80.7, 53.5, 37.7, 32.8, 28.7, 23.7, 20.5, 14.4, 13.9.

MS (ES): m/z 283.3 [M+H] + .

Rf: 0.26 (CH 2 Cl 2 :MeOH 9:1).

Synthesis of intermediate (R)-7

(R)-3 (10.74 g, 31.5 mmol) was dissolved in toluene (315 mL, 10

mL/mmol) and heated in a bath at 130 ºC for 30 minutes. Evaporation of

the solvent under vacuum afforded (R)-7 crude (8.91 g) that was used

i n the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 10.50 (s, 1H), 6.09 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H),

5.56 (s, 1H), 5.23 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 4.36 (q, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 1.78 (s, 1H), 1.67 (s, 1H), 1.43 (s, 9H), 0.92 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3): d 171.6, 166.9, 165.2, 155.8, 129.2, 128.4, 125.5, 100.9, 90.9, 80.9, 53.0, 35.3, 28.5, 19.3, 13.8.

MS (ES): m/z 306.1 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.35 (CH 2 Cl 2 :MeOH 9:1).

Optical rotation: [ aD] +101.6 (c 0.018, MeOH). Synthesis of analog (S)-7

A solution of (S)-3 (700 mg, 2.05 mmol) in toluene (12 mL) was stirred

in a bath at 130 ºC for 30 min. Evaporation of the solvent under vacuum

gave a crude of (S)-7 which was used in the next step without

purification.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.08 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.56 (d, J = 2.0

Hz, 1H), 5.16 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 4.50-4.27 (m, 1H), 1.90-1.57 (m, 2H),

1.50-1.38 (m, 10H), 1.00-0.81 (m, 3H). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-8

A solution of (R)-4 (400 mg, 1.12 mmol) in toluene (120 mL) was stirred

in a bath at 130 ºC for 30 min. Evaporation of the solvent under vacuum

gave of (R)-8 crude which was used in the next step without purification.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.09 (s, 1H), 5.55 (s, 1H), 5.27 (d, J =

10.6 Hz, 2H), 4.41 (m, 1H), 1.59 (m, 3H), 1.41 (s, 9H), 0.91 (m, 6H).

MS (ES): m/z 320.3 [M+Na] + .

Scheme 3 provides more examples of the synthesis of intermediates of formula II and of some (S)-analogs used to confirm the stereochemistry of compound 1.

Synthesis of intermediate (R)-9

To a solution of (R)-7 (8.92 g, 31.46 mmol) in acetone (314.6 mL, 10

mL/mmol) under nitrogen atmosphere at 23 ºC was added K2CO3 (21.74

g, 157.3 mmol, 5.0 equiv) and dimethyl sulfate (14.9 mL, 157.3 mmol,

5.0 equiv). The reaction mixture was stirred for 2 hours at 23 ºC, filtered

over Celite ® , washed with CH 2 Cl 2 , and the solvent was removed under

vacuum. The crude obtained was purified by column chromatography (Hexane:EtOAc, from 9:1 to 7:3) to give (R)-9 pure (5.39 g, 60% yield for two steps).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 5.93 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.42 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.30 (s, 1H), 4.88 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 4.38 (q, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 1.79 (ddt, J = 13.3, 9.3, 6.5 Hz, 1H), 1.70-1.61 (m, 1H), 1.43 (s, 9H), 1.42-1.21 (m, 2H), 0.93 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3): d 171.3, 164.6, 163.7, 155.1, 103.3, 100.0, 88.5, 56.2, 53.6, 52.7, 35.4, 29.9, 28.5, 19.3, 13.8.

MS (ES): m/z 320.0 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.3 (Hex:EtOAc 6:4). Synthesis of analog (S)-9

A mixture of (S)-7 (560 mg, 1.98 mmol), acetone (20 mL), K2CO3 (1.37

g, 9.88 mmol) and dimethyl sulfate (0.94 mL, 9.88 mmol) was stirred at

23 ºC for 2 h. Filtration over Celite ® and washing with CH

2Cl 2 gave a

crude which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hexane/EtOAc 8/2 to 6/4) to yield (S)-9 (268 mg, 48% yield for 2 steps).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 5.91 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.40 (dd, J = 2.2, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 4.94 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 4.43-4.24 (m, 1H), 3.77 (d, J = 0.6 Hz, 3H), 1.75 (ddd, J = 13.4, 9.4, 6.8 Hz, 1H), 1.66-1.56 (m, 1H), 1.39 (d, J = 0.6 Hz, 10H), 1.31 (ddd, J = 8.7, 4.9, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 0.89 (dd, J = 7.7, 7.0 Hz, 3H). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-10

A mixture of (R)-8 (79 mg, 0.26 mmol), acetone (2.6 mL), K2CO3 (183 g,

1.33 mmol) and dimethyl sulfate (0.13 mL, 1.33 mmol) was stirred at 23

ºC for 2 h. Filtration over Celite ® and washing with CH 2 Cl 2 gave a crude

which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel

(hexane/EtOAc 8/2 to 6/4) to yield (R)-10 (74 mg, 89% yield for 2 steps).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 5.94 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.41 (d, J = 2.2

Hz, 1H), 4.87 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 4.43 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 3.78 (s, 3H),

1.61 (m, 3H), 1.41 (s, 9H), 0.97-0.85 (m, 6H). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-11

A mixture of (R)-7 (80 mg, 0.28 mmol), CH 2 Cl 2 (5.6 mL), Ag2O (130 mg,

0.56 mmol) and iodoethane (0.67 mL, 8.4 mmol) was stirred at 23 ºC

for 24 h. Filtration over Celite ® and washing with CH 2 Cl 2 gave a crude

which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel

(hexane/EtOAc 8/2 to 6/4) to yield (R)-11 (37 mg, 42% yield for 2 steps).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 5.91 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.37 (d, J = 2.2

Hz, 1H), 4.92 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 4.35 (q, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 3.99 (q, J =

7.0 Hz, 2H), 1.76 (dq, J = 9.2, 6.8 Hz, 1H), 1.62 (td, J = 8.3, 7.4, 3.4 Hz, 1H), 1.40 (s, 9H), 1.45- 1.17 (m, 4H), 0.90 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-12

A mixture of (R)-7 (50 mg, 0.176 mmol), acetone (1.8 mL), K2CO3 (121

mg, 0.88 mmol) and iodopropane (0.2 mL, 1.76 mmol) was stirred at 23

ºC for 5 h. Filtration over Celite ® and washing with CH 2 Cl 2 gave a crude

which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel

(hexane/EtOAc 8/2 to 6/4) to yield (R)-12 (35 mg, 100% yield for 2

steps).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 5.93 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.39 (dd, J = 2.3, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 4.98-4.81 (m, 1H), 4.37 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 3.89 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 1.79 (m, 4H), 1.42 (s, 9H), 1.40-1.19 (m, 2H), 1.01 (td, J = 7.5, 0.8 Hz, 3H), 0.92 (td, J = 7.3, 0.8 Hz, 3H). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-13

A mixture of (R)-7 (50 mg, 0.176 mmol), acetone (1.8 mL), K2CO3 (121

mg, 0.88 mmol) and iodobutane (0.16 mL, 1.76 mmol) was stirred at 23

ºC for 5 h. Filtration over Celite ® and washing with CH 2 Cl 2 gave a crude

w hich was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel

(hexane/EtOAc 8/2 to 6/4) to yield (R)-13 (34 mg, 100% yield for 2

steps).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 5.92 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.39 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.88 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 4.37 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 3.93 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 1.86-1.66 (m, 3H), 1.62 (s, 1H), 1.54- 1.27 (m, 11H), 0.94 (dt, J = 13.8, 7.4 Hz, 6H).

MS (ES): m/z 362.3 [M+Na] + , 701.5 [2M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.37 (Hex:EtOAc 7:3). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-14

(R)-7 (69 mg) was dissolved in acetone (2.4 mL) and then Cs2CO3

(119 mg) and 1-bromoheptane (57 mL) were added. This

suspension was refluxed for 2 h. Then the reaction mixture was

allowed to cool to 23 ºC, filtered through a plug of Celite ® and

washed with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL) and evaporated to dryness.

Purification by flash chromatography over silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 /EtOAc

100:0 to 95:5) yielded (R)-14 (78 mg, 84% yield for 2 steps).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 5.92 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.38 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.90 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 4.36 (q, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 3.91 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 1.85-1.68 (m, 3H), 1.71-1.55 (m, 1H), 1.42 (s, 9H), 1.41-1.21 (m, 10H), 0.98-0.83 (m, 6H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 170.4, 164.6, 163.3, 154.9, 100.0, 88.6, 80.0, 69.0, 52.5, 35.2, 31.6, 28.8, 28.4, 28.3, 25.7, 22.5, 19.0, 14.0, 13.5. Synthesis of intermediate (R)-15

To a solution of (R)-7 (63 mg, 0.222 mmol) in acetone (2.2 mL) was

added Cs2CO3 (109 mg, 0.334 mmol) and 1-bromoheptadecane

(106 mg, 0.334 mmol) at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture was refluxed

for 4 h. The reaction mixture was cooed to 23 ºC, filtrated over

Celite ® and washed with EtOAc. The crude obtained was purified by

flash chromatography on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc from 100:0 to 95:5) to field (R)-15 (93 mg, 80% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 5.92 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.38 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.90 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 4.36 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 3.91 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 1.83-1.72 (m, 3H), 1.76-1.55 (m, 1H), 1.42 (s, 9H), 1.47-1.22 (m, 30H), 0.96-0.80 (m, 6H). 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 170.4, 164.5, 163.3, 154.9, 100.0, 88.6, 80.0, 69.1, 52.5, 35.2, 31.9, 29.7, 29.6 (x2), 29.5 (x2), 29.3, 29.2 (x2), 28.4, 28.3, 25.8, 22.7, 19.0, 14.1, 13.6. Synthesis of intermediate (R)-16

To a solution of (R)-7 (7.05 g, 24.88 mmol) in acetone (250 mL) was

a dded Cs2CO3 (12.16 g, 37.32 mmol) and allyl bromide (3.23 mL,

37.32 mmol) at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture was refluxed for 1 h.

Filtration over Celite ® and washing with EtOAc gave a crude which

was purified in an automatic system for flash chromatography on

(SiO2, Hex:EtOAc 70:30) to field (R)-16 (5.0 g, 62% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.03-5.91 (m, 2H), 5.46-5.27 (m, 3H), 4.87 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 4.50 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 2H), 4.37 (m, 1H), 1.79 (ddt, J = 13.4, 9.5, 6.6 Hz, 2H), 1.43 (d, J = 0.5 Hz, 9H), 1.33 (td, J = 15.1, 7.4 Hz, 2H), 1.00-0.81 (m, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 169.8, 164.3, 163.7, 154.9, 130.6, 119.4, 99.8, 89.1, 80.0, 69.5, 52.5, 35.1, 28.3, 19.0, 13.5.

MS (ES+): m/z 346.3 [M+Na] + .

Optical rotation: [ aD] +82.1 (c 0.045, MeOH).

Rf: 0.31 (Hex:EtOAc 7:3). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-17 To a solution of (R)-7 (2.88 g, 10.16 mmol) in acetone (102 mL) was

added Cs2CO3 (4.97 g, 15.25 mmol) and propargyl bromide (1.7 mL

15.25 mmol) at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture was refluxed for 2 h.

The reaction mixture was cooled to 23 ºC, filtered over Celite ® and

washed with EtOAc. The crude obtained was purified in an

automatic system for flash chromatography on (SiO2, CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc from 99:1 to 95:5) to field (R)-17 (2.31 g, 71% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 5.96 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.55 (dd, J = 2.4, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 4.95 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 2H), 4.42 (q, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 2.62 (td, J = 2.6, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 1.87-1.71 (m, 1H), 1.74-1.60 (m, 1H), 1.42 (s, 9H), 1.40-1.21 (m, 2H), 0.93 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H). 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 168.9, 164.0, 154.9, 99.5, 89.8, 80.1, 77.6, 75.7, 56.4, 52.5, 35.1, 28.3, 19.0, 13.5.

MS (ES+): m/z 344.2 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.37 (Hex:EtOAc 7:3). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-18

To a solution of (R)-7 (9.9 g, 34.94 mmol) in DMF (800 mL) was

added K2CO3 (9.66 g, 69.89 mmol) at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture

was stirred for 30 min at 23 ºC and cyclopropylmethyl bromide (3.7

m L, 38.44 mmol) was added at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture was

stirred overnight at 60 ºC. The reaction mixture was concentrated

under vacuum, diluted with EtOAc, filtrated over Celite ® and washed

with EtOAc. The crude obtained was purified in an automatic system for flash chromatography (SiO2, Hex:EtOAc 70:30) to field (R)-18 (10.13 g, 86% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 5.95 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.34 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.91 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 4.37 (q, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 3.75 (dd, J = 7.1, 1.3 Hz, 2H), 1.77 (ddt, J = 13.3, 9.5, 6.5 Hz, 1H), 1.69-1.53 (m, 1H), 1.41 (s, 9H), 1.46-1.13 (m, 2H), 0.91 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H), 0.72-0.59 (m, 2H), 0.39-0.26 (m, 2H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 170.2, 164.5, 163.5, 154.9, 99.9, 88.5, 80.0, 73.7, 52.5, 35.1, 28.3, 19.0, 13.5, 9.4, 3.3 (x2).

MS (ES+): m/z 360.2 [M+Na] + .

Optical rotation: [ aD] +82.1 (c 0.046, MeOH).

Rf: 0.32 (Hex:EtOAc 7:3). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-19

A solution of (R)-7 (37 mg, 0.124 mmol), p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (24

mg, 0.124 mmol) and triethylamine (0.017 mL, 0.124 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (2

mL) was stirred at 23 ºC for 2 h. The reaction mixture was quenched with

water and extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 . The organic layers were dried over

Na2SO4 and filtered off to afford (R)-19 (54 mg, 100% yield).

1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 7.85- 7.77 (m, 2H), 7.42-7.34 (m, 2H), 6.09

(d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.90 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.85 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 4.37 (q, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 2.46 (s, 3H), 1.75 (ddt, J = 13.7, 9.6, 6.3 Hz, 1H), 1.67-1.53 (m, 1H), 1.42 (s, 9H), 1.36-1.18 (m, 2H), 0.91 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 166.0, 162.3, 161.7, 154.8, 146.7, 131.5, 130.3, 128.4, 101.3, 99.5, 80.3, 52.6, 35.0, 28.2, 21.8, 18.9, 13.5. Synthesis of intermediate (R)-20

To a solution of (R)-7 (600 mg, 2.12 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (6 mL) was added

N,N-diisopropylethylamine (0.44 mL, 2.54 mmol) at 23 ºC. The reaction

mixture was stirred for 10 min at 23 ºC and 4-nitrobenzenesulfonyl

chloride (469 mg, 2.12 mmol) was added at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture

was stirred for 24 h at 23 ºC and diluted with HCl 1N. The layers were

separated and the organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under vacuum. The obtained crude was purified in an automatic system for flash chromatography (SiO2) to yield (R)-20 (791 mg, 80% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 8.60-8.38 (m, 2H), 8.31-8.06 (m, 2H), 6.10 (dd, J = 2.0, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 5.96 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.80 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 4.36 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 1.63 (d, J = 5.9 Hz, 2H), 1.47-1.38 (m, 9H), 1.25 (s, 2H), 0.98-0.89 (m, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 161.3, 151.7, 140.3, 130.0, 125.0, 102.0, 99.3, 80.7, 77.4, 52.9, 35.0, 29.9, 28.4, 19.2, 13.7, 1.2.

MS (ES+): m/z 491.1 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.55 (Hex:EtOAc 7:3). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-21

A solution of (R)-6 (31 mg, 0.11 mmol), CH 2 Cl 2 (1.2 mL) and

trifluoroacetic acid (0.34 mL) was stirred at 23 ºC for 2 h and then

evaporated to dryness. The crude was evaporated three times with

toluene to remove trifluoroacetic acid. The crude contained (R)-21

(100% yield) was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.38 (t, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 5.99 (dd, J =

2.4, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 4.21 (td, J = 7.5, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 2.06-1.80 (m, 2H),

1.49-1.24 (m, 3H), 0.98 (td, J = 7.4, 1.3 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES): m/z 387.2 [2M+Na] + . Synthesis of intermediate (R)-22

A solution of (R)-7 (19 mg, 0.067 mmol), CH 2 Cl 2 (0.7 mL) and

trifluoroacetic acid (0.2 mL) was stirred at 23 ºC for 2 h and then

evaporated to dryness. The crude was evaporated three times with

toluene to remove trifluoroacetic acid to obtain (R)-22 crude (13 mg,

100% yield) which was used in the next step without further

purification.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.33 (d, J = 1.0 Hz, 1H), 4.92 (s, 1H), 4.36-3.98 (m, 1H), 2.02- 1.74 (m, 2H), 1.54-1.18 (m, 2H), 0.99 (td, J = 7.3, 1.9 Hz, 3H). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-23

To a solution of (R)-9 (5.39 g, 18.1 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (202 mL, 37.5

mL/g) at 23 ºC was added trifluoroacetic acid (59.3 mL, 11 mL/g).

The reaction mixture was stirred for 1.5 hours at 23 ºC. Evaporation

of the solvent under vacuum gave (R)-23 crude that was used in the

next step without further purification.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.16 (s, 1H), 5.54 (s, 1H), 4.13 (t, J =

7.5 Hz, 1H), 3.84 (s, 3H), 1.92 (q, J = 7.7 Hz, 2H), 1.29 (m, 2H), 0.93 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H), 0.87 (m, 2H).

1 3 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3): d 171.5, 165.4, 157.5, 141.6, 117.7, 104.0, 103.3, 89.8, 56.7, 53.1, 33.2, 29.9, 18.8, 13.3. Synthesis of analog (S)-23

A solution of (S)-9 (253 mg, 0.85 mmol), CH 2 Cl 2 (9.5 mL) and

trifluoroacetic acid (2.8 mL) was stirred at 23 ºC for 1 h and then

evaporated to dryness. The crude was evaporated three times with

toluene to remove trifluoroacetic acid. The crude contained (S)-23

(100% yield) was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.35 (dd, J = 2.3, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 5.69

(dd, J = 2.3, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 4.26-4.10 (m, 1H), 3.89 (d, J = 0.8 Hz, 3H), 2.04-1.76 (m, 2H), 1.47- 1.23 (m, 2H), 1.03-0.89 (m, 3H). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-24

A solution of (R)-10 (74 mg, 0.24 mmol), CH 2 Cl 2 (9 mL) and

trifluoroacetic acid (2.6 mL) was stirred at 23 ºC for 1 h and then

evaporated to dryness. The crude was evaporated three times with

toluene to remove trifluoroacetic acid. The crude contained (R)-24

(100% yield) was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.15 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.49 (d, J = 2.0

Hz, 1H), 4.07 (dd, J = 9.7, 5.8 Hz, 1H), 3.81 (s, 3H), 1.82 (dd, J = 9.3,

5.2 Hz, 1H), 1.74-1.60 (m, 1H), 1.56-1.42 (m, 1H), 0.91 (d, J = 6.5 Hz,

6H). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-25

A solution of (R)-11 (37 mg, 0.112 mmol), CH 2 Cl 2 (4 mL) and

trifluoroacetic acid (1.23 mL) was stirred at 23 ºC for 1h and then

evaporated to dryness. The crude was evaporated three times with

toluene to remove trifluoroacetic acid. The crude contained (R)-25

(100% yield) was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD) d 6.33 (dd, J = 2.3, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 5.65 (d, J = 1.9 Hz, 1H), 4.14 (dd, J = 7.2, 1.2 Hz, 3H), 2.04-1.76 (m, 2H), 1.46-1.24 (m, 4H), 0.98 (td, J = 7.3, 1.3 Hz, 3H). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-26

A solution of (R)-12 (35g, 0.1 mmol), CH 2 Cl 2 (1.3 mL) and

trifluoroacetic acid (0.37 mL) was stirred at 23 ºC for 1 h and then

evaporated to dryness. The crude was evaporated three times with

toluene to remove trifluoroacetic acid. The crude contained (R)-26

(100%) was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD) d 6.06 (dd, J = 2.3, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (d, J

= 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.31 (dd, J = 9.2, 5.5 Hz, 1H), 4.00 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 2H), 1.90-1.55 (m, 4H), 1.44 (m, 2H), 1.02 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-27

A solution of (R)-13 (34 mg, 0.14 mmol), CH 2 Cl 2 (1.3 mL) and

trifluoroacetic acid (0.37 mL) was stirred at 23 ºC for 1 h and then

evaporated to dryness. The crude was evaporated three times with

toluene to remove trifluoroacetic acid. The crude contained (R)-27

(100%) was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD) d 6.35 (dd, J = 2.2, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 5.67 (dd,

J = 2.3, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 4.16 (ddd, J = 9.1, 6.3, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 4.07 (td, J = 6.4, 0.9 Hz, 2H), 2.04-1.67 (m, 4H), 1.59-1.22 (m, 4H), 0.98 (tdd, J = 7.4, 2.2, 0.8 Hz, 6H). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-28

To a solution of (R)-14 (76 mg) in CH 2 Cl 2 (2.85 mL) was added

trifluoroacetic acid (0.84 mL). After being stirred for 2 hours, the

mixture was evaporated to dryness and then evaporated with

toluene to remove trifluoroacetic acid to obtain (R)-28

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.14 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.50 (d, J =

2.1 Hz, 1H), 4.13 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 3.95 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 1.91

(q, J = 7.7 Hz, 2H), 1.83-1.71 (m, 2H), 1.46-1.19 (m, 10H), 0.93 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H), 0.89 (t, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 170.7, 165.4, 157.2, 104.0, 89.8, 69.9, 52.9, 32.9, 31.6, 28.8, 28.2, 25.6, 22.5, 18.5, 14.0, 13.1. Synthesis of intermediate (R)-29

A solution of (R)-15 (91 mg, 0.174 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (3.5 mL mL) and

trifluoroacetic acid (1.0 mL) was stirred at 23 ºC for 1 h and then

evaporated to dryness. The crude was evaporated three times with

toluene to remove trifluoroacetic acid. The crude containing (R)-29 (116

m g, >100%) was used in the next step without further purification. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.16 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 4.14 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 3.95 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 1.92 (q, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.77 (dd, J = 8.3, 6.2 Hz, 2H), 1.44- 1.21 (m, 32H), 0.93 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H), 0.87 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 170.9, 165.7, 157.1, 104.2, 89.8, 70.0, 53.0, 32.9, 31.9, 29.7 (x2), 29.6, 29.5, 29.4, 29.2, 28.3, 25.6, 22.7, 18.6, 14.1, 13.1. Synthesis of intermediate (R)-30

A solution of (R)-16 (5.0 g, 15.46 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (180 mL mL)

and trifluoroacetic acid (55 mL) was stirred at 23 ºC for 2 h and

then evaporated to dryness. The crude was evaporated three times

with toluene to remove trifluoroacetic acid. The crude containing

(R)-30 (5.21 g, 100%) was used in the next step without further

purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.38 (d, J =2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.97-6.07 (m,

1H), 5.68 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.32-5.46 (m, 2H), 4.63 (td, J = 5.5, 1.5 Hz, 2H), 4.18 (dd, J = 8.9, 6.1 Hz, 1H), 1.99-1.82 (m, 2H), 1.45-1.28 (m, 2H), 0.98 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 169.8, 163.9, 157.7, 130.9, 118.2, 103.2, 89.9, 69.8, 52.0, 32.7, 18.2, 12.3.

MS (ES+): m/z 224.1 [M+H] + .

Optical rotation: [ aD] -14.3 (c 0.015, MeOH). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-31

A solution of (R)-17 (2.31 g, 7.18 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (87 mL) and

trifluoroacetic acid (25.4 mL) was stirred at 23 ºC for 2 h and then

evaporated to dryness. The crude was evaporated three times with

toluene to remove trifluoroacetic acid. The crude containing (R)-31

was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 8.48 (br s, 2H), 6.19 (d, J = 2.0 Hz,

1H), 5.67 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 4.70 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 2H), 4.14 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 1H), 2.66 (t, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 1.92 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 2H), 1.39-1.26 (m, 2H), 0.93 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 169.0, 164.6, 157.7, 103.6, 91.2, 78.2, 75.1, 57.0, 52.8, 32.9, 18.5, 13.1. Synthesis of intermediate (R)-32

A solution of (R)-18 (8.9 g, 26.44 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (334 mL) and

trifluoroacetic acid (98 mL) was stirred at 23 ºC for 2 h and then

evaporated to dryness. The crude was evaporated three times with

toluene to remove trifluoroacetic acid. The crude containing (R)-32

(13.9 g, >100%) was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 8.51 (s, 2H), 6.18 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 5.48 (s, 1H), 4.13 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 1H), 3.80 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 1.91 (q, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 1.38-1.18 (m, 2H), 0.92 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H), 0.72-0.62 (m, 2H), 0.39-0.30 (m, 2H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 170.6, 157.2, 104.2, 89.8, 74.7, 52.9, 32.8, 18.5, 13.1, 9.2, 3.4, 3.3.

Optical rotation: [ aD] -89 (c 0.037, MeOH). Scheme 4 provides more examples of the synthesis of intermediates of formula II.

Scheme 4 Synthesis of intermediate (R)-33

To a mixture of Pd2(dba)3 (10 mg, 0.115 mmol), XantPhos (13 mg,

0.023 mmol) and NaOtBu (33 mg, 0.34 mmol) was added (R)-19 (100

mg, 0.23 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (2 mL) and diethylamine (0.034 mL, 0.69

m mol). The reaction was warmed to 105 ºC for 4 h and then cooled to

23 ºC and quenched with water. Extraction with CH 2 Cl 2 gave a crude

which was purified by flash chromatography over silica gel

(CH 2 Cl 2 /CH 3 OH 98/2) to afford (R)-33 (36 mg, 47% yield).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) d 5.88 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.99 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.34 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 3.32 (dt, J = 12.0, 7.2 Hz, 4H), 1.89-1.55 (m, 6H), 1.42 (s, 9H), 1.19 (m, 3H), 0.92 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-34

A solution of (R)-33 (44 mg, 0.13 mmol), CH 2 Cl 2 (1.65 mL) and

trifluoroacetic acid (0.5 mL) was stirred at 23 ºC for 2 h and then

evaporated to dryness. The crude was evaporated three times with

toluene to remove trifluoroacetic acid. The crude contained (R)-34

(100% yield) was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD) d 6.55 (s, 1H), 4.89 (s, 1H), 4.17 (dd, J =

9.0, 6.1 Hz, 1H), 3.46 (q, J = 7.1 Hz, 4H), 3.02 (m, 1H), 2.06-1.74 (m,

2H), 1.49-1.25 (m, 2H), 1.21 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 6H), 0.99 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-35

To a solution of (R)-19 (20 mg, 0.046 mmol), THF (0.2 mL), and FeCl3

(0.4 mg, 0.0023 mmol), at -15 ºC, was added N-methyl-morpholine

(0.04 mL, 0.41 mmol), and 1.4 M methylmagnesium bromide in THF/tol.

The reaction was allowed to reach 23 ºC in 3 h and then quenched with

a saturated aqueous solution of ammonium chloride. The extraction

with EtOAc gave a crude which was purified by flash chromatography

on silica gel (Hexane/EtOAc 8/2) to afford (R)-35 (13 mg, 100% yield).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) d 5.99 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 2H), 4.91 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 4.37 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 2.13 (d, J = 1.1 Hz, 3H), 1.84-1.54 (m, 4H), 1.42 (s, 9H), 0.92 (td, J = 7.5, 2.0 Hz, 3H). MS (ES): m/z 304.1 [M+Na] + . Synthesis of intermediate (R)-36

A solution of (R)-35 (15 mg, 0.053 mmol), CH 2 Cl 2 (1.8 mL) and

trifluoroacetic acid (0.36 mL) was stirred at 23 ºC for 2 h and then

evaporated to dryness. The crude was evaporated three times with

toluene to remove trifluoroacetic acid. The crude contained (R)-36

(100% yield) was used in the next step without further purification.

1

H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) d 6.19 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 6.07 (s, 1H),

4.19-3.99 (m, 1H), 2.16 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 3H), 1.89 (t, J = 7.8 Hz, 2H), 1.46-1.07 (m, 2H), 1.00- 0.74 (m, 3H). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-37

To a solution of (R)-20 (491 mg, 1.05 mmol) in THF (18 mL) was added

palladium(II) acetate (12 mg, 0.05 mmol), triphenylphosphine (28 mg,

0.10 mmol) and lithium bromide (273 mg, 3.15 mmol) at 23 ºC. The

reaction mixture was turned to a yellow-to-orange, stirred for 10 min at

23 ºC and tri-n-butyl(vinyl)tin (0.52 mL, 3.15 mmol) was added at 23 ºC.

The reaction mixture was refluxed for 1 h and concentrated under vacuum. An aqueous solution of KF 2M was added to the crude and the mixture was stirred for 30 min at 23 ºC. Filtration over Celite ® and washing with Et2O gave a crude which was purified in an automatic system for flash chromatography (SiO2) to yield (R)-37 (158 mg, 51% yield). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.53-6.41 (m, 1H), 6.28 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 6.05 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1H), 5.92 (dd, J = 17.5, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 5.63 (dd, J = 10.8, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 4.94 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 4.43 (q, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 1.88-1.72 (m, 2H), 1.43 (s, 9H), 1.34 (dt, J = 15.8, 8.1 Hz, 2H), 0.94 (td, J = 7.3, 2.5 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 163.1, 162.9, 155.1, 151.6, 133.5, 130.5, 128.7, 128.6, 122.9, 111.3, 110.1, 99.9, 80.3, 77.5, 77.4, 77.2, 76.8, 67.6, 52.9, 35.5, 29.8, 29.6, 28.5, 27.0, 24.0, 22.3, 19.3, 13.7, 1.2.

MS (ES+): m/z 316.3 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.25 (Hex:EtOAc 4:1). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-38

A solution of (R)-37 (1.01 g, 3.44 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (37 mL) and

trifluoroacetic acid (11 mL) was stirred at 23 ºC for 2 h and then

evaporated to dryness. The crude was evaporated three times with

toluene to remove trifluoroacetic acid. The crude containing (R)-38

(1.06 g, 100% yield) was used in the next step without further

purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.79 (s, 3H), 6.62-6.44 (m, 2H), 6.18 (s, 1H), 6.01 (d, J = 17.5 Hz, 1H), 5.74 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 1H), 4.26 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 1.98 (q, J = 7.8 Hz, 2H), 1.46-1.28 (m, 2H), 0.98-0.81 (m, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 163.9, 160.9, 160.5, 160.1, 159.7, 156.4, 152.6, 132.5, 125.0, 116.6, 113.7, 112.3, 104.1, 53.6, 33.2, 29.9, 18.8, 17.7, 13.3.

MS (ES+): m/z 194.3 [M+H] + . EXAMPLE 6 SYNTHESIS OF INTERMEDIATES OF FORMULA III

Scheme 5 provides some examples of the synthesis of an intermediate of formula III.

Synthesis of intermediate (R)-39

2-Methyl-L-cysteine hydrochloride (Obtained following the procedure

described in Recent Res. Devel. Organic Chem. 2004, 8, 323-339)

(13 g, 75.74 mmol) was dissolved in the minimum quantity of H2O,

cooled at 0 ºC and basified with an aqueous saturated solution of

NaHCO3 until pH 8. Evaporation of the solvent under vacuum afforded the corresponding sodium salt which was dissolved in an aqueous saturated solution of NaHCO3 (151 mL, 2 mL/mmol). The aqueous solution was cooled to 0 ºC and was added DMF (151 mL, 2 mL/mmol) and 2,2-diethoxypropanenitrile (20 mL, 128 mmol, 1.7 equiv). The reaction mixture was stirred overnight at 23 ºC. After cooling at 0 ºC, HCl 0.5 M was added until pH 2. The aqueous layer was extracted with a mixture 50:50 of Hex:EtOAc (x3). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated under vacuum to afford crude (R)-39 (11.39 g, 57% yield) which was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 3.72 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.60-3.47 (m, 4H), 3.16 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 1.59 (d, J = 1.9 Hz, 6H), 1.20 (t, J = 7.1, 6H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d ^175.6, 163.3, 100.5, 84.5, 57.9, 57.9, 40.7, 24.2, 23.9, 15.4. Optical rotation: [ aD] -4.4 (c 0.098, MeOH). Synthesis of intermediate (R)-40

To a solution of L-cysteine (250 mg, 2.06 mmol) in water (27 mL) and

NaHCO3 (2 g) at 0 ºC, were added DMF (27 mL) and 2,2- diethoxypropionitrile (0.42 mL, 2.7 mmol). The reaction was stirred for

24 h at 23 ºC and after cooling to 0 ºC 1M HCl was added to pH=2.

The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc and the combined

organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under vacuum to give (R)-40 (191 mg, 37% yield). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d ^5.31 (dd, J = 10.1, 7.5 Hz, 1H), 3.74-3.40 (m, 5H), 2.94 (d, J = 26.1 Hz, 1H), 1.59 (s, 3H), 1.20 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, 6H).

1 3 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3): d 182.2, 175.2, 165.8, 103.0, 80.1, 60.3, 60.0, 39.3, 37.1, 34.2, 26.2, 17.7. Synthesis of intermediate (S)-39

2-Methyl-D-cysteine hydrochloride (3.1 g, 17.9 mmol) was dissolved

in the minimum quantity of H2O, cooled at 0 ºC and basified with an

aqueous saturated solution of NaHCO3 until pH 8. Evaporation of

the solvent under vacuum afforded the corresponding sodium salt

which was dissolved in a saturated aqueous solution of NaHCO3 (35.8 mL, 2 mL/mmol). The aqueous solution was cooled to 0 ºC and was added DMF (35.8 mL, 2 mL/mmol) and 2,2- diethoxypropanenitrile (4.7 mL, 30.4 mmol, 1.7 equiv). The reaction mixture was stirred overnight at 23 ºC. After cooling at 0 ºC, HCl 0.5 M was added until pH 2. The aqueous layer was extracted with a mixture 50:50 of Hex:EtOAc (x3). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated under vacuum to afford crude (S)-39 (3.34 g, 71% yield) which was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 3.69 (dd, J = 11.5, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 3.54 (m, 4H), 3.12 (dd, J = 11.6, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 1.57 (d, J = 0.7 Hz, 3H), 1.56 (d, J = 0.7 Hz, 3H), 1.19 (tt, J = 7.1, 0.8 Hz, 6H). 1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d ^176.3, 164.0, 101.5, 85.7, 58.9, 58.8, 37.8, 32.7, 24.9, 16.5, 16.4. MS (ES+): m/z 262.3 [M+H] + .

Optical rotation: [ aD] +4.6 (c 0.096, MeOH). EXAMPLE 7. SYNTHESIS OF COMPOUNDS 1 AND 1a

Scheme 6 provides an example of the synthesis of compounds 1 and 1a

Synthesis of intermediate 41 To a solution of (R)-23 (6.76 g, 21.7 mmol) and (R)-39

(5.68 g, 21.7 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (152 mL) was sequentially

added at 23 ºC O-(7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N¢,N¢- tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HATU) (17.02 g,

4 4.7 mmol, 2.06 equiv), 1-hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole

(HOAt) (6.2 g, 45.1 mmol, 2.08 equiv), and N,N-

diisopropylethylamine (16.24 mL, 93 mmol, 4.29 equiv). The reaction mixture was stirred for 15 hours at 23 ºC, diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 and washed with an aqueous saturated solution of NaHCO3, HCl 0.5 M, and an aqueous saturated solution of NaCl. The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under vacuum. The obtained crude was purified by column chromatography (Hex:EtOAc, from 8:2 to 6:4) to give pure 41 (8.5 g, 89% for two steps).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.02 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 5.96-5.70 (m, 1H), 5.45-5.33 (m, 1H), 4.72 (td, J = 8.5, 6.2 Hz, 1H), 3.77 (s, 3H), 3.67-3.43 (m, 5H), 3.15 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 1.87 (ddt, J = 13.1, 9.7, 6.4 Hz, 1H), 1.71 (ddd, J = 9.6, 8.3, 5.5 Hz, 2H), 1.61 (s, 3H), 1.53 (s, 3H), 1.44-1.28 (m, 2H), 1.22 (q, J = 7.2 Hz, 6H), 0.94 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3): d 177.1, 174.7, 171.0, 164.1, 163.2, 100.5, 99.8, 88.6, 85.4, 58.0, 56.1, 51.0, 40.6, 34.9, 25.5, 24.0, 19.3, 15.4, 13.8.

MS (ES+): m/z 463.3 [M+Na] + .

R f: 0.29 (Hex:EtOAc 1:1). Synthesis of intermediate 42

Over 41 (4.25 g, 9.6 mmol) was added at 23 ºC pentane (255

mL, 60 mL/g) and formic acid (170 mL, 40 mL/g). The reaction

mixture was stirred vigorously for 2 hours at 23 ºC. The solvent

was removed under vacuum. The obtained crude was purified

by column chromatography (CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc, from 9:1 to 8:2) to

obtain pure 42 (4.25 g, 60% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.01 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.91 (dd, J = 2.2, 0.4 Hz, 1H), 5.42 (t, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 4.74 (q, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 3.82-3.75 (m, 3H), 3.63 (dd, J = 12.0, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 3.28 (dd, J = 11.9, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 2.56 (d, J = 0.9 Hz, 3H), 1.95-1.73 (m, 1H), 1.54 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 3H), 1.46-1.29 (m, 1H), 0.96 (td, J = 7.3, 1.7 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3): d 193.1, 173.2, 170.8, 170.4, 164.0, 162.0, 100.3, 88.6, 86.1, 56.0, 51.1, 40.1, 34.8, 26.3, 24.5, 19.0, 13.5.

MS (ES+): m/z 367.1 [M+H] + , 389.1 [M+Na] + . Synthesis of compounds 1 and 1a

To a solution of 42 (4.25 g, 11.6 mmol) in ethanol (127.6 mL, 11 mL/mmol) and H2O (127.6 mL, 11 mL/mmol) was added at 23 ºC hydroxylamine hydrochloride (5.96 g, 84.7 mmol, 7.4 equiv) and sodium acetate (4.28 g, 52.2 mmol, 4.5 equiv). The reaction mixture was stirred for 24 hours at 23 ºC. The solvent was removed under vacuum, the residue obtained was dissolved in H2O and extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under vacuum. The obtained crude was purified by semipreparative HPLC (X-Bridge Prep C 1 8, 5 mm, 19 x 150 mm, isocratic H2O:CH 3 CN (62:38) flow: 15 mL/min, UV detection) to yield 1a (320 mg, 7% yield, retention time: 6.0 min) and 1 (2.72 g, 64% yield, retention time: 9.3 min). Synthetic 1 exhibited physical, spectroscopic ( 1 H, 1 3 C NMR and MS) and biological characteristics equivalent to those reported in Example 2. Compound 1

1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.08 (dd, J = 2.2, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 5.55 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.72 (dd, J = 9.4, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 3.84 (s, 3H), 3.59 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 3.22 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.17 (s, 3H), 1.87 (dddd, J = 13.7, 9.6, 6.6, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 1.82-1.69 (m, 1H), 1.55 (s, 3H), 1.53-1.32 (m, 2H), 0.98 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3): d 176.5, 173.4, 170.3, 166.7, 165.2, 152.9, 100.8, 88.9, 85.6, 57.0, 52.1, 40.6, 35.2, 25.0, 20.2, 13.8, 11.0.

MS (ES+): m/z 382.3 [M+H] + , 404.1 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.36 (Hex:EtOAc 1:1). ^ Compound 1a

1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.08 (dd, J = 2.2, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 5.55 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.72 (dd, J = 9.4, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 3.84 (s, 3H), 3.59 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 3.22 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.17 (s, 3H), 1.87 (dddd, J = 13.7, 9.6, 6.6, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 1.82-1.69 (m, 1H), 1.55 (s, 3H), 1.53-1.32 (m, 2H), 0.98 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3): d 173.5, 171.0, 164.6, 164.5, 162.4, 147.2, 100.1, 88.5, 83.6, 56.0, 51.0, 40.9, 35.0, 24.8, 19.2, 19.0, 13.5. ^ EXAMPLE 8. SYNTHESIS OF COMPOUNDS epi-1 AND epi-1a

Scheme 7 provides a comparative example of the synthesis of compounds epi-1 and epi-1a

Synthesis of analog epi-41

To a suspension of (S)-23 (24 mg, 0.076 mmol) and (R)- 39 (19 mg, 0.076 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (0.5 mL) were added

HATU (60 mg, 0.16 mmol), HOAt (22 mg, 0.16 mmol) and

DIPEA (0.057 mL, 0.33 mmol) and the mixture was stirred

at 23 ºC overnight. Dilution with CH 2 Cl 2 , washing of the

organic layer with 0.5M HCl, with brine and then dried

over anhydrous Na2SO4. Evaporation of the solvent gave

a crude which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hexane/EtOAc from 9/1 to 7/3) to afford epi-41 (33 mg, 73% yield).

1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.15 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.58 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.67 (dd, J = 9.3, 5.5 Hz, 1H), 3.87 (s, 3H), 3.62 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 3.66-3.47 (m, 4H), 3.24 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 1.92-1.79 (m, 1H), 1.79-1.70 (m, 1H), 1.58 (s, 3H), 1.47 (s, 3H), 1.42-1.26 (m, 2H), 1.22 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 6H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (125 MHz, CD3OD): d 178.0, 176.6, 173.4, 166.6, 165.3, 111.4, 101.6, 100.8, 88.9, 86.2, 58.8, 58.8, 57.0, 52.3, 41.2, 35.3, 25.1, 24.2, 20.2, 15.5 (x2), 13.8. Synthesis of analog epi-42

To a mixture of epi-41 (10 mg, 0.023 mmol) and pentane (0.6

mL) was added formic acid (0.4 mL). The reaction was stirred

vigorously at 23 ºC or 2 h and then evaporated to dryness

with toluene to remove efficiently the formic acid giving epi-42

(100%).

1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.15 (dd, J = 2.2, 0.7 Hz, 1H),

5.59 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.71 (dd, J = 9.3, 5.8 Hz, 1H), 3.87 (s, 3H), 3.71 (d, J = 11.8 Hz, 1H), 3.32 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 1.96-1.67 (m, 2H), 1.55 (s, 3H), 1.49 (s, 3H), 1.47-1.27 (m, 2H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H). 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CD3OD): d 194.9, 175.6, 173.5, 171.7, 166.8, 165.3, 100.9, 88.9, 87.4, 57.1, 52.4, 41.3, 35.0, 24.5, 20.3, 20.2, 13.8. Synthesis of analogs epi-1 and epi-1a

To a solution of epi-44 (8 mg, 0.023 mmol) in ethanol (0.5 mL) and water (0.5 mL), were added NH2OH . HCl (11 mg, 0.16 mmol) and NaOAc (8 mg, 0.10 mmol). After stirring at 23 ºC for 24 h the ethanol was evaporated under vacuum and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and after evaporation of the solvent; the obtained crude was purified by HPLC method, using an XBridge C 1 8 5 mm H2O/CH 3 CN to give epi-1a (0.6 mg) and epi-1 (1.5 mg, 17% yield). Analog epi-1a

1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.16 (dq, J = 2.3, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 5.61-5.56 (m, 1H), 4.69 (dd, J = 9.2, 5.8 Hz, 1H), 3.87 (t, J = 0.8 Hz, 3H), 3.57 (dt, J = 11.5, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 3.19 (dt, J = 11.5, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 2.19 (t, J = 0.8 Hz, 3H), 1.93-1.68 (m, 2H), 1.51 (t, J = 0.9 Hz, 3H), 1.35 (m, 1H), 0.98- 0.90 (m, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (125 MHz, CD3OD): d 176.5, 173.4, 170.1, 166.6, 165.2, 152.8, 100.7, 88.7, 85.4, 56.9, 52.2, 40.5, 35.0, 24.8, 20.1, 13.7, 10.8.

Analog epi-1

1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) d 6.13 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.57 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.68 (td, J = 8.9, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 3.60 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 3.21 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.16 (s, 3H), 1.82 (dd, J = 9.3, 6.0 Hz, 1H), 1.73 (dd, J = 9.2, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 1.52 (s, 4H), 1.46-1.26 (m, 1H), 0.93 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

EXAMPLE 9. SYNTHESIS OF MORE COMPOUNDS OF FORMULA I

Scheme 8 provides another example of the synthesis of more compounds of formula I.

Compound 43

To a suspension of (R)-21 (20 mg, 0.11 mmol) and (R)-39

(27 mg, 0.11 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (1.3 mL) were added HATU

(43 mg, 0.11 mmol), HOAt (16 mg, 0.11 mmol) and DIPEA

(0.082 mL, 0.47 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at 23

ºC overnight. Dilution with CH 2 Cl 2 , washing of the organic layer with 0.5M HCl, with brine and then dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. Evaporation of the solvent gave a crude which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 /CH 3 OH 98/2) to afford 43 (46 mg, 100% yield).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD): d 5.90 (m, 1H), 5.66 (m, 1H), 4.76 (q, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 3.71-3.45 (m, 5H), 3.26-3.17 (m, 1H), 1.79 (q, J = 7.7 Hz, 2H), 1.59 (d, J = 1.9 Hz, 3H), 1.50 (d, J = 0.7 Hz, 3H), 1.37 (m, 2H), 1.28-1.14 (m, 6H), 1.06-0.89 (m, 3H).

MS (ES): m/z 448.3 [M+Na] + , 851.4 [2M+H] + . Compound 44

To a suspension of (R)-22 (12 mg, 0.067 mmol) and (R)- 39 (16 mg, 0.0.067 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (0.8 mL) were added

HATU (26 mg, 0.067 mmol), HOAt (10 mg, 0.067 mmol)

and DIPEA (0.05 mL, 0.29 mmol) and the mixture was

stirred at 23 ºC overnight. Dilution with CH 2 Cl 2 , washing of

the organic layer with 0.5M HCl, with brine and then dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. Evaporation of the solvent gave a crude which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 /CH 3 OH 98/2) to afford 44 (31 mg, 100% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.21 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 6.04-5.98 (m, 1H), 5.51 (dd, J = 2.2, 0.5 Hz, 1H), 4.71 (td, J = 8.5, 6.7 Hz, 1H), 3.65-3.43 (m, 5H), 3.23-3.12 (m, 1H), 2.81 (s, 3H), 1.80 (dddd, J = 51.2, 17.5, 9.1, 5.1 Hz, 1H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.51-1.25 (m, 3H), 1.22 (dtd, J = 7.8, 7.1, 0.6 Hz, 4H), 0.94 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 177.6, 175.2, 170.7, 170.6, 165.9, 165.4, 163.3, 100.8, 100.4, 91.0, 85.1, 57.9 (x2), 55.7, 51.4, 43.7, 40.5, 38.8, 34.7, 25.2, 23.9, 19.2, 18.8, 17.4, 15.4, 13.7, 12.7.

MS (ES): m/z 449.1 [M+Na] + . Compound 45

To a suspension of (R)-39 (63 mg, 0.24 mmol) and (R)-24

(74 mg, 0.24 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (2.2 mL) were added HATU

(188 mg, 0.49 mmol), HOAt (69 mg, 0.49 mmol) and

DIPEA (0.18 mL, 1.03 mmol) and the mixture was stirred

at 23 ºC overnight. Dilution with CH 2 Cl 2 , washing of the

organic layer with 0.5 M HCl and brine and, finally, dried

over anhydrous Na2SO4. Evaporation of the solvent gave a crude which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hexane/EtOAc 9/1 to 7/3) to obtain 45 (50 mg, 47% yield).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.03 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.85 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 5.37 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.78 (td, J = 8.9, 6.0 Hz, 1H), 3.76 (s, 3H), 3.67-3.41 (m, 5H), 3.14 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 1.74-1.62 (m, 1H), 1.60 (s, 2H), 1.59 (s, 3H), 1.51 (s, 3H), 1.29-1.14 (m, 6H), 0.93 (dd, J = 6.2, 3.5 Hz, 6H). Compound 46

To a suspension of (R)-25 (24 mg, 0.112 mmol) and (R)- 39 (29 mg, 0.112 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (1 mL) were added

HATU (88 mg, 0.23 mmol), HOAt (32 mg, 0.23 mmol) and

D IPEA (0.083 mL, 0.48 mmol) and the mixture was stirred

at 23 ºC overnight. Dilution with CH 2 Cl 2 , washing of the

organic layer with 0.5M HCl, with brine and then dried over

anhydrous Na2SO4. Evaporation of the solvent gave a crude which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hexane/EtOAc from 9/1 to 7/3) to afford 46 (38 mg, 73% yield). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) d 7.00 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.81 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 5.34 (dd, J = 2.3, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 4.70 (td, J = 8.5, 6.2 Hz, 1H), 4.03-3.90 (m, 2H), 3.64-3.42 (m, 5H), 3.13 (dd, J = 11.7, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 1.84 (m, 1H), 1.68 (m, 1H), 1.59 (d, J = 0.9 Hz, 3H), 1.54-1.48 (m, 3H), 1.37 (td, J = 7.0, 0.9 Hz, 3H), 1.24-1.14 (m, 6H), 0.97-0.88 (m, 3H).

MS (ES): m/z 477.2 [M+Na] + . Compound 47

To a suspension of (R)-27 (24 mg, 0.1 mmol) and (R)-39

(26 mg, 0.11 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (1 mL) were added HATU

(39 mg, 0.103 mmol), HOAt (14 mg, 0.104 mmol) and

DIPEA (0.075 mL, 0.43 mmol) and the mixture was stirred

at 23 ºC overnight. Dilution with CH 2 Cl 2 , washing of the

organic layer with 0.5 M HCl, with brine and then dried

over anhydrous Na2SO4. Evaporation of the solvent gave a

crude which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 /EtOAc 9/1) to afford 47 (48 mg, 100% yield).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) d 7.02 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.82 (dt, J = 2.2, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 5.35 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.72 (td, J = 8.7, 6.2 Hz, 1H), 3.90 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 2H), 3.67-3.45 (m, 5H), 3.15 (dd, J = 11.7, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 1.97-1.62 (m, 4H), 1.60 (d, J = 0.6 Hz, 3H), 1.53 (s, 3H), 1.51-1.30 (m, 4H), 1.26-1.13 (m, 6H), 1.00-0.85 (m, 6H).

MS (ES): m/z 505.3 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.62 (Hex:EtOAc 1:1). Compound 48

A mixture of (R)-28 (0.199 mmol) and (R)-39 (55 mg) was

coevaporated with toluene and then HATU (82 mg) and

HOAt (30 mg) were added. Reaction flask was evacuated

and filled with N2. CH 2 Cl 2 (2 mL) and DIPEA (156 mL) were

introduced via syringe. The mixture was stirred at 23 ºC for

16 h. Then, it was diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 before washing twice with HCl 0.5 N and once with brine. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and evaporated to dryness. Crude residue was purified on a system for flash chromatography with a SiO2 column eluting with mixtures of hexane/EtOAc from 100:0 to 50:50 in 15 min to afford 48 (71 mg, 68% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.04 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.82 (dd, J = 2.2, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 5.34 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.71 (td, J = 8.5, 6.2 Hz, 1H), 3.88 (td, J = 6.5, 1.1 Hz, 2H), 3.60 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 3.60-3.44 (m, 4H), 3.14 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 1.85 (ddt, J = 13.6, 9.6, 6.3 Hz, 1H), 1.78-1.61 (m, 3H), 1.59 (s, 3H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.44-1.24 (m, 10H), 1.24-1.17 (m, 6H), 0.92 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H), 0.86 (t, J = 6.9 Hz, 3H).

1 3C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 176.7, 174.4, 170.1, 164.0, 162.8, 100.2, 99.8, 88.6, 85.2, 69.0, 57.7, 57.6, 50.7, 40.3, 34.7, 31.6, 28.8, 28.3, 25.7, 25.3, 23.7, 22.5, 19.0, 15.2, 14.0, 13.5. Compound 49

To a solution of (R)-29 (93 mg, 0.174 mmol) and (R)-39 (48

mg, 0.183 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (1.2 mL) was sequentially added

O -(7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N ¢ ,N ¢ -tetramethyluronium

hexafluorophosphate (HATU) (72 mg, 0.188 mmol), 1- hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole (HOAt) (26 mg, 0.190 mmol), and

N,N-diisopropylethylamine (137 mL, 0.785 mmol) at 23 ºC. The

reaction mixture was stirred overnight at 23 ºC, diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 and washed HCl 0.5 M. The aqueous layer was extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 (2x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under vacuum. The obtained crude was purified in an automatic system for flash chromatography (SiO2, Hex:EtOAc) to obtain 49 (91 mg, 78% yield for 2 steps).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.03 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.83 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.35 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.72 (td, J = 8.6, 6.2 Hz, 1H), 3.89 (td, J = 6.6, 1.1 Hz, 2H), 3.61 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 3.61-3.45 (m, 4H), 3.15 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 1.93-1.79 (m, 1H), 1.79-1.62 (m, 3H), 1.60 (s, 3H), 1.53 (s, 3H), 1.44-1.23 (m, 32H), 1.24-1.18 (m, 6H), 0.93 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H), 0.86 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 176.8, 174.4, 170.1, 164.0, 162.8, 100.2, 99.9, 88.6, 85.2, 69.0, 57.7, 57.6, 50.8, 40.3, 34.7, 31.9, 29.7, 29.6, 29.5 (x2), 29.3, 29.2, 28.4, 25.8, 25.3, 23.7, 22.7, 19.0, 15.2, 14.1, 13.5. Compound 50

To a solution of (R)-30 (5.20 g, 15.42 mmol) and (R)-39

(4.03 g, 15.42 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (110 mL) was sequentially

added O-(7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N ¢ ,N ¢ - tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HATU) (5.86 g, 15.42 mmol), 1-hydroxy-7- azabenzotriazole (HOAt) (2.11 g, 15.42 mmol), and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (10.74 mL, 61.66 mmol) at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture was stirred overnight at 23 ºC, diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 and washed HCl 0.5 M. The aqueous layer was extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 (2x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under vacuum. The obtained crude was purified by in an automatic system for flash chromatography (SiO2, Hex:EtOAc 50:50) to obtain 50 (6.08 g, 85% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.02 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 6.01-5.88 (m, 1H), 5.86 (dd, J = 2.2, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 5.46-5.24 (m, 3H), 4.72 (td, J = 8.5, 6.3 Hz, 1H), 4.46 (dt, J = 5.5, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 3.70- 3.39 (m, 5H), 3.16 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 1.92-1.83 (m, 1H), 1.75-1.66 (m, 1H), 1.62 (s, 3H), 1.55 (s, 3H),1.40-1.28 (m, 2H), 1.25-1.17 (m, 6H), 0.93 (td, J = 7.4, 2.4 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 176.8, 174.5, 169.6, 163.8, 163.1, 130.6, 119.5, 100.2, 99.7, 89.2, 85.2, 69.5, 57.8, 57.7, 50.8, 40.4, 34.7, 25.3, 23.7, 19.0, 15.2, 13.5.

MS (ES+): 489.2 [M+Na] + .

Optical rotation: [ aD] +51.5 (c 0.037, MeOH).

Rf: 0.25 (Hex:EtOAc 7:3). Compound 51

To a solution of (R)-31 (2.41 g, 7.18 mmol) and (R)-39

(1.98 g, 7.56 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (53 mL) was sequentially

added O-(7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N ¢ ,N ¢ - tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HATU) (2.96 g,

7.79 mmol), 1-hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole (HOAt) (1.08 g,

7.87 mmol), and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (5.6 mL, 32.46 mmol) at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture was stirred overnight at 23 ºC, diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 and washed HCl 0.5 M. The aqueous layer was extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 (2x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under vacuum. The obtained crude was purified in an automatic system for flash chromatography (SiO2, Hex:EtOAc from 10:0 to 50:50) to obtain 51 (3.37 g, 100% yield for 2 steps).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.04 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.86 (dd, J = 2.3, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.72 (td, J = 8.6, 6.2 Hz, 1H), 4.63 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 2H), 3.60 (d, J = 11.8 Hz, 1H), 3.63-3.43 (m, 4H), 3.15 (d, J = 11.8 Hz, 1H), 2.62 (t, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 1.86 (ddt, J = 13.6, 9.6, 6.3 Hz, 1H), 1.76-1.62 (m, 1H), 1.60 (s, 3H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.45-1.28 (m, 2H), 1.27-1.16 (m, 6H), 0.93 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 176.9, 174.5, 168.6, 163.4 (2x), 100.2, 99.3, 89.9, 85.1, 77.7, 75.6, 57.7, 57.6, 56.4, 50.8, 40.3, 34.6, 25.3, 23.7, 19.0, 15.2, 13.5.

MS (ES+): 487.3 [M+Na] + . Rf: 0.35 (Hex:EtOAc 50:50). Compound 52

To a solution of (R)-32 (9.28 g, 26.41 mmol) and (R)-39

(6.90 g, 26.41 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (180 mL) was sequentially

added O-(7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N ¢ ,N ¢ - tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HATU) (10.04 g,

26.41 mmol), 1-hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole (HOAt) (3.62

g, 26.41 mmol), and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (18.4 mL,

105.66 mmol) at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture was stirred overnight at 23 ºC, diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 and washed HCl 0.5 M. The aqueous layer was extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 (2x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under vacuum. The obtained crude was purified by in an automatic system for flash chromatography (SiO2, Hex:EtOAc 50:50) to obtain 52 (12.1 g, 95% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.03 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.85 (dd, J = 2.2, 0.5 Hz, 1H), 5.31 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.71 (td, J = 8.5, 6.2 Hz, 1H), 3.80-3.67 (m, 2H), 3.61 (d, J = 11.8 Hz, 1H), 3.61- 3.42 (m, 4H), 3.14 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 1.86 (ddt, J = 13.7, 9.5, 6.3 Hz, 1H), 1.75-1.62 (m, 1H), 1.60 (s, 3H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.45-1.15 (m, 2H), 1.22 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H), 1.20 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H), 0.92 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H), 0.74-0.58 (m, 2H), 0.38-0.27 (m, 2H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 176.8, 174.4, 170.0, 163.9, 162.9, 100.2, 99.8, 88.6, 85.2, 73.7, 57.7, 57.6, 50.8, 40.3, 34.7, 25.3, 23.7, 19.0, 15.2, 13.5, 9.4, 3.3 (x2).

MS (ES+): 503.3 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.49 (Hex:EtOAc 1:1). Compound 53

To a suspension of (R)-34 (31 mg, 0.13 mmol) and (R)-39

(34 mg, 0.13 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (1.5 mL) were added HATU

(51 mg, 0.13 mmol), HOAt (19 mg, 0.13 mmol) and DIPEA

(0.1 mL, 0.56 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at 23 ºC

overnight. Dilution with CH 2 Cl 2 , washing of the organic layer

with 0.5 M HCl, with brine and then dried over anhydrous

Na2SO4. Evaporation of the solvent gave a crude which

was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 /CH 3 OH 98/2) to afford 53 (38 mg, 60% yield).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) d 7.04 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.85 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.96 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.67 (td, J = 8.4, 6.8 Hz, 1H), 3.68-3.42 (m, 5H), 3.29 (qd, J = 7.3, 3.5 Hz, 4H), 3.14 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 1.95-1.64 (m, 2H), 1.60 (s, 3H), 1.53 (s, 3H), 1.34 (dd, J = 9.8, 6.8 Hz, 2H), 1.28-1.08 (m, 12H), 0.93 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H). Compound 54

To a suspension of (R)-36 (10 mg, 0.053 mmol) and (R)- 39 (14 mg, 0.053 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (0.4 mL) were added

H ATU (42 mg, 0.10 mmol), HOAt (15 mg, 0.10 mmol) and

DIPEA (0.040 mL, 0.22 mmol) and the mixture was stirred

at 23 ºC overnight. Dilution with CH 2 Cl 2 , washing of the

organic layer with 0.5 M HCl, with brine and then dried

over anhydrous Na2SO4. Evaporation of the solvent gave a crude which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 /EtOAc 6/4) to afford 54 (7 mg, 100% yield).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) d 7.08 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.96 (t, J = 1.3 Hz, 1H), 5.93 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1H), 4.72 (td, J = 8.5, 6.6 Hz, 1H), 3.75-3.45 (m, 5H), 3.36 (d, J = 11.8 Hz, 1H), 2.10 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 3H), 1.89-1.68 (m, 2H), 1.66 (s, 3H), 1.46-1.27 (m, 8H), 0.93 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES): m/z 447.2 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.33 (Hex:EtOAc 1:1). Compound 55

To a suspension of (R)-38 (1.06 g, 3.45 mmol) and (R)-39

(1.1 g, 3.45 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (24 mL) was sequentially

added O-(7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N ¢ ,N ¢ - tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HATU) (1.3 g,

3.45 mmol), 1-hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole (HOAt) (473

mg, 3.45 mmol), and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (2.4 mL,

13.79 mmol) at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture was stirred overnight at 23 ºC, filtered through Celite ® and the filtrate was concentrated under vacuum. The obtained crude was purified in an automatic system for flash chromatography (SiO2, Hex:EtOAc) to obtain 55 (1.35 g, 90% yield). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.45 (dd, J = 17.4, 10.8 Hz, 1H), 6.33 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.04- 5.99 (m, 1H), 5.94 (d, J = 17.5 Hz, 1H), 5.61 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 1H), 4.79 (td, J = 8.5, 6.3 Hz, 1H), 3.81 (d, J = 11.8 Hz, 1H), 3.64-3.45 (m, 4H), 3.19 (d, J = 11.8 Hz, 1H), 1.94-1.83 (m, 1H), 1.82- 1.70 (m, 1H), 1.64 (s, 6H), 1.45-1.29 (m, 2H), 1.23 (td, J = 7.1, 2.6 Hz, 6H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3): d 162.6, 151.4, 133.5, 123.1, 111.4, 100.4, 99.7, 58.2, 58.1, 51.6, 40.5, 35.1, 25.5, 24.0, 19.3, 15.3, 13.7.

MS (ES+): m/z 459.2 [M+Na] + .

R f : 0.43 (Hex:EtOAc 1:1). Compound 56

To a mixture of 43 (46 mg, 0.11 mmol) and pentane (3.4 mL) was added formic acid (2.3 mL). The reaction was stirred vigorously at 23 ºC for 1.5 h and then evaporated to dryness with toluene to remove efficiently the formic acid giving crude 56 (100%) which was used in the next step without further purification.

MS (ES): m/z 352.2 [M+H] + , 703.2 [2M+H] + . Compound 57

To a mixture of 44 (16 mg, 0.034 mmol) and pentane (0.96 mL)

was added formic acid (0.64 mL). The reaction was stirred

vigorously at 23 ºC for 1.5 h and then evaporated to dryness

with toluene to remove efficiently the formic acid giving crude

57 (13 mg, 100% yield) which was used in the next step

without further purification.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) d ^7.16 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.09 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 5.58 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 4.75 (td, J = 8.5, 7.0 Hz, 1H), 3.60 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 3.30 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 2.57 (s, 3H), 1.98-1.76 (m, 2H), 1.56 (s, 3H), 1.51-1.31 (m, 2H), 0.98 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES): m/z 375.1 [M+Na] + , 727.1 [2M+Na] + . Compound 58

To a mixture of 45 (57 mg, 0.13 mmol) and pentane (3.4 mL)

was added formic acid (2.3 mL). The reaction was stirred

vigorously at 23 ºC for 2 h and then evaporated to dryness

with toluene to remove efficiently the formic acid. The crude

was chromatographed on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 /EtOAc from 9/1 to

8/2) to give 58 (47 mg, 100% yield).

1

H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) d 6.98 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.93 (d,

J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.43 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.81 (td, J = 8.5, 6.9 Hz, 1H), 3.85-3.70 (m, 3H), 3.62 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 3.27 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 2.56 (s, 3H), 1.82-1.56 (m, 3H), 1.53 (s, 3H), 0.97 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 6H). Compound 59

To a mixture of 46 (35 mg, 0.077 mmol) and pentane (2.1 mL)

was added formic acid (1.4 mL). The reaction was stirred

vigorously at 23 ºC for 2 h and then evaporated to dryness

with toluene to remove efficiently the formic acid giving crude

59 (30 mg, 100% yield) which was used in the next step

without further purification.

1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) d 6.08 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 5.55 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.18 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 4.36 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 2.17 (d, J = 1.1 Hz, 1H), 2.06 (s, 0H), 1.93-1.59 (m, 12H), 1.53 (d, J = 1.1 Hz, 1H), 1.49-1.29 (m, 16H), 0.92 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 5H).

MS (ES): m/z 381.2 [M+H] + , 403.3 [M+Na] + .

R f: 0.2 (Hex:EtOAc 6:4). Compound 60

To a mixture of 47 (48 mg, 0.1 mmol) and pentane (3.2 mL)

was added formic acid (2.2 mL). The reaction was stirred

vigorously at 23 ºC for 2 h and then evaporated to dryness

with toluene to remove efficiently the formic acid giving crude

60 (100% yield) which was used in the next step without

further purification.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) d 7.04 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.92 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.41 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.74 (q, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 4.01-3.89 (m, 2H), 3.63 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 3.28 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 2.56 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 3H), 1.95-1.65 (m, 4H), 1.64-1.17 (m, 7H), 1.05-0.87 (m, 6H). MS (ES): m/z 409.3 [M+H] + , 431.1 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.27 (Hex:EtOAc 6:4). Compound 61

A mixture of 48 (69 mg) and pentane (3.6 mL) and formic acid

( 2.4 mL) was vigorously stirred for 2 h and the volatiles were

evaporated to dryness. The crude was coevaporated few

times with a mixture of CH 2 Cl 2 /toluene to eliminate the acid

and give crude 61 (59 mg, 100% yield) which was used in the

next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.04 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.91 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.40 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (dt, J = 8.8, 7.5 Hz, 1H), 3.91 (td, J = 6.5, 1.7 Hz, 2H), 3.61 (d, J = 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.26 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 2.55 (s, 3H), 1.93-1.67 (m, 4H), 1.53 (s, 3H), 1.47-1.18 (m, 10H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H), 0.88 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 193.2, 173.2, 170.4, 170.3, 164.3, 161.7, 100.8, 88.9, 86.0, 69.2, 51.0, 40.1, 34.8, 31.6, 29.6, 28.8, 28.3, 26.3, 25.7, 24.5, 22.5, 19.0, 14.0, 13.5. Compound 62

Over 49 (89 mg, 0.134 mmol) was added at 23 ºC pentane (4.6

mL) and formic acid (3.1 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred

vigorously for 2 hours at 23 ºC and the volatiles were evaporated

u nder vacuum. The obtained crude was evaporated few times with a mixture of CH 2 Cl 2 :toluene to eliminate formic acid to give crude 62 which was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.03 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 5.90 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.39 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (dt, J = 8.8, 7.6 Hz, 1H), 3.90 (td, J = 6.5, 1.7 Hz, 2H), 3.61 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 3.26 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 2.55 (s, 3H), 1.93-1.66 (m, 4H), 1.53 (s, 3H), 1.46-1.18 (m, 32H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.85 (t, J = 6.9 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 193.1, 173.2, 170.4, 170.2, 164.2, 161.7, 100.8, 88.9, 86.0, 69.2, 51.0, 40.1, 34.9, 31.9, 29.6 (x3), 29.5, 29.4, 29.3, 29.1, 28.3, 26.3, 25.7, 24.5, 22.6, 19.0, 14.1, 13.5. Compound 63

Over 50 (6.0 g, 12.92 mmol) was added at 23 ºC pentane

(314 mL) and formic acid (212 mL). The reaction mixture was

stirred vigorously for 2 hours at 23 ºC and the volatiles were

evaporated under vacuum. The obtained crude was

evaporated few times with a mixture of CH 2 Cl 2 :toluene to

eliminate formic acid to give crude 63 (6.0 g, >100% yield)

which was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.11 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.97 (d J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.99-5.89 (m, 1H), 5.48 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.44-5.28 (m, 2H), 4.75 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 4.49 (td, J = 5.5, 1.5 Hz, 2H), 3.60 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 3.27 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 2.55 (s, 3H), 2.03-1.67 (m, 2H), 1.53 (s, 3H), 1.45-1.26 (m, 1H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 193.3, 173.3, 170.6, 169.8, 164.1, 162.2, 130.7, 119.9, 100.8, 89.6, 86.3, 69.8, 51.2, 40.3, 35.1, 26.5, 24.8, 24.7, 19.3 (x2), 13.7.

MS (ES+): 393.2 [M+H] + , 415.2 [M+Na] + .

Optical rotation: [ dD] +51.0 (c 0.014, MeOH).

Rf: 0.39 (Hex:EtOAc 1:1). Compound 64

Over 51 (3.57 g, 7.68 mmol) was added at 23 ºC pentane

(186 mL) and formic acid (125 mL).The reaction mixture was

stirred vigorously for 2 hours at 23 ºC and the volatiles were

evaporated under vacuum. The obtained crude was

evaporated few times with a mixture of CH 2 Cl 2 :toluene to

eliminate formic acid to give crude 64 which was used in the

next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.05 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.95 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.58 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.75 (q, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 2H), 3.61 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 3.27 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 2.63 (t, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 2.55 (s, 3H), 1.95-1.72 (m, 2H), 1.54 (s, 3H), 1.47-1.28 (m, 2H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 193.2, 173.3, 168.7, 163.8, 163.1, 162.3, 100.3, 90.1, 86.0, 77.8, 75.5, 56.5, 51.0, 40.1, 34.8, 26.3, 24.5, 19.0, 13.5.

M S (ES+): 391.2 [M+H]+, 413.1 [M+Na]+.

Rf: 0.26 (Hex:EtOAc 60:40). Compound 65

Over 52 (9.0 g, 18.73 mmol) was added at 23 ºC pentane

(460 mL) and formic acid (315 mL). The reaction mixture was

stirred vigorously for 2 hours at 23 ºC and the volatiles were

evaporated under vacuum. The obtained crude was

evaporated few times with a mixture of CH 2 Cl 2 :toluene to

eliminate formic acid to give crude 65 (7.61 g, 100% yield)

which was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.05 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.94 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.37 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 3.76 (dd, J = 7.1, 1.9 Hz, 2H), 3.61 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 3.27 (d, J = 12.0 Hz, 1H), 2.55 (s, 3H), 1.94-1.73 (m, 1H), 1.66-1.53 (m, 1H), 1.53 (s, 3H), 1.52-1.16 (m, 2H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.70-0.61 (m, 2H), 0.33 (t, J = 5.2 Hz, 2H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 193.2, 173.2, 170.4, 164.3, 163.0, 161.8, 100.8, 88.9, 86.0, 73.9, 51.0, 40.1, 34.8, 26.3, 24.5, 19.0, 13.5, 9.3, 3.4, 3.3.

MS (ES+): 407.1 [M+H] + , 429.2 [M+Na] + .

Optical rotation: [ aD] +56.2 (c 0.019, MeOH).

Rf: 0.47 (Hex:EtOAc 1:1). Compound 66

To a mixture of 53 (30 mg, 0.062 mmol) and pentane (1.8 mL)

was added formic acid (1.2 mL). The reaction was stirred

vigorously at 23 ºC for 1.5 h and then evaporated to dryness

with toluene to remove efficiently the formic acid giving crude

66 (100% yield) which was used in the next step without

further purification.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) d 7.16 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 5.94 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 5.04 (dd, J = 5.5, 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.80-4.60 (m, 1H), 3.63 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 3.38-3.18 (m, 5H), 2.56 (s, 3H), 1.95- 1.63 (m, 2H), 1.55 (s, 3H), 1.37-1.05 (m, 8H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES): m/z 408.2 [M+H] + . Compound 67

To a mixture of 54 (16 mg, 0.037 mmol) and pentane (0.96 mL) was added formic acid (0.64 mL). The reaction was stirred vigorously at 23 ºC for 2 h and then evaporated to dryness with toluene to remove efficiently the formic acid giving crude 67 (100% yield) which was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) d 7.03 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 6.04-5.93 (m, 2H), 4.75 (q, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 3.68-3.60 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 3.28 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 2.57 (s, 3H), 2.14 (s, 3H), 1.94- 1.74 (m, 2H), 1.55 (s, 3H), 1.46-1.27 (m, 2H), 1.04-0.90 (m, 3H).

MS (ES): m/z 351.2 [M+H] + , 373.1 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.42 (Hex:EtOAc 1:1). Compound 68

Over 55 (1.35 g, 3.1 mmol) was added at 23 ºC pentane (70

mL) and formic acid (47 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred

vigorously for 2 hours at 23 ºC and the volatiles were

evaporated under vacuum. The obtained crude was

evaporated few times with a mixture of CH 2 Cl 2 :toluene to

eliminate formic acid, The obtained crude was purified in an

automatic system for flash chromatography (SiO2) to yield 68 (454 mg, 40% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.04 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 6.45 (dd, J = 17.5, 10.8 Hz, 1H), 6.26 (d, J = 1.3 Hz, 1H), 6.04 (dd, J = 1.5, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 5.89 (dd, J = 17.6, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 5.61 (dd, J = 10.8, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 4.84-4.68 (m, 1H), 3.62 (dd, J = 11.9, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 3.25 (dd, J = 11.9, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 2.54 (d, J = 0.9 Hz, 3H), 1.94-1.72 (m, 2H), 1.54 (s, 1H), 1.53-1.20 (m, 2H), 0.99-0.80 (m, 3H).

MS (ES+): m/z 363.2 [M+H] + , 385.1 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.50 (Hex:EtOAc 1:1). Compounds 69 and 69a

To a solution of 58 (47 mg, 0.13 mmol) in ethanol (1.32 mL) and water (1.32 mL), were added NH2OH . HCl (61 mg, 0.95 mmol) and NaOAc (44 mg, 0.58 mmol). After stirring at 23 ºC for 24 h the ethanol was evaporated under vacuum and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc. The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and after evaporation of the solvent the obtained crude was purified by HPLC method, using an XBridge C 1 8 5 mm H2O/CH 3 CN to obtain 69a (1.6 mg) and 69 (16.7 mg, 35% yield). Compound 69a

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) d 6.96 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.94 (dd, J = 2.2, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 5.43 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.81 (td, J = 8.7, 6.5 Hz, 1H), 3.80 (d, J = 0.7 Hz, 3H), 3.69 (dd, J = 11.7, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 3.22 (dd, J = 11.7, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 2.20 (d, J = 0.7 Hz, 3H), 1.82-1.51 (m, 3H), 1.63 (s, 3H), 0.96 (dd, J = 8.4, 6.4 Hz, 6H). Compound 69

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) d 8.70 (s, 1H), 7.08 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 5.93 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.43 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.81 (td, J = 8.7, 6.6 Hz, 1H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 3.54 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.24 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.23 (s, 3H), 1.84-1.56 (m, 3H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 0.97 (dd, J = 9.5, 6.5 Hz, 6H). Compound 70

To a solution of 59 (35 mg, 0.077 mmol) in ethanol (0.85

mL) and water (0.85 mL), were added NH2OH . HCl (40

mg, 0.57 mmol) and NaOAc (28 mg, 0.35 mmol). After

stirring for 24 h the ethanol was evaporated under

vacuum and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc.

The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4

and after evaporation of the solvent the obtained crude

was purified by HPLC method, using an XBridge C 1 8 5 mm H2O/CH 3 CN to give 70 (8 mg, 22% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.02 (dd, J = 2.2, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 5.51 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.74 (dd, J = 9.1, 5.8 Hz, 1H), 4.08 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 3.55 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 3.17 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.38 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H), 0.98 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES+): m/z 396.2 [M+H] + , 418.2 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.17 (Hex:EtOAc 6:4). Compounds 71 and 71a

To a solution of 60 (45 mg, 0.11 mmol) in ethanol (1.2 mL) and water (1.2 mL), were added NH2OH . HCl (56 mg, 0.81 mmol) and NaOAc (41 mg, 0.5 mmol). After stirring at 23 ºC for 24 h the ethanol was evaporated under vacuum and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc. The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and after evaporation of the solvent the obtained crude was purified by HPLC method, using an XBridge C 1 8 5 mm H2O/CH 3 CN to give 71a (2.5 mg) and 71 (15.9 mg, 34% yield). Compound 71

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.03 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.74 (dd, J = 9.2, 5.7 Hz, 1H), 4.02 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 2H), 3.56 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 3.17 (d, J = 11.4 Hz, 1H), 2.18 (d, J = 0.7 Hz, 3H), 1.92-1.70 (m, 4H), 1.53 (s, 3H), 1.49-1.35 (m, 3H), 0.98 (q, J = 7.5 Hz, 6H).

MS (ES+): m/z 424.3 [M+H] + , 446.1 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.53 (Hex:EtOAc 6:4). Compound 71a

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) d 7.00 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.91 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.41 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.80-4.59 (m, 1H), 3.94 (td, J = 6.5, 1.1 Hz, 2H), 3.70 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 3.23 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 1.88-1.67 (m, 4H), 1.64 (s, 3H), 1.56-1.29 (m, 4H), 0.96 (dt, J = 8.1, 7.4 Hz, 6H). Compounds 72 and 72a

Compound 61 (0.131 mmol) was dissolved in ethanol (1.4 mL) prior to addition of water (1.4 mL), NH2OH HCl (67 mg, 0.963 mmol) and NaOAc (48 mg, 0.591 mmol). This mixture was stirred for 16 h and then ethanol was evaporated. Aqueous residue was diluted with brine and extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were dried over Na2SO4, filtered and evaporated to dryness and the crude was chromatographed on a system for flash chromatography with a SiO2 column eluting with mixtures of hexane/ EtOAc from 100:0 to 60:40 in 40 min. This purification allowed to separate both stereoisomers. Compound 72

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 9.31 (s, 1H), 7.16 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 5.91 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.41 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 3.91 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 3.51 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.24 (dd, J = 11.6, 0.5 Hz, 1H), 2.22 (s, 3H), 1.95-1.66 (m, 4H), 1.51 (s, 3H), 1.45-1.17 (m, 10H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H), 0.88 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H). 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.2, 170.4, 167.9, 164.5, 162.1, 153.0, 100.7, 88.9, 84.3, 69.2, 51.0, 39.9, 34.7, 31.6, 28.8, 28.4, 25.7, 24.6, 22.5, 19.0, 14.0, 13.6, 11.2. Compound 72a

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.05 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 5.91 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.40 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 3.91 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, 2H), 3.68 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 3.22 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.19 (s, 3H), 1.89-1.66 (m, 4H), 1.63 (s, 3H), 1.43-1.17 (m, 10H), 0.94 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.89 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 173.3, 172.4, 170.5, 164.7, 163.7, 162.1, 100.5, 88.9, 83.9, 69.2, 51.1, 40.9, 35.1, 31.6, 28.8, 28.4, 25.7, 24.9, 22.5, 19.1, 14.0, 13.6, 11.8. Compounds 73 and 73a

To a solution of crude 62 (79 mg, 0.134 mmol) in EtOH (1.5 mL) and H2O (1.5 mL) was added NH2OH . HCl (69 mg, 0.992 mmol) and NaOAc (49 mg, 0.603 mmol) at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture was stirred overnight at 23 ºC and concentrated under vacuum. The residue obtained was diluted with an aqueous saturated solution of NaCl and extracted with EtOAc (3x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under vacuum. The obtained crude was purified in an automatic system for flash chromatography (SiO2, Hex:EtOAc) to afford 73 (33 mg, 41% yield for 2 steps) and 73a (7 mg, 8% yield for 2 steps). Compound 73

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 9.32 (s, 1H), 7.16 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 5.91 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.40 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (q, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 3.91 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 3.51 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.24 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.22 (s, 3H), 1.95-1.66 (m, 4H), 1.51 (s, 3H), 1.46-1.15 (m, 30H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.86 (t, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.2, 170.3, 167.9, 164.5, 162.0, 153.0, 100.7, 88.9, 84.3, 69.2, 51.0, 39.9, 34.8, 31.9, 29.7, 29.6, 29.5 (x2), 29.3, 29.2, 28.4, 25.8, 24.6, 22.7, 19.1, 14.1, 13.6, 11.2. Compound 73a

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): d 8.29 (s, 1H), 7.13 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 5.39 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 3.91 (td, J = 6.6, 1.9 Hz, 2H), 3.55 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.23 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.24 (s, 3H), 1.94-1.68 (m, 4H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.45-1.18 (m, 32H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.88 (t, J = 6.9 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3): d 173.9, 170.3, 167.9, 164.4, 162.2, 153.4, 100.6, 88.9, 84.3, 69.2, 51.0, 39.9, 34.8, 31.9, 29.7, 29.6, 29.5 (x2), 29.3, 29.2, 28.4, 25.8, 24.7, 22.7, 19.1, 14.1, 13.6, 11.3. Compounds 74 and 74a

To a solution of crude 63 (700 mg, 1.78 mmol) in EtOH (20 mL) and H2O (20 mL) was added NH2OH . HCl (920 mg, 13.23 mmol) and NaOAc (660 mg, 8.04 mmol) at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture was stirred for 24 h at 23 ºC and concentrated under vacuum. The residue obtained was diluted with an aqueous saturated solution of NaCl and extracted with EtOAc (3x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under vacuum. The obtained crude was purified was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc, from 90:10 to 70:30) to afford 74 (387 mg, 53% yield) and 74a (45 mg, 6% yield). Compound 74

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.06 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 6.04-5.94 (m, 1H), 5.53 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.43-5.29 (m, 2H), 4.74 (dd, J = 9.1, 5.8 Hz, 1H), 4.58 (td, J = 5.5, 1.5 Hz, 2H), 3.55 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 3.17 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 2.17 (s, 3H), 1.92-1.77 (m, 2H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.50-1.34 (m, 2H), 0.98 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.4, 169.8, 168.2, 164.4, 162.3, 152.9, 130.6, 119.5, 100.5, 89.5, 84.3, 69.6, 51.0, 39.9, 34.7, 24.6, 19.0, 13.6, 11.2.

MS (ES+): m/z 408.2 [M+H] + , 430.1 [M+Na] + .

Optical rotation: [ aD] +53.7 (c 0.071, MeOH).

Rf: 0.29 (Hex:EtOAc 6:4). Compound 74a

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 10.44 (br s, 1H), 7.07 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 6.01-5.88 (m, 1H), 5.42 (dd, J = 3.3, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 5.39-5.31 (m, 2H), 4.73 (td, J = 8.3, 6.7 Hz, 1H), 4.48 (dt, J = 5.5, 1.5 Hz, 2H), 3.65 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 3.21 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 2.19 (s, 3H), 1.89-1.65 (m, 2H), 1.60 (s, 3H), 1.41-1.28 (m, 2H), 0.93 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H). 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 173.5, 169.9, 164.6, 164.5, 162.5, 147.2, 130.5, 119.6, 100.3, 89.4, 83.6, 69.6, 51.0, 40.8, 35.0, 24.7, 19.2, 19.0, 13.5. Compounds 75 and 75a

To a solution of crude 64 (3.0 g, 7.68 mmol) in EtOH (85 mL) and H2O (85 mL) was added NH2OH . HCl (3.95 g, 56.86 mmol) and NaOAc (2.84 g, 34.58 mmol) at 23ºC. The reaction mixture was stirred overnight at 23 ºC and concentrated under vacuum. The residue obtained was diluted with an aqueous saturated solution of NaCl and extracted with EtOAc (3x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under vacuum. The obtained crude was purified was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (Hex:EtOAc, from 100:0 to 40:60) to afford 75 (1.44 mg, 46% yield for 2 steps) and 75a (392 mg, 12% yield for 2 steps). Compound 75

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.07 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.64 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.81 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 2H), 4.78-4.69 (m, 1H), 3.54 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 3.18 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 3.15-3.13 (m, 1H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 1.92-1.76 (m, 2H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.49-1.35 (m, 2H), 0.99 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H). 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.3, 168.7, 168.0, 163.8, 162.7, 153.1, 100.1, 90.1, 84.3, 77.8, 75.6, 56.5, 51.0, 39.9, 34.8, 24.7, 19.0, 13.6, 11.3.

MS (ES+): m/z 406.1 [M+H] + .

Rf: 0.29 (Hex:EtOAc 6:4). Compound 75a

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.02 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 5.94 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.56 (dd, J = 2.3, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 4.74 (q, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (dt, J = 2.4, 1.2 Hz, 2H), 3.69 (dd, J = 11.7, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 3.22 (dd, J = 11.7, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 2.63 (t, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 1.91-1.64 (m, 2H), 1.63 (s, 3H), 1.46-1.32 (m, 2H), 0.94 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 173.9, 168.7, 167.5, 163.7, 162.8, 153.3, 100.0, 90.1, 84.2, 77.7, 75.6, 56.5, 51.0, 39.9, 34.8, 24.7, 19.1, 13.6, 11.3. Compound 141

During the purification of one scale-up batch of compound 75 (1.44 g, HPLC: 78.8%) by preparative reversed phase HPLC (Sunfire C 1 8, CH 3 CN:H2O from 40% to 60% CH 3 CN in 30 minutes, UV detection, flow: 15 mL/min) it was obtained 141 (tR 16.8 min, 201 mg) and 75 (tR 14.6 min, 718 mg).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 8.71 (s, 1H), 7.13 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 6.28 (s, 1H), 4.85-4.71 (m, 2H), 3.57 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.33 (d, J = 2.7 Hz, 2H), 3.24 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.62 (t, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 2.23 (s, 3H), 1.99-1.72 (m, 2H), 1.54 (s, 3H), 1.48-1.25 (m, 1H), 1.29-1.23 (m, 1H), 0.97 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.92- 0.80 (m, 1H).

1 3 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.3, 168.6, 164.5, 162.5, 153.2, 102.9, 95.7, 84.4, 80.8, 77.9, 76.8, 67.6, 57.1, 51.6, 40.1, 34.9, 25.0, 19.2, 13.7, 13.3, 11.5.

MS (ES+): m/z 444.1 [M+H] + .

Rf: 0.29 (Hex:EtOAc 6:4). Compounds 76 and 76a

To a solution of crude 65 (33 mg, 0.08 mmol) in EtOH (0.9 mL) and H2O (0.9 mL) was added NH2OH . HCl (42 mg, 0.6 mmol) and NaOAc (30 mg, 0.36 mmol) at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture was stirred for 24 h at 23 ºC and concentrated under vacuum. The residue obtained was diluted with an aqueous saturated solution of NaCl and extracted with EtOAc (3x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under vacuum. The obtained crude was purified was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (Hex:EtOAc, from 100:0 to 40:60) to afford 76 (15 mg, 44% yield) and 76a (3 mg, 9% yield). Compound 76

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 7.85 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 6.05 (s, 1H), 5.48 (s, 1H), 4.74 (q, J = 6.8, 5.0 Hz, 1H), 3.86 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 3.56 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 3.17 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 2.19 (s, 3H), 1.96-1.72 (m, 2H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.43 (ddd, J = 29.8, 14.7, 7.4 Hz, 4H), 1.31-1.16 (m, 1H), 0.99 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.63 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 0.35 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 2H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 175.1, 171.2, 168.8, 165.3, 163.8, 151.5, 126.4, 99.7, 87.9, 84.2, 74.0, 50.7, 39.1, 33.9, 23.6, 18.8, 12.5, 9.6, 9.0, 2.3.

MS (ES+): m/z 422.1 [M+H] + , 444.2 [M+Na] + .

Optical rotation: [ aD] +55 (c 0.022, MeOH).

Rf: 0.42 (hexanes:EtOAc 1:1). Compound 76a

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 8.32 (s, 1H), 7.19 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 5.94 (t, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.41-5.33 (m, 1H), 4.73 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 3.76 (dd, J = 7.2, 2.1 Hz, 3H), 3.57 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.23 (dd, J = 11.7, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 2.24 (s, 3H), 2.20 (s, 1H), 1.95-1.65 (m, 2H), 1.64 (s, 1H), 1.54 (s, 2H), 1.45-1.31 (m, 2H), 1.23 (d, J = 18.1 Hz, 2H), 0.95 (q, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.83 (s, 1H), 0.67 (dd, J = 7.9, 1.3 Hz, 3H), 0.38-0.29 (m, 1H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 173.8, 170.1, 168.4, 164.3, 162.3, 153.3, 100.5, 88.9, 84.2, 73.8, 51.1, 39.9, 34.8, 24.7, 19.1, 13.6, 11.3, 9.4, 3.4 (x2).

MS (ES+): m/z 422.1 [M+H] + . Compound 77

To a solution of 66 (25 mg, 0.062 mmol) in ethanol (0.7

mL) and water (0.7 mL), were added NH2OH . HCl (31

mg, 0.45 mmol) and NaOAc (23 mg, 0.28 mmol). After

stirring at 23 ºC for 24 h the ethanol was evaporated

under vacuum and the aqueous layer was extracted

with EtOAc. The organic layers were dried over

anhydrous Na2SO4 and after evaporation of the solvent

the obtained crude was purified by HPLC method, using an XBridge C 1 8 5 mm H2O/CH 3 CN to give 77 (2.9 mg, 12% yield).

1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) d 6.10 (dd, J = 2.4, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 5.01 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.75 (dt, J = 9.3, 5.8 Hz, 1H), 3.60 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 3.43-3.34 (m, 4H), 3.19 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 1.97-1.76 (m, 2H), 1.56 (s, 3H), 1.54-1.34 (m, 2H), 1.16 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 6H), 1.00 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES): m/z 423.2 [M+H] + , 445.2 [M+Na] + . Compound 78

To a solution of 67 (16 mg, 0.045 mmol) in ethanol (0.4

mL) and water (0.4 mL), were added NH2OH . HCl (19 mg,

0.33 mmol) and NaOAc (14 mg, 0.18 mmol). After stirring

at 23 ºC for 24 h the ethanol was evaporated under

vacuum and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc.

The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4

and after evaporation of the solvent the obtained crude was purified by HPLC method, using an XBridge C 1 85 mm H 2 O/CH 3 CN to give 78 (2.9 mg, 18% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 7.81 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 6.14 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.02 (s, 1H), 4.75 (ddd, J = 8.9, 5.9, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.54 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 3.17 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 2.15 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 3H), 1.90-1.78 (m, 2H), 1.53 (s, 3H), 1.49-1.36 (m, 2H), 0.99 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H). MS (ES): m/z 366.2 [M+H] + , 388.1 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.35 (hexanes:EtOAc 6:4). Compound 79

To a solution of crude 68 (453 mg, 1.25 mmol) in ethanol

( 5 mL) was added NH2OH.HCl (131 mg, 1.88 mmol) at

23 ºC. The reaction mixture was stirred at 70 ºC for 3 h

and diluted with H2O.The resulting precipitate was

concentrated under vacuum. The obtained crude was

purified in an automatic system for flash chromatography (SiO2) to obtain 79 (217 mg, 46%). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.58 (dd, J = 17.5, 10.8 Hz, 1H), 6.47 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.11 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 6.02 (d, J = 17.5 Hz, 1H), 5.66 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 1H), 4.85-4.72 (m, 1H), 3.62- 3.46 (m, 1H), 3.37-3.22 (m, 1H), 3.18 (dd, J = 11.5, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 2.19 (s, 3H), 1.90-1.69 (m, 2H), 1.56 (s, 3H), 1.57-1.33 (m, 2H), 0.99 (td, J = 7.4, 2.9 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD 3 OD): d 176.6, 170.3, 164.9, 164.5, 153.9, 152.9, 134.5, 124.0, 111.5, 100.5, 85.6, 52.3, 40.8, 35.4, 25.2, 20.2, 13.8, 11.0.

MS (ES+): m/z 378.2 [M+H] + , 400.1 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.39 (hexanes:EtOAc 1:1). Scheme 9 provides further examples of the synthesis of more compounds of formula I.

Compound 80

A solution of 56 (38 mg, 0.11 mmol), imidazole (16 mg, 2.2

mmol), ClTBDPS (0.066 mL, 2.2 mmol) in acetonitrile (1.0 mL)

was stirred at 23 ºC for 2 h. The reaction mixture was diluted

w ith CH2Cl2 and washed with a saturated aqueous solution of

NH4Cl. The combined organic layers were dried over

anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under vacuum.

The crude obtained was purified by flash chromatography

over silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 / EtOAc 1/1) to afford 80 (36 mg, 56% yield).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.66 (m, 4H), 7.52-7.29 (m, 6H), 5.86 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.49 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.79-4.62 (m, 1H), 3.58 (d, J = 11.8 Hz, 1H), 3.14 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 2.04 (d, J = 0.6 Hz, 3H), 1.65 (m, 2H), 1.44 (s, 3H), 1.34-1.07 (m, 2H), 1.07 (s, 9H), 0.93-0.74 (m, 3H). MS (ES): m/z 590.5 [M+H] + . Compound 81

A solution of 57 (42 mg, 0.12 mmol), imidazole (10 mg, 0.14

mmol) and ClTBDPS (0.034 mL, 0.13 mmol) in acetonitrile

(1.0 mL) was stirred at 23 ºC for 2 h. The reaction mixture

was diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 and washed with a saturated

aqueous solution of NH4Cl. The combined organic layers

were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated

under vacuum. The crude obtained was purified by flash

chromatography over silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 /EtOAc 1/1) to yield 81 (32 mg, 46% yield).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.74-7.57 (m, 4H), 7.56-7.29 (m, 6H), 6.96 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 5.87 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.23 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.67 (q, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 3.56 (d, J = 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.26 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 2.53 (d, J = 0.5 Hz, 3H), 1.91-1.64 (m, 2H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.07 (s, 9H), 0.93 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES): m/z 591.3 [M+H] + , 613.2 [M+Na] + . Compounds 82 and 82a

To a solution of 80 (35 mg, 0.059 mmol) in ethanol (0.7 mL) and water (0.7 mL), were added NH2OH . HCl (30 mg, 0.45 mmol) and NaOAc (22 mg, 0.28 mmol). After stirring at 23 ºC for 24 h the ethanol was evaporated under vacuum and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc. The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and after evaporation of the solvent the obtained crude was purified by HPLC method, using an XBridge C 1 8 5 mm H2O/CH 3 CN to give 82a (1.5 mg) and 82 (5.6 mg, 26% yield). Compound 82

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): d 5.87 (s, 1H), 5.28 (d, J = 0.7 Hz, 1H), 4.69 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 3.55-3.44 (m, 1H), 3.14 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.12 (s, 3H), 1.77 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 2H), 1.50 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 3H), 1.35 (ddd, J = 41.7, 14.0, 7.0 Hz, 2H), 0.93 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H). Compound 82a

1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.01 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.67 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.69 (dd, J = 8.6, 6.8 Hz, 1H), 3.58 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 3.18 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 2.21 (s, 3H), 1.85-1.69 (m, 2H), 1.50 (s, 3H), 1.45-1.22 (m, 3H), 0.94 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H). Scheme 10 provides further examples of the synthesis of more compounds of formula I.

Compound 83

A mixture of 44 (31 mg, 0.085 mmol), K2CO3 (59 mg,

0.42 mmol), and 1-ethoxy-2-(2-(2- iodoethoxy)ethoxy)ethane (122 mg, 0.42 mmol) in

a cetone (0.85 mL) was stirred at 23 ºC for 24 h and

then filtered over Celite ® . Evaporation of the solvent

gave a crude which was chromatographed on silica gel

(CH 2 Cl 2 /EtOAc 7/3) to afford 83 (11 mg, 83% yield).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.03 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H),

5.89 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.37 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.84-4.75 (m, 1H), 4.76-4.63 (m, 1H), 4.10- 4.01 (m, 2H), 4.01-3.91 (m, 1H), 3.86-3.76 (m, 2H), 3.74-3.41 (m, 11H), 3.15 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 1.93-1.61 (m, 2H), 1.60 (s, 3H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.46-1.16 (m, 9H), 0.90 (dt, J = 17.4, 7.2 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES): m/z 609.3 [M+Na] + . Compound 50

A mixture of 44 (30 mg, 0.07 mmol), K2CO3 (29 mg, 0.21

mmol), and allylbromide (0.18 mL, 2.1 mmol) in DMF (0.6

mL) was stirred at 23 ºC for 5 h and then filtered over

Celite ® . Evaporation of the solvent gave a crude which

was chromatographed on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 /EtOAc 8/1) to

afford 50 (18 mg, 55% yield). Compound 84

A mixture of 44 (50 mg, 0.12 mmol), K2CO3 (83 mg, 0.6

mmol), and t-butyl-(3-iodopropyl)carbamate (171 mg, 0.6

m mol) in acetone (1 mL) was stirred at 23 ºC for 24 h and

then filtered over Celite ® . Evaporation of the solvent gave

a crude which was chromatographed on silica gel

(CH 2 Cl 2 /EtOAc) to afford 84 (40 mg, 57% yield).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.70 (s, 1H), 7.56-7.45 (m,

1H), 7.03 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 5.84 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H),

5.36 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 4.68 (dd, J = 15.6, 7.8 Hz, 2H), 4.40-4.22 (m, 1H), 3.96 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 2H), 3.68-3.36 (m, 5H), 3.24 (d, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 3.15 (d, J = 11.8 Hz, 1H), 2.79 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 1.98-1.67 (m, 4H), 1.60 (s, 3H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.42 (s, 9H), 1.26-1.15 (m, 6H), 0.93 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES): m/z 539.2 [M+H] + , 606.2 [M+Na] + . Compound 85

To a mixture of 83 (30 mg, 0.05 mmol) and pentane (1.8

mL) was added formic acid (1.2 mL). The reaction was

stirred vigorously at 23 ºC for 1.5 h and then evaporated

t o dryness with toluene to remove efficiently the formic

acid giving 85 (100%).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.03 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H),

5.96 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.42 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.72 (m,

1H), 4.08 (m, 2H), 3.82 (m, 2H), 3.74-3.48 (m, 11H), 3.28 (d, J = 12.0 Hz, 1H), 2.56 (s, 3H), 1.90-1.61 (m, 2H), 1.54 (s, 3H), 1.34 (m, 2H), 1.30-1.13 (m,

6H), 0.99 (t, 3H). Compound 63

To a mixture of 50 (58 mg, 0.1 mmol) and pentane (2.9 mL)

was added formic acid (2 mL). The reaction was stirred

vigorously at 23 ºC for 1.5 h and then evaporated to dryness

with toluene to remove efficiently the formic acid giving 63

crude (100%) which was used immediately in the next step. Compound 86

To a mixture of 84 (40 mg, 0.068 mmol) and pentane (2 mL)

was added formic acid (1.4 mL). The reaction was stirred

vigorously at 23 ºC for 1.5 h and then evaporated to dryness

with toluene to remove efficiently the formic acid giving crude

86 (100%) which was used in the next step without further

purification.

M S (ES): m/z 410.1 [M+H]+, 433.3 [M+Na]+.

Compound 87

To a solution of 85 (26 mg, 0.051 mmol) in ethanol (0.6

mL) and water (0.6 mL), were added NH2OH . HCl (26

mg, 0.45 mmol) and NaOAc (19 mg, 0.28 mmol). After

stirring at 23 ºC for 24 h the ethanol was evaporated

under vacuum and the aqueous layer was extracted

with EtOAc. The organic layers were dried over

anhydrous Na2SO4 and after evaporation of the solvent

the obtained crude was purified by HPLC method, using an XBridge C 1 8 5 mm H2O/CH 3 CN to give 87 (12.2 mg, 46% yield). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 9.45 (s, 1H), 6.85 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 5.81 (dd, J = 2.3, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 5.38 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.70 (m, 1H), 4.05 (m, 2H), 3.82 (m, 2H), 3.72-3.47 (m, 7H), 3.15 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 2.22 (d, J = 0.4 Hz, 3H), 1.99-1.65 (m, 2H), 1.58 (s, 3H), 1.47-1.27 (m, 2H), 1.21 (td, J = 7.0, 0.5 Hz, 3H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES): m/z 528.3 [M+H] + , 550.3 [M+Na] + . Compound 74

To a solution of 63 crude in ethanol (1.1 mL) and water

(1.1 mL), were added NH2OH . HCl (51 mg, 0.45 mmol)

and NaOAc (19 mg, 0.45 mmol). After stirring at 23 ºC for

24 h the ethanol was evaporated under vacuum and the

aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc. The organic

layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and after

evaporation of the solvent the obtained crude was purified by chromatography on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 /EtOAc 1/1) to afford 74 (17 mg, 34% yield). Compound 88

To a solution of 74 (15 mg, 0.04 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (1 mL)

was added PhSiH 3 (0.09 mL, 0.74 mmol) followed by

addition of Pd(PPh3)4 in one portion. The mixture was

stirred at 23 ºC for 20 min until disappeared of starting

material (reaction followed by TLC). After removing of

volatiles, the residue was purified by chromatography on

silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc 1/1) to afford 88 (4.2 mg, 34% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 10.74 (s, 1H), 10.17 (s, 1H), 7.30 (d, J = 10.4 Hz, 1H), 6.17 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.78 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 4.80 (dt, J = 10.2, 7.8 Hz, 1H), 3.47 (d, J = 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.24 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 2.22 (s, 3H), 1.83 (tt, J = 15.1, 6.1 Hz, 2H), 1.51 (s, 3H), 1.45-1.23 (m, 2H), 0.98 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 175.9, 172.3, 169.5, 167.4, 162.1, 152.1, 103.2, 92.5, 84.1, 50.6, 40.3, 34.0, 24.6, 19.1, 13.5, 11.2.

MS (ES): m/z 368.1 [M+H] + , 390.0 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.12 (CH 2 Cl 2 :CH 3 OH 9:1). Compound 89

To a mixture of 86 (28 mg, 0.068 mmol) in ethanol (0.75

mL) and water (0.75 mL), were added NH2OH . HCl (34 mg,

0.50 mmol) and NaOAc (25 mg, 0.31 mmol). After stirring

at 23 ºC for 24 h the ethanol was evaporated under

vacuum and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc. The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and after evaporation of the solvent the obtained crude was purified by HPLC method, using an Sunfire C 1 8 5 mm, 10 x 150 mm; CH 3 CN/H2O, 28% isocratic to give 89 (0.7 mg).

1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.06 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 5.56 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 4.74 (m, 1H), 4.14 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 3.54 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 3.18 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 3.01 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 2.19 (s, 3H), 2.09 (m, 2H), 1.86 (m, 2H), 1.54 (s, 3H), 1.51-1.36 (m, 2H), 0.99 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES): m/z 425.1 [M+H] + , 447.2 [M+Na] + . Scheme 11 provides further examples of the synthesis of more compounds of formula I.

Compound 90

To a suspension of (R)-40 (30 mg, 0.19 mmol) and (R)-23

(37 mg, 0.19 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (1.3 mL) were added HATU

(149 mg, 0.39 mmol), HOAt (54 mg, 0.39 mmol) and

DIPEA (0.14 mL, 0.81 mmol) and the mixture was stirred

at 23 ºC overnight. Dilution with CH 2 Cl 2 , washing of the

organic layer with 0.5M HCl and brine and, finally, dried

over anhydrous Na2SO4. Evaporation of the solvent gave a crude which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hexane/EtOAc 6/4) to afford 90 (26 mg, 33% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.96 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 5.84 (t, J = 1.9 Hz, 1H), 5.37 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.18-5.07 (m, 1H), 4.72 (td, J = 8.4, 6.5 Hz, 1H), 3.75 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 3H), 3.66-3.38 (m, 6H), 1.90-1.69 (m, 2H), 1.59 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 3H), 1.39-1.29 (m, 2H), 1.27-1.12 (m, 6H).

1 3 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3): d 180.6, 172.1, 172.0, 165.2, 164.0, 101.6, 101.0, 89.6, 80.2, 59.1, 57.2, 52.2, 39.8, 35.8, 35.5, 25.0, 20.3, 16.4, 16.4, 14.8. Compound 91

Over 90 (82 mg, 0.19 mmol) was added at 23 ºC pentane

(4.3 mL) and formic acid (2.9 mL). The reaction mixture was

stirred vigorously for 1.5 hours at 23 ºC. The solvent was

removed under vacuum to obtain crude 91 (75 mg) which

was used in the next step without further purification.

MS (ES+): m/z 353.1 [M+H] + . Compound 92

A mixture of 91 (75 mg), ethanol (2.3 mL), water (2.3 mL),

hydroxylamine hydrochloride (108 mg, 1.55 mmol) and

NaOAc (77 mg, 0.94 mmol) was stirred overnight at 23 ºC.

Then ethanol was evaporated, brine was added, and the

aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc. The combined

organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4,

filtered, and concentrated under vacuum. The resulting crude was chromatographed over silica gel (Hex: EtOAc, from 100:0 to 50:50) to give 92 (4.5 mg). 1 H NMR (500 MHz, (CD3)2CO): d 11.25 (s, 1H), 7.64 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 6.03 (dd, J = 2.2, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 5.43 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.24 (t, J = 9.2 Hz, 1H), 4.75 (td, J = 8.9, 5.5 Hz, 1H), 3.84 (s, 3H), 3.50 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 2H), 2.15 (d, J = 0.6 Hz, 3H), 1.86 (ddt, J = 13.6, 9.8, 6.2 Hz, 1H), 1.76 (dtd, J = 14.0, 9.4, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 1.49 (dddd, J = 15.5, 7.9, 6.2, 4.0 Hz, 1H), 1.40 (ddt, J = 13.7, 9.8, 6.9 Hz, 1H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, (CD 3 ) 2 CO): d 171.8, 170.8, 170.2, 165.2, 163.7, 152.9, 99.7, 99.5, 88.5, 79.9, 56.6, 51.7, 35.2, 33.9, 19.9, 13.9, 11.1.

MS (ES+): m/z 368.1 [M+H] + . Scheme 12 provides a further example of the synthesis of some compounds of formula I.

Compound 93

To a solution of 1 (11 mg, 0.029 mmol) in acetone (2

mL) was added Cs2CO3 (14 mg, 0.043 mmol) and allyl

bromide (4 mL, 0.043 mmol) at 23 ºC. The reaction

mixture was stirred for 2.5 h at 23 ºC, filtrated over

Celite ® and washed with EtOAc. The crude obtained

was purified in an automatic system for flash

c hromatography (SiO2, Hex:EtOAc from 95:5 to 50:50) to give 93 (7 mg, 58% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.08 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 6.01 (dddd, J = 17.3, 10.5, 6.1, 5.7 Hz, 1H), 5.88 (dd, J = 2.3, 0.5 Hz, 1H), 5.41 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.38-5.22 (m, 2H), 4.78-4.67 (m, 3H), 3.78 (s, 3H), 3.51 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.19 (dd, J = 11.6, 0.4 Hz, 1H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 1.89 (ddt, J = 13.4, 9.5, 6.5 Hz, 1H), 1.76 (dddd, J = 13.6, 9.7, 8.0, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 1.51 (s, 3H), 1.47- 1.22 (m, 2H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.1, 170.8, 167.8, 164.1, 162.4, 151.9, 133.3, 118.4, 100.1, 88.5, 84.3, 76.3, 55.9, 50.9, 39.8, 34.7, 24.7, 19.0, 13.6, 12.0. Compound 94

To a solution of 1 (11.6 mg, 0.03 mmol) in acetone

(2.2 mL) was added Cs2CO3 (15 mg, 0.046 mmol)

and propargyl bromide (5 mL, 0.046 mmol) at 23 ºC.

The reaction mixture was stirred for 2.5 h at 23 ºC,

filtrated over Celite ® and washed with EtOAc. The

crude obtained was purified in an automatic system

for flash chromatography (SiO2, Hex:EtOAc from 98:2 to 50:50) to yield 94 (11.7 mg, 91% yield). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.06 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 5.88 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.41 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 4.81 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 2H), 4.72 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 3.78 (s, 3H), 3.52 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 3.21 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.52 (t, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 2.21 (s, 3H), 1.95-1.82 (m, 1H), 1.81-1.68 (m, 1H), 1.50 (s, 3H), 1.46-1.28 (m, 2H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 174.0, 170.8, 167.4, 164.0, 162.4, 153.0, 100.1, 88.5, 84.3, 78.7, 75.2, 62.8, 55.9, 50.9, 39.9, 34.7, 24.7, 19.0, 13.6, 12.1. Compound 95

To a solution of 1 (12 mg, 0.031

mmol), CH 2 Cl 2 (0.5 mL), EDC . HCl

(12 mg, 0.062 mmol) and DIPEA (11

mL, 0.062 mmol) were added 2-[2- (2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]acetic acid

(9 mL, 0.062 mmol) and catalytic

DMAP. The reaction mixture was

s tirred for 24 h, diluted with CH2Cl2,

and the organic layer was washed with 0.5 M HCl and an aqueous saturated solution of HNaCO3 and then dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 to give a crude which was purified by HPLC method, using an XBridge C 1 85 mm H2O/CH 3 CN to give 95 (9 mg, 53% yield).

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.02 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.90 (m, 1H), 5.42 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.81-4.68 (m, 1H), 4.44 (s, 2H), 3.83-3.77 (m, 5H), 3.75-3.70 (m, 2H), 3.68-3.65 (m, 2H), 3.63 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 3.58-3.54 (m, 2H), 3.38 (s, 2H), 3.27 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 2.36 (s, 3H), 1.93- 1.71 (m, 2H), 1.53 (s, 3H), 1.46-1.28 (m, 2H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 176.6, 173.5, 170.3, 166.7, 165.2, 152.9, 100.8, 88.9, 85.6, 72.9, 71.8, 71.6, 71.3, 69.1, 59.1, 57.0, 54.8, 52.1, 49.7, 40.6, 35.2, 34.8, 26.8, 26.1, 25.0, 20.2, 13.8, 11.0.

MS (ES): m/z 542.3 [M+H] + , 564.2 [M+N ] +

Rf: 0.25 (hexanes:EtOAc 1:1). Compound 96

A mixture of 1 (9.3 mg, 0.024

m mol), K 2 CO 3 (16 mg, 0.12 mmol),

and 1-ethoxy-2-(2-(2- iodoethoxy)ethoxy)-ethane (34 mg,

0.12 mmol) in acetone (0.24 mL)

was stirred at 23 ºC for 24 h and

then filtered over Celite ® .

Evaporation of the solvent gave a

crude which was chromatographed

on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 /EtOAc 1/1) to yield 96 (11 mg, 83% yield).

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.07 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 5.88 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.41 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (td, J = 8.4, 6.8 Hz, 1H), 4.43-4.32 (m, 2H), 3.79 (s, 5H), 3.69-3.63 (m, 6H), 3.62- 3.57 (m, 2H), 3.56-3.47 (m, 3H), 3.20 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.19 (s, 3H), 1.95-1.73 (m, 2H), 1.51 (s, 3H), 1.44-1.28 (m, 2H), 1.21 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES): m/z 542.3 [M+H] + , 564.3 [M+Na] + . Compound 97

A mixture of 1 (16 mg, 0.042 mmol),

potassium carbonate (29 mg, 0,21 mmol),

and t-butyl-(3-iodopropyl)-carbamate (60

mg, 0.21 mmol) in acetone (0.4 mL) was

stirred at 23 ºC for 18 h and then filtered

over Celite ® . Evaporation of the solvent

gave a crude which was chromatographed

on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 /EtOAc 9/1) to afford 97 (22 mg, 100% yield).

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.06 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 5.88 (dd, J = 2.3, 0.5 Hz, 1H), 5.41 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.83-4.58 (m, 1H), 4.28 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 3.78 (s, 3H), 3.51 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.30-3.11 (m, 3H), 2.17 (s, 3H), 1.98-1.61 (m, 4H), 1.50 (s, 3H), 1.43 (s, 9H), 1.41-1.15 (m, 2H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES): m/z 539.3 [M+H] + , 561.2 [M+Na] + . Compound 98

To a solution of 97 (30 mg, 0.055 mmol) in

CH 2 Cl 2 (0.6 mL) was added TFA (0.26 mL)

dropwise. The mixture was stirred 2 h at 23

ºC and then all volatiles were evaporated

(co-evaporation with toluene 3 times). The

crude oil was purified by chromatography on

silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 /CH 3 OH 15/1) to afford 98

(12.5 mg, 55% yield).

1 H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 7.02 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 5.96 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.46 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.69 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 4.35 (dt, J = 7.5, 4.9 Hz, 2H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 3.69 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.24-3.01 (m, 3H), 2.21 (s, 3H), 2.18-2.08 (m, 2H), 1.88-1.75 (m, 2H), 1.54 (s, 3H), 1.47-1.29 (m, 1H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES): m/z 439.2 [M+H] + , 461.1 [M+Na] + . Scheme 13 provides further examples of the synthesis of more compounds of formula I.

Compound 99

To a solution of 42 (11.6 mg, 0.032 mmol) in ethanol

(0.3 mL) and water (0.3 mL), were added 50%

hydrazine hydrate (0.015 mL) and NaOAc (12 mg, 0.14

mmol). After stirring at 23 ºC for 24 h the solvents were

evaporated under vacuum to dryness. The obtained

crude was purified by chromatography on silica gel

(CH 2 Cl 2 /EtOAc 1/1) to afford 99 (10 mg, 83% yield).

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.14 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.90 (m, 1H), 5.41 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.82-4.62 (m, 1H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 3.50 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.17 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.11 (s, 3H), 1.88 (m, 1H), 1.76 (m, 1H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.48-1.21 (m, 2H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H). MS (ES): m/z 381.2 [M+H] + , 403.1 [M+Na] + . EXAMPLE 10 SYNTHESIS OF ADDITIONAL COMPOUNDS OF FORMULA I

Scheme 14 provides an example of the synthesis of additional compounds of formula I.

Compound 100

To a stirred solution of lactic acid (1.0 g, 11.1 mmol) with imidazole (1.13 g,

16.6 mmol) in anhydrous DMF (33 mL) was added in portions tert- butyldimethylsilyl chloride (2.8 mL; 11.1 mmol). After 48 h at 23 ºC the

s olution was diluted with hexane and washed once with water, once with

saturated NaHCO3 and once with brine. The organic layer was dried over

Na2SO4 and the solvent was removed under reduced pressure to yield 100 (3.1 g, 85% yield) as a colourless oil.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.65 (m, 4H), 7.40 (m, 6H), 4.32 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, 1H), 1.32 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H), 1.11 (s, 9H).

1 3 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3): d 207.1, 135.7, 130.2, 130.1, 127.9, 127.8, 69.1, 30.9, 30.8, 26.8, 26.7, 21.0, 19.1.

MS (ES): m/z 351.2 [M+Na] + . Compound 101

To a stirred solution of 100 (140 mg, 0.43 mmol) in anhydrous

CH 2 Cl 2 (3 mL), was added at 0 ºC N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N¢- ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC . HCl) (89 mg, 0.47mmol) and

1-Hydroxybenzotriazole hydrate (HOBt) (63 mg, 0.47 mmol). After

10 min at 0 ºC, (L)- a-methylserine (Across Organics) (50 mg, 0.43

mmol) and Et 3 N (0.06 mL) were added. The crude mixture was stirred 18 h at 23 ºC, diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 and acidified with aqueous HCl (0.5 M) to pH~2 and extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 . The combined organic phase was dried over Na2SO4, filtrated and concentrated in vacuo to yield 101 (170 mg; 92% yield) that was used without further purification as a mixture of two diastereomers.

1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 7.96 (s, 1H), 7.86 (s, 1H), 7.66 (m, 8H), 7.61 (m, 1 H), 4.27 (m, 2H), 3.98 (dd, J = 11.4, 2.7 Hz, 2H), 3.78 (d, J = 11.4, 1.7 Hz, 2H), 1.27 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H), 1.25 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H), 1.20 (s, 18 H).

MS (ES): m/z 452.3 [M+Na] + . Compound 102

To a stirred solution of 101 (170 mg, 0.40 mmol) and

(R)-23 (84 mg, 0.40 mmol) in anhydrous CH 2 Cl 2 (3

mL) were added 1-[Bis(dimethylamino) methylene]- 1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridinium-3-oxid

hexafluorophosphate (HATU) (212 mg, 0.56 mmol),

1 -Hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole (HOAt) (76 mg, 0.56

mmol) and Diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA) (0.29 mL,

1.68 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at 23 ºC overnight. After dilution with CH 2 Cl 2 , the organic layer was washed with 0.5 M HCl, brine and, finally, dried over Na2SO4. Filtration and evaporation of the solvent gave a crude which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hexane/EtOAc) to afford 102 (102 mg, 46% yield) as a mixture of two diastereomers.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 8.06 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2H), 7.82 (s, 2H), 7.66 (m, 8H), 7.40 (m, 12 H), 5.88 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 5.85 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 5.38 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.36 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.69 (m, 2H), 4.28 (m, 6H), 4.0 (t, J = 10.5 Hz, 2H), 3.76 (s, 3H), 3.72 (s, 3H), 1.89-1.62 (m, 4H), 1.50 (s, 3H), 1.43 (s, 3H), 1.35 (m, 4H), 1.30 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 3H), 1.23 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 3H), 1.12 (s, 9H), 1.09 (s, 9H), 0.92 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 6H).

MS (ES): m/z 609.2 [M+H] + . Compound 103

To a stirred solution of 102 (100 mg, 0.16 mmol) in

anhydrous CH 2 Cl 2 (1.5 mL) was added dropwise

diethylaminosulfur trifluoride (DAST) (0.02 mL, 0.18

mmol) at -78 ºC. After 1.5 h, the reaction mixture was

quenched by addition of K2CO3 (34 mg, 0.25 mmol) in

one portion at -78 ºC. After warming to 23 ºC, the

mixture was further diluted with saturated aqueous

sodium bicarbonate and extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 . The combined organic layer was dried over Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to yield 103 (96 mg; 100% yield) that was used without further purification as a mixture of two diastereomers.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.66 (m, 8H), 7.38 (m, 12 H), 6.87 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H ), 6.81 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H ), 5.81 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 5.78 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 5.40 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.37 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (m, 2H), 4.50-4.25 (m, 4H), 3.97 (d, J = 9.3 Hz, 1H), 3.90 (d, J = 9.3 Hz, 1H), 3.77 (s, 3H), 3.75 (s, 3H), 1.90-1.57 (m, 4H), 1.40 (s, 3H), 1.38 (s, 3H), 1.28 (m, 10H), 1.06 (s, 18H), 0.92 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 6H).

MS (ES): m/z 591.2 [M+H] + . Compound 104

To a stirred solution of 103 (96 mg, 0.16 mmol) in

anhydrous THF (1.5 ml) was added tetrabutylammonium

fluoride (TBAF) (0.25 mL, 0.25 mmol) dropwise. After 1 h at

23º C the reaction mixture was quenched with a saturated

aqueous ammonium chloride and extracted with EtOAc.

The combined organic layer was dried over Na2SO4, filtered,

and concentrated to obtain crude 104 (55 mg; 99% yield)

that was used without further purification as a mixture of two diastereomers. 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.05 (t, J = 9.6 Hz, 2H ), 5.89 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 5.87 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 5.40 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 2H), 4.67 (m, 2H), 4.58-4.22 (m, 4H), 4.10 (m, 2H), 3.76 (s, 6H), 1.86-1.60 (m, 4H), 1.5 (s, 6H), 1.46-1.30 (m, 10H), 0.92 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 6H).

MS (ES): m/z 353.1 [M+H] + . Compound 105

To a solution of 104 (57 mg, 0.16 mmol) in anhydrous CH 2 Cl 2

(1.6 mL) at 23 ºC was successively added NaHCO3 (41 mg,

0.49 mmol) and Dess-Martin periodinane (DMP) (139 mg,

0.33 mmol) in portions. After 1 h at 23 ºC (reaction followed

by TLC (Hex:EtOAc 1:1), the reaction mixture was quenched

with a 1:1 mixture of aqueous saturated solution of NaHCO3

and 10% solution of Na2S2O3. The mixture was stirred for 1 h at 23 ºC and extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 . The combined organic phases were dried over Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give an oil that was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hexane/EtOAc) to afford 105 (9 mg, 18% yield) as a white solid.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.84 (d, J = 9.3Hz, 1H ), 5.87 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 5.41 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.70 (m, 1H), 4.63 (d, J = 9.3 Hz, 1H), 4.23 (d, J = 9.3 Hz, 1H), 3.78 (s, 3H), 2.55 (s, 3H), 1.92-1.71 (m, 2H), 1.56 (s, 3H), 1.44-1.30 (m, 2H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H). Compound 106

To a solution of 105 (7 mg, 0.02 mmol) in ethanol

(0.22 mL) and water (0.22 mL), were added

NH2OH . HCl (10 mg, 0.146 mmol) and NaOAc (7 mg,

0.09 mmol). After stirring at 23 ºC for 24 h, solvent was

evaporated under vacuum and the aqueous layer was

extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic layer was

dried over Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to give a crude that was purified by chromatography on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 /EtOAc 1/1) to afford 106 (1.6 mg, 23% yield).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.85 (d, J = 9.3Hz, 1H ), 5.81 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 5.35 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.63 (m, 1H), 4.14 (d, J = 9.3 Hz, 1H), 3.92 (d, J = 9.3 Hz, 1H), 3.72 (s, 3H), 2.14 (s, 3H), 1.82-1.67 (m, 2H), 1.48 (s, 3H), 1.30 (m, 2H), 0.89 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES): m/z 366.2 [M+H] + . EXAMPLE 11 SYNTHESIS OF ADDITIONAL COMPOUNDS OF FORMULA I Scheme 15 provides an example of the synthesis of additional compounds of formula I.

A mixture of 74 (37 mg; 0.091 mmol), 2,3,4,6-Tetra-O-acetyl- a-D-glucopyranosyl trichloroacetimidate (30 mg, 0.061 mmol) and freshly activated 4Å MS (244 mg) were d issolved/suspended in CH 2 Cl 2 (1.0 mL) and stirred for 1 h at 23 ºC. Then, the temperature was decreased to -20 ºC and TMSOTf (12 mL; 0.064 mmol) was slowly added. The reaction was allowed to get into 23 ºC. and then stirred overnight. Subsequently, Et3N was added to quench the reacting mixture and the resulting suspension filtered through a bylayer pad of Celite ® (on top) and Na2SO4 (below). The solids were thoroughly washed with CH 2 Cl 2 and the whole filtrate concentrated in vacuum, giving rise to a yellow-orange gel that was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (Hex:EtOAc from 70:30 to 0:100) to afford pure 107 (23 mg, 51% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.08 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 6.00 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 5.98-5.92 (m, 1H), 5.41-5.36 (m, 3H), 5.15 (dd, J = 2.8, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.92 (dd, J = 9.3, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (q, J = 7.8, 1H), 4.65 (dd, J = 5.6, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.49 (dt, J = 5.6, 1.2 Hz, 2H), 4.23 (dd, J = 4.0, 2.7, 2H), 3.93 (ddd, J = 8.8, 5.0, 3.4, 1H), 3.53 (d, J = 11.6, 1H), 3.21 (d, J = 11.6, 1H), 2.17 (s, 3H), 2.10 (bs, 9H), 1.92-1.70 (m, 2H), 1.86 (s, 3H), 1.50 (s, 3H), 1.49-1.28 (m, 2H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 173.9, 170.8, 169.8, 169.8, 169.3, 167.5, 164.1, 162.4, 153.4, 130.7, 123.4, 119.8, 100.6, 98.7, 89.6, 84.88, 74.9, 70.2, 69.8, 67.9, 67.4, 63.3, 51.1, 40.0, 35.0, 24.9, 21.4, 21.0, 20.9, 20.9, 19.2, 13.7, 12.2.

MS (ES+): m/z 738 [M+H] + , 760 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.21 (Hex:EtOAc 50:50). Scheme 16 provides an example of the synthesis of an additional compound of formula I.

a) Synthesis of 109

To a solution of 108 (570 mg, 2.190 mmol) [obtained as described in Bioorg. Med. Chem.2013, 21, 4839-4845] in anhydrous CH 2 Cl 2 (11 mL), CCl3CN (2.20 mL, 21.90 mmol) and DBU (66 mL, 0.44 mmol) were added dropwise in this order at 23 ºC. The reaction was stirred for 1h and then, concentrated in vacuum. The resulting dark red crude was subjected to a chromatographic column (SiO2, Hexane + 1% Et3N:EtOAc + 1% Et3N from 80:20 to 50:50) giving rise to 109 (827 mg; 93% yield) as a white solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz): d 8.59 (s, 1H), 6.26 (s, 1H), 4.92 (dd, J = 5.9, 3.4 Hz, 1H), 4.86 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 1H), 4.43 (ddd, J = 8.3, 6.2, 4.2 Hz, 1H), 4.14-4.09 (m, 2H), 4.03 (dd, J = 8.9, 4.2 Hz, 1H), 1.50 (s, 3H), 1.45 (s, 3H), 1.38 (s, 3H), 1.37 (s, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz): d 160.8, 113.6, 109.6, 104.9, 84.9, 83.0, 79.4, 72.8, 67.2, 27.1, 26.1, 25.3, 24.9.

MS (ES): m/z 426-428 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.64 (Hex:EtOAc 2:1). b) Synthesis of 110

A freshly-prepared stock solution (840 mL; 5% mol) of Pd(PhCN)(OTf)2 catalyst in CH 2 Cl 2 , prepared by stirring Pd(PhCN)2Cl2 (10 mg; 0.026 mmol) and AgOTf (14 mg; 0.052 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (3.5 mL) at 23 ºC for 5 min, was added to a solution of 109 (50 mg; 0.124 mmol) and 74 (61 mg; 0.161 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 , (700 mL) at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture was stirred at 23 ºC overnight, then, treated with benzene (1 mL) and directly poured on a chromatographic column (SiO2, CH 2 Cl 2 to CH 2 Cl 2 :MeOH 98.2:1.8). According to this procedure, compound 110 (27.5 mg, 34% yield) was afforded as a foamy white solid (predominantly as a a anomer).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 9.25 (s, 1H), 7.10 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 6.00-5.91 (m, 1H), 5.69 (bs, 1H), 5.42-5.30 (m, 3H), 4.93-4.91 (dd, J = 6.0, 3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.87 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 4.49 (bd, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 4.38 (m, 1H), 4.22 (dd, J = 7.7, 3.9 Hz, 1H), 4.08 (bd, J = 5.2 Hz, 2H), 3.52 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.20 (d, J = 11.6 Hz 1H), 2.19 (s, 3H), 1.93-1.72 (m, 2H), 1.51 (s, 3H), 1.50 (s, 3H), 1.49-1.28 (m, 11H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.0, 169.8, 167.5, 164.1, 162.5, 153.8, 130.8, 119.8, 113.0, 109.3, 109.0, 100.6, 89.6, 84.8, 84.7, 83.3, 80.0, 73.5, 69.7, 66.8, 51.1, 40.0, 35.0, 27.1, 26.1, 25.3, 24.9, 24.6, 19.2, 13.7, 12.2.

MS (ES+): m/z 650 [M+H] + , 672 [M+Na] + . Rf: 0.39 (CH 2 Cl 2 :MeOH 50:1). Scheme 17 provides an example of the synthesis of an additional compound of formula I.

Compound 110 (31mg, 0.048 mmol) was dissolved in aqueous AcOH (80%, 1.0 mL) and stirred at 65 ºC for 4h. Then, the solution was diluted with toluene (1.5 mL) and the volatiles vacuum evaporated, affording an oily beige crude. Co-evaporation of aqueous AcOH with toluene was repeated twice more. The obtained crude was purified by column chromatography (SiO2, CH 2 Cl 2 to CH 2 Cl 2 :MeOH 10:1) to obtain compound 111 (18 mg, 62% yield) as a waxy white solid.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.04 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.99-5.92 (m, 1H), 5.72 (bs, 1H), 5.42- 5.34 (m, 3H), 5.01 (dd, J = 6.0, 4.3 Hz, 1H), 4.89 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.72 (q, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 4.49 (bd, J = 5.5 Hz, 2H), 4.25 (dd, J = 8.0, 4.3 Hz, 1H), 3.97 (bd, J = 8.3, 5.8, 3.4 Hz, 1H), 3.86 (d, J = 11.5, 3.4 Hz, 1H), 3.74 (d, J = 11.5, 5.8 Hz, 1H), 3.54 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.21 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.19 (s, 3H), 1.90-1.72 (m, 2H), 1.52 (s, 6H), 1.37 (s, 3H), 1.42-1.31 (m, 2H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.0, 169.9, 167.6, 164.2, 162.4, 153.9, 130.7, 119.8, 113.0, 108.7, 100.7, 89.6, 84.7, 84.6, 82.7, 80.7, 71.0, 69.8, 64.5, 51.2, 40.1, 35.0, 26.1, 25.0, 24.7, 19.2, 13.7, 12.2.

MS (ES+): m/z 610 [M+H] + , 632 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.12 (CH 2 Cl 2 :MeOH 50:1). Scheme 18 provides an example of the synthesis of an additional compound of formula I.

A solution of 111 (180 mg, 0.29 mmol) in aqueous AcOH (80%, 10 mL) was heated at 100 ºC for 4h. Then, the solution was diluted with toluene (10 mL) and the volatiles vacuum evaporated, affording an oily beige crude. Co-evaporation of aqueous AcOH with toluene was repeated (x5) to afford a beige crude that was purify by flash chromatography (SiO2, CH 2 Cl 2 to CH 2 Cl 2 :MeOH 90:10). Final purification was carried out by HPLC on a C 1 8 Symmetry preparative column, flow rate 15 mL/min, H2O:CH 3 CN mixtures to obtain compound 112 (60 mg, 36% yield).

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.07 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 6.00-5.92 (m, 1H), 5.72 (d, J = 2.5, 1H), 5.44-5.34 (m, 3H), 4.72 (q, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 4.61 (t, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 4.50 (bd, J = 5.6, 2H), 4.41 (dd, J = 5.3, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 4.20 (dd, J = 6.8, 4.5 Hz, 1H), 4.09 (td, J = 6.4, 3.5 Hz, 1H), 3.87 (dd, J = 11.6, 3.3 Hz, 1H), 3.77 (dd, J = 11.6, 6.0 Hz, 1H), 3.55 (d, J = 11.6Hz, 1H), 3.20 (d, J = 11.6Hz, 1H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 1.92-1.73 (m, 2H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.42-1.28 (m, 2H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.2, 170.1, 167.9, 164.6, 162.5, 154.0, 130.7, 119.8, 110.5, 100.8, 89.6, 84.6, 80.8, 75.6, 71.9, 71.6, 69.9, 63.7, 51.2, 40.3, 34.9, 25.0, 19.2, 13.7, 12.5. MS (ES+): m/z 570 [M+H] + , 592 [M+Na] + . Compound 113

To a solution of 74 (121 mg) in dry DMF (3 mL) was

added imidazole (47 mg), DMAP (1 mg) and TBDPSCl

(85 mL) and reaction mixture was stirred overnight at

23 ºC. To quench the reaction, aqueous saturated

solution of NH4Cl (10 mL) was added and mixture was

e xtracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). Combined organic

phases were washed with water (3 x 10 mL) and brine (10 mL) and then dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and evaporated. Crude residue was purified on CombiFlash with a SiO2 column and eluting with hexane/EtOAc from 100:0 to 0:100 in 30 min. to yield Compound 113 (108 mg, 56% yield).

1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.75-7.66 (m, 2H), 7.48-7.33 (m, 8H), 7.14 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 6.03-5.87 (m, 1H), 5.94 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.42 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 5.43-5.36 (m, 1H), 5.34 (dq, J = 10.5, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (q, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 4.48 (dt, J = 5.6, 1.5 Hz, 2H), 3.46 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.15 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.35 (s, 3H), 1.89 (dq, J = 9.5, 6.8 Hz, 1H), 1.78 (dddd, J = 13.6, 9.6, 7.9, 5.7 Hz, 1H), 1.50 (s, 3H), 1.49-1.20 (m, 2H), 1.15 (s, 9H), 0.97 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H). 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.2, 169.7, 168.5, 164.1, 162.4, 157.2, 135.5, 132.8, 130.6, 129.9, 127.6, 119.6, 100.4, 89.4, 84.3, 69.6, 51.0, 39.7, 34.7, 27.1, 24.8, 19.6, 19.1, 13.6, 11.8. Scheme 19 provides an example of the synthesis of additional compounds of formula I.

C ompound 114

To a solution of 74 (77 mg, 0.190 mmol) in

acetone (2 mL) Cs2CO3 (310 mg, 0.952

mmol) and tert-Butyl(4- iodobutoxy)dimethylsilane (0.25 mL, 0.952

mmol) were added at 23 ºC. The reaction

mixture was stirred at 23 ºC overnight,

filtered, washed with EtOAc, and

concentrated under reduced pressure. The

resulting residue was purified by combiflash in SiO2 (CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc from 100:0 to 90:10) to yield 114 (80 mg, 71% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 7.85 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 6.06 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 6.05-5.92 (m, 1H), 5.53 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.46-5.27 (m, 2H), 4.75 (ddd, J = 8.8, 7.3, 4.3 Hz, 1H), 4.58 (dt, J = 5.6, 1.5 Hz, 2H), 4.22 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 3.67 (t, J = 6.2 Hz, 2H), 3.58 (dd, J = 11.5, 5.8 Hz, 1H), 3.19 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.19 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 3H), 1.97-1.70 (m, 4H), 1.60 (dd, J = 8.7, 6.1 Hz, 2H), 1.52 (d, J = 1.9 Hz, 3H), 1.49-1.34 (m, 4H), 0.98 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H), 0.89 (s, 9H), 0.06 (s, 6H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 175.0, 170.7, 168.0, 165.1, 163.9, 151.4, 131.1, 118.0, 99.5, 88.4, 84.2, 74.9, 69.6, 62.5, 50.8, 39.3, 33.9, 28.8, 25.4, 25.0, 23.5, 18.8, 17.7, 12.5, 10.4, -6.5. MS (ES+): m/z 594 [M+H] + , 616 [M+Na] + . Compound 115

To a solution of 114 (70 mg, 0.118 mmol) in

anhydrous THF (1 mL) ammonium fluoride

(22 mg, 0.589 mmol) and TBAF (0.60 mL,

1 .0 M in THF, 0.589 mmol) were added at

23 ºC. The reaction mixture was stirred for 4

h at 23 ºC, quenched with a saturated

aqueous solution of NaCl, extracted with

CH 2 Cl 2 (2x10 mL), dried over anhydrous

Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting residue was purified by combiflash in SiO2 (CH 2 Cl 2 to CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc 1:1) to yield 115 (40 mg, 71% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.06 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 6.05-5.91 (m, 1H), 5.54 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.46-5.29 (m, 2H), 4.74 (dd, J = 9.1, 5.8 Hz, 1H), 4.59 (dt, J = 5.5, 1.6 Hz, 2H), 4.23 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 3.63-3.50 (m, 3H), 3.19 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 2.19 (s, 3H), 1.89-1.73 (m, 3H), 1.62 (dd, J = 8.9, 6.2 Hz, 2H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.45-1.32 (m, 1H), 0.99 (q, J = 8.1, 7.4 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 174.9, 170.7, 168.0, 165.1, 163.9, 151.5, 131.1, 118.0, 99.5, 88.4, 84.2, 74.9, 69.6, 61.2, 50.7, 39.3, 33.8, 28.6, 25.3, 23.5, 18.8, 12.4, 10.3.

MS (ES-): m/z 478 [M-H]-. Scheme 20 provides an example of the synthesis of an additional compound of formula I.

Compound 116

To a solution of 65 (42 mg, 0.103 mmol) in anhydrous toluene (1 mL), N-Boc-1,3- propanediamine (19 mg, 0.107 mmol), pTsOH (1 mg, 0.005 mmol) and molecular sieve were added and was refluxed for 2 h. Then, reaction mixture was filtered through Celite ® and the filtrate was evaporated. The resulting residue was purified by combi flash in SiO2 (from Hexane + 1% Et3N to Hex:EtOAc:Et3N 1:1:0.01) to yield 116 (29 mg, 50% yield).

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.10 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.92 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.34 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.22 (br s, 1H), 4.75-4.70 (m 1H), 3.76 (dd, J = 7.1, 2.8 Hz, 2H), 3.53 (t, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 3.50 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 3.30-3.26 (m, 2H), 3.16 (d, J = 11.7 HZ, 1H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 1.914- 1.84 (m, 3H), 1.80-1.73 (m, 1H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.42 (s, 9H), 1.45-1.33 (m, 1H), 1.24-1.19 (m, 1H), 0.98-0.94 (m, 4H), 0.68-0.64 (m, 2H), 0.34-0.31 (m, 2H).

1 3 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.1, 173.7, 170.1, 170.0, 164.1, 162.3, 156.0, 100.5, 88.9, 88.8, 85.6, 73.8, 50.9, 30.6, 34.9, 30.1, 28.4, 28.3, 24.9, 19.0, 14.78, 13.6, 9.4, 3.4, 3.3.

MS (ES+): m/z 563 [M+H] + .

Rf: 0.55 (Hex:EtOAc:Et3N 9:1:0.01). Scheme 21 provides an example of the synthesis of an additional compound of formula I.

Scheme 21 Compound 117

To a solution of 74 (50 mg, 0.123 mmol) in MeOH (1 mL) were added iron powder (14 mg, 0.24 mmol) and conc. HCl and the reaction mixture was stirred at 23 ºC for 3 h. Then the reaction mixture was quenched with a saturated aqueous solution of Na2CO3 and was extracted with 10% MeOH in CH 2 Cl 2 . The organic layer was separated, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated under vacuum. The residue was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 :MeOH) to afford 117 (23 mg, 48% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.32-5.91 (m, 1H), 5.64-5.50 (m, 1H), 5.49-5.25 (m, 1H), 4.73 (dt, J = 9.0, 6.3 Hz, 1H), 3.90-3.36 (m, 2H), 1.89-1.76 (m, 2H), 1.59-1.33 (m, 5H), 0.96 (ddd, J = 8.6, 5.7, 1.8 Hz, 3H). EXAMPLE 12. SYNTHESIS OF FURTHER INTERMEDIATES OF FORMULA II

Scheme 22 provides further examples of the synthesis of intermediates of formula II

Compound (R)-118

A solution of triflic anhydride (2.88 mL, 2.88 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (14 mL)

was slowly added at -20 ºC to a stirred solution (R)-7 (681 mg, 2.4

mmol) and triethylamine (0.4 mL, 2.88 mmol). Once the addition was

complete, the cooling bath was removed and stirring continued for 2.5

h at 23 ºC. For work up, the mixture was washed with HCl (1 M) and

the aqueous layer extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 (x3). The combined organic

phases were dried over anhydrous MgSO4, filtered, concentrated under reduced pressure, and the residue was purified by flash chromatography (hexane/EtOAc) to give (R)-118 (730 mg, 73% yield) as a pale yellow oil.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.19 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 6.15 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.83 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 4.46 (d, J = 7.4 Hz, 1H), 1.83 (ddt, J = 12.8, 9.6, 6.2 Hz, 1H), 1.73-1.61 (m, 1H), 1.44 (s, 9H), 1.42-1.24 (m, 2H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 167.7, 161.3, 161.0, 154.9, 118.5 (q, k = 321.1 Hz), 103.4, 98.6, 80.9, 53.0, 35.1, 31.1, 28.4, 19.2, 13.7.

MS (ES+): m/z 438.0 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.27 (Hex:EtOAc 9:1). Compound (R)-119

To a solution of (R)-118 (660 mg, 1.59 mmol) in degassed DMF (10.5

mL), was added successively Pd(PPh3)4 (0.367 mL, 0.32 mmol) and

triethylsilane (0.5 mL, 3.18 mmol) and the resulting mixture was heated

to 60 °C for 2 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with water and

extracted with EtOAc. The combined organics were washed with water,

dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated under reduced pressure and purified using flash column chromatography (hexane:EtOAc) to give (R)-119 (90 mg, 23% yield) as a colorless solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.32-7.26 (m, 1H), 6.20 (dd, J = 9.4, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 6.13 (d, J = 6.5 Hz, 1H), 4.90 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 4.41 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 1.79 (ddt, J = 13.3, 9.5, 6.5 Hz, 1H), 1.66 (dq, J = 13.9, 7.7 Hz, 1H), 1.42 (s, 9H), 1.38-1.24 (m, 1H), 0.93 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H). 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 164.3, 162.3, 155.1, 143.7, 132.2, 129.7, 128.8, 128.6, 127.2, 123.5, 114.6, 102.7, 80.3, 52.8, 35.4, 29.8, 28.4, 19.2, 13.7.

MS (ES+): m/z 290.3 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.13 (Hex:EtOAc 4:1). C ompound (R)-120

To a solution of (R)-119 (84 mg, 0.31 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (11.3 mL) was

added TFA (3.46 mL) at 23 ºC. After being stirred for 2 hours, the

mixture was concentrated to dryness to obtain crude (R)-120 which

was used in the next without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 7.51 (ddd, J = 9.6, 6.5, 1.0 Hz, 1H),

7.27-6.99 (m, 1H), 6.49 (dd, J = 6.6, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 6.35 (dt, J = 9.4, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (dd, J = 9.0, 6.1 Hz, 1H), 2.08-1.72 (m, 2H), 1.49-1.17 (m, 3H), 1.02-0.88 (m, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 162.6, 159.2, 145.1, 129.9, 129.2, 126.3, 117.2, 107.1, 53.5, 34.3, 19.6, 13.7. EXAMPLE 13. SYNTHESIS OF INTERMEDIATE 125

Scheme 23 provides an example of the synthesis of intermediate 125

C ompound 121

To a solution of 5,5,5-Trifluoro-DL-norvaline (206 mg, 1.2 mmol) and

Na2CO3 (383 mg, 3.6 mmol) in H2O (2.4 mL) was dropwise added Boc

anhydride (276 mg, 1.2 mmol) dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (2.4 mL) at 0 ºC.

The reaction mixture was stirred at 23 ºC for 5 hours and then, was diluted

with EtOAc and washed with HCl 0.5 N (x2) and once with a saturated

aqueous solution of NaCl (x1). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain crude 121 (326 mg, 100% yield) which was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 4.17 (dd, J = 9.0, 4.9 Hz, 1H), 2.36-2.14 (m, 2H), 2.08 (ddt, J = 16.2, 10.8, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 1.95-1.81 (m, 1H), 1.45 (s, 9H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 174.9, 158.0, 129.8 (q, JC-F = 275 Hz, CF3), 80.7, 53.7, 31.2 (q, JC-F = 29 Hz, CH 2 CF3), 28.7, 25.4. Compound 122

In a first flask, CDI (203 mg, 1.25 mmol) was added in portions to

a solution of 121 (324 mg, 1.2 mmol) in 2-Me-THF (94.8 mL), with

gas evolution. This mixture was stirred for 2 h at 23 ºC. In another

flask, at -78 ºC, 2,2,6-trimethyl-4H-1,3-dioxin-4-one (0.53 mL, 3.6

mmol) in 2-Me-THF (3.6 mL) was added slowly to a solution of

LiHMDS (3.6 mL, 1.0 M in THF, 3.6 mmol) in 2-Me-THF (4.8 mL).

After stirring at the same temperature for 1h, ZnCl2 (488 mg, 3.6 mmol) was added at -78 ºC and the reaction mixture was stirred 30 minutes at -78 ºC. The first mixture was added via cannula. The reaction was stirring at -78 ºC for 4 h and then quenched with saturated aqueous solution of NH4Cl. Extraction with EtOAc, and dryness of the organic layers over Na2SO4 gave a crude which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hexane/EtOAc 9/1 to 7/3) to afford 122 (256 mg, 54% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 5.41 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 5.32 (s, 1H), 4.28 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 3.45 (d, J = 3.3 Hz, 2H), 2.29-2.01 (m, 4H), 1.65 (s, 6H), 1.41 (s, 9H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 201.7, 164.05, 160.6, 155.4, 126.6 (q, JC-F = 276 Hz, CF3), 107.3, 96.9, 80.7, 58.3, 43.6, 29.9 (q, JC-F = 29 Hz, CH 2 CF3), 28.1, 24.9, 24.7, 23.1.

Compound 123

A solution of 122 (253 mg, 0.640 mmol) in toluene (6.4 mL) was

refluxed for 30 min. After cooling to 23 ºC, it was evaporated to dryness

and crude residue was purified in CombiFlash with hexane/EtOAc

60:40 to 40:60 in 20 min. It was obtained 123 (121 mg, 56% yield) as a

clear oil.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.05 (s, 1H), 5.51 (s, 1H), 5.30 (s, 1H),

5.22 (s, 1H), 2.30-1.75 (m, 4H), 1.36 (s, 9H). Compound 124

A mixture of 123 (119 mg, 0.353 mmol), acetone (3.5 mL), K2CO3 (244

mg, 1.76 mmol) and dimethyl sulfate (0.17 mL, 0.475 mmol) was stirred

at 23 ºC for 2h. Filtration over Celite ® and washing with EtOAc gave a

c rude which was purified In CombiFlash over silica gel with mixtures

hexane/EtOAc 100:0 to 0:100 in 20 min to yield 124 (111 mg, 90%

yield).

1

H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 5.96 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.44 (d, J = 2.2

Hz, 1H), 5.12 (d, J = 9.4 Hz, 1H), 4.45 (q, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 2.24-1.79 (m, 4H), 1.41 (s, 9H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 170.8, 163.8, 161.7, 154.8, 126.5 (q, JC-F = 276 Hz, CF3), 100.3, 88.7, 80.6, 56.0, 51.5, 30.5 (q, JC-F = 29 Hz, CH 2 CF3), 28.2, 25.8. Compound 125

To a solution of 124 (109 mg, 0.310 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (4 mL) was

added TFA (1.2 mL). After being stirred for 1 h at 23 ºC, the mixture

was evaporated to dryness and then evaporated with toluene to

eliminate TFA to obtain crude 125 (113 mg) which was used in the

next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD

3OD): d 6.40 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.71 (d, J =

2 .2 Hz, 1H), 4.96 (s, 2H), 4.34-4.26 (m, 1H), 3.89 (s, 3H), 2.44-2.11

(m, 4H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 172.2, 165.1, 157.8, 127.9 (q, JC-F = 275 Hz, CF3), 105.3, 90.8, 57.3, 52.4, 30.5 (q, JC-F = 30 Hz, CH 2 CF3), 24.8 (q, JC-F = 3.1 Hz, CH 2 CH 2 CF3). EXAMPLE 14. SYNTHESIS OF ADDITIONAL COMPOUNDS OF FORMULA I

Scheme 24 provides a further example of the synthesis of additional compounds of formula I.

Scheme 24

C ompound 126 To a suspension of (R)-120 (90 mg, 0.0.32 mmol) and

(R)-39 (84 mg, 0.32 mmol) were coevaporated 3 times

with toluene to remove water, then the mixture was

dissolved in CH 2 Cl 2 (2.2 mL) were added HATU (122 mg,

0 .0.32 mmol), HOAt (44 mg, 0.32 mmol) and DIPEA

(0.22 mL, 0.1.28 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at 23

ºC overnight. Dilution with CH 2 Cl 2 , washing of the organic layer with 0.5M HCl and a saturated aqueous solution of NaCl and, finally, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude obtained was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hexane/EtOAc 6/4) to afford 126 (100 mg, 77% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.26-7.20 (m, 1H), 7.09 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 6.16 (dd, J = 9.4, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 6.06 (dd, J = 6.5, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 4.75 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 3.65-3.37 (m, 4H), 3.15 (dd, J = 11.7, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 1.92-1.79 (m, 1H), 1.81-1.67 (m, 1H), 1.60 (d, J = 0.9 Hz, 3H), 1.54 (d, J = 0.9 Hz, 3H), 1.44-1.28 (m, 2H), 1.21 (qd, J = 7.2, 1.0 Hz, 6H), 0.93 (td, J = 7.3, 0.9 Hz, 3H). 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 177.2, 174.4, 163.5, 161.5, 143.2, 114.7, 102.4, 100.2, 85.1, 57.8, 57.7, 51.0, 40.4, 34.8, 25.3, 23.7, 19.1, 15.2 (x2), 13.5.

MS (ES+): m/z 433.3 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.33 (Hex:EtOAc 1:3). Compound 127

A mixture of 126 (100 mg, 0.24 mmol), pentane (7.3 mL) and

formic acid (4.87 mL) was vigorously stirred for 2h at 23 ºC.

The volatiles were concentrated under vacuum with toluene to

dryness to afford crude 127 (73 mg, 90% yield) which was

used in the next step without purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.40-7.17 (m, 1H), 7.04 (d, J =

9.0 Hz, 1H), 6.30-6.07 (m, 2H), 4.79 (q, J = 7.1, 6.0 Hz, 1H), 3.63 (dd, J = 12.1, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.28 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.1 Hz, 1H), 2.56 (d, J = 3.8 Hz, 2H), 1.97-1.77 (m, 1H), 1.55 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 2H), 1.46-1.17 (m, 2H), 0.97 (q, J = 5.7, 4.2 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 193.2, 173.2, 170.4, 162.7, 161.7, 143.4, 114.9, 103.0, 86.1, 51.1, 40.1, 35.0, 26.3, 24.6, 19.1, 13.6. Compound 128

A mixture of 127 (70 mg, 0.21 mmol), ethanol (2.3 mL),

water (2.3 mL), hydroxylamine hydrochloride (38 mg, 7.3

mmol) and NaOAc (77 mg, 0.94 mmol) was stirred for

2 4h. Then ethanol was concentrated under vacuum, a

saturated aqueous solution of NaCl was added, and the

aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude was chromatographed over silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 /EtOAc from 95/5 to 8/2) to afford 128 (29 mg, 40% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 7.84 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 7.46 (dd, J = 9.4, 6.6 Hz, 1H), 6.31-6.16 (m, 2H), 4.77 (ddd, J = 8.8, 7.3, 4.3 Hz, 1H), 3.52 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 3.18 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 1.94-1.75 (m, 2H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.49-1.34 (m, 1H), 0.99 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES+): m/z 352.3 [M+H] + , 374.1 [M+Na] + . Scheme 25 provides further examples of the synthesis of compounds of formula I:

Compound 129

A mixture of (S)-39 (410 mg, 1.6 mmol) and (R)-23 (488

mg, 1.6 mmol) is coevaporated with toluene and then

HATU (597 mg, 1.6 mmol) and HOAt (215 mg, 1.6 mmol)

w ere added. Reaction flask is evacuated and filled with N2

and CH 2 Cl 2 (11 mL) and DIPEA (1.1 mL, 6.4 mmol) were

introduced via syringe. The reaction mixture is stirred 16 h

at 23 ºC. Then, it is diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 before washing with HCl 0.5 N (x2) and with a saturated aqueous solution of NaCl. Combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and evaporated to dryness. Crude residue is purified on a system for flash chromatography with a SiO2 column eluting with mixtures of hexane/EtOAc from 100:0 to 50:50 in 15 min to obtain 129 (458 mg, 66% yield). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.02 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 5.93 (m, 1H), 5.41 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.65 (td, J = 8.4, 6.2 Hz, 1H), 3.78 (d, J = 0.7 Hz, 3H), 3.60 (m, 1H), 3.52 (m, 4H), 3.15 (dd, J = 11.7, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 1.84 (ddd, J = 13.4, 9.4, 6.7 Hz, 1H), 1.64 (dd, J = 8.9, 5.5 Hz, 1H), 1.59 (d, J = 0.7 Hz, 3H), 1.48 (s, 3H), 1.29 (m, 1H), 1.21 (m, 6H), 0.89 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 177.7, 175.8, 172.2, 165.4, 164.2, 101.4, 101.0, 89.7, 86.4, 58.9, 58.8, 57.2, 52.1, 41.6, 35.8, 26.3, 24.9, 20.2, 16.5 (x2), 14.8.

MS (ES+): m/z 463.3 [M+Na] + . Compound 130

A mixture of (S)-39 (269 mg, 1.0 mmol) and (R)-30 (337

mg, 1.0 mmol) is coevaporated with toluene and then

HATU (392 mg, 1.0 mmol) and HOAt (141 mg, 1.0 mmol)

were added. Reaction flask is evacuated and filled with

N2 and CH 2 Cl 2 (7.2 mL) and DIPEA (0.7 mL, 4.0 mmol)

were introduced via syringe. The reaction mixture is

stirred 16 h at 23 ºC. Then, it is diluted with CH 2 Cl 2

before washing with HCl 0.5 N (x2) and with a saturated aqueous solution of NaCl. Combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and evaporated to dryness. Crude residue is purified on a system for flash chromatography with a SiO2 column eluting with mixtures of hexane/EtOAc from 100:0 to 50:50 in 15 min to obtain 130 (240 mg, 50% yield). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.94 (dd, J = 8.6, 3.3 Hz, 1H), 5.80 (m, 2H), 5.22 (m, 3H), 4.51 (dq, J = 11.6, 5.4, 4.0 Hz, 1H), 4.34 (d, J = 4.4 Hz, 2H), 3.38 (m, 5H), 2.99 (dd, J = 11.7, 3.6 Hz, 1H), 1.68 (dtd, J = 11.2, 8.0, 7.4, 3.9 Hz, 1H), 1.50 (tq, J = 8.4, 4.6, 3.9 Hz, 1H), 1.42 (d, J = 3.4 Hz, 3H), 1.31 (d, J = 3.4 Hz, 3H), 1.04 (ddt, J = 11.0, 6.9, 3.0 Hz, 6H), 0.73 (td, J = 7.5, 3.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 176.2, 174.3, 169.6, 163.8, 162.9, 130.6, 119.2, 100.0, 99.7, 89.1, 85.0, 69.4, 57.5, 57.4, 50.7, 40.2, 34.4, 24.9, 23.5, 18.8, 15.1, 13.4.

MS (ES+): m/z 489.2 [M+Na] + . Compound 131

A mixture of (S)-39 (408 mg, 1.6 mmol) and (R)-32 (548

mg, 1.6 mmol) is coevaporated with toluene and then

HATU (593 mg, 1.6 mmol) and HOAt (214 mg, 1.6 mmol)

were added. Reaction flask is evacuated and filled with N2

and CH 2 Cl 2 (11 mL) and DIPEA (1.1 mL, 6.4 mmol) were

introduced via syringe. The reaction mixture is stirred 16 h

a t 23 ºC. Then, it is diluted with CH2Cl2 before washing

with HCl 0.5 N (x2) and with a saturated aqueous solution of NaCl. Combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and evaporated to dryness. Crude residue is purified on a system for flash chromatography with a SiO2 column eluting with mixtures of hexane/EtOAc from 100:0 to 50:50 in 15 min to obtain 131 (343 mg, 46% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.92 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 5.81 (dt, J = 2.2, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 5.21 (dd, J = 2.2, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 4.51 (td, J = 8.4, 6.1 Hz, 1H), 3.93 (qd, J = 7.2, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 3.62 (m, 2H), 3.38 (m, 5H), 3.00 (dd, J = 11.7, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 1.68 (m, 1H), 1.49 (m, 1H), 1.42 (d, J = 0.6 Hz, 3H), 1.32 (s, 3H), 1.14 (m, 2H), 1.05 (m, 7H), 0.74 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H), 0.49 (m, 2H), 0.18 (m, 2H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 176.1, 174.3, 170.0, 163.9, 162.7, 100.0, 99.8, 88.5, 85.0, 73.6, 57.5, 57.3, 50.7, 40.2, 34.4, 24.9, 23.5, 18.8, 15.1, 13.4, 9.3, 3.2 (x2).

MS (ES+): m/z 503.3 [M+Na] + . Compound 132

A mixture of 129 (458 mg, 1.07 mmol), pentane (24 mL)

and formic acid (16 mL) was vigorously stirred for 2h at

23 ºC. The volatiles were concentrated under vacuum

with toluene to dryness to afford crude 132 (398 mg,

100% yield) which was used in the next step without

purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.93 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 5.99 (dd, J = 2.4, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 5.45 (dd, J = 2.3, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 4.68 (q, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 3.81 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 3H), 3.67 (dd, J = 12.0, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 3.28 (dd, J = 11.9, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 2.56 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 2H), 1.85 (m, 1H), 1.72 (m, 1H), 1.50 (d, J = 1.3 Hz, 3H), 1.30 (m, 2H), 0.92 (td, J = 7.3, 1.2 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 194.4, 174.5, 172.2, 171.5, 165.5, 163.3, 101.8, 89.9, 87.4, 57.3, 52.4, 41.5, 35.8, 27.6, 25.7, 20.3, 14.8.

MS (ES+): m/z 367.3 [M+H] + . Compound 133

A mixture of 130 (240 mg, 0.6 mmol), pentane (12.5 mL)

and formic acid (8.4 mL) was vigorously stirred for 2h at

23 ºC. The volatiles were concentrated under vacuum with

toluene to dryness to obtain crude 133 (252 mg, 100%

yield) which was used in the next step without purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.94 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H),

5.99 (m, 3H), 5.41 (m, 4H), 4.69 (q, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 4.51 (dq, J = 5.8, 1.4 Hz, 2H), 3.67 (dd, J = 12.0, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 3.28 (dd, J = 11.9, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 2.56 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 3H), 1.86 (m, 1H), 1.72 (m, 1H), 1.50 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 3H), 1.30 (tt, J = 14.3, 6.8 Hz, 3H), 0.92 (m, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 194.4, 174.5, 171.0, 166.2, 163.4, 159.6, 131.8, 120.9, 102.0, 90.7, 87.4, 70.9, 52.4, 41.5, 35.8, 27.6, 25.7, 20.3, 14.8.

MS (ES+): m/z 393.2 [M+H] + . Compound 134

A mixture of 131 (343 mg, 1.07 mmol), pentane (18 mL)

and formic acid (12 mL) was vigorously stirred for 2h at

23 ºC. The volatiles were concentrated under vacuum

with toluene to dryness to afford crude 134 (360 mg,

100% yield) which was used in the next step without

purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.93 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 6.01 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.39 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.69 (q, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 3.79 (dd, J = 7.1, 2.7 Hz, 2H), 3.68 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 3.28 (dd, J = 11.9, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 2.56 (d, J = 0.6 Hz, 3H), 1.86 (ddt, J = 14.0, 9.1, 7.1 Hz, 1H), 1.71 (m, 1H), 1.51 (s, 3H), 1.29 (m, 2H), 0.93 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 4H), 0.68 (m, 3H), 0.35 (dt, J = 6.2, 4.9 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 194.4, 174.5, 173.6, 171.4, 165.5, 163.2, 102.1, 90.1, 87.4, 75.1, 52.4, 41.5, 35.8, 27.6, 25.7, 20.3, 14.8, 10.6, 4.7, 4.6.

MS (ES+): m/z 407.1 [M+H] + . Compound 135

A mixture of 132 (392 mg, 1.07 mmol), ethanol (12 mL),

water (12 mL), hydroxylamine hydrochloride (550 mg, 7.9

mmol) and NaOAc (395 mg, 4.8 mmol) was stirred

o vernight at 23 ºC. Then ethanol was concentrated under

vacuum, a saturated aqueous solution of NaCl was

added, and the aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude was chromatographed over silica gel (hexane/EtOAc from 100:0 to 50:50) to afford 135 (231 mg, 57% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 11.10 (s, 1H), 7.06 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 5.92 (t, J = 1.9 Hz, 1H), 5.40 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 4.61 (qd, J = 7.4, 6.7, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 3.73 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 3H), 3.45 (dd, J = 11.6, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 3.12 (dd, J = 11.6, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 2.10 (m, 3H), 1.76 (m, 1H), 1.62 (dddt, J = 13.6, 9.6, 5.7, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 1.40 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 3H), 1.19 (m, 2H), 0.81 (td, J = 7.3, 1.6 Hz, 3H). 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.4, 170.9, 168.4, 164.4, 162.3, 151.8, 100.0, 88.3, 84.0, 55.8, 50.7, 39.6, 34.2, 24.3, 18.7, 13.3, 10.8.

MS (ES+): m/z 382.3 [M+H] + .

Compound 136

A mixture of 133 (239 mg, 0.61 mmol), ethanol (6.7 mL),

w ater (6.7 mL), hydroxylamine hydrochloride (314 mg,

4.5 mmol) and NaOAc (225 mg, 2.7 mmol) was stirred

overnight at 23 ºC. Then ethanol was concentrated under vacuum, a saturated aqueous solution of NaCl was added, and the aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude was chromatographed over silica gel (hexane/EtOAc from 100:0 to 50:50) to afford 136 (131 mg, 53% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 10.14 (s, 1H), 7.12 (m, 1H), 6.01 (t, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 5.94 (dddd, J = 16.0, 9.7, 6.3, 5.1 Hz, 1H), 5.46 (t, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 5.39 (dq, J = 17.2, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 5.33 (dp, J = 10.5, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 4.69 (q, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 4.49 (dt, J = 5.6, 1.5 Hz, 2H), 3.54 (dt, J = 11.6, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 3.24 (dd, J = 11.6, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 2.19 (m, 3H), 1.83 (dtd, J = 9.8, 7.7, 6.1 Hz, 1H), 1.70 (m, 1H), 1.47 (m, 3H), 1.25 (m, 3H), 0.88 (td, J = 7.4, 1.2 Hz, 3H).

1 3C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.5, 169.9, 168.1, 164.6, 162.3, 152.6, 130.5, 119.6, 100.6, 89.4, 84.3, 69.6, 51.0, 40.0, 34.5, 24.4, 18.9, 13.5, 11.2.

MS (ES+): m/z 408.2 [M+H] + . Compound 137

A mixture of 134 (341 mg, 0.84 mmol), ethanol (9.2 mL),

water (9.2 mL), hydroxylamine hydrochloride (432 mg,

6.2 mmol) and NaOAc (310 mg, 3.8 mmol) was stirred

overnight at 23 ºC. Then ethanol was concentrated under

vacuum, a saturated aqueous solution of NaCl was

added, and the aqueous phase was extracted with

E tOAc. The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude was chromatographed over silica gel (hexane/EtOAc from 100:0 to 50:50) to afford 137 (178 mg, 50% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 10.45 (s, 1H), 7.12 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 6.00 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.40 (dd, J = 2.2, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 4.67 (q, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 3.76 (m, 2H), 3.51 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.22 (dd, J = 11.5, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 2.17 (d, J = 0.7 Hz, 3H), 1.82 (ddt, J = 13.7, 9.2, 6.8 Hz, 1H), 1.68 (m, 1H), 1.45 (s, 3H), 1.25 (m, 2H), 0.86 (m, 3H), 0.62 (m, 2H), 0.30 (m, 2H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.5, 170.3, 168.2, 164.8, 162.2, 152.4, 100.6, 88.8, 84.2, 73.8, 50.9, 39.9, 34.4, 24.3, 18.9, 13.4, 11.1, 9.3, 3.3 (x2).

MS (ES+): m/z 422.1 [M+H] + . Scheme 26 provides further examples of the synthesis of compounds of formula I:

C ompound 138

A mixture of 125 (113 mg, 0.310 mmol) and (R)-39 (85

mg) is coevaporated with toluene and then HATU (128

mg) and HOAt (47 mg) were added. Reaction flask is

evacuated and filled with N2 and CH 2 Cl 2 (2.2 mL) and

DIPEA (0.24 mL) were introduced via syringe. The

reaction mixture is stirred 16 h at 23 ºC. Then, it is

diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 before washing with HCl 0.5 N (x2)

and with a saturated aqueous solution of NaCl. Combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and evaporated to dryness. Crude residue is purified on a system for flash chromatography with a SiO2 column eluting with mixtures of hexane/EtOAc from 80:20 to 50:50 in 30 min to obtain 138 (47 mg, 31% yield). Compound epi-138 was also isolated with a similar yield. Compound 138

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.18 (d, J = 9.3 Hz, 1H), 5.89 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.42 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.82 (td, J = 9.0, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 3.65-3.42 (m, 5H), 3.17 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 2.24- 2.07 (m, 3H), 2.09-1.95 (m, 1H), 1.60 (s, 3H), 1.54 (s, 3H), 1.22 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H), 1.21 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 177.2, 174.7, 170.5, 163.2, 161.0, 126.4 (q, JC-F = 276 Hz, CF3), 100.3, 100.2, 88.8, 85.1, 57.8, 57.6, 56.0, 49.8, 40.2, 30.5 (q, JC-F = 30 Hz, CH 2 CF3), 25.5, 25.3, 23.7, 15.12. Compound 139

A mixture of 138 (47 mg, 0.095 mmol), pentane (2.4 mL) and

formic acid (1.6 mL) was vigorously stirred for 2h at 23 ºC.

The volatiles were concentrated under vacuum with toluene

to dryness to afford 139. The crude was used in the next step

without purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.17 (d, J = 9.1 Hz, 1H), 5.96

(d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.47 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.83 (q, J = 7.4, 6.7 Hz, 1H), 3.81 (s, 3H), 3.62 (d, J = 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.28 (d, J = 12.0 Hz, 1H), 2.55 (s, 3H), 2.23-2.04 (m, 4H), 1.56 (s, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 193.1, 173.6, 170.6, 163.5, 162.6, 160.0, 126.4 (q, JC-F = 276 Hz, CF3), 101.2, 89.1, 86.0, 56.2, 50.0, 40.0, 30.5 (q, JC-F = 30 Hz, CH 2 CF3), 26.3, 25.8, 24.6. Compounds 140 and 140a

A mixture of 139 (40 mg, 0.095 mmol), ethanol (1.0 mL), water (1.0 mL), hydroxylamine hydrochloride (49 mg, 0.7 mmol) and NaOAc (35 mg, 0.43 mmol) was stirred for 16h at 23 ºC. Then ethanol was concentrated under vacuum, a saturated aqueous solution of NaCl was added, and the aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude was chromatographed on a system for flash chromatography with a SiO2 column eluting with mixtures of hexane/EtOAc from 100:0 to 50:50 in 50 min. This purification allowed to separate both stereoisomers, 140 (21.8 mg, 53% yield for 2 steps) and 140a (4.8 mg, 12% yield). 140

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 8.91 (s, 1H), 7.25 (d, J = 9.3 Hz, 1H), 5.95 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.46 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.82 (q, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 3.53 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 3.23 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.22 (s, 3H), 2.22-2.02 (m, 4H), 1.53 (s, 3H). 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.5, 170.6, 168.2, 163.7, 160.4, 153.2, 126.4 (q, JC-F = 276 Hz, CF3), 101.0, 89.1, 84.3, 56.1, 50.0, 39.8, 30.5 (q, JC-F = 30 Hz, CH 2 CF3), 25.7, 24.8, 11.2. 140a

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 9.12 (s, 1H), 7.17 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 6.03 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.50 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.80 (q, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 3.83 (s, 3H), 3.56 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.25 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 2.22 (s, 3H), 2.20-1.96 (m, 4H), 1.48 (s, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.4, 170.7, 168.3, 163.9, 160.5, 153.1, 126.4 (q, J(C-F) = 277 Hz, CF3), 101.1, 93.3, 89.0, 84.3, 56.2, 50.1, 40.1, 30.5 (q, J(C-F) = 30 Hz, CH 2 CF3), 25.4, 24.4, 11.2. EXAMPLE 15. SYNTHESIS OF ADDITIONAL INTERMEDIATES OF FORMULA II

Scheme 27 provides further examples of the synthesis of intermediates of formula II

Synthesis of (R)-142

T o a solution of (R)-20 (30 mg, 0.64 mmol) in THF (11 mL) was added

palladium(II) acetate (7 mg, 0.032 mmol), triphenylphosphine (17 mg,

0.064 mmol) and lithium bromide (167 mg, 1.92 mmol) at 23 ºC. The

reaction mixture was turned to a yellow-to-orange, stirred for 10 min at 23

ºC and allyltributylstannane (0.34 mL, 1.088 mmol) was added at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture was refluxed for 2 h and concentrated under vacuum. An aqueous solution of KF 2M was added to the crude and the mixture was stirred for 30 min at 23 ºC. Filtration over Celite ® and washing with Et2O gave a crude which was purified in an automatic system for flash chromatography (SiO 2 ) to yield (R)-142 (46.8 mg, 24% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 6.48 (dq, J = 15.7, 6.7 Hz, 1H), 6.24 (s, 1H), 6.18 (dd, J = 16.3, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 5.94 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1H), 4.92 (m, 1H), 4.46-4.31 (m, 1H), 1.93 (dd, J = 6.8, 1.6 Hz, 2H), 1.86-1.63 (m, 2H), 1.39-1.23 (m, 2H), 0.98-0.86 (m, 3H).

MS (ES+): m/z 330.3 [M+Na] + . Synthesis of (R)-143

To a solution of (R)-142 (46.8 mg, 0.15 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (1.7 mL) was

added TFA (0.5 mL). After being stirred for 2 h, the reaction mixture was

evaporated to dryness to obtain crude (R)-143 (48.9 mg, 100% yield)

w hich was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 8.24 (dd, J = 12.9, 8.5 Hz, 2H), 5.81 (td, J

= 17.3, 7.3 Hz, 1H), 5.38 (d, J = 10.1 Hz, 1H), 5.16 (d, J = 17.1 Hz, 1H), 3.88 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 2.07-1.83 (m, 2H), 1.42-1.22 (m, 2H), 1.04-0.78 (m, 3H).

MS (ES+): m/z 230.3 [M+Na] + , 208.3 [M+H] + . EXAMPLE 16. SYNTHESIS OF ADDITIONAL COMPOUNDS OF FORMULA I

Scheme 28 provides further examples of the synthesis of compounds of formula I

Synthesis of 144

To a solution of 74 (75 mg, 0.184 mmol) in

acetone (2 mL), K2CO3 (127 mg, 0.920 mmol)

and 2-[2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethyl iodide

( 233 mg, 0.920 mmol) were added at 23 ºC.

The reaction mixture was stirred at 23 ºC

overnight. The reaction mixture was filtered,

washing with EtOAc and evaporated. The

resulting residue was purified by combi flash in

SiO2 (from CH 2 Cl 2 to CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc 4:4) to yield 144 (60 mg, 58% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 7.86 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 6.06 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 6.04-5.95 (m, 1H), 5.54 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.48-5.23 (m, 2H), 4.75 (dt, J = 9.2, 5.8 Hz, 1H), 4.59 (d, J = 5.4 Hz, 2H), 4.33 (t, J = 4.7 Hz, 2H), 3.77 (t, J = 4.7 Hz, 2H), 3.67-3.58 (m, 7H), 3.59-3.50 (m, 4H), 3.20 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 2.21 (s, 3H), 1.93-1.76 (m, 2H), 1.53 (s, 3H), 1.50-1.31 (m, 2H), 1.17 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H), 0.98 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 174.9, 170.7, 167.8, 165.1, 164.0, 152.1, 131.2, 118.0, 99.5, 88.4, 84.3, 74.3, 70.3, 70.2, 70.1, 69.6, 69.5, 69.0, 66.1, 50.8, 39.3, 33.8, 23.5, 18.8, 14.1, 12.5, 10.5.

MS (ES+): m/z 568.2 [M+H] + , 590.2 [M+Na] + . Synthesis of 145

To a solution of 76 (74 mg, 0.176 mmol) in

acetone (2 mL), K2CO3 (121 mg, 0.879 mmol)

and 2-[2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethyl iodide

(223 mg, 0.879 mmol) were added at 23 ºC.

The reaction mixture was stirred at 23 ºC

overnight. The reaction mixture was filtered,

washing with EtOAc and evaporated. The

resulting residue was purified by combi flash in SiO2 (from CH 2 Cl 2 to CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc 6:4) to yield 145 (79 mg, 79% yield).

1 H NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD): d 7.86 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 6.05 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.48 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.75 (td, J = 8.8, 5.8 Hz, 1H), 4.33 (t, J = 4.7 Hz, 2H), 3.86 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 3.77 (t, J = 4.7 Hz, 2H), 3.66-3.59 (m, 7H), 3.59-3.44 (m, 4H), 3.20 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.22 (s, 3H), 1.90-0.76 (m, 2H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.49-1.34 (m, 3H), 1.25-1.21 (m, 1H), 1.17 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H), 0.98 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.67-0.57 (m, 2H), 0.37-0.33 (m, 2H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 176.3, 176.2, 172.5, 169.1, 166.6, 165.2 (x2), 153.5, 101.0, 89.3, 85.7 (x2), 75.7, 75.3, 71.6 (x2), 71.5, 70.9, 70.4, 67.5, 52.2, 52.1, 40.7, 35.3, 35.2, 24.9, 20.2, 15.5, 13.9, 11.9, 10.4, 3.7.

MS (ES+): m/z 582.2 [M+H] + , 604.2 [M+Na] + . Rf: 0.43 (CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc 6:4). Synthesis of 146

To a solution of 1 (85 mg, 0.22 mmol) in acetone (2

mL) was added Cs2CO3 (363 mg, 1.1 mmol) and

tert-butyl(4-iodobutoxy)dimethylsilane (0.3 mL, 1.1

mmol) and the reaction was stirred at 23 ºC

overnight. Evaporation to dryness of the reaction

mixture following by purification by flash

chromatography on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc) gave 146 (100 mg, 30% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.07 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 5.86 (t, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 5.39 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 4.70 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 4.21 (t, J = 6.2 Hz, 2H), 3.76 (s, 3H), 3.62 (t, J = 6.3 Hz, 2H), 3.48 (dd, J = 11.8, 3.1 Hz, 1H), 3.18 (dd, J = 14.5, 9.4 Hz, 2H), 2.15 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 3H), 1.96- 1.50 (m, 6H), 1.48 (s, 3H), 1.42-1.26 (m, 2H), 0.94 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H), 0.86 (s, 6H), 0.02 (s, 3H). 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 174.2, 170.8, 167.9, 164.0, 162.5, 162.4, 151.4, 100.1, 100.0, 88.5, 84.3, 75.4, 74.1, 62.7, 55.9, 50.9, 39.8, 34.7, 30.0 (x2), 29.1, 25.9, 25.6, 24.7, 19.0, 18.3, 13.6, 11.8, 6.3, -5.3. Synthesis of 147

To a mixture of 146 (100 mg, 0.18 mmol) and NH4F

(34 mg, 0.9 mmol) in THF (16 mL) was added TBAF

( 0.9 mL, 1.0 M in THF, 0.9 mmol) at 23 ºC. After being

stirred for 4 h, 0.3 mL of TBAF was added to complete

the reaction. After 2 h, the reaction was quenched

with an aqueous saturated solution of NaCl and

extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 . The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and evaporation of the volatiles gave a crude which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc) to afford 147 (54 mg, 37% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.06 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 5.87 (dd, J = 2.2, 0.5 Hz, 1H), 5.40 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.71 (td, J = 8.3, 6.8 Hz, 1H), 4.25 (td, J = 6.4, 1.0 Hz, 2H), 3.77 (s, 3H), 3.68 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 2H), 3.51 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.41-3.27 (m, 3H), 3.18 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.17 (s, 3H), 1.92-1.62 (m, 6H), 1.50 (s, 3H), 1.48-1.29 (m, 2H), 1.29-1.17 (m, 3H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.1, 170.9, 167.9, 164.1, 162.4, 151.6, 100.1, 88.5, 84.3, 75.2, 62.5, 59.3, 55.9, 50.9, 39.9, 34.8, 29.7, 29.1, 25.6, 24.8, 24.3, 19.8, 19.0, 13.7, 13.6, 11.9. Synthesis of 148

To a solution of 76 (458 mg, 1.08 mmol) in acetone

(11 mL), Cs2CO3 (1.77 g, 5.43 mmol) and tert- butyl(4-iodobutoxy)dimethylsilane (1.41 mL, 5.43

m mol) were added and was stiired at 23 ºC overnight.

The reaction mixture was filtered washing with EtOAc.

and evaporated. The resulting residue was purified by combi flash in SiO2 (from CH 2 Cl 2 to CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc 9:1) to yield 148 (587 mg, 89% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 7.85 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 6.06 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.48 (s, 1H), 4.74 (td, J = 8.8, 5.7 Hz, 1H), 4.23 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 2H), 3.86 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 3.67 (t, J = 6.3 Hz, 2H), 3.58 (dd, J = 11.5, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 3.19 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 1.94-1.71 (m, 4H), 1.64-1.57 (m, 2H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.51-1.32 (m, 2H), 1.28-1.20 (m, 1H), 0.98 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.89 (s, 9H), 0.72-0.57 (m, 2H), 0.37-0.33 (m, 2H), 0.05 (s, 6H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD 3 OD): d 175.0, 171.2, 168.0, 165.3, 163.8, 151.5, 99.7, 87.9, 84.3, 74.9, 73.9, 62.5, 50.8, 39.2, 33.9, 28.8, 25.4, 25.0, 23.5, 18.8, 12.5, 10.4, 9.0, 2.3, -6.6.

MS (ES+): m/z 608.2 [M+H] + , 630.2 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.53 (CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc 9:1). Synthesis of 149

To a solution of 148 (95 mg, 0.156 mmol) in

a nhydrous MeOH (1 mL), PPTS (14 mg, 0.054 mmol)

was added and was stirred at 23 ºC for 3h. Then, the

solvent was removed under pressure and the resulting

oil was dissolved in EtOAcand washed with an

aqueous saturated solution of NaHCO3 and H2O. The

combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and evaporated. The resulting residue was purified by combi flash in SiO2 (from CH 2 Cl 2 to CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc 1:1) to obtain 149 (0.59 g, 77% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 7.87 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 6.05 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.48 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.74 (td, J = 8.9, 5.7 Hz, 1H), 4.23 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 3.86 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 3.70- 3.49 (m, 3H), 3.19 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 1.88-1.74 (m, 4H), 1.68-1.57 (m, 2H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.50-1.32 (m, 2H), 1.25-1.20 (m, 1H), 0.98 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.70-0.54 (m, 2H), 0.37- 0.33 (m, 2H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 176.4, 172.6, 169.3, 166.7, 165.2, 152.9, 101.1, 89.2, 85.7, 76.3, 75.3, 62.6, 52.2, 40.7, 35.2, 30.0, 26.8, 24.9, 20.3, 13.9, 11.8, 10.4, 3.7.

MS (ES+): m/z 494.2 [M+H] + , 516.2 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.46 (CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc 1:1). Synthesis of 150

To a solution of 1 (60 mg, 0.16 mmol) in acetone

(1.6 mL) was added K2CO3 (110 mg, 0.8 mmol) and

1-(3-iodopropyl)-2-methyldisulfane (200 mg, 0.8

m mol) at 23 ºC. After being stirred overnight, the

reaction mixture was diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 and H2O

was added. Extraction with CH 2 Cl 2 , dryness over

anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and evaporation of the organic layers gave a crude which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel to afford 150 (15 mg, 19% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.08 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 5.93-5.86 (m, 1H), 5.42 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 4.33 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 2H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 3.52 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.29 (t, J = 6.7 Hz, 1H), 3.21 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.79 (td, J = 7.0, 2.2 Hz, 3H), 2.19 (d, J = 0.6 Hz, 3H), 2.13 (p, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H), 1.95-1.70 (m, 2H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 0.97 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 174.1, 170.9, 167.7, 164.1, 162.4, 152.0, 100.2, 88.6, 84.4, 73.4, 56.0, 50.9, 39.9, 38.7, 35.1, 34.8, 32.3, 29.7, 28.8, 24.8, 19.1, 13.6, 12.0, 4.6. Synthesis of 151

To a solution of 150 (15 mg, 0.03 mmol) in EtOAc (1.8

mL) and MeOH (2.7 mL) was added a mixture of DL- Dithiothreitol (DTT) (0.075 mL, 1.0 M in H2O, 0.075

m mol) in 0.05 M NaH2PO4 in EDTA (1.8 mL) at 23 ºC.

The reaction mixture was stirred for 7 h and the

reaction was quenched with H

2O. Extraction with

CH 2 Cl 2 , dryness over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and evaporation of the organic layers gave a crude which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel to afford 151 (7 mg, 26% yield). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.07 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 5.89 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.41 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.79-4.63 (m, 1H), 4.32 (dt, J = 10.3, 6.1 Hz, 2H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 3.51 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.19 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.83-2.57 (m, 5H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 2.08-1.66 (m, 4H), 1.56-1.48 (m, 2H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H). Synthesis of 152

To a solution of 74 (1.03 g, 2.53 mmol) in acetone

(25 mL) was added Cs2CO3 (1.24 g, 3.79 mmol) and

tert-butyl (3-iodopropyl)carbamate (1.08 g, 3.79

mmol). The reaction mixture was refluxed for 30 min

and, after allowed to cool to 23 ºC, filtrated through a

Celite ® plug that was washed with EtOAc. Organic filtrate was evaporated and crude residue was purified in a flash chromatography system over silica gel eluting with mixtures hexane:EtOAc from 80:20 to 60:40 in 20 min to yield pure 152 (1.47 g, 100% yield). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.06 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 6.01-5.88 (m, 1H), 5.90 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.42-5.30 (m, 3H), 4.78-4.65 (m, 2H), 4.47 (dt, J = 5.6, 1.5 Hz, 2H), 4.27 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 3.50 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.22 (q, J = 7.9, 6.9 Hz, 2H), 3.18 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.16 (s, 3H), 1.94-1.68 (m, 4H), 1.49 (s, 3H), 1.42 (s, 9H), 1.39-1.29 (m, 2H), 0.94 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.0, 169.6, 167.7, 164.0, 162.4, 155.9, 151.8, 130.6, 119.5, 100.3, 89.3, 84.3, 79.1, 73.0, 69.5, 50.9, 39.8, 37.6, 34.7, 29.4, 28.3, 24.7, 19.0, 13.5, 11.8. MS (ES+): m/z 587.3 [M+Na] + , 565.3 [M+H] + .

Rf: 0.16 (hexanes:EtOAc 7:3). Synthesis of 153

To a solution of 152 (1.47 g, 2.6 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (55

mL) was added TFA (16 mL). After being stirred for

2.5 hours, the reaction mixture was evaporated to

dryness. Crude residue was purified in CombiFlash

with CH 2 Cl 2 :MeOH mixtures from 100:0 to 90:10 in 20

min to give pure 153 (1.4 g, 100% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 8.07 (s, 2H), 7.01 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 5.95 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 6.01-5.86 (m, 1H), 5.43 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.41-5.28 (m, 2H), 4.69 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 4.47 (dd, J = 5.6, 1.6 Hz, 2H), 4.28 (td, J = 8.1, 7.3, 4.0 Hz, 2H), 3.55 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 3.14 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.09 (s, 2H), 2.16 (s, 3H), 2.14-2.05 (m, 2H), 1.78 (m, 2H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.48-1.21 (m, 2H), 0.94 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 174.0, 170.1, 167.7, 164.7, 162.4, 152.7, 130.5, 119.5, 100.7, 89.3, 84.3, 71.7, 69.7, 50.9, 40.1, 37.4, 34.6, 27.2, 24.7, 19.0, 13.5, 11.8.

MS (ES+): m/z 465.2 [M+H] + .

Rf: 0.8 (CH 2 Cl 2 :MeOH 9:1). Synthesis of 154

153 (424 mg) was treated with 2M NaOH and

extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 (x2). The organic layers were

dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and the

volatiles were evaporated. 5-6 N of HCl in 2-propanol

was added to the crude and then evaporated to

dryness to give 154 (135 mg, 37% yield) as a foamed

solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.10 (s, 1H), 6.01 (m, 1H), 5.43 (s, 1H), 5.34 (m, 1H), 4.75 (m, 1H), 4.61 (m, 2H), 4.33 (m, 2H), 3.61 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.23 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.08 (m, 2H), 2.24 (s, 3H), 2.09 (m, 1H), 1.85 (m, 2H), 1.55 (m, 3H), 1.53-1.31 (m, 2H), 0.99 (m, 3H). 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 174.6, 170.8, 168.1, 165.2, 163.7, 152.5, 131.1, 118.0, 99.8, 88.5, 88.4, 84.1, 71.6, 69.6, 50.8, 39.3, 36.8, 33.8, 27.1, 23.4, 18.8, 12.4, 10.4. MS (ES+): m/z 465.2 [M+H] + . Synthesis of 155

To a solution of 75 (53 mg, 0.131 mmol) in acetone

(5 mL) was added Cs2CO3 (64 mg, 0.196 mmol) and

tert-butyl (3-iodopropyl)carbamate (56 mg, 0.196

mmol). The reaction mixture was refluxed for 30 min

and, after allowed to cool to 23 ºC, filtrated through a

Celite ® plug that was washed with EtOAc. Organic

filtrate was evaporated and crude residue was purified in a flash chromatography system over silica gel eluting with mixtures hexane:EtOAc from 80:20 to 60:40 in 20 min to yield pure 155 (67 mg, 91% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.05 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 5.89 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.53 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.76 (tt, J = 3.8, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 4.71 (td, J = 8.4, 6.8 Hz, 1H), 4.64 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 2H), 4.26 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 2H), 3.49 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.21 (q, J = 9.6, 8.0 Hz, 2H), 3.18 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.62 (t, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 2.16 (s, 3H), 1.95-1.78 (m, 3H), 1.81-1.66 (m, 1H), 1.49 (s, 3H), 1.41 (s, 9H), 1.46-1.25 (m, 2H), 0.94 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.0, 168.6, 167.7, 163.6, 162.8, 155.9, 151.8, 99.9, 90.0, 84.3, 79.1, 77.7, 75.6, 73.0, 56.4, 50.9, 39.8, 37.6, 34.7, 29.4, 28.3, 24.7, 19.0, 13.5, 11.8. Synthesis of 156

To a solution of 155 (67 mg, 0.119 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2

(2.5 mL) was added TFA (0.7 mL). After being stirred

for 30 min, the reaction mixture was evaporated to

dryness. Crude residue was purified in CombiFlash

with CH 2 Cl 2 :MeOH mixtures from 100:0 to 90:1 to

obtain pure 156 (55 mg, 80% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.02 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 5.97 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.58 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.72 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 2H), 4.37-4.23 (m, 2H), 3.56 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.16 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.11 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.65 (t, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 2.16 (s, 3H), 2.13-2.05 (m, 2H), 1.90-1.67 (m, 2H), 1.53 (s, 3H), 1.49-1.26 (m, 2H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H). 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.2, 169.2, 167.8, 164.5, 162.8, 152.8, 100.5, 90.1, 84.3, 77.8, 75.6, 71.8, 56.6, 50.9, 40.1, 37.6, 34.6, 27.2, 24.7, 19.0, 13.5, 11.8. Synthesis of 157

To a solution of 76 (9 mg, 0.021 mmol) in acetone (5

mL) was added Cs2CO3 (10 mg, 0.031 mmol) and

tert-butyl (3-iodopropyl)carbamate (9 mg, 0.031

mmol). The reaction mixture was refluxed for 30 min and, after allowed to cool to 23 ºC, filtrated through a Celite ® plug that was washed with EtOAc. Organic filtrate was evaporated to obtain crude 157 (10 mg, 81% yield) which was used in the next without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.09 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 5.92 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.35 (t, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 4.79-4.68 (m, 1H), 4.64 (s, 1H), 4.28 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 3.76 (dd, J = 7.1, 1.9 Hz, 2H), 3.52 (dd, J = 11.6, 8.6 Hz, 1H), 3.28-3.14 (m, 4H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 2.07-1.95 (m, 2H), 1.90 (dd, J = 8.0, 4.9 Hz, 1H), 1.69 (s, 2H), 1.51 (d, J = 2.9 Hz, 3H), 1.43 (s, 9H), 1.25 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 3H), 0.96 (td, J = 7.3, 1.5 Hz, 3H), 0.66 (q, J = 6.1 Hz, 1H), 0.33 (dt, J = 6.1, 4.7 Hz, 1H). Synthesis of 158

To a solution of 157 (12 mg, 0.021 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2

(0.4 mL) was added TFA (0.1 mL). After being stirred

for 30 min, the reaction mixture was evaporated to

dryness. Crude residue was purified in CombiFlash

with CH 2 Cl 2 :MeOH mixtures from 100:0 to 85:15 to

afford pure 158 (4.9 mg, 49% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.85 (s, 1H), 7.03 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 6.01 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.44 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.72 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 4.30 (dt, J = 12.0, 5.9 Hz, 2H), 3.76 (dd, J = 7.2, 1.7 Hz, 2H), 3.58 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.15 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.36 (s, 1H), 2.17 (s, 3H), 2.10 (q, J = 5.3, 4.3 Hz, 2H), 1.79 (m, 2H), 1.55 (s, 3H), 1.36 (m, 2H), 1.27-1.15 (m, 1H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H), 0.70-0.60 (m, 2H), 0.38-0.25 (m, 2H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.2, 170.9, 167.9, 165.6, 162.2, 152.9, 101.4, 89.0, 84.3, 74.2, 72.0, 50.9, 40.2, 37.8, 34.5, 27.2, 24.7, 19.1, 13.5, 11.8, 9.3, 3.3 (x2). Synthesis of 159

To a solution of 76 (50 mg, 0.121 mmol) in acetone (1.5

mL), Cs2CO3 (196 mg, 0.604 mmol) and 4-(2-iodoethyl)- 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane (155 mg, 0.604 mmol) were

added at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture was stirred at 23 ºC

overnight. Then was filtered washing with EtOAc. and

evaporated. The resulting residue was purified by combi

flash in SiO2 (from CH 2 Cl 2 to CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc 8:2) to afford

159 (60 mg, 91% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 7 7.85 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 6.05 s, 1H), 5.48 (s, 1H), 4.75 (td, J = 8.6, 5.8 Hz, 1H), 4.30 (t, J = 6.3 Hz, 2H), 4.21 (p, J = 6.3 Hz, 1H), 4.08 (dt, J = 8.0, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 3.86 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 3.70-3.48 (m, 2H), 3.20 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 1.99-1.93 (m, 2H), 1.91-1.76 (m, 2H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.50-1.38 (m, 2H), 1.37 (s, 3H), 1.31 (s, 3H), 1.28-1.14 (m, 1H), 0.98 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H), 0.71-0.50 (m, 2H), 0.36-0.33 (m, 2H). 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 174.9, 171.2, 167.8, 165.3, 163.8, 151.9, 108.5, 99.7, 87.9, 84.3, 73.9, 73.3, 71.9, 69.1, 50.8, 39.3, 33.9, 32.9, 25.9, 24.6, 23.5, 18.9, 12.5, 10.5, 8.98, 2.3. MS (ES+): m/z 550.3 [M+H] + , 572.3 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.5 (CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc 8:2). Example 17 SYNTHESIS OF ADDITIONAL COMPOUNDS OF FORMULA I

Scheme 29 provides further examples of the synthesis of compounds of formula I

Synthesis of 160

In a schlenk tube was poured anhydrous Cs2CO3 (88

mg, 0.269 mmol), 74 (43 mg, 0105 mmol) and 4-(4- chlorobutyl)morpholine hydrochloride (23 mg, 0.108

mol). Then, the solids were suspended in acetone

(1.4 mL) and the mixture refluxed overnight. When

cooled down, the suspension filtered through Celite ® ,

washed with EtOAc and the filtrated was

concentrated under vaccuum. The resulting brown oily crude was subjected to a chromatographic purification (SiO2, Hex:EtOAc from 50:50 to 0:100 followed by EtOAc:MeOH 95:5) to yield 160 (28 mg, 48% yield) as a ca. (50:50) mixture of geometrical estereoisomers and as pale orangish oil.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.08 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H) 7.02 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 5.99 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 5.98-5.91 (m, 2H), 5.90 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.43-5.38 (m, 6H), 4.71 (q, J = 7.8, 6.9 Hz, 1H), 4.67 (q, J = 7.8, 6.9 Hz, 1H), 4.49 (m, 4H), 4.23 (td, J = 6.4, 5.3 Hz, 4H), 3.71 (t, J = 4.9 Hz, 8H), 3.54 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.49 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.20 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 3.17 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 2.45 (bs, 8H), 2.39-2.36 (m, 4H), 2.15 (s, 6H), 1.92-1.80 (m, 2H), 1.79-1.64 (m, 6H), 1.59 (pd, J = 6.8, 6.1, 3.4 Hz, 4H), 1.49 (s, 3H), 1.46 (s, 3H), 1.43-1.25 (m, 4H), 0.94 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.90 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H). MS (ES+): m/z 571.3 [M+Na] + , 549.2 [M+H] + .

Rf: 0.15 (EtOAc). Synthesis of 161

160 (160 mg, 0.292 mmol) was dissolved in a solution

o f HCl in 2-propanol (15 mL, 6 M) and stirred for 10

min. Then, the volatiles were vaccuum-evaporated

and the brown residue treated twice more under the

same conditions. When the starting compound was

totally transformed, the resulting brown and dense

residue was dried in a vaccuum-assited oven over

overnight, resulting 161 (146 mg, 85% yield) as a pale brown solid and a ca. (50:50) mixture of geometrical estereoisomers.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 8.67 (brs, 1H), 8.58 (brs, 1H), 6.10-5.87 (m, 4H), 5.48-5.30 (m, 6H), 4.75-4.59 (m, 2H), 4.49 (brt, J = 6.4 Hz, 4H), 4.44-3.40 (m, 16H), 2.38 (brs, 6H), 1.97-1.72 (m, 12H), 1.70-1.23 (m, 16H), 1.22 (s, 3H), 1.20 (s, 3H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.4Hz, 3H), 0.91 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES+): m/z 549.3 [M+H] + . Synthesis of 162

In a schlenk tube was poured anhydrous K2CO3

(36 mg, 0.258 mmol), 74 (35 mg, 0086 mmol) and

3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl methanesulfonate

(26 mg, 0.086 mol). Then, the solids were

suspended in acetone (1.4 mL) and the mixture

refluxed overnight. When cooled down, the

s uspension was treated with a buffer solution Na 2 CO 3 :NaHCO 3 (pH = 9.51) (20 mL), stirred and extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 (4x25 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vaccuum. The resulting brown oily crude was subjected to a chromatographic purification (SiO2, EtOAc:MeOH from 90:0 to 0:100) to obtain 162 (42 mg, 97% yield) as a ca. (50:50) mixture of geometrical estereoisomers and as wasy solid.

1 H NMR (500 MHz, (CD3)2SO): d 7.87 (m, 2H), 6.11 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 6.01 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 6.04-5.93 (m, 2H), 5.60 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.57 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.42 (ddd, J = 12.4, 1.6, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 5.38 (ddd, J = 12.3, 1.6, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 5.36-5.25 (m, 2H), 4.62 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 2H), 4.60 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H), 4.58-4.51 (m, 2H), 4.19 (td, J = 6.4, 2.3 Hz, 4H), 3.60-3.52 (ddd, J = 11.4, 7.9, 0.7 Hz, 2H), 3.19 (ddd, J = 11.4, 7.9, 0.7 Hz, 2H), 2.45-2.20 (m, 20H), 2.15 (s, 6H), 2.13 (s, 6H), 1.82-1.70 (m, 10H), 1.45 (s, 3H), 1.43 (s, 3H), 1.42-1.16 (m, 16H), 0.89 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.85 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES+): m/z 570.3 [M+Na] + , 548.2 [M+H] + . Synthesis of 163

162 (77 mg, 0.14 mmol) was dissolved in a

solution of HCl in 2-propanol (7 mL, 6 M) and

stirred for 10 min. Then, the volatiles were

v accuum-evaporated and the brown residue

treated twice more under the same conditions.

When the starting compound was totally

transformed, the resulting brown and dense residue was dried in a vaccuum-assited oven over overnight, resulting 163 (75 mg, 91% yield) as a pale brown solid and a ca. (50:50) mixture of geometrical estereoisomers.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 8.30-8.50 (m, 1H), 6.07-5.88 (m, 4H), 5.48-5.30 (m, 6H), 4.75- 4.60 (m, 2H), 4.49 (brt, J = 6.4 Hz, 4H), 4.44-2.63 (m, 16H), 2.94 (brs, 6H), 2.51-2.15 (m, 3H), 2.33 (brs, 6H), 2.10-1.54 (m, 14H), 1.52-1.17 (m, 11H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.4Hz, 3H), 0.91 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES+): m/z 548.2 [M+H] + . EXAMPLE 18 SYNTHESIS OF ADDITIONAL COMPOUNDS OF FORMULA I

Scheme 30 provides further examples of the synthesis of compounds of formula I

Synthesis of 164

To a solution of 74 (51.1 mg, 0.125 mmol)

CH 2 Cl 2 (2 mL) was sequentially added EDC

HCl (48 mg, 0.25 mmol), DIPEA (43.5 mL,

0 .25 mmol), 2-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)- acetic acid (38.37 mL, 0.25 mmol) and DMAP

(cat) and the reaction mixture was stirred at

23 ºC for 24 h. Once the reaction was finished,

the solution was washed with HCl 0.5 N (previously cooled) and an aqueous saturated solution of NaHCO3. Finally, the organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to give an oil crude. The crude was purificated with combiflash, using reverse phase column with this gradient: 5 min 10% CH 3 CN; 20 min 50% CH 3 CN and 15 min 50% CH 3 CN to give 164 (22 mg, 31% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 8.10-8.03 (m, 1H), 6.74-6.67 (m, 1H), 6.13-5.95 (m, 2H), 5.55 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.49 (d, J = 0.9 Hz, 1H), 5.42 (dd, J = 17.3, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 5.33 (dt, J = 10.5, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 5.05 (s, 2H), 4.75 (dd, J = 9.2, 5.7 Hz, 1H), 4.63-4.56 (m, 2H), 3.69-3.51 (m, 4H), 3.40- 3.28 (m, 11H), 3.18 (dd, J = 11.5, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 3.08 (d, J = 0.8 Hz, 3H), 2.19 (d, J = 0.8 Hz, 3H), 1.94-1.75 (m, 1H), 1.53 (d, J = 0.8 Hz, 3H), 1.47-1.32 (m, 1H), 1.29 (s, 1H), 1.04-0.95 (m, 3H). 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 152.9, 132.6, 119.4, 107.9, 100.9, 89.8, 85.6, 71.0, 52.2, 49.5, 49.0, 48.9, 40.6, 39.3, 35.2, 25.0, 20.3, 13.8, 11.0.

MS (ES+): m/z 590.2 [M+Na] + , 568.3 [M+H] + .

Rf: 0.27 (CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc 6:4). Synthesis of 165

To a solution of 74 (20 mg, 0.048 mmol) in

CH 2 Cl 2 (1 mL), N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-6- aminohexanoic acid (12 mg, 0.053 mmol),

DMAP (0.5 mg, 0.005 mmol) and a solution of

DCC (11 mg, 0.053 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (0.5 mL)

were added at 0 ºC. The reaction mixture was

stirred at 0 ºC for 1h and at 23 ºC overnight. Then was filtered and evaporated to yield crude 165 (30 mg, 99% yield) which was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, (CD3)2CO): d 8.12 (d, J = 5.7 Hz, 1H), 7.48 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 6.56 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 1H), 6.09-5.85 (m, 2H), 5.48-5.38 (m, 2H), 5.31 (d, J = 10.5 Hz, 1H), 4.89-4.68 (m, 1H), 4.61 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 2H), 3.69 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.30 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.08 (q, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H), 2.99 (s, 3H), 2.79 (s, 4H), 2.56 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.34 (s, 3H), 1.90-1.62 (m, 4H), 1.55 (s, 4H), 1.39 (s, 9H), 1.12 (dd, J = 21.1, 11.4 Hz, 1H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES+): m/z 621.2 [M+H] + , 643.2 [M+Na] + . Synthesis of 166

To a solution of 76 (50 mg, 0.118 mmol) in

CH 2 Cl 2 (2 mL), N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-6- aminohexanoic acid (30 mg, 0.130 mmol),

D MAP (1.4 mg, 0.012 mmol) and a solution of

DCC (27 mg, 0.130 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (0.5 mL)

were added at 0 ºC. The reaction mixture was

stirred at 0 ºC for 1h and at 23 ºC overnight.

Then was filtered and evaporated to yield crude 166 (75 mg, 99% yield) which was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, (CD3)2CO): d 8.17-8.00 (m, 1H), 7.49 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 6.62-6.51 (m, 1H), 6.01 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 5.94 (s, 1H), 5.36 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.83-4.68 (m, 1H), 3.88 (dd, J = 7.1, 2.3 Hz, 2H), 3.69 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.31 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.07 (q, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 2.99 (s, 3H), 2.81 (d, J = 12.4 Hz, 4H), 2.56 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.35 (s, 3H), 1.76 (m, 2H), 1.55 (s, 3H), 1.53-1.44 (m, 2H), 1.39 (s, 9H), 1.33-1.18 (m, 1H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H), 0.64-0.56 (m, 2H), 0.36 (dt, J = 6.1, 4.4 Hz, 2H).

MS (ES+): m/z 657.2 [M+Na] + . Synthesis of 167

To a solution of 74 (43 mg, 0.106 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (1

mL) Fmoc-L-Val (40 mg, 0.117 mmol), DMAP (1 mg,

0.0106 mmol) and a solution of DCC (24 mg, 0.117

mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (0.5 mL) were added at 0 ºC. The

reaction mixture was stirred at 0 ºC for 1h and at 23

ºC overnight. Then was filtered and evaporated to yield crude 167 (76 mg, 99% yield) which was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 8.03 (d, J = 6.3 Hz, 1H), 7.76 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 7.65 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 7.35 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 7.27 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 6.69 (d, J = 6.3 Hz, 1H), 6.05 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.97-5.87 (m, 1H), 5.48 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.39-5.18 (m, 2H), 4.75 (dd, J = 9.1, 5.9 Hz, 1H), 4.50 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 2H), 4.41-4.32 (m, 2H), 4.27 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 1H), 4.20 (t, J = 6.9 Hz, 1H), 3.67 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.27 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 2.34 (s, 3H), 2.26-2.14 (m, 1H), 1.91-1.75 (m, 2H), 1.53 (s, 3H), 1.51-1.17 (m, 2H), 1.07-0.89 (m, 9H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 174.3, 170.7, 168.7, 165.1, 164.0, 163.4, 160.4, 157.4, 143.8, 141.2, 131.1, 127.2, 126.8, 124.8, 119.6, 118.0, 99.6, 88.6, 84.5, 69.6, 66.6, 59.1, 50.8, 39.9, 35.5, 33.8, 30.3, 23.4, 18.9, 18.2, 17.3, 12.5, 12.3.

MS (ES+): m/z 729.2 [M+H] + , 751.2 [M+Na] + . Synthesis of 168

To a solution of 74 (42 mg, 0.102 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (1

mL) Fmoc-Gly (33 mg, 0.112 mmol), DMAP (1 mg,

0.0102 mmol) and a solution of DCC (23 mg, 0.112

m mol) in CH2Cl2 (0.5 mL) were added at 0 ºC. The

reaction mixture was stirred at 0 ºC for 1h and at 23

ºC overnight. Then was filtered and evaporated to yield crude 168 (69 mg, 99% yield) which was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 8.04-8.03 (m, 1H), 7.77 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 7.65 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 7.37 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 7.29 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 6.85 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 6.05 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.98-5.91 (m, 1H), 5.50 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 5.42-5.19 (m, 2H), 4.75 (dd, J = 9.2, 5.7 Hz, 1H), 4.53 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 2H), 4.35 (d, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 4.21 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 4.13 (s, 2H), 3.68 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.27 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 2.34 (s, 3H), 1.87-1.79 (m, 2H), 1.54 (s, 3H), 1.50-1.27 (m, 2H), 0.97 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 174.3, 170.7, 168.7, 165.1, 164.0, 163.4, 160.4, 157.3, 143.8, 141.2, 131.1, 127.4, 126.8 (x2), 124.8, 119.6, 118.0, 99.5, 88.5, 84.5, 69.6, 66.6, 59.1, 50.8, 39.9, 35.6, 33.8, 30.3, 23.4, 18.9, 18.2, 17.3, 12.5, 12.3.

MS (ES+): m/z 687.2 [M+H] + , 709.3 [M+Na] + . Synthesis of 169

To a solution of 74 (25 mg, 0.062 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (1

mL) Boc-Gly (12 mg, 0.068 mmol), DMAP (0.7 mg,

0.061 mmol) and a solution of DCC (14 mg, 0.068

mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (0.5 mL) were added at 0 ºC. The

reaction mixture was stirred at 0 ºC for 1h and at 23

ºC overnight. Then was filtered and evaporated to yield crude 169 (35 mg, 99% yield) which was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, (CD3)2CO): d 8.24-8.09 (m, 1H), 7.54 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 6.71-6.51 (m, 2H), 6.13-5.93 (m, 2H), 5.42 (dd, J = 15.1, 2.0 Hz, 2H), 5.36-5.24 (m, 1H), 4.75 (dt, J = 8.9, 4.5 Hz, 1H), 4.67-4.55 (m, 2H), 4.10 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 3.75-3.64 (m, 1H), 3.31 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.06 (s, 3H), 2.35 (s, 3H), 1.96-1.69 (m, 2H), 1.56 (s, 3H), 1.53-1.44 (m, 1H), 1.44 (s, 9H), 1.33- 1.23 (m, 1H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, (CD3)2CO): d 172.9, 169.7, 167.5, 164.3, 162.7, 159.6, 147.2, 131.7, 118.3, 106.6, 98.8, 88.5, 84.7, 78.7, 69.4, 50.8, 41.3, 40.1, 38.4, 34.2, 27.7 (x2), 24.0, 19.0, 13.0, 12.4. MS (ES+): m/z 565.2 [M+H] + , 587.3 [M+Na] + . Synthesis of 170

To a solution of 74 (32 mg, 0.079 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2

(1 mL), 1,2:3,4-di-O-isopropylidene- a-D-galacturoni- de (18 mg, 0.066 mmol), DMAP (1.6 mg, 0.0131

m mol) and a solution of DCC (27 mg, 0.131 mmol)

in CH 2 Cl 2 (0.5 mL) were added at 0 ºC. The reaction

mixture was stirred at 0 ºC for 1h and at 23 ºC

overnight. Then was filtered and evaporated. The resulting residue was purified in preparative HPLC to yield 170 (25 mg, 57% yield).

1H NMR (500 MHz, (CD3)2CO): d 7.51 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 6.05-5.99 (m, 1H), 6.02 (s, 1H), 5.63 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 5.52-5.36 (m, 2H), 5.31 (d, J = 10.5 Hz, 1H), 4.85-4.67 (m, 4H), 4.61 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 2H), 4.50 (dd, J = 5.1, 2.6 Hz, 1H), 3.70 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.33 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.37 (s, 3H), 1.95-1.69 (m, 2H), 1.56-1.29 (m, 2H), 1.56 (s, 3H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.39 (s, 3H), 1.36 (s, 3H), 1.33 (s, 3H), 0.97 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (125 MHz, (CD3)2CO): d 173.8, 170.6, 167.1, 165.2, 163.6, 161.1, 132.7, 119.2, 109.7, 99.8, 97.4, 89.5, 85.7, 73.0, 71.9, 71.1, 70.3, 69.0, 51.8, 41.1, 35.2, 26.4, 26.2, 25.1, 25.0, 24.9, 20.0, 13.9, 13.5.

MS (ES+): m/z 664.2 [M+H] + , 686.3 [M+Na] + . Synthesis of 171

To a solution of 74 (50 mg, 0.124 mmol) in THF (1 mL)

ethyl chloroformate (24 mL, 0.248 mmol) and Et 3 N (52 mL,

0.373 mmol) were added at 0 ºC. The reaction mixture

was stirred at 0 ºC for 1h. Then was diluted with H2O and

extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 . The combined organic layers were

dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and evaporated to yield crude 171 (58 mg, 99% yield) which was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, (CD3)2CO): d 7.50 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 6.08-5.98 (m, 1H), 6.02 (s, 1H), 5.52- 5.37 (m, 2H), 5.31 (d, J = 10.6, 1H), 4.75 (td, J = 8.9, 5.7 Hz, 1H), 4.61 (dt, J = 5.5, 1.6 Hz, 2H), 4.32 (q, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 3.70 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.31 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.34 (s, 3H), 1.96- 1.68 (m, 2H), 1.55 (s, 3H), 1.68-1.16 (m, 5H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES+): m/z 480.3 [M+H] + , 502.2 [M+Na] + . Synthesis of 172

To a solution of 74 (50 mg, 0.124 mmol) in THF (1.50 mL),

dibenzyl diisopropylphosphoramidite (62 mL, 0.185 mmol)

and tetrazole (1.24 mL, 0.557 mmol) were added at 23 ºC.

The reaction mixture was stirred at 23 ºC for 2h. The

reaction mixture was cooled to -45 ºC, followed by dropwise addition of a solution of mCPBA (0.106 g, 0.618 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (1.5 mL). The reaction mixture was warmed to 23 ºC and stirred for 1h. The reaction was diluted an aqueous saturated solution of Na2S2O3, extracted with EtOAc, and washed an aqueous saturated solution of Na2S2O3 and with an aqueous saturated solution of NaHCO3. The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and evaporated. The resulting residue was purified by combi flash in SiO2 (hexane:EtOAc from 100:0 to 50:50) to afford 172 (26 mg, 32% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 7.92 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 7.40-7.32 (m, 10H), 6.07 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 6.05-5.89 (m, 1H), 5.51 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.38 (dd, J = 17.3, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 5.29 (dd, J = 10.5, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 5.21 (s, 2H), 5.19 (s, 2H), 4.80-4.74 (m, 1H), 4.54 (dt, J = 5.6, 1.5 Hz, 2H), 3.70 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.36-3.17 (m, 1H), 2.22 (s, 3H), 1.97-1.71 (m, 2H), 1.55 (s, 3H), 1.55- 1.21 (m, 2H), 0.98 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (125 MHz, CD3OD): d 175.6, 172.1, 167.2, 166.0, 165.3, 162.9, 162.8, 136.8, 136.7, 132.5, 129.8, 129.7, 129.6 (x3), 129.7, 129.3 (x3), 129.2, 119.5, 101.0, 89.8, 85.9, 72.1 (x2), 72.0 (x2), 71.0, 52.2, 41.2, 35.2, 24.7, 20.3, 13.8, 12.7.

MS (ES+): m/z 668.3 [M+H] + , 690.2 [M+Na] + . EXAMPLE 19 SYNTHESIS OF ADDITIONAL COMPOUNDS OF FORMULA I

Scheme 31 provides further examples of the synthesis of compounds of formula I

Synthesis of 173

A mixture of (R)-143 (48 mg, 0.15 mmol) and (R)-39 (47 mg,

0.15 mmol) was evaporated with toluene and then HATU (58 mg,

0.15 mmol) and HOAt (21 mg, 0.15 mmol) were added. Reaction

flask was evacuated, filled with N2 and CH 2 Cl 2 (1.1 mL) and DIPEA (0.1 mL, 0.6 mmol) were added via syringe at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture was stirred 16 h at 23 ºC. Then, it was diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 before washing twice with HCl 0.5 N and once with an aqueous saturated solution of NaCl. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and evaporated to dryness. The residue was purified on a system for flash chromatography on silica gel (Hex:EtOAc) to give 173 (20 mg, 68% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.12-7.04 (m, 1H), 6.45 (dq, J = 15.8, 6.8 Hz, 1H), 6.19 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.18-6.10 (m, 1H), 5.92-5.88 (m, 1H), 4.75 (td, J = 8.5, 6.5 Hz, 1H), 3.63 (d, J = 11.7 Hz, 1H), 3.60-3.44 (m, 4H), 3.15 (dd, J = 11.7, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 1.91 (dd, J = 6.7, 1.6 Hz, 2H), 1.89- 1.67 (m, 2H), 1.60 (s, 3H), 1.55 (s, 3H), 1.46-1.27 (m, 2H), 1.21 (m, 6H), 0.96-0.90 (m, 3H). 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 178.3, 174.1, 162.9, 161.8, 151.8, 136.2, 128.1, 109.5, 100.4, 100.3, 85.0, 58.0, 57.9, 51.3, 40.6, 35.0, 28.0, 27.0, 25.5, 23.9, 19.3, 19.0, 18.9, 17.7, 15.4, 15.3, 13.7 (x2).

MS (ES+): m/z 473.1 [M+Na] + . Synthesis of 174

A mixture of 173 (20 mg, 0.044 mmol), pentane (1 mL) and formic

acid (0.7 mL) was vigorously stirred for 2 h and the volatiles were

evaporated. The crude was evaporated few times with a mixture of

CH 2 Cl 2 /toluene to eliminate the acid. The crude obtained was

purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hex:EtOAc) to give

174 (6 mg, 17% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.04 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 6.46 (dq, J = 15.8, 6.8 Hz, 1H), 6.31-6.08 (m, 3H), 5.94 (s, 1H), 4.85-4.70 (m, 1H), 3.64 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 3.27 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 2.56 (s, 3H), 1.93 (dd, J = 6.7, 1.6 Hz, 3H), 1.90-1.59 (m, 4H), 1.55 (s, 3H), 1.49-1.23 (m, 2H), 0.97 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

MS (ES+): m/z 399.2 [M+Na] + , 377.1 [M+H] + . Synthesis of 175

A mixture of 174 (6 mg, 0.015 mmol), EtOH (0.2 mL), H2O (0.2

mL), NH 2 OH . HCl (7 mg, 0.11 mmol) and NaOAc (5 mg, 0.06

mmol) was stirred at 23 ºC for 24 h. Then ethanol was

evaporated, a aqueous saturated solution of NaCl was added,

and the aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc. The

combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4,

filtered, an concentrated under vacuum. The crude was chromatographed over silica gel (hex:EtOAc) to afford 175 (2 mg, 34% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.66-6.52 (m, 1H), 6.41 (s, 1H), 6.29 (d, J = 15.8 Hz, 1H), 5.98 (s, 1H), 4.80 (m, 1H), 3.61 (dd, J = 11.5, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 3.17 (dd, J = 11.5, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 2.20 (d, J = 1.1 Hz, 3H), 1.92 (dt, J = 6.8, 1.4 Hz, 3H), 1.92-1.79 (m, 2H), 1.57 (s, 3H), 1.34-1.13 (m, 2H), 1.00 (t, J = 7.4, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 176.5, 170.4, 165.3, 164.1, 154.5, 152.9, 138.4, 128.9, 109.5, 101.0, 85.7, 40.7, 35.4, 30.4, 25.3, 20.3, 19.0, 13.9, 11.0.

MS (ES+): m/z 399.2 [M+Na] + , 377.1 [M+H] + . EXAMPLE 20 SYNTHESIS OF ADDITIONAL COMPOUNDS OF FORMULA I

Scheme 32 provides further examples of the synthesis of compounds of formula I

Synthesis of 176

A mixture of (R)-32 (600 mg, 1.71 mmol) and (R)-40 (422 mg,

1.71 mmol) was evaporated with toluene and then HATU (649

mg, 1.71 mmol) and HOAt (234 mg, 1.71 mmol) were added.

Reaction flask was evacuated, filled with N2 and CH 2 Cl 2 (12 mL)

and DIPEA (1.2 mL, 6.84 mmol) were added via syringe at 23

ºC. The reaction mixture was stirred 16 h at 23 ºC. Then, it was diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 before washing twice with HCl 0.5 N and once with an aqueous saturated solution of NaCl. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and evaporated to dryness. The residue was purified on a system for flash chromatography on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc) to give 176 (660 mg, 63% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.98 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 5.90-5.73 (m, 1H), 5.28 (dd, J = 2.2, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 5.14 (ddd, J = 10.1, 8.4, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 4.71 (td, J = 8.4, 6.5 Hz, 1H), 3.71 (ddd, J = 7.2, 3.2, 1.1 Hz, 2H), 3.61-3.38 (m, 5H), 1.89-1.75 (m, 1H), 1.74-1.59 (m, 1H), 1.57 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 3H), 1.42-1.25 (m, 2H), 1.24-1.11 (m, 6H), 0.89 (td, J = 7.3, 1.3 Hz, 3H), 0.61 (dt, J = 8.0, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 0.28 (dt, J = 4.8, 1.2 Hz, 2H). 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 170.8, 170.0, 164.0, 162.7, 88.7, 78.8, 77.4, 77.1, 76.8, 73.7, 57.8, 50.9, 34.6, 34.2, 23.8, 19.0, 15.2, 15.1, 13.5, 9.4, 3.3 (x2).

MS (ES+): m/z 489.2 [M+Na] + . Synthesis of 177

To 176 (75 mg, 0.16 mmol) was added pentane (8.4 mL) and formic

acid (5.6 mL). The mixture was stirred for 1h, and then toluene was

added to quench the reaction. The volatiles were evaporated under

vacuum and the crude was coevaporated with toluene twice. The

crude was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel

(CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc) to yield 177 (23 mg, 40% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 6.99 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 5.95 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.35 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.24 (dd, J = 10.9, 10.2 Hz, 1H), 4.77 (q, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 3.77 (td, J = 6.9, 1.8 Hz, 2H), 3.68-3.48 (m, 2H), 2.55 (s, 3H), 1.95-1.69 (m, 2H), 1.48-1.17 (m, 2H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H), 0.66 (dd, J = 8.0, 1.2 Hz, 2H), 0.33 (td, J = 4.7, 2.2 Hz, 2H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 192.9, 172.8, 170.1, 169.4, 164.1, 161.8, 100.8, 88.9, 80.1, 73.9, 51.3, 34.8, 34.2, 26.3, 19.1, 13.6, 9.4, 3.4 (x2).

MS (ES+): m/z 393.2 [M+H] + , 415.3 [M+Na] + . Synthesis of 178

To a solution of 177 (22 mg, 0.056 mmol) in EtOH (0.6 mL) and

H2 O (0.6 mL), NH 2 OH.HCl (10 mg, 0.14 mmol) and NaOAc (20

mg, 0.24 mmol) were added at 23 ºC and was stirred at 23 ºC

overnight. Then ethanol was evaporated. The aqueous residue

was diluted with brine and extracted with EtOAc. The combined

organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and evaporated. The resulting residue was purified by combi flash on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc) to afford 178 (14 mg, 61% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.17 (dd, J = 2.2, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 5.50 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.17 (d, J = 9.4 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (dd, J = 9.3, 5.5 Hz, 1H), 3.88 (dd, J = 8.4, 7.2 Hz, 2H), 3.54-3.35 (m, 2H), 2.16 (d, J = 3.1 Hz, 3H), 1.96-1.70 (m, 2H), 1.59-1.34 (m, 2H), 0.98 (dt, J = 10.4, 7.3 Hz, 3H), 0.71-0.60 (m, 2H), 0.44-0.30 (m, 2H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 171.4, 171.3, 170.9, 165.5, 164.0, 151.5, 99.7, 87.7, 78.7, 74.0, 73.9, 50.9, 33.8, 32.7, 18.8, 12.4, 9.6, 9.0, 2.2.

MS (ES+): m/z 408.2 [M+H] + , 430.1 [M+Na] + . EXAMPLE 21 SYNTHESIS OF ADDITIONAL COMPOUNDS OF FORMULA I

Scheme 33 provides further examples of the synthesis of compounds of formula I

Synthesis of 179

A freshly-prepared stock solution (700 mL; 5% mol) of Pd(PhCN)(OTf)2 catalyst in CH 2 Cl 2 , prepared by stirring Pd(PhCN)2Cl2 (9 mg; 0.024 mmol) and AgOTf (12 mg; 0.047 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (3.5 mL) at 23 ºC for 5 min, was added to a solution of 109 (37 mg; 0.0091 mmol) and 76 (50 mg; 0.139 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 , (500 mL) at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture was stirred at 23 ºC overnight, then, treated with benzene (1 mL) and directly poured on a chromatographic column (SiO2, CH 2 Cl 2 :MeOH from 10:0 to 98.2:1.8). According to this procedure, 179 (31 mg, 51% yield) was afforded as a foamy white solid (predominantly as a a anomer).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 9.38 (s, 1H), 7.14 (dd, J = 8.8, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 5.93 (dd, J = 4.3, 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.67 (s, 1H), 5.37 (t, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.91 (dd, J = 6.0, 3.9 Hz, 1H), 4.87 (d, J = 5.9 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (q, J = 8.5, 7.9 Hz, 1H), 4.38 (dt, J = 7.8, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.22 (dd, J = 7.7, 3.8 Hz, 1H), 4.08 (brs, 1H), 4.07 (s, 1H), 3.84-3.69 (m, 2H), 3.52 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.22 (dd, J = 11.6, 2.3 Hz, 1H), 2.22 (s, 3H), 2.19 (s, 3H), 1.93-1.71 (m, 2H), 1.51 (s, 3H), 1.49 (s, 3H), 1.45 (s, 3H), 1.37 (s, 3H), 1.35 (s, 3H), 1.45-1.30 (m, 1H), 1.30-1.12 (m, 1H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H), 0.66 (m, 2H), 0.33 (dt, J = 6.0, 4.7 Hz, 2H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.3, 174.1, 170.3, 170.2, 168.2, 167.5, 164.5, 164.4, 162.4, 162.2, 153.8, 153.1, 112.9, 109.3, 109.0, 108.9, 100.9, 100.7 (x2), 100.6, 89.1 (x2), 89.0 (x2), 84.8, 84.6 (x2), 84.4, 83.3, 83.2, 80.1, 79.8, 74.1, 74.0, 73.8, 73.5, 66.8, 51.2, 51.1, 40.0, 39.9 (x2), 35.0, 34.9, 27.1, 27.0, 26.1, 26.0, 25.3, 25.2, 24.9, 24.8, 24.7, 24.6, 24.5, 19.2, 13.7 (x2), 12.2 (x2), 11.4, 11.3, 9.6, 9.5, 3.5 (x2).

MS (ES+): m/z 664.2 [M+H] + , 686.3 [M+Na] + . Scheme 34 provides an example of the synthesis of an additional compound of formula I.

Synthesis of 180

179 (30 mg; 0.045 mmol) was dissolved in a mixture of TFA:CHCl3:H2O (2.5:100:1, 1.1 mL) and stirred for 5 h at 23 ºC. Then, the solution was diluted with toluene (1.5 mL) and the volatiles vacuum co-evaporated, affording oily beige crude. 180 (18 mg, 66% yield) was obtained by purification over flash chromatography on silica gel (CH2Cl2:MeOH from 100:0 to 90:10) as a waxy solid.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.07 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 5.94 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 5.72 (s, 1H), 5.36 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.01 (dd, J = 5.9, 4.2 Hz, 1H), 4.89 (d, J = 5.9 Hz, 1H), 4.72 (m, 1H), 4.25 (dd, J = 8.7, 4.2 Hz, 1H), 3.97 (m, 1H), 3.86 (d, J = 11.5, 3.4 Hz, 1H), 3.75 (m, 3H), 3.54 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.21 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 1.90-1.72 (m, 2H), 1.52 (s, 6H), 1.37 (s, 3H), 1.42-1.31 (m, 2H), 1.22 (m, 1H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.64 (m, 2H), 0.34 (m, 2H).

1 3 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3): d 173.8, 170.1, 167.5, 164.3, 162.1, 153.8, 112.8, 108.6, 100.7, 88.9, 84.5, 84.4, 82.5, 80.5, 73.8, 70.7, 64.3, 51.0, 39.9, 34.8, 29.7, 25.9, 24.8, 24.5, 19.0, 13.6, 12.1, 9.4, 3.4 (x2).

MS (ES+): m/z 624.2 [M+H] + , 646.3 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.39 (CH 2 Cl 2 :MeOH 15:1). Scheme 35 provides an example of the synthesis of an additional compound of formula I.

Synthesis of 181

A solution of 180 (17 mg; 0.027 mmol) in aqueous AcOH (80%, 1.0 mL) was heated for 4.5 h at 80 ºC. Then, when cooled down, diluted with toluene (1.5mL) and the volatiles vacuum evaporated giving an oily beige crude. 181 (14.6 mg, 92% yield) was obtained by purification over flash chromatography on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 :MeOH from 100:0 to 90:10) as a pale yellow solid.

1H NMR (500 MHz, (CD3)2SO): d 7.90 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 6.03 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.49 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.46 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 5.26 (bd, J = 5.3 Hz, OH), 4.98 (bs, OH), 4.65 (bs, OH), 4.60 (q, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 4.41 (bs, OH), 4.16 (m, 1H), 4.07 (bs, 1H), 3.92 (dd, J = 8.3, 2.7 Hz, 1H), 3.85 (m, 1H), 3.71 (bs, 1H), 3.57-3.49 (m, 2H), 3.21 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.19 (s, 3H), 1.75 (q, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 1.45 (s, 3H), 1.43-1.24 (m, 2H), 1.18 (m, 1H), 0.90 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.57 (dt, J = 9.7, 3.1 Hz, 2H), 0.30 (dt, J = 6.0, 4.2 Hz 2H). 13 C NMR (100 MHz, (CD3)2SO): d 172.6, 170.0, 165.9, 164.7, 163.1, 153.2, 111.0, 98.6, 88.0, 84.2, 81.0, 75.4, 73.5, 70.9, 69.1, 63.1, 50.3, 39.6, 33.5, 24.0, 18.8, 13.4, 12.3, 9.4, 3.1.

MS (ES+): m/z 584.2 [M+H] + , 606.3 [M+Na] + .

Rf: 0.16 (CH 2 Cl 2 :MeOH 15:1). EXAMPLE 22 SYNTHESIS OF ADDITIONAL COMPOUNDS OF FORMULA I

Scheme 36 provides further examples of the synthesis of compounds of formula I

To a solution of Methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (58 mg, 0.28 mmol) in THF (0.7 mL) was added nBuLi (0.175 mL, 1.6 M, 0.28 mmol) dropwise at 23 ºC. The yellow suspension was stirred for 2.5 h and a solution of 65 (55 mg, 0.14 mmol) in THF (0.4 mL) was added. After 2h the reaction was refluxed for 3h and then overnight at 23 ºC. The reaction was quenched with an aqueous saturated solution of NH4Cl and extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 . The crude was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc) to give a fraction (7 mg) that contained 182. This fraction was then purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hexane:EtOAc) to give 182 (4 mg, 7% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.12 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 5.91 (dt, J = 2.2, 0.5 Hz, 1H), 5.65 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 5.56 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 5.34 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.71 (q, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 3.83- 3.68 (m, 2H), 3.64-3.53 (m, 1H), 3.24 (dd, J = 11.5, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 2.09 (dt, J = 1.5, 0.7 Hz, 3H), 1.95-1.66 (m, 2H), 1.51 (s, 3H), 1.44-1.18 (m, 3H), 1.00-0.90 (m, 3H), 0.73-0.57 (m, 2H), 0.33 (q, J = 5.2 Hz, 2H).

MS (ES+): m/z 405.2 [M+H] + , 427.3 [M+Na] + . Scheme 37 provides a further example of the synthesis of compounds of formula I

To a solution of 76 (80 mg, 0.19 mmol) in DMF (0.2 mL) was added slowly ClTBDPS (52 mL, 0.199 mmol) and then a crystal of DMAP at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture was stirred at 23 ºC overnight. Then was queched by dilution with CH 2 Cl 2 , washed with 0.5M HCl and an aqueous saturated solution of NaCl. The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under vacuum. The crude obteined was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc) to afford 183 (119 mg, 91% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 7.73-7.64 (m, 4H), 7.46-7.30 (m, 6H), 6.06 (dd, J = 2.2, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 5.46 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.80-4.70 (m, 1H), 3.80 (dd, J = 7.2, 3.0 Hz, 2H), 3.57 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.15 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 2.40 (s, 3H), 1.90-1.75 (m, 2H), 1.53 (s, 3H), 1.51-1.16 (m, 2H), 1.12 (s, 9H), 0.97 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.72-0.39 (m, 2H), 0.30 (dt, J = 4.7, 1.3 Hz, 2H). 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 176.2, 172.6, 166.7, 165.3, 159.1, 136.5, 134.1, 131.1, 128.8, 101.1, 89.3, 85.8, 75.3, 61.5, 52.3, 40.7, 35.3, 27.6, 25.0, 20.4, 20.3, 14.5, 13.9, 12.0, 10.4, 3.7. MS (ES+): m/z 660.3 [M+H] + , 682.3 [M+Na] + . Scheme 38 provides a further example of the synthesis of compounds of formula I

To a solution of 113 (106 mg) in CH 2 Cl 2 (4.1 mL) was added tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (9 mg), acetic acid (47 mL) and tributyltin hydride (265 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred for 30 minutes and poured over a silica gel column to purify. Elution with hexane:EtOAc from 100:0 to 0:100 gave 184 (>100% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): d 7.76-7.67 (m, 4H), 7.45-7.32 (m, 6H), 6.13 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.59 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 4.70 (q, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 3.37 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.15 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.35 (s, 3H), 1.99-1.77 (m, 2H), 1.49 (s, 3H), 1.45-1.27 (m, 2H), 1.15 (s, 9H), 0.96 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 175.4, 170.5, 169.1, 165.7, 162.5, 157.1, 135.5, 132.8, 132.7, 129.9, 127.6 (x2), 101.4, 91.3, 83.9, 51.6, 39.5, 34.3, 27.1, 24.5, 19.5, 19.1, 13.6, 11.8. EXAMPLE 23 SYNTHESIS OF ADDITIONAL COMPOUNDS OF FORMULA I

Scheme 39 provides further examples of the synthesis of compounds of formula I

Synthesis of 185

A mixture of 52 (138 mg, 0.29 mmol) and HCl in 1,4-dioxane (4 mL, 4 M, 16 mmol) was stirred for 60 min at 23 ºC and the volatiles were evaporated to dryness. The crude was coevaporated few times with toluene to eliminate the acid. The resulting residue was purified in preparative HPLC to yield 65 (30 mg, 25%) and 185 (15 mg, 12%), while 50 mg of starting material was recovered. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 7.07 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 5.91 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.35 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.10 (d, J = 2.9 Hz, 1H), 4.72 (td, J = 8.4, 6.6 Hz, 1H), 4.45 (d, J = 2.9 Hz, 1H), 3.90 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 3.83-3.69 (m, 2H), 3.60 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.22 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 1.92- 1.87 (m, 1H), 1.76-1.71 (m, 1H), 1.54 (s, 3H), 1.40 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H), 1.45-1.30 (m, 2H), 1.27- 1.19 (m, 1H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.75-0.51 (m, 2H), 0.37-0.22 (m, 2H).

1 3 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3): d 174.4 170.1, 167.2, 164.3, 162.8, 153.5, 100.2, 90.4, 88.8, 84.8, 73.7, 64.5, 51.0, 40.7, 34.6, 29.7, 24.6, 19.0, 14.7, 13.6, 9.4, 3.4.

MS (ES+): m/z 435.2 [M+H] + , 457.3 [M+Na] + . EXAMPLE 24 SYNTHESIS OF ADDITIONAL INTERMEDIATES OF FORMULA II

Scheme 40 provides a further example of the synthesis of intermediates of formula II

Scheme 40 Synthesis of (R)-186

To a suspension of (R)-6 (50 mg, 0.2 mmol) in acetone (4 mL) and K2CO3

(37 mg, 0.3 mmol) was added 3-bromoprop-1-ene (15 mL, 0.2 mmol)

d ropwise at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture was stirred at 40 ºC for 23 h,

cooled to 23 ºC and filtered. The filtrate was evaporated to dryness and

the residue was dissolved in EtOAc, washed with H2O (2x100 mL) and an

aqueous saturated solution of NaCl. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtrated and concentrated under vacuum to give a crude, which upon column chromatography (SiO2, EtOAc) gave (R)-186 (16 mg, 29% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 7.16 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 6.10-5.95 (m, 2H), 5.78 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 5.41 (dq, J = 17.3, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 5.30 (dq, J = 10.5, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 5.04-4.94 (m, 2H), 4.56 (dt, J = 5.5, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 4.39 (s, 1H), 1.62 (tt, J = 13.7, 6.2 Hz, 2H), 1.44 (s, 9H), 1.32-1.20 (m, 2H), 0.95 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (10 MHz, CD3OD): d 170.9, 167.9, 152.9, 136.6, 133.3, 118.6, 99.0, 96.6, 80.8, 70.2, 53.4, 37.7, 28.7, 20.5, 13.9.

MS (ES+): m/z 323.3 [M+H] + .

Rf: 0.18 (EtOAc). Synthesis of (R)-187

To a solution of (R)-146 (658 mg, 2.04 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (7.2 mL) was

added TFA (24.5 mL). After being stirred for 2 h at 23 ºC, the reaction

mixture was evaporated to dryness to obtain crude (R)-187 (652 mg, 95%

yield) which was used in the next step without further purification.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.53 (s, 1H), 6.27 (d, J = 1.9 Hz, 1H), 6.11- 5.93 (m, 3H), 5.48-5.37 (m, 2H), 5.36-5.26 (m, 2H), 5.04-4.91 (m, 1H), 4.68 (d, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 4.64-4.56 (m, 3H), 4.16 (dt, J = 14.6, 7.3 Hz, 2H), 3.37-3.25 (m, 7H), 1.97-1.82 (m, 4H), 1.43 (dd, J = 13.9, 7.1 Hz, 1H), 1.41-1.28 (m, 1H), 1.29 (s, 1H), 1.25-1.13 (m, 0H), 1.05-0.84 (m, 7H). EXAMPLE 25 SYNTHESIS OF ADDITIONAL COMPOUNDS OF FORMULA I

Scheme 41 provides a further example of the synthesis of compounds of formula I

Synthesis of 188

A mixture of (R)-187 (552 mg, 1.7 mmol) and (R)-39 (452 mg,

1.7 mmol) was evaporated with toluene and then HATU (657

mg, 1.7 mmol) and HOAt (237 mg, 1.7 mmol) were added.

Reaction flask was evacuated, filled with N2 and CH 2 Cl 2 (12

mL) and DIPEA (1.2 mL, 6.9 mmol) were added via syringe.

The mixture was stirred 16 h at 23 ºC. Then, it was diluted with

CH 2 Cl 2 before washing twice with HCl 0.5 N and once with an aqueous saturated solution of NaCl. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and evaporated to dryness. The residue was purified on a system for flash chromatography on silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc) to afford 188 (517 mg, 64% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.09 (dd, J = 2.4, 0.5 Hz, 1H), 6.08-5.96 (m, 1H), 5.79 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 5.45-5.35 (m, 1H), 5.33-5.25 (m, 1H), 4.72-4.66 (m, 1H), 4.59-4.55 (m, 2H), 3.69-3.46 (m, 4H), 3.23 (d, J = 11.8, 1H), 1.84-1.67 (m, 2H), 1.60 (s, 3H), 1.44 (s, 3H), 1.48-1.32 (m, 2H), 1.20 (m, 6H), (0.94 (t, J =7.4 Hz, 3H). Synthesis of 189

A mixture of 188 (517 mg, 1.11 mmol), pentane (27 mL) and formic

acid (18 mL) was vigorously stirred for 2 h and the volatiles were

evaporated. The crude was evaporated few times with a mixture of

CH 2 Cl 2 /toluene to eliminate formic acid. The crude mixture was

purified by silica gel column chromatography (CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc) to

give 189 (350 mg, 80% yield).

1 H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.08-5.93 (m, 2H), 5.77 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 5.45-5.34 (m, 1H), 5.34-5.24 (m, 1H), 4.78 (m, 1H), 4.54 (dt, J = 5.5, 1.6 Hz, 2H), 3.66-3.60 (m, 1H), 3.31-3.27 (m, 1H), 2.56 (m, 2H), 1.56 (s, 3H), 1.49-1.25 (m, 2H), 1.01-0.96 (m, 3H). Synthesis of 190

A mixture of 189 (346 mg, 0.88 mmol), ethanol (9.7 mL), H2O

(9.7 mL), hydroxylamine hydrochloride (430 mg, 6.2 mmol)

and NaOAc (290 mg, 3.5 mmol) was stirred at 23 ºC for 24 h.

Then ethanol was evaporated, an aqueous saturated solution

of NaCl was added, and the aqueous phase was extracted

with EtOAc. The combined organic phases were dried over

anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under vacuum. The crude was chromatographed over silica gel (CH 2 Cl 2 :Methanol) to give 190 (242 mg, 67% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.13-5.94 (m, 2H), 5.77 (dd, J = 2.4, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 5.39 (dp, J = 17.2, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 5.29 (dp, J = 10.6, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 4.76 (dd, J = 9.0, 6.3 Hz, 1H), 4.54 (dt, J = 5.3, 1.5 Hz, 2H), 3.48 (dd, J = 11.5, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 3.18 (dd, J = 11.5, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 2.20 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 3H), 1.92-1.73 (m, 2H), 1.52 (d, J = 1.1 Hz, 3H), 1.52-1.36 (m, 1H), 1.40-1.27 (m, 2H), 0.99 (td, J = 7.4, 1.1 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): d 176.7, 170.7, 170.5, 167.9, 152.9, 151.1, 133.3, 118.6, 99.9, 97.0, 85.5, 70.2, 52.3, 40.7, 36.7, 24.8, 20.5, 13.8, 11.0.

MS (ES+): m/z 407.1 [M+H] + .

Rf: 0.33 (CH 2 Cl 2 :MeOH 9:1). Scheme 42 provides further examples of the synthesis of compounds of formula I.

Synthesis of 191

To a solution of 149 (54 mg, 0.110 mmol) in anhydrous CH 3 CN (4.50 mL) and anhydrous CH 2 Cl 2 (4.50 mL), 1H-tetrazole (3 mL, 1.317 mmol) and (tBuO)2PNEt2 (0.150 mL, 0.550 mmol) were added at 23 ºC. The reaction mixture was stirred at 23 ºC for 1h, then 70% tBuOOH solution (2.20 mL, 15.37 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred at 23 ºC overnight. An 10% aqueous solution of NaHSO3 (5 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred for 15 min. The mixture was extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 (3 x 10 mL) and washed with H2O (1 x 10 mL). The organic extract was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and evaporated. The resulting residue was purified by combiflash in SiO2 (from CH 2 Cl 2 to CH 2 Cl 2 :EtOAc 1:1) to yield 191 (50 mg, 67% yield). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): d 6.06 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.48 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.74 (dd, J = 9.1, 5.9 Hz, 1H), 4.25 (t, J = 5.9 Hz, 2H), 4.01 (q, J = 6.2 Hz, 2H), 3.86 (d, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 3.58 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 3.20 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 1.88-1.75 (m, 6H), 1.52 (s, 3H), 1.47 (s, 18H), 1.44-1.10 (m, 3H), 0.98 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.76-0.50 (m, 2H), 0.44-0.27 (m, 2H). 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD): d 174.8, 171.2, 168.0, 165.3, 163.8, 151.6, 99.7, 87.9, 84.2, 82.8, 82.7, 74.5, 73.9, 66.7, 66.7, 50.7, 39.2, 33.9, 28.8 (x2), 26.5, 26.4, 25.3, 23.5, 18.9, 12.5, 10.4, 9.0, 2.3.

MS (ES+): m/z 686.2 [M+H] + . Synthesis of 192

To a solution of 191 (150 mg, 0.219 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (13 mL) TFA (0.385 mL, 5.03 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at 23 ºC for 1h. The mixture was evaporated to dryness, and coevaporated several times with toluene. The resulting residue was purified in preparative HPLC (SunFire from 5% to 100% CH 3 CN + 0.04% TFA) to yield 192 (110 mg.88% yield). 1 H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD): d 7.87 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 6.06 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.50 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.78-4.68 (m, 1H), 4.26 (t, J = 6.2 Hz, 2H), 4.08-3.96 (m, 2H), 3.88 (d, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 3.59 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 3.20 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 2.22 (s, 3H), 1.94-1.71 (m, 6H), 1.54 (s, 3H), 1.52-1.46 (m, 1H), 1.43-1.37 (m 1H), 1.28-1.21 (m, 1H), 0.99 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.70-0.60 (m, 2H), 0.41-0.32 (m, 2H).

1 3 C NMR (125 MHz, CD 3 OD): d 174.9, 171.3, 168.0, 165.4, 163.8, 151.7, 99.7, 87.8, 84.3, 74.5, 73.9, 65.9 (x2), 50.7, 39.3, 33.8, 26.7, 26.6, 25.1, 23.5, 18.8, 12.4, 10.3, 8.9, 2.2.

MS (ES+): m/z 574.2 [M+H] + , 596.2 [M+Na] + . EXAMPLE 26. BIOASSAYS FOR THE DETECTION OF ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY The aim of this assay is to evaluate the in vitro cytostatic (ability to delay or arrest tumor cell growth) or cytotoxic (ability to kill tumor cells) activity of the samples being tested. Cell Lines

Ref. 1 Yamada, T. et al. (1986) Establishment of a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line (PSN-1) with amplifications of both c-myc and activated c-Ki-ras by a point mutation. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.140, 167-173. EVALUATION OF CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY USING THE SRB COLORIMETRIC ASSAY A colorimetric assay, using sulforhodamine B (SRB) reaction has been adapted to provide a quantitative measurement of cell growth and viability (following the technique described by V. Vichai and K. Kirtikara (2006) Nature Protoc.1, 1112-1116.) This form of assay employs 96-well cell culture microplates. All the cell lines used in this study were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), unless otherwise indicated, and derive from different types of human cancer. Cells were maintained in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) (for A549, HT-29 and MDA-MB-231) or RPMI (for PSN-1) supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 2mM L-glutamine, 100 U/mL penicillin and 100 U/mL streptomycin at 37 ºC, 5% CO2 and 98% humidity. For the experiments, cells were harvested from subconfluent cultures using trypsinization and resuspended in fresh medium before counting and plating. Cells were seeded in 96 well microtiter plates, at 5 x 10 3 cells per well in aliquots of 150 µL, and allowed to attach to the plate surface for 18 hours (overnight) in drug free medium. After that, one control (untreated) plate of each cell line was fixed (as described below) and used for time zero reference value. Culture plates were then treated with test compounds (50 mL aliquots of 4X concentrated compound stock solutions made in complete culture medium) using ten serial dilutions (concentrations ranging from 10 to 0.00262 mg/mL) and triplicate cultures (final concentration of DMSO being 1%). After 72 hours treatment, the antitumor effect was measured by using the SRB methodology: Briefly, cells were washed twice with PBS, fixed for 15 min in 1% glutaraldehyde solution at room temperature, rinsed twice in PBS, and stained in 0.4% SRB solution for 30 min at room temperature. Cells were then rinsed several times with 1% acetic acid solution and air-dried at room temperature. SRB was then extracted in 10 mM trizma base solution and the absorbance measured in an automated spectrophotometric plate reader at 490 nm. Effects on cell growth and survival were estimated by applying the NCI algorithm (Boyd MR and Paull KD. Drug Dev. Res.1995, 34, 91-104). Using the mean ± SD of triplicates, a dose-response curve was automatically generated u sing nonlinear regression analysis to a 4-parameter logistic curve. Three reference parameters were calculated (NCI algorithm) by automatic interpolation: GI50 = compound concentration that produces 50% cell growth inhibition, as compared to control cultures; TGI = total cell growth inhibition (cytostatic effect), as compared to control cultures, and LC50 = compound concentration that produces 50% net cell killing (cytotoxic effect). Table 3 illustrates data on the biological activity (GI50) of compounds of the present invention (GI50 value). Table 3. Cytotoxicity assay-Activity Data (GI50 Molar)




 
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