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Title:
ANTIFUNGAL COMPOUND AND USES THEREOF
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/086285
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Disclosed herein is a novel antifungal compound, derivatives that are used b treat fungal infections. In a specific embodiment, the compound is a small molecule. In a specific embodiment, the compound described herein inhibits yeast to hypha transition under robust hyphal inducing conditions at lower concentration of the molecule. Also disclosed is a composition comprising the antifungal compound. In a specific embodiment, the composition is a pharmaceutical composition Also disclosed is a method of treating and/or preventing fungal infection using the disclosed compound. The disclosed compound exhibits antifungal activity against wide range of fungal species at slightly higher concentrations. Antifungal compound disclose d herein is use d as anti-biofilm agent against fungal infections. In a specific embodiment, the disclosed compound is effective for systemic fungal infections. In a certain embodiment, the disclosed compound is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent for treating topical local and/or systemic fungal infections. In a specific embodiment, the disclosed compound is used in the prevention or treatment of mycotic infections caused by various fungal pathogens.

Inventors:
SENEVIRATNE CHAMINDA JAYAMPATH (CN)
KAO YI TSUN RICHARD (CN)
SAMARANAYAKE LAKSHMAN PERERA (CN)
YUEN KWOK YUNG (CN)
YANG DAN (CN)
WANG YU (CN)
WONG SZE WAH SARAH (CN)
Application Number:
PCT/CN2013/088483
Publication Date:
June 12, 2014
Filing Date:
December 04, 2013
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
UNIV HONG KONG (CN)
International Classes:
C07D309/34; A61K31/351; A61P31/10; A61P31/18
Domestic Patent References:
WO2012149608A12012-11-08
Foreign References:
EP0139440A21985-05-02
Other References:
RYABITSKII, A. B. ET AL.: "Conformational Analysis of Polymethine Dyes Derived From the 2-azaazulene.", JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR STRUCTURE., 25 October 2011 (2011-10-25), pages 52 - 62, XP028342995
RICKS, J. L. ET AL.: "Studies of 2-azaazulenium Derivatives - 3: The Nature of Electron Transitions and Spectral Properties of Styryl Dyes Containing Terminal Groups of Different Types.", JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR STRUCTURE., 30 August 2012 (2012-08-30), pages 215 - 226, XP028959533
See also references of EP 2928875A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
CHINA PATENT AGENT (HK) LTD. (Great Eagle Center23 Harbour Road, Wanchai, Hong Kong, CN)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims:

A method for reducing growth of a fungus comprising contacting a fungal cell with a compound having a struc ture :

; anda pharmaceuticallyacceptable carrier.

2. The method of claim 1 wherein the fungal cell is a pathogenic jjeast.

3. The method of claim 2 wherein the fungal c ll is Candida albicans, Pneumocystis carinii, Sac haromjfces cerevisiae, Aspergillus nidulans, KluyveiOmyces lactis, Sclmosacchaiomyces pombe, Streptomyc s lasaliensis, Streptomyces hygroscopicus. Candida tropicalis, Candida dubliniensis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida kefyr, Candida guniiern indii. Candida inconspicua, Candida famata, Candida glabra ta, Candida krusei, Candida lusitardae, Cryptococcus neoformans, Coccidioides immitis, Hispolasma capsulatum or a combination thereof.

4. A method of treating and preventing against fungal infections in a subject which commses administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound having the structure:

; anda pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

5. The method of claim 4 wherein the fungal cell is a pathogenic yeast.

6. The method of claim 5 wherein the fungal infection is caus d by C. albicans, C. glabrata, C fuusei, C tropi afts, C parapsifo sis, C n&ofoTTm s, Asp&rgiUus fonigates and Penicillivm mameffei.

7. The metho d of claim 4, wherein the subje ct is a human.

8. The method of claim Ί, wherein the subject is immuno ompromised. . The metho d of claim 7, wherein the subje ct had rece ived chemotherapy

10. The method of claim Ί, wherein the subje ct has AIDS .

11. The method of claim 7, wherein the subject had received a transplant.

12. The method of claim 7, wherein the subj ct has a central venous catheter.

13. The method of claim 7, wherein the compound is administered via injection, topical route, oral route, nasal route, aerosol, or enema route.

14. A medical device having a surface wherein at least a portion of the surface comprises a coating wherein the coating comprises a compound having a structure :

15. A me thod of making a medical device of c laim 14 omprising the steps of:

(a) pimiding a medical device having a surface; and

(b) appljjing a coating composition comprising a compound leaving a structure:

to at least a portion of the surfac e .

Description:
ANTIFUNGAL COMPOUND AND USES THEREOF

Related Ap lications

[0001] This application claims the b enefit of U.S . provisional application serial number:

61/733,094, filed December 4, 2012, which is hereby incorporated by refer n in its entirety.

1. Introduction

[0002 ] Disclosed herein is a novel c ompound and derivatives thereof that are use d to treat fungal infections. Also disclosed is a composition comprising the compound. In certain e mbodiments, the c ompositio n is a pharmaceutical composition. I n certain e mbodiments, the composition is a paint composition. Also disclosed is a method of reducmg fungal growth and a method of treating and/or preventing fungal inf ction using the disclosed compound. The disclosed compound exhibits antifungal activity against a wide range of fungal species. The compound disclosed herein is used as anti -biofilm agent against bacterial and fungal infections. In certain embodiments, the disclosed compound is effective for systemic fungal infections. In certain embodiments, the disclosed compound is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent for treating topical, local and or systemic fungal infections. In certam embodiments, the disclosed compound is use din the prevention or treatment of mycotic infections caused by various fungal pathogens. Provided herein is a medical device omprising a coating comprising the compound disclose d herein Provide d herein is a me thod of making a me dical device c omprising a c oating comprising the compound disclosed herein Provided herein is a method of making ananti- biofilm surface. Also provided herein is a paint composition comprising the compound disclosed her in.

2. Ba kground

[0003 ] Fungal infections are a huge clinical burden and highly prevalent among compromised host populations worldwide. Fungal patho ens in humans cause both superficial inuc osal and systemic myc oses with higher moib idity and mortality rate s. For instanc e, re cent studies including ours, indicated that mortality rate of systemic candidiasis among hospitaliaed patients could be as high as 70% under compromised conditions. Treatment for iungal mfections, iiiclujditig hospital stay, is costly.

[0004] During last couple of years fungal infection has become a major threat to hospitalised patients worldwide. In particular, Candida is the major fungal pathogen in humans which cause millions of mucosal and systemic mycoses worldwide . Despite the currently available antifungal ag nts, Candida remains to be the ubiquitous pathogen c ausing severe muc osal infe ctions such as oral candidiasis, onycomy oses ( nails) , lvovaginal candidiasis as well as systemic mycoses. H nce, candidiasis is a leading cause of hospitd-acquired infection, surpassing most bacterial infections. Unlike most bacterial diseases, fungal diseases are difficult to treat. Hence, there is higher mortality associated with systemic candidiasis. Local data from Hong Kong indicate mortality of systemic candidiasis in hospital settings could be as high as 70% . Rising drug resistance for available drug as indicated global surveys is a major problem for treating fungal infections. Development of more effective antifungal drugs with lesser side effects has become a highest priority in the field. Therefore, novel antifungal compounds with such desirable properties will be of great chnical importance. Compromised host populations such as HIV/AIDS patients, organ transplant recipients, patients on chemotherapyare expected to rise over next de ade and those groups are highly prone to fungal infections with serious consequences. Therefore, there is an increasing demand for antifungal agents that have excellent inherent p½rmacokinetic characteristics and potent inhibitory a tiviti s against a broad sp ctrum of fungi. Although there are several classes of antifungal agents are currently available, none of them, however, aie sufficiently satisfactory for use as medicine in that they do not exhibit all of excellent inhibitory activity against some of the opportunistic fungi which cause fatal infections and suitable ptarmacokineti s within the body.

[0005 ] The fungal pathogen Candida spec ie s are common causes of opiportiinistic and systematic infection, which maybe lethal in immunodeficient individuals mcluding those HIV - infected and radio-or chemo-therapy recipients. Candida albicans is the most prevalent Candida species isolated from human hosts. It lives as a commensal in skin, oral cavity and esophagus, gastrointestinal tract, vagina and vascular system and caus s disease when given the opprturdty. Candida albicans is able to swit h between the yeast and the hyphal form, thus combining the better dispersal properties of the yeast form with the invasive properties of the hyphal form. The hyphae can penetrate the epithelium into the host cell to ac uire nutrients for fungi, resulting in invading or damaging these tissues or organs. The reversible morphological transitions into h phal growth forms can further enhance C albicans 'virulence .

[0006 ] Usually Candida spp . re sides in a mixed habitation with other microbial. Ξ uch habitation is bio film. Inbiofilms, the inliabitards (iraidy fungi and bacteria) are encapsulated into a matrix of glycoprote ins and polysac charide s produce d by the mselves and they usually reside with bw metabolic activity. Through biofilm, Candida can adhere to denture, implanted medical device (mcluding catheter and heart valves) and tissue surfaces, denture and host organs with strong resistance to anti-fungal treatment. This makes the Candida infection hard to treat. On the other hand, the various virulent inhabitants within the bioflLm are more harmful than single Candida population. As a result, an implanted device is always associated these infections and a biofilm can be detected on the surface of the device. Candida spp. becomes common pathogen and is regarded as agents of nosocomial pneumonias and urinary tract infections, without effective treatment. Despite increasing numbers of health-compromised people, who are prone to contracting life -threatening fungal diseas s, only a few classes of anti-fungal drugs, such as polyenes, aaoles, echinocandins, aHykmines, and flucytosine, are available for the treatment of fungal infe tions.

[0007 ] However, polye e s have dose-related toxicity particularly nephrotoxicity although the introduction of lipid formulations has improved risk -benefit ratio. I addition, rising drug resistance is an inevitable problem. Emergence of drug-resistant strains to fluconazole, a drug of choice for AIDS patient has become a major problem, although second- gene lationtriamles have addressed some issues (Fera T, La Camera E, De Sarro A. New triasoles ard chinocardins: mode of action, mvitio activity and mechanisms of resistance. Ex pe rt Rev Anti I nf ct Ther . 2009 ;7 (3) 921 -92. Therapeutic failure s and e mergence of re sistance have already be en reporte d for recently introduced e cltinocandin antifungal agents. As a re suit of the limitations of existing antifungal ag nts, mortality rates for carididemia remain high. This situation highlights the urgent need for more effective and safer antifungal agents for this ubiquitous fungal infection, for example, recal itrant Candida infection.

3. Summary [0008 ] Provided herein is a c ompound having the structure in Fig . 1 F, derivatives the E of; or a pharmac utically acc ptable salt, solvate, or hydrate thereof. In one n^odiment. the compound is ΞΜ 1 . ΞΜ21 showed abetter antifungal ac tivity against resistard: fungal isolates for pre sently available antifungal age nts. Ivbre over, the compound describ ed here in also exhibited potent anti-biofilm activity against fungal biofilms that are resistant to currently available antifungal age nts . I n certain e mbodime nts, Ξ M 1 is an antifungal age nt against a broad spectrum of fungal infections . Also described he rein is a composition co mprising the c ompound. In certain embodiments, the composition is a pharmaceutical composition that includes solutions, suspensions, gels, fluid gels, emulsions, emulsion gels, lotions, ointments, film forming solutions, creams, sprays and lacquers. In particular, the antifungal composition is used to treat or prevent lo cal or systemic fungal infec tion in a subj ect . In specific embodime nt, the subj ect is a mammal . In specific en odiment the subject is human. In one embodiment pnr ided erein is a method of treating fungal infection comprising administering to a subject a pharmaceutical formulation comprising a therapeutically effective amount of one or more antifungal agents.

[0009 ] Provided herein is a method for le ducing gro wth o f fungus c omprising contacting a fungal cell with a compound having a structure:

; anda pharmaceuticallyacc ptable earner.

[0010] In certain embodiments, the fungal cell is a pathogenic yeast. In certain

mbodiments, the fungal cell is Candida albicans, Pneumocystis carinii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus nidukns, Kluyveromyc s lactis, Scltizosaccharomy es pombe,

Streptomyces lasaliensis, Streptomy es hygrosco icus, Candida tropicalis, Candida dubliniensis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida ke fyr, Candida guiJliermondii, Candida inconspcua, Candida famata. Candida g labrata, Candida krusei, Candida lusitaniae, Cryptococcus neoformans, Coccidioides irnmitis, Hispolasma capsul tum or a combination thereof.

[0011] Provided herein is a method of treating and preventing against fungal infections in a subje t which comprises admimsteiing to the subject an eff ctive amount of a compound having the structure:

; anda pharmaceuticallyacc ptable carrier.

[0012] In c ertain embodiments, the subj ect is a human. In certain e mbodiments, the subject is immunocompromised. In certain embodim nts, the subject had received chemotherapy. In certain embodiments, the subject has AIDS . In certain embodime nts, the subject had received a transplant. In certain en odime nts, the subject has a central venous catheter. In certain en^odiments, the compound is administered via injection, topical route, oral route, nasal route, aerosol, or enema route.

[0013] Also provided he re in is a medical devic e having a surface wherein at least a portion of the surface comprises a coating wherein the coating compris s a compound having a structure:

[0014] Also provided he E in is a method of making a medical device of claim 14 comprising the steps of

(a) providing a medical device having a surface; and

b) ap lying a coating composition comprising a compound having a structure:

to at least a portion of the surfac e .

4. Description of the Figures

[0015] Figs . 1 A-F : Yeast -to-hypha inhibitory pro pertie s o f Ξ IvD 1 under strong hyphal mducing conditions. Several environmental conditions which are known to induce the hyphal formation of C. albicans such as serum, Lee's medium, Spider medium, temperature and 37 °C were used to test the ability of ΞΜ2 1 to inhibit Y-H transition. (A) Control samples showing C albicans hyphal formation (B) Test samples were incubated with ΞΜ 1 at Y-Hi concentration showing yeast morphology (C-E) C albicans cknical strains A15 (C) , H2 (D) and HI 1 (E) incubate d with Ξ M21 at Y-Hi conce ntration for 24 h. Ξ M 1 c ould act as a Y-Hi at a bwer concentration of 0.025 μg nίl and 0.0.5 μg ml for 10 + cells/ ml and 10 ' cells/ ml of C albicans, respectively. Chemical structure of SM21 is shownin (F).

[0016] Figs. A-C: (A) C. alb icons SC5314 and (B) C. albic ans ATCC 90028 (CLSI quality control strain) and (C) resistant isolate T-1549 were used to determine the antifungal activity of ΞΜ 1 comparing for those of caspofungin and amphotericin B. C albicans 3C5314 and C albicans ATCC 90028 were susceptible to all three agents, but only SIvDl was effe tive for resistant isolate.

[0017] Figs.3A-C. Antibacterial activity of ΞΓνΏΙ at dose of 2 g was examined for three bacterial species together with other antifungal agents caspofungin, amphotericin B and chlorhexidine. (A) Lactobacillus acidophilus (B) Streptococcus mutans and (C) Escherichia coh were used for the experiments. ΞΜ 1 was not anti-bac terial at the concentration effective for fungal species demonstrating its fungal-specific activity akin to other antifungal agents.

[0018] Figs .4 A-B . Minimum e ffective anti-biofilm concentration for 24 h C albic ans biofiims. (A) Concentration of compound used. (B) Graph for minimum effective anti-biofilm con entration.

[0019] Fig . 5. XTT re duction assay for Candida bio films sho ing effect o f S M21

[0020 ] Fig . 6. ΜΓΤ re ductio n assay of pimary culture human monoc tes, gingival fibroblasts and oral keratinocyte s showing safety of Ξ M21 .

[0021] Figs .7 A-B . Ξ M2 1 is able to effe ctively inhibit the Candida invasion o f e pithe lial cells in Candida -HOK co-culture model. (A) Control samples sho ing Candida hyphae and deadkeratinocytes. (B) sample s treated with ΞΓνΏΙ showing live keratinocytes.

[0022] Fig. 8. ΞΜ21 effectively saved all the mice from systemic candidiasis

41 Definitions

[0023 ] Whe n referring to the compounds provide d herein, the following terms have fhe following meanings unless indicated otherwise. [0024] "Pharmaceutically acceptable salt" inc hide s any salt of a c om ound provide d here in which re tains its biological propertie s and which is not toxic or otherwise unde sirable for pharmac euucal use . Ξ uch salts maybe derived from a variety of organic and inorganic c ounter- io ns well known in the art . Such salts include : ( 1 ) acid addition salts formed with organic or inorganic acids sue has hydrochloric, hydrobromic, sulfuric, nitric, phosphoric, sulfamic, acetic, trifluoroacetic, trichloroacetic, propionic, hexaroic, cyclopentyl propionic, gly olic, glutaric, pyruvic, lactic, malordc, succinic, sorbic, ascorbic, malic, maleic, fumaric, tartaric, citric, benzoic,

3- (4-hydroxybensoyl)bensoic, picric, cinnamic, mandehc, phthalic, lauric, methanesulfonic, etlianesulfonic, 1,2-ethane-disultbnic, 2 -hydroxyethane sulfonic, benzenesulfonic, 4- cMorobenzenesulfonic, 2 -naphthalen sulfonic, 4-tduene sulfonic, camphoric, camphorsulfonic,

4- memy cycfo p.2 ]-oct-2-ene-l-caiboxylic, glucoheptordc, 3-phenylpropionic,

trimethyla etic, tert-butylacetic, lauryl sulfuric, gluco ic, benzoic, glutamic, hydroxynaphthoic, salicy c, stearic, cfolraxylsulfamic, quinic, muco dc acid and the like acids; or (2) salts formed when an acidic proton pre se nt in the parent compound either (a) is replaced by a metal ion, e g , an alkali metal ion, an alkaline earth ion or an aluminum ion, or alkali metal or alkaline earth metal hydroxides, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, duminum, lithium, zinc, and barium hydroxide, ammonia or (b) coordinate s with an organic base, such as aliphatic, alic jlic, or aromatic organic amines, such as ammonia, methylamine, dmel ykmine, diethylamine, picolire, ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, ethylene dkmine, lysine, arginine, orrrithine, choline, Ν,Ν'-diberizylel ylene-diamine, cWoroprocaine, dielhanolamirLe, procaine, N- benzylphenemykmine, N-memylglucamine piperazine, Ms(hydroxymemyl)-aminomethane, tetramemylammonium hydroxide, and the like . Salts further include, by way of example only sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, ammonium, tetraalkylammonium and the like, and when the compound contains a basic functionality, salts of no n- toxic organic or inorganic acids, such as hydrohalides, e.g. hydrochloride and hydrobromide, sulfate, phosphate, sulfamate, nitrate, acetate, trifluoroacetate, trichloroacetate, propionate, hexanoate, cyclopentyl propionate, glycolate, glutarate, pymvate, lactate, malonate, succinate, sorbate, ascorbate, malate, maleate, fumarate, tartarate, citrate, benzoate, 3-(4-hydrox oenzoyl)b nzoate, picrate, cinnamate, mandelate, phthalate, la urate, methane sulfonate (mesylate), ethanesulfonate, 1,2 -ethane - disulfonate, -hydraxye thane sulfonate, benzenesulfonate (besylate), 4-chloroberLzenesulfonate, 2-rLaphthal esulfonate, 4-toluenesulfonate, camphorate, camphorsulfonate, 4- mel yl ic cloP glucoheptonate, 3-phenyl propionate, trimethylacetate, tert-butylacetate, kuryl sulfate, gluconate, benzoate, glutamate,

hydroxynaphthoate, sali ylate, stearate, cycbhe yisulfamate, quinate, muconate and the like.

[0025 ] The term "S olvate" include s a compound provided herein or a salt thereo £ that further includes a stoi hiometric or non-stoichio metric amount of solvent bound by non-covalent intermolecular forces. Where the solvent is water, the solvate is a hydrate.

[0026] As used herein, the terms "subject" and "patient" are used interc angeably herein.

The terms "subjec t" and "subje cts " refer to an animal, sue h as a mammal inc luding a non-primate (e.g., a cow, pig, horse, cat, dog, rat, and mouse) and a primate (e.g., a monkey such as a cynomolgous monke a chimpanzee and a human), and for example, a human In one

enitoodiment, the subject is refractory or non- responsive to current treatments for he pi tins C infection. I n another e n^odiment, the subj ect is a farm animal (e . ., a horse, a c o w, a pig, etc .) or a pet (e .g ., a dog or a cat) . I n one e n±iodiment, the subj ect is a human.

[0027 ] As used herein subje ct in need thereof is a subjec t having a fungal infection, or a subject at risk of developing a fungal infection. The subject may have been diagnosed as having such a fungal infection as described herein or using standard medical techniques known to those of skill in the art. Alternatively a subject may exhibit one or more symptoms of fungal infection.

[0020 ] A subj ect at risk o f developing a fiingal infection is a subje ct who has b een exposed to a fungus, or is susceptible to exposure to a fungus. For instance a subject that is susc ptible to exposure to a fungus includes those subjects who work with fungal material or in areas of high fungal content, subjects who travel to areas with high fungal infecuvity rates or are otherwise likely to be exposed to a fungal infection as well as those subjects having particular susc ptibility to fungal infection re suiting from medical conditions or therapies. Examples of subjects having particular susceptibility to fungal infections arising from medical conditions or therapi s include but are not limited to an immunocompromised subject a subject having received chemotherapy a subject living cancer, a subject having AIDS, a subject who is HIV positive, a subject who is at risk o being HIV positive, a subject having received a transplant, or a subje ct having a c entral venous catheter .

[0029 ] An immunocompromised subj ect is a subjec t that is incapable of inducing a normal effective immune response or a subject that has not yet developed an immune system (e.g. preterm ne onate) . An immunoco mpromised subjec 1, for example , is a subj ec t undergoing or undergone chemotherapy a subject having AIDS, a subject receiving or having received a transplant or other surgical procedure etc.

[0030 ] A subj ect having re ceive d che motherapy is a subjec t that has undergone some form ofchemotherapeutic procedure. Ch motherapeutic proc dure encompasses conventional methods known to those of skill in the art. Sample s of c he motherapeutic methods include but are not hmited to alkylating agents, for example, nitrogen mustards, ethyleneimine compounds ard alkyl sulphonates; antimetabolites, for example, folic acid, purine or pyrintidine antagonists, mitotic inhibitors, for example, vinca alkaloids and derivatives of podophyflotoxin; cytotoxic antibiotics; compounds that damage or interfere with DNA expression; and growth factor receptor antagonists; antibodies and other biological molecules known to those of ordinary skill in the art.

[0031] A subj ect who is HIV po sitive encompasses a subjec t who is a c arrier of any of the HIV family of retroviruses or a subj ect who is diagnosed of active AIDS , as well as a subje ct having AIDS -related conditions. A carrier of HI V maybe identified by any methods known in the art. For example , a subj ect can be identifie d as an HIV carrier on the basis that the subj ect is anti-HI V antibody positive, or is HIV-positive, or has symptoms of AIDS. HIV infection gene lally encompasse s infe ction of a host, particularly a human host, by the human

immunodeficiency virus (HIV) family of retroviruses including, but not hmited to, HIV I, HIV II, HIV III (also km wn as HTLV -II, LAV - 1 , LAV -2 ), and the like . "HIV " can be used herein to refer to any strains, forms, subtypes and variations in the HIV family. A subject having HIV is a subject who is at anyone of the several stages of HIV infection progression, which, for example, include acute primary infection syndrome (which can be asymptomatic or asso iated with an influenza -like illness with fevers, malaise, diarrhea and neurologic symptoms such as headache), asymptomatic infection (which is the long latent period with a gradual decline in the number of circulating CD4+T cells), and AIDS (which is defined by more serious AIDS -d fining illnesses and/ or a decline in the c rculating CD4 cell count to belo a level that is compatible with effective immune function). In addition, it is mtended to encompass subjects suspected of being mfected with HIV after suspected past exposure to HIV by e.g., contact with HIV -contaminated blood, blood transfusion, exchange of body fluids, "unsafe " sex with an mfected subject accidental needle stick, receiving a tattoo or acupuncture with contaminated instruments, or transmission of the virus from a mother to a baby during pregnancy, delivery or sliortly thereafter. Subjects who are HIV positive also encompass subjects who have not been diagnosed as having HIV infection but are believed to be at high risk of infection by HIV .

[0032] A subject having acquire d immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a subject who exhibits more serious AIDS -defining illnesses and/or a decline in the irculating CD4 cell count to below a level that is compatible with effective immune function. A subject having AIDS also enc ompasses a subj ect having AIDS -related c onditions, which means disorders and diseases mcidental to or associated with AIDS or HIV infection such as AIDS -related complex (ARC), progressive generahaedlymphadenopathyfPGL), anti-HIV antibod ositive conditions, and HIV-positive conditions, AIDS -related neurological conditions (such as dementia or tropical paraparesis), Kaposi's sarcoma, thrombocytopenia purpurea and associated opportunistic infections such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, Mycobacterial tuberculosis, esophageal candidiasis, toxoplasmosis of the brain, CMV retinitis, HIV -related encephalopathy, HIV -related wasting syndrome, etc.

[0033 ] A subj ect having re ceive d a transplant is a subj ect having rec eive d either a tissue or organ transplant during a surgical proc dure. Transplants include but are not limited to organ, tissue, stem ce 1L bone marrow, and enc ompass conventional metho ds known to those of skill in the art. A subject having received a tissue transplant is especially susceptible to fungal infections from Candida species such as Candida albicans.

[0034] A subject having a central venous catheter is a subject having received a central venous catheter implant during a surgical procedure . A central venous catheter implant encompasses the use of conventional methods known to those of skill in the art. A subject having re ceive da ce ntral venous cathe ter is e spe cially susc eptible to fungal infections fiom Candida species suchas Candida albicans.

[0035 ] As used herein, the terms "compound" and "age nf ' are interchangeable .

[0036] As used herein, the terms therapeutic agent" and "therapeutic agents" refer to any age nt(s) which can be use d in the treatme nt or prevention of a disorder or one or more symptoms thereof. In certain embodiments, the term "therapeutic agent" includes a compound provided herein. In one en^odiment, a therapeutic agent is an agent which is known to be useful for, or has bee n or is c urrently being used for the treatment or prevention of a disorde r or one or more symptoms thereof

[0037 ] "The rapeutically e ffective amount " includes an amount of a co mpound or composition thai, when administered to a subject for treating a disease, is sufficient to effect such treatment for the disease. A "therapeutically effe tive amount" can vary depending on, inter alia, the compound, the disease and its severity, and the age, weight etc., of the subject to be treated.

[0038 ] "Treating " or "treatment " of any disease or disorder refers, in one e mbodiment to ameliorating a disease or disorder that exists in a subject. In another e ntoodiment, "treating" or "treatment" includes amelio rating at least one physical parameter, which maybe indiscernible by the subject. In yet another embodiment, "treating" or "treatment" includes modulating the disease or disorder, either physic ally (e.g., stabilisation of a discernible symptom) or physiologically (e.g., stabilisation of a physical parameter) or both In yet another embodiment, "treating" or "treatment" includes delaying the onset of the disease or disorder.

[0039] As used herein, tlie terms '^prophylactic agent" and "prophylactic age ts" as used re fer to any ag ent(s) which can be used in the pre ve ntio n of a disorder or one or more symptoms thereof. In certain embodiments, the term "prophylactic agent" includ s a compound provided herein. In certain other enitoodiments, the term "prophylactic agent" does not refer a compund provide d herein For e xample, a prophylactic age nt is an agent that is known to be use ful for, or has been oris currently being used to prevent or impede the onset, development and progression of disorder or symptoms.

[0040 ] In some instance s the compounds de scribed herein are useful also for treating a fungal infection in a subject. As used herein treating or treat is intended to include preventing, ameliorating, curing, reducing fungal growth or reducing symptoms, or pre venting any in rease in fungal growth or symptoms.

[0041 ] As used herein "re ducing fungal growth" is intende d to enc ompass an interferenc e in fungal ce 11 gro wth or proc essing which can be de termined b y a reduction in c ell number, a reduction in cell division or a reduction in the yeast-to-hyphal transition phase.

5. Detailed Description [0042 ] Fungal infections are a huge clinical burden and highly prevalent among compromised host populations worldwide. Candida albicans is the major fungal patho en in humans which cause both superficial mu osal and systemic mycoses with higher morbidity and mortality rates. For instance, mortality rate of systemic candidiasis among hospitalised patients could be as high as 70% under c ompromised conditions . Formation of long filame ntous appendages known as hypha is a major virulent attribute that facilitates the tissue invasion of the fungus. Compounds that inte fere with the formation of hypha serve as a novel approach to develop next generation of antifungal compounds. Expression profiling and genetic

manipulation reveal that many of the genes that govern C. aibicansbio&kn development are re quired for the production o f hyphae . On the other hand, hyphae are required for stable biofilm formation, which is even resistant to sonication. C albicans mutants that have defects in the yeast-hyphal transition have a r duced ability to become internalised and to cause endothelial c ell injury in vitro . Therefore, the hyphae formation is crucial for the biofilm stability and drug - resistance. Yeast-hyphal transition is a therapeutic target to solve the long existed drug resistance during anti-fungal treatment.

[0043] A large collection of small molecule library was screened in search of inhibitors of yeast-to-hypha transition (Y-H) of C albicans using 384- ell plate -high throughout assays (ΗΤΞ). This screening assay, showed 20 molecules with Y-H inhibitory (Y-Hi) properties. After subsequent studies with robust Y-H inducing conditions, we herein report a novel small molecule ΞΜ21 (Fig. 1) with strong Y-Hi activity and antifungal-activity.

5.1 AjiiifiLngal Com ound

[0044] Disclosed herein is a novel antifungal compound, a composition comprising the compound, a pharmaceutical composition comprising the compound, and a method of using the compound. In one embodiment, the compound is used to treat fungal infections.

[0045 ] Provided herein is a compound having the following structure

derivatives thereof; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, hydrate, stereoisomeric, tautomeric or polynMrphic form thereof

[0047 ] Those of skill in the art will rec ogrdze that compounds of structure :

can be designs d or prepared by reaction, e.g., via c onde nation or de hydration. For c onvenie rc e, those of skill in the art will recognize that the compound e.g. of structure in Fig. IF comprises a derivative, e.g. a ladical of the anti -viral drug. Those derivatives can for example be prepared in a chemical reaction. Where appropriate, certain derivatives can be prepared by modification of the structure in Fig. IF.

[0049 ] A pharmaceutically acceptable salt is readily prepare d by mixing togethe r solutions containing the free base and the desired acid. The salt generally precipitates from solution and is collected by filtration, or is recovered by evaporation of the solvent. The compounds o f the structure Q.) and their salts are anti-fungal ag nts, useful in the curative or prophylactic treatment of fungal infec tio ns in animals, including humans. For example, they are useful in treating topical fungal infections in man caused by, among other organisms, species of Candida, Trichophyton, Microsporum or Epidermophyton, or in mucosal inf ctions caused by Candida albicans (e.g. thrush and vaginal candidiasis). They can also be used in the treatment of systemic fungal infections caused by for example, spcies of Candida (e.g. Candida albicans), Cryptocoous neoformans, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Coccidioides,

Para occidioides, Histoplasma or Blastomyces.

[0050 ] In c ertain embodiments, the compound is a small mole cule . I n a spe cific embodiment, the compound is SIvDl that inhibits yeast to hypha transition. In certain embodiments, the compound mlubits yeast to hypha transition under robust hyphal inducing conditions. In certain embodiments, the robust hyphal inducing conditions comprise lower conc ntration of the molecule, which is from 0.025 g/ml to 0.2 μg/ml.

[0051] In one e mbodimenl, provided herein are assays for phe no typic transition of

Candida cells. In certain embodiments, the change is a morphological change. In certain embodiments, the change is from a budded form to a hyphal form. In other embodiments, the change is from a budded form to a pseudohyphal form. In still other embodiments, the change is from a pseudohyphal form to a hyphal form. In yet other embodiments, the c ange maybe a morphological chan e from a hyphal form to a budded form, a pseudohyphal form to a budded form, or even a hyphal form to a pseudohyphal form.

[0052] In some en±iodiments, the change is an increase in the amount of cells in the first phenotypic form compared to the amount of cells in the second phenotypic form. In other embodiments, the measurable change is a decrease in the amount of cells in the second phenotypic form.

[0053 ] In c ertain embodiments, Ξ M 1 e xhibits antifungal activity against wide range of fungal spe cie s at s ghtly higher conce ntrations. In c ertain emb odiments, the c one entration is 0.2-0.4|ig/m], 0.4-0.6 μ§/πι1. 0.6-0.8 |ig/m]_ 0.8-1 1 .4- 1 .6 |jg/ml. 1.6-1.8 1.8 -2 μξ ΐ-ύ. 2-4μg L, 6-6 25 μg ml . In a specific e mbodimenl the cone entration is 0.2 -6.25 μg/nΊl . I n one e mbodiment, the anti-fungal c ompound describe d herein is used as ananti-biofilm agent for fungal infections. In one e nfoodi nent, the anti-fungal compound is effective for treating b cal and syste mic fungal infections of candidiasis. In one e mfoodiment, ΞΜ 1 is effe ctive for treating local and systemic fungal infec tions of candidiasis . Ξ afety of the c ompound describ ed herein has be en e xtensively evaluate d using standard in vitro and i n vivo assays which proved no-harmful effe cts . In certain e n^odiments, ΞΜ21 is a broad- spectrum anti-fungal agent tor treating both local and systemic fungal infections. In certain embodiments, ΞΜ21 or pharmaceutically acceptable derivativ s are used for the treatment of mycotic infections. In certam embodiments, Ξ 21 or pharmaceutic ally acceptable derivatives thereof are used for the treatment of infections caused by various fungal pathogens including, but are not limited to Candida, Cryptoco ecus, Aspergillus and PeniciHium species. In one

embodiment, the fungal pathogen is Candida albicans.

[0054] The present invention discloses a novel antifungal agent that is used to treat fungal infections. Small molecule describe d herein (S1VD1 ) inhibits yeast-hyphal transition under robust hyphal inducing conditions at b wer c oncentration of the molec ule . In addition, ΞΜ21 exhibits antifungal activity against wide range of fungal species at slightly hi her concentrations, including C albicans, C glabrata, C fousei, C. tropicalis, arapsilo is, C neoformans, Aspergill s fumigates and PeniciHium marneffei. In certain embodiments, the

Μΐκ βη1¾1ϊοη Ϊ3 θ.2-0 μ6 κι1, 0 -0.6μ6Μ. 0.6-0.8μ5 ιϋ, 0.8-1 μ^ η ιΐ, 1 .2-1 ^g ml,

1.4- 1.6 μg/nϊl_ 1.6 -1 .8 μg/ml, 1 .8-2 g/ml, 2 4-6 μg/ml_ 6-6.25 μg/ml. In a spec ific embodiment, the concentration is 0.2-o\25 μg nΊl. In a specific embodiment, ΞΜ21 showed superior antifungal activity on 16 multidrug resistant chnical isolates of Candida species. Ina specific the effect of the discbsed compounds, or more specifically, ΞΜ21, is highly spe ciiic to fungus and did no t exert any anti-bacterial e ffect . In certain e n odiments, the compound described herein is used in combination with other classes of anti-fungal compounds for the treatment of infections. These other classes of anti-fungal compounds are categoriaed according to their targets. Examples of these classes of anti-fungal compounds are indicated below: [0055]

[0056 ] Ce rial V enous Cathe ters (C VC ) and Urological Catheters (UCs) c onstituted the market for Antimic mbial Catheter Market. I n US , about 200,000 case s of Blood Ξ tream Infections (ΒΞΙ) are directly related to CVCs; while 600,000 cases of Catheters Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI) are caused by UCs. The cause of cathe ters associated infection is the biofilm formation on the device surface . Such biofilm is usually the habitat for Candida spp. Therefore, antimicrobial (esp. anti-Candida) treatment of the devi e is a novel way to preve nt catheter relate d infections . In certain embodime nts, the c ompound describe d herein is used to coat and or impregnated the devices. In certain enifoodiments, the compound is released in a sustained and/or controlled manner to combat the microbes presenting at the site.

[0057 ] In c ertain embodiments, the compound disclosed herein e xhibits anti-biofilm activity against Candida mono or mixed species biofilms. In certain embodiments, the compound inhibits bacterial biofilm. In certain embodiments, the compound inhibits fungal biofilm. In certain embodiments, the compound inhibits bacterial biofilm to a greater extent than inhibits fungal biofilm. In specific e ifoodiments, the compound disclosed herein e hibits anti- biofilm activity at 25 μg/ml . In spe cific e mbodiments, the c ompound disclo sed herein e xhibits anti-biofilm activity at 25μ§/ηύ while either biofilms was resistant to amphotericin B (32 μ ml) ard caspofungin (50 μ¾/ητ1). The compound disclosed herein has superior antifungal activity than existing antifungal agents sue has amphotericin B and caspofungin for Candida biofilms. In certain embodiments, the compound disclosed herein also successfully protected human kerauroc yte s Candida infe ction in Candida-human oral keratinocytes co -culture model .

[0058 ] In c ertain embodiments, the compounds as provide d herein are used for treatment of bio film-associate d infections . In certain e ntoodiments, the biofilm infec tion is bacterial. In ertain embodiments, the biofilm infection is fungal. In certain embodiments, the biofilm infection is both bacterial and fungal. In certain embodiment, the biofilm is formed on natural ard abiotic surfaces. In certain embodiments, the biofilm is formed on a medical device. In c ertain embodiments, the biofilm is forme d on an implant. In c ertain embodime nts, the bio film is form d on dental implants or dentures. In certain embodim nts, the biofilm is formed on bioprosthetic materials, such as pdymethylmethacrylate and silicone elastomer.

[0059 ] In c ertain embodiments, Ξ IvE 1 exhibits anti -biofilm activity against Candida mono or mixed species biofilms. In specific embodiments, ΞΜ21 exhibits anti -bio film activity at 2-^g/ml. I specific embodiments, ΞΓνΕ 1 exhibits anti -biofilm activity at 2 g/ml while either biofilms was resistant to amphotericin B (32 μ /ml) and caspofungin (50 μ /ml). SIvD l has superior antifungal activity than existing antifungal agents sue has amphotericin B and caspo fungin for Candida biofilms. In certain embodiments, ΞΜ21 also su essfully prote ted human keratinocytes Candida infection in Candida -human oral keratinocytes co -culture model.

[0060 ] In a spec ific embodiment, ΞΜ21 showed no cytoto xicity in human oral keratirocytes, gingival fibroblasts and monocytes at effective concentration. In a specific embodiment mice treated with 100 times of the effective dose did not show any detrime ntal effect in terms of weight reduction and side effects.

[0061] In a spec ific embodiment ΞΜ21 replace s e xisting antifungal agents and overcome the current drug resistant dilemma in antifungal therapy. In a specific embodiment ΞΜ21 is used in combination with other anti-fiingal compounds.

5.2 Combination Therap y

[0062 ] The compounds as de scrib ed herein mayo ptionally be de liver ed with other antifungal agents in the form of antifungal cocktails, or individually, yet close enough in time to have a synergistic effe t on the treatment of the infection. An antifungal cocktail is a mixture of any one of the c om pounds describe d herein with another antifungal dru . I n one e rnb odiment , a common administration vehicle (e.g., tablet, implants, injectable solution, injectable liposome solution, etc.) is used in for the compound as d s ribed herein and other antifungal agent(s).

[0063 ] Ant- fungal age nts are useful tor the treatment and pr eventon of infe c Ve fungi.

Ant- fungal age nts can be e lassifie d by their mec hanism of actio n. 3 ome ant-fungal agents function as cell wall inhibitars by inhibitng glucose synthase. These include, but are not hmited to, basiungin/BCB . Other ant-fungal agents function by destabihzing membrane integrity. These include, but are not hmited to, immidaaoles, such as clotrimazole, sertaconzole, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole , miconazole, and voriconacole, as well as F 463, amphotericin B, BAY 38 -9502, MK 991, pradinucin, UK 292, butenafme, ard terbinafme. Other ant- fungal agents tunc ton by breaking down chitn (e.g. chitnase) or immunosuppression (501 cream).

[0064] Other antifungal ag nts include Acrisorcin; Ambrutcin; Amphotericin B,

Azac onazole ; Azaserine; Basifungin; Bifonazole; Biphenamine Hydro chloride ; Bispyrit done Magsulfe ; Butoconazole Nitrate; Calcium Unde ylenate; Cancidas (Caspofungin Acetate), Cardicidin; Carbol-Fuchsin, Chlordantoin; Cicbpirox; Cicbpirox Okmine; Cibfungin;

Cisconazole; Cbtrimazole; Qiprimyxin; Denofungm; Dipyri1]™ne; Doconazole; Econazole; E onazole Nitrate; Enilconazole; Ethonam Nitrate; Fentconazole Nitrate ; Filipin; Fluconazole; Flucytosine; Fungimyc in; Gris ofhlvin; Hamycin; I soconazole; Itraconazole; Kalafungin;

Kebconazole; Lomofungin; Lydimy in; Mepartricin; Miconazole; Miconazole Nitrate;

Monensin; Monensin Sodium; Naftfine Hydrochbride; Neomycin Und cylenate; Nifuratel; Nifurmerone; Nitmknune Hydrochloride; Nystatin; Octanoic Acid; Orconazole Nitrate ;

Oxiconazole Nitrate ; Oxifungin Hydrochloride; Parconazole Hydro chbride ; Partricin; Potassium Iodide ; Procbnol ; Pyrithbne Zinc ; Pyrrolnitin; Rutamycin; 3 anguinarium Chbride ;

3 aper conazole ; 3 copafungin; 3 ele ium 3 ulfi.de ; 3 ine fungin; Sulconazole Nitrate ; Terbinafine ; Terconazole ; Tkiram ; Ticlatone ; Tbc onazol ; Tolciclat ; Tolindate ; Tolnaftat ; Triac etin;

Triafungin; Undecylenic Acid, Viridofulvin; Zinc Undecylenate; and Zinoc onazole

Hydrochloride. [0065] In certain embodiments, the compound described herein canbe used alone or in combination with one or more antifungal compounds as shown below

[0066 ] In c ertain embodiments, the compounds describe d herein are used in c ombination with one or more antifungal compounds as shown be bw [0067]

[0068 ] In c ertain embodiments, the compound de scribed herein is used in c ombination with one or more antifungal compounds. Antifungal compounds include but are not limited to: polyenes (e.g., amphotericin b, candicidin. m artricin, natamy in, and nystatin), diamines (e.g., butenafine, and naftifine), imidazoles (e.g., bifonazole, butoconazole, ch rdantoin, flutrimazole, isoconazole, ketoconazole, and lanocorazole), thiocarbamates (e.g., tolciclate, tolindate, and tolnaftate), triazoles (e.g., fluconazole, itraconazole, saperconazole, and terconazole), bron isalicylc oranilide, buclosamide, calcium propionate, chlorphenesin, ciclopiiOX, azaserine, griseofdvin, oligomycins, neomycm iindecylenate, p nolnitrin, siccanin, tubercidin, and viridin. Additional examples of antifungal compounds include but are not limited to Acrisorcin; Ambruticin; Amphotericin B; Azaconazole; Azaserine ; Bastfungin; Bifonazole; Biphenamine Hydro cl^ride; Bispyrithione agsulfex; Butoconazole Nitrate; Calcium Undecylenate; Candicidm; Ca]bol-Fuchsm; Chlordantoin; Ciclopirox; Ciclopiro-i Olamine; Cilofungin; Cisconazole; Clotrimazole; Cuprimyxin; Denofungin; Dipyrithione ; Doconazole; Econazole; Econazole Nitrate; Enilconazole ; Ethonam Nitrate; Fenticonazole Nitrate ; Filipin, Fluconazole ; Flucytosine , Fungimy in; Griseo fulv in; Hamyc in; Isoconazole ; Itraconazole; dafungin; etoco ramie; Lomofirigin; epartric in; Miconazole; Miconazole Nitrate; Monensin; Monensin Sodium; Nafhfine Hydrocl^ride; Neomy in

UndecyLenate; Nifuratel, Nifurmero ne ; Nitrakmine Hydrochloride; Nystatin, Octanoic Acid; Orconazole Nitrate; Oxiconazole Nitrate ; Oxifungin Hydrochloride; Parconazole Hydrochloride ; Partricin; Potassium Iodide; Proclonol; Pyrithione Zinc; Pyrrolnitrin; Rutamycin, Sanguinarium Ch ride ; Ξ aper conazole ; Sco pafungin; Ξ elenium Sulfide ; Ξ inefungin; S ulc onazole Nitrate ;

Teibinafin ; Terconazole ; Thiram; Ticlatone ; Tioc onazole ; Tolciclate ; Tolindate ; Tolnaftate ; Triacetin; Trkfiiigin; Undecylenic Acid; VMdofMvin; Zinc Unde ylenate; ard Zinocoiiazole Hydrochloride.

[0069] As used herein, the term "in combination" includes the use of more than one therapy (e.g., one or more prophylactic and/or therapeutic agents). The use of the term "in combination" does not re strict the order in whic h therapies (e .g prophylac tic and/or the rapeutic age nts) are administered to a subj ect with a disorder. A first therapy (e g . a prophylac tic or therapeutic agent such as a c ompound provide d herein) can be administered prior to ( e .g ., 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 4S hours, 72 hours, 96 hours, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 5 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks, or 12 weeks before), concomitantly with, or subsequent to (e.g., 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 4S hours, 72 hours, 96 hours, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 5 weeks, 6 weeks, S weeks, or 12 weeks after) the administration o f a se cond therapy ( e .g ., a prophylactic or the rapeutic age nt) to a subje ct with a disorder.

[0070] In certain embodiments, the use of a combination of more than one antifungal compounds has a synergistic effect. A synergistic eff t of a combination of therapies (e.g., a combination of prophylac tic or the lapeutic agents) permits the use of bwer dosages of one or more of the therapies and/or l ss frequent administration of said therapies to a subject with a disorder. The ability to utilize bwer dosages of a therapy (e.g., a prophylactic or therapeutic agent) and/or to administer said therapy less frequently reduces the toxicity associated with the administration o f said therapy to a subj ect without re ducing the efficac y of said therapy in the preve ntio n or treatment of a disorder) . In addition, a synergistic effec t can result in improved e fficacy of agents in the prevention or treatment o fa disorder. Finally, a synergistic e ffect o fa combination of therapies (e.g., a combination of prophylactic or therapeutic agents) may avoid or reduce adverse or unwanted side effects associated with the use of either therapy alone.

5.3 Pharmaceutical Co nip ositkons and Methods of Adniinistratio n

[0071] The compound disclosed herein can be formulated into pharmaceutical compositions using methods available in the art and those disclosed herein Such compounds can be used in some embodiments to enhance delivery of the drug to the subj t.

[0072 ] The metho ds provided herein enco mpass admimstering pharmac eutical compositions containing at least one compound as described herein, including a compound of structure I, if appro priate in the salt form, either use d ab ne or in the form of a co mbinatbn with one or more compatible and pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, such as diluents or adjuvants, or with another antifungal agent . In certain e mbodiments, the sec ond age nt can be formulated or packaged with the compound provided herein, according to those of skill in the art, such co- formulation should not interfere with the activity of either agent or the method of administration. In c ertain embodiments, the compound provided herein and the se cond age nt are formulated separately They can be packaged toge ther, or packaged separately, for the convenience of the practitioner of skill in the art. In clinical practice the active agents provided he rein maybe administered by any c onve ntio nal route, in particular orally, parenteral! y, rec tally or by inhalatbn (e .g . in the form of aerosols) . In certain embodime nts, the co mpound provide d herein is administered orally. Use maybe made, as solid compositbns for oral administratbn, of tablets, pills, hard gelatin capsul s, powders or granules. In these com sitbns, the active product is mixed with one or more inert diluents or adjuvants, such as sucrose, lactose or starch. These compositions can comprise substances other than diluents, for example a lubricant s ch as magnesium stearate, or a coating intended for controlled release. Use maybe made, as liquid compositions for oral administration, of solutions which are pharmaceutically acceptable, suspe nsions, e muls ns, syrups and e lixirs c ontaining inert dilue nts, sue h as water or liquid paraffin. These compositions c an also comprise substan s other than dilue nts, for example wetting, sweetening or flavoring products. The compositions for parenteral administration can be emulsbns or sterile solutions. Use maybe made, as solvent or v icle, of propylene glycol, a polyethylene gly ol, vegetable oils, in particular olive oil, or injectable organic esters, for example ethyl oleate. These com sitbns can also contain adjuvants, in particular wetting, isotonizing, emulsifying, d spersing and stabilizing; agents. Sterilization can be carried out in several ways, for example using a bacteriological filter, by radiation or by heating . They can also be prepared in the form of sterile solid c ompositio ns whic h can be dissolved at the time of use in sterile water or any other injectable sterile medium. The compositions for rectal administration are suppositories or rectal capsules which contain, in addition to the active prin iple, excipients such as cocoa butter, semi-synthetic glycerides or polyethylene glycols. The compositions can also be aerosols. For use in the form of liquid aerosols, the ompositions can be stable sterile solutions or solid compositions dissolved at the time of use in sterile water, in saline or any other pharmaceutically acceptable v hicle. For use in the form of dry aerosols intended to be directly inhaled, the active prin iple is finely divided and combined with a water- soluble solid diluent or vehicle, for example dextran, mannitol or lactose. In one enitoodiment, a composition provided her in is a pharmaceutical composition or a single unit dosage form.

Pharmaceutical compositions and single unit dosage forms provided herein comprise a prophylactically or therapeutically effective amount of one or more prophylactic or therapeutic age nts (e .g ., a c ompound provided he rein, or other prophylac tic or therapeutic agent), and one or more pharmaceutically a eptable carriers or excipients. The term "carrier" includes a diluent, adjuvant (e.g., Freund's adjuvant (complete and incomplete)), excipient, or vehicle with which the therapeutic is administer d Su h pharmaceutical carriers can be sterile liquids, such as water and oils, iricluding those of petroleum, animal, vegetable or synthetic origin, such as peanut oil, soybean oil, mineral oil, sesame oil andthe tike. Water canbe used as a carrier when the pharmaceutical composition is administered intravenously. Saline solutions and aqueous dextrose and glycerol solutions can also be employed as liquid carriers, particularly for injectable solutions. Examples of suitable pharmaceutical carriers are described in "Remington's

Pharmaceutical Sciences" b E. W. Martin. Typical pharmaceutical compositions and dosage forms comprise one or more excipients. Suitable excipients are well-known to those skilled in the art of pharmacy and non kmiting examples of suitable excipients include starch, glucose, lactose, sucrose, g latin, malt, rice, flour, chalk, silica gel, sodium stearate, gly erol

monostearate, talc, sodium chloride, dried skim milk, glycerol, propylene, glycol, water, ethanol and the like. Whether a particular excipient is suitable for incorporation into a pharmaceutical composition or dosage form depends on a variety of factors well known in the art including, but not limited to, the way in whic h the do sage form will b e administered to a subje ct and the specific active ingredients in the dosage form. The composition or single unit dosage form, if desired, can also contain minor amounts of wetting or emulsifying agents, or pH buffering agents. Lacto se fre e compositions provided he rein can comprise excipie nts that are we 11 kno wn in the art and are listed, for example, in the U.S . Pharmo opia. In general, lactose free ompositions comprise an active ingredient & binder/ filler, and a lubricant in pharmaceutically compatible and pharmaceutically acceptable amounts. Exemplary lactose free dosage forms comprise an active ingredient nticrocry-rtdline ellulose, pre gelatinized starc , and magnesium steaiate. Further encompassed herein are anhydrous pharmaceutical compositions and dosage forms comprising active ingredients, since water can facilitate the degradation of some compounds. Anhydrous pharmac eutical co mpositions and do sage forms provided herein can be prepared using anhydrous or lo w moisture containing ingredients and low moisture or w humidity conditions. An anhydrous pharmaceutical composition should be prepared and stored such that its anhydrous nature is maintained. Accordingly, anhydrous compositions can be packaged using materials known to prevent exposure to water such that they can be included in suitable formulary kits. Examples of suitable packaging include, but are not limited to, hermetically sealed foils, plastics, unit dose containers (e . ., vials), blister packs, and strip packs . The pharmaceutical

compositions and single unit dosage forms can take the form of solutions, suspensions, emulsion, tablets, pills, capsules, powders, sustaine d- release formulations and the like. Oral formulation can include standard carriers sue has pharmaceutical grades of mannitot lactose, starch, magnesium stearate, sodium sacclxarine, cellulose, magnesium carbonate, etc. Such compositions and dosage forms will contain a prophylac tically or therapeutically effective amount of a prophylactic or therapeutic agent in certain embodiments, in purified form, together with a suitable amount of carrier so as to provide the form for proper administration to the subj ct. The formulation should suit the mode of administration. In a certain embodiment the pharmaceutical compositions or single unit dosage forms are sterile and in suitable form for adnunistrationto a subject, for example, an animal subject sue has a manunalian subject for example, a human subject. A pharmaceutical composition is formulated to be compatible with its intended route of administration. Examples of routes of administration include, but are not limited to, parenteral, e.g., intravenous, intradermat subcutaneous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, oral, buccat sublingual, inhalation, intranasal, transdermal, topical, transmucosal, intra-tumoral, intra - synov ard rectd adnunistration. Ina specific embodiment the composition is formulated in accordance with routine proc dures as a pharmaceutical composition adapted for intravenous, subcutaneous, intramuscular, oral, intranasal or topical administration to human beings. In an mbodiment a pharmaceutical composition is formulated in accordanc with routine procedures for subcutaneous administration to human beings. Typically, compositions for intravenous administration are solutions in sterile isotonic aqueous buffer. Where ne ssary the composition may also include a solubilizing agent and a local anesthetic such as lignocamne to ease pain at the site of the inj ction. Examples of dosage forms include, but are not limited to: tablets;

caplets; capsules, such as soft elastic gelatin capsules; cachets; troches; loaenges; dispersions; suppositories; ointments; cataplasms (poultices); pastes; powders; dressings; creams; plasters; solutions; patches; aerosols (e.g., nasal sptays or inhalers); gels ; liquid dosage forms suitable for oral or mucosal administration to a subject, including suspensions (e.g., aqueous or nonaqueous liquid susp nsions, oil in water emulsions, or a water in oil liquid emulsions), solutions, and elixirs; liquid dosage forms suitable for parenteral administration to a subject; and sterile solids (e.g., crystalline or amorphous solids) that can be r onstituted to provide liquid dosage forms suitable for parenteral adnunistration to a subject. The composition, shape, and tjpe of dosage forms provided herein will typically vary de ending on their use. For example, a dosage form used in the initial treatment of viral infection may contain larger amounts of one or more of the active ingredients it comprises than a dosage form use din the maintenance treatment of the same infection. Similarly, a parenteral dosage form may contain smaller amounts of one or more of the active ingredients it comprises than an oral dosage form used to treat the same disease or disorder. These and other ways in which specific dosage forms encompassed herein will vary from one another will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art. See, e.g., Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 20th ed., Mack Publishing, Easton Pa. (2000). Typical dosage forms comprise a compound provided herein, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt solvate or hydrate thereof lie within the range of from about 0 .1 mg to about 1000 mg per day, given as a single once -a-day do se in the morning or as divide d dose s throug hout the day take n with food.

Particular dosage forms can have about 0.1, 0.2, 03, 0.4, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 25, 5.0, 10.0, 1 50, 20 0, 25.0, 50.0, 100, 200, 250, 500 or 1000 mg of the active compound Oral Dosage Forms

Pharmaceutical compositions that are suitable for oral adntinistration can be presented as discrete dosage forms, such as, but are not limited to, tablets (e.g., ch wable tabl ts), caplets, capsules, and liquids (e.g., flavored syrups). Such dosage forms contain predetermined amounts of active ingre dients, and maybe pre pared by methods of pharmacy well known to those skiUe d in the art. See generally Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 20th ed., Mack Publishing, Easto Pa. (2000).

[0073 ] In c ertain embodiments, provide d herein is a hand sanitizing composition comprising the compounds disclosed herein. In certain embodiments, provided herein is a btion comprising the compounds as discbsed herein.

5.3.1 Delayed Release Dosage Forms

[0074] Active ingredients such as the compounds provide d he rein can be administered by controlled release means or by delivery devices that are well known to those of ordinary skill in the art. Examples include, but are not limited to, those described in U.S . Pat. Nos. 3,845,770; 3,916£99; 3.53(5,80 ; 3,598,123; and 4,008,719; 5,674,533; 5 J059,595 ; 5,591,767; 5,120,548; 5,073,543; 5 39,476 ; 5,354,556; 5,639,480; 5,733,566 ; 5,739,108; 5,891,474; 5,922,356 ;

5,972^891 ; 5,980,94 , 5,993,855, ,045,830, ,087,324, 6,1 1 ,943, 6,197.350, 6.248,363;

6,264,970; 6^67,981 ; 6,376,461 ; 6,419,961 ; 6,589,548; 6,61 3^58; 6,699,500 each of which is incorporated herein by referen e. Such dosage forms can be used to provide sbw or controlled release of one or more active ingredients using, for example, hydropropylmethyl cellulose, other polymer matrices, gels, permeable membranes, osmotic systems, multilayer coatings, microparticles, liposomes, microspheres, or a combination thereof to provide the desired release profile in varying proportions . Suitable controlled release formulations known to those of ordinary skill in the art, including those described here n, can be readily selected for use with the active ingredients provided herein. Thus encompasseed herein are single unit dosage forms suitable for oral administratbn such as, but not limited to, tablets, capsules, gebaps, and caplets that are adapted for controlled release . All controlled release pharmaceutical products have a common goal o f improving drug therapy over that achieved by their non controlle d counterparts. Ideally the use of an optimally designed controlled release preparation in medical treatment is characterised by a minimum of drug substance being employed to cure or control the condition in a minimum amount of time. Advantages of controlled release forrnulattons include extended activity of the drug, reduced dosage frequency and increased subject compliance. In addition, controlled release formulations can be used to affect the time of onset of action or other characteristics, such as blood levels of the drug, and can thus affect the occurrence of side (e.g., adverse) effects. Most controlled release formulations are designed to initially release an amount of drug (active ingredient) that promptly produc s the desired therapeutic effect, and gradually and c ontinually release o f other amounts o f drug to maintain this level o f therapeutic or prophylactic effect over an extended period of time. In order to maintain this constant level of drug in the body, the drug must be released from the dosage format a rate that will repla e the amount of drug being metabolised and excreted from the body. Controlled release of an active mgredient can be stimulated by various conditions including, but not limited to, H, temperature, enzymes, water, or other physiological conditions or compounds. In certain embodiments, the drug maybe administered using intravenous infusion, an implantable osmotic pump, a

transdermal patch, liposomes, or other modes of administration. In one embodiment a pump maybe used (see, Sefton, CRC Crit. Ref. Biomed. Eng. 14:201 (1 87); Buchw¾ld et al., Surgery 88:507 (1980); Saudek et al, N. Engl. J. Med. 321 :574 ( 1929)) . In another embodiment polymeric materials can be used. In yet another embodiment a controlled release system can be placed in a subj ect at an appropriate site determined by a practitioner of skill, i.e . , thus requiring only a fraction of the systemic dose (see, e.g., Goodson, Medical Applications of Controlled Release, vol. 2, pp. 1 1 5-138 (1 84)). Other controlled release systems are discussed in the review by Langer (Ξ cience 24 : 1527 -1533 (1990 )) . The active ingredie nt can be dispersed in a solid inner matrix, e g., polymethylmetha rylate, polybutylmethacrylate, plastic ise d or unplasticized polyvinylchloride, plastic ized nylon, plasticrzed polyethyleneterephthalate, natural rubber, polyisopie ne, polyisobutylene, polybutadiene, polyethylene, ethylene -vinylacetate copolymers, silicone rubbers, polydimethylsiloxanes, silicone carbonate copolymers, hydrophilic polymers such as hydrogels of esters of acrylic and methacryiic acid, collagen, cross-hnked polyvinylalcohol and cross-linked partially hydrolyzed polyvinyl acetate, that is surrounded by an outer polymeric membrane, e.g., polyethylene, polypropylene, ethylene propylene copolymers, ethylene/ethyl acryLate copolymers, ethyiene/vinylacetate copolymers, silicone rubbers, polydimethyl siloxanes, neoprene rubber, chlorinated polyethylene, lyvmylchloride, vinylchloride copolymers mth vinyl acetate, vinylidene chloride, ethylene and propylene, ionomer polyethylene terephthalate, butyl rubber epicMorohydrin rubbers, ethylene/vinyi alcohol copolymer, ethylene/vinyl acetate/vinyl alcohol terpolymer, and ethylene /vinyloxyethanol copolymer, that is insoluble in body fluids. The active ingredient then diffuses through the outer polymeric membrane in a release rate controlling step. The percentage of active ingredient in such parenteral compositions is highly dependent on the specific nature thereof, as well as the ne ds of the subject.

5.3.2 Parenteral Dosage Forms

[0075] In one n^odiment, provided are parenteral dosage forms. Parenteral dosage forms can be administered to subjects by various routes ircluding, but not limited to,

subcutaneous, intravenous (including bolus inje tion), intramuscular, and intraarterial. Because their administration typcallybypasses subjects' natural defenses against contaminants, parenteral dosage forms are typically, sterile or capable of being sterilised prior to administration to a subject. Examples of parenteral dosage forms include, but are not limited to, solutions ready for injection, dry products ready to be dissolved or suspended in a pharmaceutic ally acceptable vehicle for inje ction, suspensions ready for inj ection, and emulsions . Ξ uitable ve hides that can be used to provide parenteral dosage forms are well known to those skilled in the art. Examples mclude, but are not limited to : Water for Inj ection US P , aque ous ve hides such as, but not limited to, Sodium Chloride Injection, Ringer's Injection, Dextrose Injection, Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Inje ction, and Lac tated Ringer's Inj ection; water miscible vehicles sue h as, but not limited to, ethyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, and polypropylene glycol; and non aqueous vehicles such as, but not kmited to, com oil, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, ethyl oleate, isopropyl myristate, and benzyl benzoate . C ompounds that increase the solubility o f one or more of the active ingredients disclosed herein can also be incorporated into the parenteral dosage forms.

5.3.3 Transdermal Topical & Muc osal Dosage Forms

[0076] Also provided are transdermal, topical, and mucosal dosage forms. Transdermal, topical, and mu osal dosage forms include, but are not limited to, ophthalmic solutions, sprays, aerosols, creams, lotions, ointments, gels, solutions, emulsions, suspensions, or other forms known to one of skill in the art. See, e.g., Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 16.sup.th, lS.supt and 20.sup.t eds., Mack Publishing, Eastern Pa. (1980, 1990 & 2000); and Introduction to Pharmaceutic l Dosage Forms, 4th ed, Lea & Febiger, Phikdelphia (1985). Dosage forms suitable for treating mucosal tissues within the oral cavity can be formulated as mouthwashes or as oral gels. Further, transdermal dosage forms include "reservoir type" or "matrix type" patches, which can be applied to the skin and worn for a spe cific period of time to permit the penetratio n of a desired amount of active ingredients. Suitable excipients (e.g., carriers and diluents) and other materials that can be used to provide transdermal, topical, and mucosal dosage forms encompassed herein are w ll known to those skilled in the pharmaceutical arts, and depend on the particular tissue to which a give n pharmaceutical composition or dosage form will be applied. With that fact in mind, typical excipients include, but are not limited to, water, acetone, ethanol, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, butane 1,3 did, isopropyi myristate, isopropyl palmitate, mineral oil, and mixtures thereof to form lotions, tinctures, creams, emulsions, gels or ointments, which are non toxic and pharmaceuticallyacceptable. Moisturizers or hume ants can also be added to pharmaceutical compositions and dosage forms if desired. Examples of such additional ingre dients are well kno wn in the art . Se e, e . Re ming ton's Phamiac euucal Scienc es, 16 sup.th, l .supth and 20. sup.th eds. Mack Publishing, Easton Pa. (1980, 1 QQ 0 & 2000). Depending on the specific tissue to be treated, additional components maybe used prior to, in conjunction with, or subsequent to treatment with active ingredients provided. For example, penetration enhancers can be used to assist in delivering the active ingredients to the tissue. Suitable penetration enhancers include, but are not limited to: acetone; rarious alcohols such as ethanol, oleyl, and te trahydrofuryl; alkyl sulfoxides such as dimethyl sulfox ide ; dimethyl ac etamide ; dimethyl for iamide; polyethylene glycol; pyrrolidones such s pdyvmylpytrolidone; Kbllidon grades (Povidone, Polyvidone) ; urea ; ard various water soluble or msoluble sugar e ste rs sue h as T we en SO (polysorbate SO) and Span 60 (sorbitan monostearate). The pH of a pharmaceutical

composition or dosage form, or of the tissue to which the pharmaceutical composition or dosage form is applied, may also be adjusted to improve delivery of one or more active ingredients.

Similarly, the polarity of a solvent carri r, its ionic strength, or tonicity can be adjusted to improve delivery. Compounds such as stearates can also be added to pharmaceutical

compositions or dosage forms to advantageously alter the hydrophilicity or hpophilicity of one or more active ingredie nts so as to improve de liver I n this regard, stearates can serve as a lipid vehicle for the formulation, as an emulsifying age t or surfactant, and as a delivery enhancing or penetration enhancing agent. Different salts, hydrates or solvates of the active ingredients canbe used to fiirther adjust the properties of the resulting composition

5.4 Dosage and Unit Dosage Forms [0077] In human therapeutics, the doctor will determine the posology which he considers most appropriate a cording to a preventive or curative treatment and according to the age, weight, stage of the infection and other factors specific to the subject to be treated In certain

embodiments, doses are from about 1 to about 1000 mg per day for an adult, or from about 5 to about 250 mg per day or from about 10 to 50 mg per day for an adult. In certam enifcodiments, doses are from about 5 to about 400 mg per day or 25 to 200 mg per day per adult. In certain embodiments, dose rates of from about 50 to about 500 mg per day are also contemplated.

[0078 ] In furthe r aspects, provided are methods of treating or pre enting a fungal infection in a subject by administering, to a subject in need thereof, an effective amount of a compound provided herein, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The amount of the compound or composition which will be effective in the prevention or treatment of a disorder or one or more symptoms thereof will vary with the nature and severity of the disease or condition, and the route by which the active ingredient is administered. The frequency and dosage will also vary according to factors specific for each subject depending on the specific therapy (e.g., therapeutic or prophylactic agents) administered, the severity of tre disorder, disease, or condition, the route of administration, as well as a e, body, weight, response, and the past medical history of the subject. Effective doses maybe extra pola ted from dose -response curves derived from in vitro or animal model test systems.

[0079 ] In c ertain embodiments, e xemplary dose s of a composition include milligram or microgram amounts of the active compound per kilogram of subje ct or sample weight (e.g., about 10 micrograms per kilogram to about 50 milligrams per kilogram, about 100 micrograms per kibgram to about 25 milligrams per kilogram, or about 100 microgram per kilogram to about 10 milligrams per kilogram). For compositions provided herein, in certain ifoodiments, the dosage administe red to a subj ect is 0.140 mg kg to 3 mg kg of tie subj ect's body weight based on weight of the active compound. In certain embodiments, the dosage administered to a subject is between 0.20 mg/kg and 2.00 mg/kg, or between 0.30 mg/kg and 1.50 mg/kg of the subject's body weight.

[0080] In certain embodiments, the recommended daily dose range of a composition provide d herein for the co rditio ns described herein he wilhin the range of f om about 0.1 mg to about 1000 mg per day, given as a single once -a-day dose or as divided doses throughout a day. In one enitoodimenl, the daily dose is administered twice daily in equally divided doses. In c rtain embodiments, a daily dose range should be from about 10 mg to about 200 mg per day, in other embodiments, between about 10 mg and about 150 mg per day, in further embodiments, between about 25 and about 100 mg per day. It maybe necessary to use dosages of the active ingredient outside the ranges disclosed herein in some cases, as will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art. Furthermore, it is noted that the clinician or treating physician will know how and when to irrterrupt adjust, or terminate therapy in conjunction with subject response .

[0081] Differe t therapeutically effective amounts maybe applicable for different disease s and conditions, as will be readily known by those of ordinary skill in the art. Ξ imilarly, amounts sufficient to prevent manage, treat or ameliorate such disorders, but insufficient to cause, or sufficient to reduce, adverse effects associated with the composition provided herein are also encompassed by the above described dosage amounts and dose frequency schedules. Further, when a subj ect is administered multiple dosage s of a c omposition piovided here in, not all of the dosages need be the same . For example, the dosage administered to the subject maybe increased to improve the prophylactic or therapeutic ff ct of the com sition or it maybe decreased to reduce one or more side effects that a particular subject is experiencing.

[0082] In certain embodiment the dosage of the composition provided herein, based on weight of the active compound, administered to prevent treat mana e, or ameliorate a disorder, or one or more symptoms thereof in a subject is 0.1 mg kg, 1 mg/kg, 2 mg kg, 3 mg/kg, 4 mg kg, 5 mg kg, o " mg kg, 10 mg/kg, or 15 mg/kg or more of a subjects body weight. In another enitoodiment the dosage of the composition or a compsition provided herein administered to prevent treat manage, or ameliorate a disorder, or one or more symptoms there of in a subject is a urdt dose of 0.1 mg to 200 mg, 0.1 mg to 100 mg, 0.1 mg to 50 mg, 0.1 mg to 25 mg, 0.1 mg to 20 mg, 0.1 mg to 15 mg, 0.1 mg to 10 mg, 0.1 mg to 7.5 mg, 0.1 mg to 5 mg, 0.1 to 2.5 mg, 0.25 mg to 20 mg, 0.25 to 15 mg, 0.25 to 12 mg, 0.25 to 10 mg, 0.25 mg to 7.5 mg, 0.25 mg to 5 mg, 0.5 mg to 2.5 mg, 1 mg to 20 mg, 1 mg to 15 mg, 1 mg to 12 mg, 1 mg to 10 mg, 1 mg to 75 mg, 1 mg to 5 mg, or 1 mg to 2.5 mg. In certain embodiments, treatment or prevention can be initiated with one or more loading dose s of a c ompound or composition provide d herein follo ed by one or more maintenance doses. In such embodiments, the foading dose canbe, for instance, about o ~ 0 to about 400 mg per day, or about 100 to about 200 mg per day lbr one day to five weeks. The loading dose canbe followed by one or more maintenance doses. In certain embodiments, each maintenanc does is, ind endently, about from about 10 mg to about 200 mg pr day, between about 25 mg and about 1 50 mg per day or between about 25 and about SO mg per day. Ivlaintenanc e dose s can be adnuniste red daily and can be administered as single doses, or as divide d dose s. In ce itain embodiments, a do se o f a compound or c omposition provided herein can be administered to achieve a steady-state concentiation of the active ingredient in bbod or serum of the subject. The steady-state concentration can be determined by measurement according to techniques available to those of skill or canbe based on the physical characteristics of the subject such as height weight and age. In certam entoodiments, a sufficient amount of a c ompound or composition provide d herein is administered to achieve a steady-state cone entration in blood or se rum of the subj ect of from about 300 to about 4000 ng/mL, from about 400 to about lo " 00 ng/mL, or from about 600 to about 1200 ng/mL. In some embodiments, toading doses canbe administered to achieve steady-state bbod or serum concentrations of about 1200 to about 3000 ng/mL, or about 2000 to about 4000 ng/mL for one to five days. In certain e ifoodiments, maintenance doses canbe administered to achieve a steady-state concentration in blood or serum of the subject of from about 300 to about 4000 ng/niL, from about 400 to about 1600 rg/mL, or from ab out 600 to about 1200 mg /mL. I n certain e mbodiments, administration o f the same composition maybe repeated and the administrations maybe se arated by at least 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 5 days, 10 days, 15 days, 30 days, 45 days, 2 months, 75 days, 3 months, or 6 months. In other embodiments, administration of the same prophylactic or the lapeutic agent maybe repeated and the ajdministration maybe separated by at least at least 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 5 days, 10 days, 1 days, 30 days, 45 days, 2 months, 75 days, 3 months, or 6 months. In certain aspects, provided herein are unit dosages comprising a compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, in a form suitable for administratio S ch forms are describ d in detail above . I n certain e ri±iodime nts, the unit dosage co mprises 1 to 1000 mg, 5 to 250 mg or 10 to 50 mg active ingredient. In particular embodiments, the unit dosages comprise about 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 125, 250, 500 or 1000 mg active ingredi nt. Such unit dosages can e prepared according to techniques iamiliar to those of skill in the art. The dosages of the second agents are to be used in the combination therapies provided herein. In certain embodiments, dosages bwer than those which have been or are currently being used to prevent or treat fungal infection are used in the combination therapies provided herein. The recommended dosages of second agents canbe obtained from the knowledge of those of skill. For those second agents that are approved for clinical use, recommended dosages are described in, for example, Hardman et al., eds., 1 996, Goodman &Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis Of Basis Of Therapeutics 9 sup.th Ed, McGraw-Hill, New York; Physician's Desk Reference (PDK 57. sup.th Ed, 2003, Medical

Ec onomic s Co , Inc . , Montvale, N J , which are incorporated herein by ref erenc e in its entire ty. In various e nifcodiments, the therapies (e .g , a c ompound provided herein and the second ag ent) are administered less than 5 minutes apart, less than 30 minutes apart 1 hour apart, at about 1 hour apart, at about 1 to about 2 hours apart, at about 2 hours to about 3 hours apart, at about 3 hours to about 4 hours apart at about 4 hours to about 5 hours apart at about 5 hours to about 6 hours apart, at about 6 hours to about 7 hours apart, at about 7 hours to about 8 hours apart at about 8 hours to about 9 hours apart, at about 9 hours to about 10 hours apart at about 10 hours to about 11 hours apart, at about 11 hours to about 12 hours apart, at about 1 2 hours to IS hours apart 1§ hours to 24 hours apart 24 hours to 36 hours apart 36 hours to 43 hours apart, 48 hours to 52 hours apart, 52 hours to 60 hours apart 60 hours to 72 hours apart, 72 hours to £4 hours apart §4 hours to 96 hours apart °r 96 hours to 120 hours part. In various embodiments, the therapies are administer d no more than 24 hours apart or no more than 48 hours apart. In certain mbodiments, two or more therapies are administered within the same pat ent visit. In other e mbodiments, the c ompound provided herein and the se cond age nt are administere d concurrently. In other embodiments, the compound provided her in and the s ond agent are administered at about 2 to 4 days apart at about 4 to 6 days apart at about 1 week part at about 1 to 2 weeks apart, or more than 2 weeks apart. In certain embodiments, administration of the same ag nt maybe repeated and the administrations maybe separated by at least 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 5 days, 10 days, 15 days, 30 days, 45 days, 2 months, 75 days, 3 months, or 6 months. In other enifoodiments, administration of the same agent maybe re pate d and the administration maybe separated by at least at least 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 5 days, 10 days, 15 days, 30 days, 45 days, 2 months, 75 days, 3 months, or 6 months. In certain embodiments, a compound provided herein and a second agent are administered to a patient, for example, a mammat such as a human, in a seque nc e and within a time interval such that the compound provide d herein c an ac t toge ther with the other agent to provide an increased bene fit than if the y were administere d otherwise . For example, the second active ag nt can be administered at the same time or sequentially in any order at different points in time ; however, if not administered at the same time, the y should be administered sufficiently close in time so as to provide the desir d therapeutic or prophylactic effect. In one embodiment, the compound provided herein and the second active agent exert their ffect at times which overlap. Each second active agent can be administered separately in any appropriate form and by any suitable route. In other embodiments, the com pound provided here in is adntinistered before, c oncurrently or after administration of the se cond active agent. In certain embodiments, the compound provided herein and the s ond ag nt are yclically administered to a patient. Cycling therapy involves the administration of a first agent (e.g., a first prophylactic or therapeutic a nts) for a period of time, folio wed by the administration of a second agent and or third agent ( e .g ., a second anoVor third prophylactic or therapeutic age nts) for a period of time and repeating this sequential administration. Cycling therapy can reduce the development of resistance to one or more of the therapies, avoid or reduce the side effects of one of the therapies, and/ or improve the efficacy of the treatment. In certain embodime nts, the compound provided herein and the second active ag nt are administered in a cycle of less than about 3 weeks, about once every two weeks, about once every 10 days or about once every week. One cycle can comprise the adn nistration of a compound provided herein and the second agent by infusion over about 90 minutes every cycle, about 1 hour every cycle, about 45 minutes every cy le. Each cycle can comprise at least 1 week of rest, at least 2 weeks of rest, at least 3 weeks of rest. The number of cycles administered is from about 1 to about 12 cycles, more typically from about 2 to about 10 cles, and more topically from about 2 to about 8 cycles. In other embodiments, courses of treatment are administered concurrently to a patient mdividual doses of the second agent are administered separately yet within a time interval su h that the compound provided here in can work tog ether with the se cond active ag ent. For example, one component can be administered once per week in combination with the other components that can be administered once every two weeks or once every three weeks. In other words, the dosing regimens are carried out concurrently even if the therapeutics are not administered

simultaneously or during the same day The second agent can act additively or synergistically with the compound provided herein. In one embodiment the compound provided herein is administered concurrently with one or more second agents in the same pharmaceutical composition. In another embodiment, a compound provided herein is administered concurrently with one or more seco d agents in separate pharmaceutical compositions. Instill another embodiment a compound provided herein is administered prior to or subsequent to

administration of a second agent. Also contemplated are adnunistiationof a compound provided herein and a second agent by the same or different routes of administration, e.g, oral and parenteral. In certain embodiments, when the compound provided herein is administered concurrently with a second agent that potentially produces adverse side effects including, but not hmited to, toxicity, the second active agent can advantageously be administered at a dose that falls bebw the threshold that the adverse side effect is elicited.

5.5 Kite

[0083 ] Also provided are kits for use in methods of treatment of a fungal infe ction. The kits can include a compound or composition provided herein, a second agent or composition, and instructions providirg information to a health care provider regarding usage for treating the infection. Instructio ns maybe provide d in printe d form or in the form o f an ele ctronic medium such as a floppy disc, CD, or DVD, or in the form of a website address where such instructions maybe obtained. A unit dose of a compound or composition provided herein, or a second agent or c om position, can include a do sage sue h that when administered to a subj ect, a therapeutically or prophylactically effective plasma level of the compound er composition canbe maintained in the subj ect for at le ast 1 days. In some e mbodiments, a compound or composition can be included as a sterile aque ous pharmaceutical c omposition or dry po wder (e.g., lyophiliae d) composition. In some embodiments, suitable packaging is provided. As used herein,

"packaging " include s a solid matrix or material customarily use d in a system and capab le of holding wilhin fixed hmits a compound provided herein and/or a second agent suitable for administration to a subj ect . Sue h materials include glass and plastic (e.g., polyethylene, polypropylene, and polycarbo ate) bottles, vials, paper, plastic, and plastic -foil laminated envelopes and the like. If e-beam sterilisation techniques are employed, the packaging should have sufficiently low density to permit ste nlization of the contents.

[0084] The kits described herein contain one or more containers, which c ontain compounds, signaling entities, biomolecules and/or particles as described. The kits also contain instructions for mixing, diluting, andfor administrating the compounds. The kits also include other containers with one or more solvents, surfactants, preservative and/or diluents (e.g., normal saline (0.9% NaCl), or dextrose) as well as containers for mixing, diluting or admmistering the compone nts to the sample or to the patient in nee d of sue h treatme nt. [0085] The compositions of the kit maybe provided as any suitable form, for example, as liquid solutions or as dried powders. When the composition provided is a dry powder, the powder maybe reconstituted by the addition of a suitable solvent which may also be provided. In en±iodiments where liquid forms of the composition are sued, the liquid form maybe cone entr ted or ready to use . The solvent will depend o n the compound and the mo de of use or administration. Suitable solvents for drug compositions are well known and are available in the literature . The solvent will depe nd on the c ompound and the mode of use or administration.

[0086 ] The kits comprise a carrier being compartmentalised to receive in c lose confineme t one or more container such as vials, tubes, and the like, each of the container comprising one of the separate elements to be used in the method. For example, one of the container may comprise a positive control in an assay. Additionally, the kit may include containers for other components, for example, buffers useful in the assay.

[0087] The following Examples illustrate the synthesis and use of repres ntative compounds provided herein These examples are not intended, nor are they to be onstrued, as kmiting the sco pe of the c laimed subje ct matter. It will be clear that the sc ope of subjec t matter maybe practi ed otherwise than as particularly described herein. Numerous modifications and variations of the subject matter are possible in view of the teachings herein and, therefore, are within the scope the claimed subje t matter .

5.6 Methods of Making SM2 1 and Its Derivatives

[0088] All of the above reactions are conventional and appropriate reagents and reaction conditions for their performance and procedures for isolating the desired products will be well known to those skilled in the art, in accordance with lite ratine.

5.7 Assays for Testing Antifungal conipoiinds

[0089 ] The in vitro evaluation o f the antifungal activity o f the co mpounds can b e performed by determining the imnimum in bitoryconcentration (mi.c.), which is the cone entration of the te st c ompound, in a suitable me dium, at which growth of the partic ular micro-organism tails to occur. In practice, a series of agar plates, each having the test compound incorporated at a particular concentration, is inoculated with a standard culture of, for example, Candida albicans, and each plate is then incubated for S hours at 37*0. The plates are then examine d for the pre sence or abse nee of gro th of the fungus and the appropriate m.i.c . value is noted. Other micro-organisms used in such tests can include Aspergillus fumigatus,

Trichophyton sp., crosponim spp., Epidermophyton floccosum, Coocidioid s immitis and Tonilopsis glabrata.

[0090 ] The 3 ' n vivo evaluation of the c ompound can be carried out at a series of dose levels by intraperitoneal or intravenous inje tion, or by oral administration, to mice which are inoculated with, e .g ., a strain of Candida albicans or Aspergillus fumigatus . Activity is base d on the survival of a treated group of mice after the death of an untreate d group o f mice . The dose l vel at which the compound provides 50 % pto tection against the lethal e ffect o f the infe ctio n is noted

5.8 Method of Treatment and Prevention

BJO 11 Provided herein is a metho d of re ducing gro wth of a fungus or bacteria by admirristering one or more compounds provided he rein. The method compris s contacting a cell with one or more co mpounds as de scribed here in in an amount e ffective to reduce the gro wth of a fungus. Provided he rein are methods for treating a fungal infe ction in a subje ct by

admirristering to a subje ct in need thereof the co mpounds de scribed he rein in an amount e ffe ctive to reduce the growth of a fungus. In certain embodiments, the compounds described herein are used to treat Candia related diseases, including but are rot limited to, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic sinusitis, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, thrush, ecaema, atopic dermatitis, autism, leaky gut syndrome, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, interstitial cystitis, gerdtourinary diseases, and celiac disease. Skm infections caused by Candida may e found in the diaper area inbabies, i the armpls, groin, aid uiiderneaththe breasts, at the corners of the mouth (angular cheilitis), m toenails, or at the edge of the nails (paronychia). In certain embodiments, the method of treatment and peventionusing the comprands for subjects with a ea ed immune s^em due to certain medicine s and diseases, such as AIDS, HIV, diabetes and obesity.

5.9 Methods of Coating a Medical Device

[0092] The compounds that are provided herein canbe used to treat a variety of medical devices, such as catheters, as well as industrial surfaces. Fungus can formbiofilm on intravascular catheters and other medical implants These biofilms enhance ant microbial re sistance and can render infec tions refractory to antifungal therapy. Persiste nee of an infection can necessitate removal of the device, which can be undesirable or even life threatening.

Therefore, provided herein is a method of coating a medical device using the compounds described herein on the materials or surfa es of the medical device that mitigate or prevent fungal colonisation or infection with subsequent biofilm formation. The method comprises ppl^ng the composition describe d herein o n the surfac e of a me dical devic e . In ce rtain embodiments, the composition adheres to the surface of a medical device. In certain e nibodiments, the c omposition is coate d in the medical device .

[0093 ] In c ertain embodiments, provide d herein is a compo sition co mprising a paint and one or more compounds as described herein. Also provided is a method of modifying a surface of a medic ai de vice. The method comprises providing one or more coatings of a composition, comprising one or more compounds as described herein, to at least a portion of the surface of a medical device to form coate d surface r ion. In certain mbodim nts, the composition comprises a paint and one or more compounds. In certain embodiments, the method comprises adding one or more compounds as described herein to a paint; obtaining a composition comprising paint and one or more c ompounds as additives ; coating a medical devic e or an industrial surface with the paint comprising the ompounds. In certain embodiments, the medical device is an implantable medical device. In certain embodiments, the industrial surface is stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the industrial surface is plastic. In certain embodiments, the industrial surface is a surgical table . In certain embodiments, the medical device is a surgic al instrument .

6. Examples

[0094] The fallowing Examples showed the pote t antifungal properties of an e nibodiment describ ed herein,-3 M 1 , against fungal infe ctions .

6.1 Study 1 : Yeast- o-hypha inhibitory p roperties of SMS 1 under strong hyphal indue ing conditions [0095 ] Ξ everal enviio nmental c onditions which are kno n to induce the hyphal formation of C albicans such as serum. Lee's medium. S ider medium, tem rature and 37 °C were used to test the ability of ΞΜ2 1 to innibit Y-H transition. (A) Control samples showing C a/&2 ' can≤ hyphal form tion(B) Test samples were incubated wi1h SM21 at Y-Hi concentration showing yeast morphology (C-E) C. albicans c nical strains A15 (C) , H2 (D) and HI 1 (E) incubate d with Ξ M 1 at Y-Hi conce ntration for 24 h. Ξ M21 c ould act as a Y-Hi at a wer con entration of 0.025 μ ^l and 0.0.5 μg ml for 10 + cells/ ml and 10 £ cells/ ml of C albicans, r spectively. Chemical structure of SM21 is show in (F

6.2 Study 2: Anti-fuj¾al ¾tiritY 0 f

[0096] Antifungal activity of the small molecules was evaluated using USA standards,

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria. In brief, inocula from 24 h Candida cultures on Sabourauds's dextor e agar were stardardiaed to a turbidity equivalent of 0.5 McFarland standards at 520nm with a spectrophotometer. The suspensions were further diluted in Rose we 11 Park Memorial I nstitute (RPM) 1 640 me drum ( Life te chnologies, New Yo rk, US A) to yield an inoculum concentration of approximately 0.5 1 *10 3 to 2.5 l ^lO 3 cells/ ml. Mriimum inhibitory concentration (MC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) assay was performed in 96- well plates (I aki, Tokyo, Japan) and each of the Candida species was exposed to a double dilution of SM21 . Amphotericin B was used as a positive control. All the experiments were preformed three occasions with duplicates for all isolates. The plates were incubated at 3 C for 48 h to evaluate MIC. In the case of Cryotococcus neoformans, reading were taken after 72 h. Aforementioned assay was performed for C albicans ATCC 90028, C albicans SC5314 and IO C. albicans chnical isolates. Moreover, MC/MFC determination was carried out for other fungal species such as C glabrata, C fousei, C tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. neoformans, Aspergillus fomigates and Penici Ilium marnejfei. SM21 had a potent antifungal activity o fall the fungal species tested showing its broad spectrum activity (Table 1 ). We further tested antifungal activity of SM2 1 against 20 C. albicans strains isolated from HIV /AIDS patients and SM21 was active against all isolates. Next using dose -dependent assay we tested that MC MFC of SM21 from 10 5 ceUs/ml to 10 7 cells/ml of C. albicans (Table 2). Each of the foregoing experiment was repeated on three different occasions. Table 1. SusceptftiKty of fungal species MIC90) to EM21 at a concentration of 0.5 c Far land inoculums 10 cells, 1 ml)

Table 2: Dose- dependent assay for yeast- to-hyha inhibitory actfriry (Y-Hi) and antifungal ac ivity of S 21

[0097] Oral Biosciences laboratory has one of the largest collections of fungal isolates, particular that of Candida species in the world. In our previous studies, we have tburd multidrug re sistant clinical isolates of Candida spe ies against existing antifungals. In particular, some of these strains are resistant to best antifungal agents to date such as caspofungin. amphotericin B and fluconazole. Therefore, we performed antifungal susceptibility testing for SIvDl against these drug resistant Candida isolates suing CLSI M27Abrothnucroduluon assayand CLSI M4 - A disc diffusion assay. These studies clearly demonstrated that ΞΜ21 has superior antifungal activity than existing antifungal agents (Table 2, Figure 2) However, at the effective concentration of the fungi, it does not exert any antibacterial effect showing fiingal specific activity of the compound (Fig. 3).

Table 3. Efficacy of S 21 against multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Candida species

6.3. Study 3: SM 1 exhibits anti-biofjlm activity against C and id h io fILnts

6.3.1 Mono species hiofUnis:

[0098] Although most of the existing antifungals work effectively against jianktonic mode of Candida, those are less effective against the biofilm mode of growth. For instance, we have previously shown the resistance of Candida biofilms against amphotericin and caspDfiingin Therefore, next using standard biofilm assays we have established in our laboratory we examin d the effe t of ΞΜ2 1 against Candida biofilms. In brief, Candida cells were grown in SDA medium at 37 C for IS h. Then a loopful of the yeast was inoculated into the yeast nitrogen base (YNB, Difco) m dium supplem nted with 50 mlvl glu ose in a rotary shaker at 75 rpm. After overnight broth culture, the yeasts were harvested in the late e nential growth phase and washed twice with 20 ml of phosphate buffer saline (ΡΒΞ ; pH 7.2. 0.1 M) prior to use in the biofilm studies. Ccmdi da biofilms were developed according to a previously published protocol. In brief, washed yeast cells were resuspended in YNB supplemented with 100 mM glucose and adjusted to an optical density of 0 38 at 520 nm (1 * 10 7 cells/ml). The standard cell suspension was used immediately to develop biofilms on commercially available pre sterilized, polystyrene, 96- well plate (IWAKI, Tokyo, Japan). At first 100 Ml o f standaniized cell suspe sion (1 * 10 7 ells/ml) was pipetted into each well of a microtiter plate and incubated for 1 .5 h at 37 C in a shaker at 75 rpm to permit yeast adherenc to the well surface (adherence phase) . For controls, a well of each microtiter plate was handled in an identical fashion except that no Candida suspension was added Following the adhesion phase, the cell suspensions were aspirated, and each well washed with 100 l of ΡΒΞ to r move loosely adherent cells. 200 μΐ of YNB with 100 mM gluco se were then pipette d into each of the washed wells and the plate s incubate d at 37 'C in a shaker at 75 rpm for 24 or 48 h. After biofilm growth phase microscopic examination of the cultures were performed to rule out ontamination. Then, the suspending medium was aspirated and biofilms were washed with 100 μΐ ΡΒΞ to remove the nonadherent cells. The stock solutions were diluted twofold with RPM 1640 supplemented with 2% glucose to obtain ΞΜ21 concentration from 100 to 0.2 |Jg/ml drug concentrations. In parallel, other antifungal agents such as caspofungin ( 100 to 0.1 Mg ml) and amphotericin B (240 ml to 0.225 Mg ml) was also prepared as describe above. A total of 100 μΐ of drug solution was added to the microtiter plate containing Candida biofilms. Biofilms were then incubated at 37 *C for 24 h with the antifungals and afterwards metabolic activity of fungal cells was determined by the XTT [2_3-bis(2- mettoxy-4-nitiO-5-sulfoptenyl)-2H-te^ sodium salfj assay (17, 28).

Candida biofilm MIC90 was defined as the lowest drug concentration with 90% reduction in opacity compared with the drug free control. Each experiment was repeated three times with four replicates.

[0099] ΞΜ 1 showed putent anti-biofilm activity against 24 h C albicans biofilms as

MIC90 were is 3.2 Mg ml. In contrast, C albicans biofilms were r sistant to amphotericin B (32 Mg/ml) and caspofungin (50 |Jg/ml). This experiment clearly showed that ΞΜ21 was has superior antifungal activity than existing antifungals amphotericin B and caspofungin for Candida biofilms. At 48 h, Candida biofilms were more resistant to antifungal agents. However, ΞΜ21 had the best e ffective c ore entration c ompared to existing antifungal agents . Table 4. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 48 h Candida hio films against existing antifungal agents and SM 1 pg/mlj

6.3.2 Mixed s ecies bio films

[00100] Clinical studies have shown that some of the Candida species could involve mixed Candida species such as C. albicans with non-albicans Candida spe ies. Therefore, n xt we formed mixed species biofilms using the methods we have used in our previous published studies. This methodology is essentially similar to what mentioned under mono -species biofilms except initial inoculums involve two Candida species at equal inoculums size of 1 x 10 7 cells/ml. After 48 h of growth, mixed species Candida biofilms were subjected to serially diluted concentration of ΞΜ 1 and MC was determine d by TT reduction assay (Figure 5). This study showed ΞΜ 1 is equally active against mixed species Candida biofilms at the concentration of 25 |Jg/ml showing its promising role as anti-biofilrn agent against fungal biofilms.

6.4. Study 4: Cytotoxicty assay and invito ex eriments confii iing the safety of SM 1

[00101] Standard Vero cell line was used as well as other primary culture cells such as human oral keratinocytes, human gingival fibroblasts and human monocytes which showed that no cytotoxicity of Ξ 21 at effective concentration (Figure 6). Next, we used mouse model and treated the ariimals with 100 times of the effective dose (2 g) i.e . 200 g of ΞΜ21 twice a day for five days. This experiment did not show any detrimental effect of ΞΜ21 in terms of weight reduction and side effects confirming its safety under in vivo conditions. 6.5 Study 5: SM21 prevent Candida infection in Candida-human oral keratinocytes co- culture model

[00102] We also examined the ability of SM21 to inlubit invasion of G2 j.ti2.ifl albicans in Candida-hwtiiii oral keratinocytes co-culture model. Primary human oral keratinocyles (ScienCell Rje search Laboratories™. Carlsbad, CA, USA) at passage two were cultured using Defined Keratinocyte -Serum Free Ivfedium (Gibco, Grand Island, NY, USA) which contained 0.2% Defined emtinocyte-SFM Growth Supplement (Gibco) and 1 % peniculin/streptomycin solution. Cells were incubated at 37^ in a humidified atmosphere with 5% COi and 95% air. Yeast cells for inoculation were cultured for 24 h at 37 *C on Sabouraud dextrose agar (Difco, Hampshire, England). A sample of the culture was washed thrice in PBS and an inoculum of appro imately 2 x 10 J cells was suspended in 10 ml of YPG medium (1% yeast extract 2% peptone and 2% glucose; Difco, Detroit, M). The suspension was cultured for IS hat 37 *C with orbital shaking and the cells were harvested, washed in 0.9% NaCl and a sample of cells was re suspended in fresh medium in a shaker for 24 h at 37^. Afterwards the cells were harvested by centrifuge and the inocula were prepared in phosphate buffered saline (PES, pH 7.2). Human oral keratnocytes were grown to SO-90% confluence in u-Slide 8- well plates (ibidi GmbH Integrated BioDiagnostics, Martinsried, Germany), lx 10* cells/ ml C albicans cells were added to the wells and incubated with the cells at 37°C in 5% CC¾ and 95% air. Test samples were treated with SM21 together with C albcians. After 24-h incubation, cells were treated with Calcein AM (1 uM) and EthD-1 (2 uM from the LIVE/DEAD 11 Viabihty/Cytotoxicity Kit (Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, CA, USA) . After 30 minutes of treatment the proportion of dead keratnocytes in each well was examined by using a confocal laser scarLning microscope. This study showed that SM21 is able to prevent the e ithelial cell damage from C albicans invasion (Figure 7) (A) contol samples showing Candida hyphae and dead keratinocytes (B) samples treated with ΞΜ21 showing live keratinocytes. This study demonstrated therapeutic potential of SM21 in local Candida infection such as mucous membrane candidiasis.

6.6. Study 6: Invivo antt fungal activity using systemic candidiasis mouse model

[00103] As a pilot study, we used systemic candidiasis mouse models we have established in our laboratory to evaluate the effect of SM21 against systemic Candida infection. In brief, C albicans inoculum of lx 10 £ cells/ mL was prepared in phosphate buffered saline (ΡΒΞ) eight mice were infected with 100 μΐ of the standard inoculum size intravenously via the tail vein. Tluee hours after post -infection four mice (test group) were given 2 g of ΞΜ21 and other four (control group) were given ΡΒΞ . ΞΜ21 treatment was continued twice a day for five days. By five days all mice in the control group died (Figure 3). Mice in each test group were sacrificed according to the standard guidelines and their kidney fiver, pancreas, and spleen will be harvested. The fungal burden in the tissues will be assessed according to a standard protocol. In brief, part of the excised tissues were weighed individually and homogenised in sterile saline. Aliquots of 100 μί. from tissue homogenates and the r dilutions were pl ted on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and colonies were counted after 48 h of incubation at 31°C .

[00104] The inv ntion is not to be limited in scope by the specific en^odiments described here in. Inde ed, various mo difications of the invention in addition to those de scribed will bee ome apparent to those skilled in the art from the foregoing description and accompanying figures. Such modifications are intended to fall within the scope of the appended claims.

[00105] All refer nces cited herein are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety ard tor all purposes to the same extent as if each irdividual publication or patent or pate t application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference in its entirety for all purposes.