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Title:
ANTIFUNGAL COMPOUNDS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/210565
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Compounds of formula (I) or formula (II), compositions and methods useful for treating and/or preventing a fungal infections are provided. wherein the substituents are as defined in the appended claims.

Inventors:
VAN ARNAM ETHAN (US)
SIT CLARISSA SAU-WEI (US)
RUZZINI ANTONIO C (US)
CLARDY JON C (US)
CURRIE CAMERON (US)
PINTO-TOMAS ADRIAN ALBERTO (CR)
Application Number:
PCT/US2017/035697
Publication Date:
December 07, 2017
Filing Date:
June 02, 2017
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
PRISIDENT AND FELLOWS OF HARVARD COLLEGE (US)
WISCONSIN ALUMNI RES FOUND
UNIV COSTA RICA
International Classes:
C07H17/08; A61K31/7048; A61P31/00; C12N15/52; C12N15/70; C12N15/74; C12N15/79; C12P1/04
Domestic Patent References:
WO2012012782A12012-01-26
WO2001027284A22001-04-19
Foreign References:
US20140371436A12014-12-18
US6110973A2000-08-29
US5731000A1998-03-24
US5541231A1996-07-30
US5427798A1995-06-27
US5358970A1994-10-25
US4172896A1979-10-30
US20050080056A12005-04-14
US20050059744A12005-03-17
US20050031697A12005-02-10
US20050004074A12005-01-06
US6583124B22003-06-24
Other References:
ETHAN B. VAN ARNAM ET AL: "Selvamicin, an atypical antifungal polyene from two alternative genomic contexts", PROCEEDINGS NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES PNAS, vol. 113, no. 46, 1 November 2016 (2016-11-01), US, pages 12940 - 12945, XP055395187, ISSN: 0027-8424, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1613285113
SAMBROOK ET AL.: "Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual", 1989, COLD SPRING HARBOR LABORATORY PRESS
R.M. ATLAS: "Handbook of Microbiological Media", 2010, CRC PRESS
GREENE; WUTS: "Protective Groups in Organic Chemistry", 1999, JOHN WILEY & SONS
HARRISON ET AL.: "Compendium of Synthetic Organic Methods", vol. 1-8, 1971, JOHN WILEY & SONS
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SMITH, DeAnn, F. et al. (155 Seaport BoulevardBoston, MA, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A compound having a structure of Formula I or Formula II or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

Formula II

wherein

R1 and R2 are, independently for each occurrence, H or OR23, or R1 and R2 together with the carbon to which they are bound form a carbonyl moiety;

R3 and R4 are, independently for each occurrence, H or OR23, or R3 and R4 together with the carbon to which they are bound form a carbonyl moiety;

R^ and R6 are, independently for each occurrence, H or OR23, or R5 and R6 together with the carbon to which they are bound form a carbonyl moiety;

R7 and R8 are, independently for each occurrence, H or OR23, or R7 and R8 together with the carbon to which they are bound form a carbonyl moiety;

R9, R10, R", R12, R13, R14, R15, and R16 are, independently for each occurrence, H or OR23; R17, R18, R19, R20, R21, and R22 are, independently for each occurrence, H or optionally substituted alkyl;

R23 is, independently for each occurrence, H, optionally substituted alkyl, or optionally substituted acyl; and

R24 is, independently for each occurrence, H, optionally substituted alkyl, or optionally substituted acyl.

2. The compound of claim 1, wherein the compound has a structure of Formula III or Formula IV or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

Formula III

Formula IV.

3. The compound of any preceding claim, wherein R1 and R2 are H.

4. The compound of any preceding claim, wherein R3 is OR23 and R4 is H.

5. The compound of claim 4, wherein R3 is OH and R4 is H.

6. The compound of any preceding claim, wherein R5 is OR23 and R6 is H.

7. The compound of claim 6, wherein Rs is OH and R6 is H.

8. The compound of any preceding claim, wherein R7 is OR23 and Rs is H.

9. The compound of claim 8, wherein R7 is OH and R8 is H.

10. The compound of any preceding claim, wherein R9 is OR23.

11. The compound of claim 10, wherein R9 is OH.

12. The compound of any preceding claim, wherein R10 is OR23.

13. The compound of claim 12, wherein R10 is OH.

14. The compound of any preceding claim, wherein R11 is OR23.

15. The compound of claim 14, wherein R11 is OH.

16. The compound of any preceding claim, wherein R12 is OR23.

17. The compound of claim 16, wherein R12 is OH.

18. The compound of any preceding claim, wherein R13 is OR23.

19. The compound of claim 18, wherein R13 is OH.

20. The compound of any preceding claim, wherein R14 is OR23.

21. The compound of claim 20, wherein R14 is OH.

22. The compound of any preceding claim, wherein R15 is OR23.

23. The compound of claim 22, wherein R15 is OH.

24. The compound of any preceding claim, wherein R16 is OR23.

25. The compound of claim 24, wherein R23 is lower alkyl.

26. The compound of claim 24, wherein R16 is OCH3.

27. The compound of any preceding claim, wherein R17 is lower alkyl.

28. The compound of claim 27, wherein R17 is ethyl.

29. The compound of any preceding claim, wherein R18 is lower alkyl.

30. The compound of claim 29, wherein R18 is methyl.

31. The compound of any preceding claim, wherein R19 is lower alkyl.

32. The compound of claim 31, wherein R19 is methyl.

33. The compound of any preceding claim, wherein R20 is lower alkyl.

34. The compound of claim 33, wherein R20 is methyl.

35. The compound of any preceding claim, wherein R21 is lower alkyl.

36. The compound of claim 35, wherein R21 is methyl.

37. The compound of any preceding claim, wherein R22 is lower alkyl.

38. The compound of claim 37, wherein R22 is methyl.

39. The compound of claim 1, wherein the compound has the structure

salt thereof.

40. The compound of any one of claims 1-38, wherein the compound does not have the following structure:

41. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any preceding claim and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

42. A method of inhibiting the growth of a fungus, the method comprising contacting a fungus with a compound of any one of claim 1-40 or a composition according to claim 41.

43. The method of claim 42, wherein the fungus is selected from Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida auris, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichoderma harzianum, and Aspergillus fitmigatus.

44. A method of treating or lessening the severity of a fungal infection in a subject, the method comprising administering to the subject a compound of any one of claims 1-40 or a composition according to claim 41.

45. The method of claim 44, wherein fungal infection is infection with a fungus selected from Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida auris, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichoderma harzianum, and Aspergillus fitmigatus.

46. A method of treating candidiasis in a subject, the method comprising administering to the subject a compound of any one of claims 1-40 or a composition according to claim 41.

47. The method of claim 46, wherein the compound is administered systemically.

48. A modified selvamicin biosynthetic gene cluster comprising one or more inactivated or deleted genes selected from SelE, SelDIII, Sell, SelJ, SelSI, SelSII, SelSIII, SelSIV, SelSV, SelSVI, SelSVII , Sel A, SelB, SelC, SelK, SelL, SelP, SelDI, SelG, SelH, SelRI, SelRII, SelRIII, SelO, SelRIV, SelRV, and SelRVI.

49. The modified gene cluster of claim 48, wherein the inactivated gene is selected from SelP and SelL.

50. The modified gene cluster of claim 48, wherein the deleted gene i s selected from SelP and SelL.

51. A modified selvamicin BGC polynucleotide comprising a mutation or deletion in one of the polynucleotides that encodes a protein selected from SelE (SEQ ID No.: 2), SelDIII (SEQ ID No.: 3), Sell (SEQ ID No.: 4), SelJ (SEQ ID No.: 5), SelSI (SEQ ID No.: 6), SelSII (SEQ ID No.: 7), SelSIII (SEQ ID No.: 8), SelSIV (SEQ ID No.: 9), SelSV (SEQ ID No.:

10) , SelSVI (SEQ ID No.: 11), and SelSVII (SEQ ID No.: 12), Sel A(SEQ ID No.: 13), SelB (SEQ ID No.: 14), SelC (SEQ ID No.: 15), SelK (SEQ ID No.: 16), SelL (SEQ ID No.: 17), SelP (SEQ ID No.: 18), SelDI (SEQ ID No.: 19), SelG(SEQ ID No.: 20), SelH (SEQ ID No.: 21), SelRI (SEQ ID No.: 22), SelPJI (SEQ ID No.: 23), SelRIII (SEQ ID No.: 24), SelO (SEQ ID No.: 25), SelRIV (SEQ ID No.: 26), SelRV (SEQ ID No.: 27), and SelRVI (SEQ ID No.: 28).

52. The modified polynucleotide of claim 51, wherein SelP or SelL is mutated.

53. The modified polynucleotide of claim 51, wherein SelP or SelL is deleted.

54. An expression vector comprising the modified selvamicin BGC polynucleotide of any one of claims 51 to 553.

55. A protein derived from the modified selvamicin BGC polynucleotide of any one of claims 51 to 53.

56. A method for producing an antifungal agent, the method comprising culturing a bacterium comprising the modified selvamicin biosynthetic gene cluster of claim 48 under conditions such that the bacterium produces the antifungal agent.

57. The method of claim 56, wherein the bacterium is cultured in the presence of sodium butyrate.

58. The antifungal agent produced by the method of claim 56 or 57.

59. A method for producing a modified polyene macrolide, the method comprising: culturing a host cell; and

allowing the polyene macrolide to accrue

wherein the host cell comprises an expression vector comprising the polynucleotides that encode the proteins selected from SelSI (SEQ ID No.: 6), SelSII (SEQ ID No.: 7), SelSIII (SEQ ID No.: 8), SelSIV (SEQ ID No.: 9), SelSV (SEQ ID No.: 10), SelSVI (SEQ ID No.:

11) , and SelSVII (SEQ ID No.: 12),.

60. The method of claim 59, wherein the host cell is a bacterium.

61. The method of claims 59 or 60, wherein the host cell is cultured in the presence of sodium butyrate.

62. The modified polyene macrolide produced by the method of any one of claims 59-61.

63. An engineered microorganism comprising a polynucleotide encoding a selvamicin BGC.

64. The engineered microorganism of claim 61, wherein the selvamicin BGC is a modified selvamicin BCG.

65. The engineered microorganism of claim 64, wherein one or more of the

polynucleotides of the selvamicin BCG that encodes the proteins selected from SelE (SEQ ID No.: 2), SelDIII (SEQ ID No.: 3), Sell (SEQ ID No.: 4), SelJ (SEQ ID No.: 5), SelSI (SEQ ID No.: 6), SelSII (SEQ ID No.: 7), SelSIII (SEQ ID No.: 8), SelSIV (SEQ ID No.: 9), SelSV (SEQ ID No.: 10), SelSVI (SEQ ID No.: 11), SelSVII (SEQ ID No.: 12), Sel A(SEQ ID No.: 13), SelB (SEQ ID No.: 14), SelC (SEQ ID No.: 15), SelK (SEQ ID No.: 16), SelL (SEQ ID No.: 17), SelP (SEQ ID No.: 18), SelDI (SEQ ID No.: 19), SelG(SEQ ID No.: 20), SelH (SEQ ID No.: 21), SelRI (SEQ ID No.: 22), SelRII (SEQ ID No.: 23), SelRIII (SEQ ID No.: 24), SelO (SEQ ID No.: 25), SelRIV (SEQ ID No.: 26), SelRV (SEQ ID No.: 27), and SelRVI (SEQ ID No.: 28) is mutated or deleted.

66. The engineered microorganism of any one of claims 63 to 65, wherein the engineered microorganism is a bacteria other than Pseudonocardia.

67. A method of producing a compound of Formula I, the method comprising culturing an engineered microorganism of any one of claims 63 to 66 under conditions such that a compound of Formula I is produced.

68. The method of claim 67, wherein the engineered microorganism is cultured in the presence of sodium butyrate.

Description:
Antifungal Compounds

Related Applications

This application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/345,516, filed June 3, 2016, and U.S. Provisional Application No. No. 62/397,079, filed September 20, 2016, each of which is hereby incorporated in its entirety.

Government Interest

This invention was made with Government support under National Institutes of Health Grants NIH AI09673 and NIH GM086258. The Government has certain rights in the invention.

Background

Fungal diseases are often caused by fungi that are common in the environment. Most fungi are not dangerous, but some types can be harmful to health, particularly in

immunocompromised individuals. Over the past several decades, there has been a significant rise in the number of recorded instances of fungal infection. In part this is due to increased awareness and improved diagnosis of fungal infection. However, the primary cause of this increased incidence is the rise in the number of susceptible individuals. This is attributed to a number of factors, including new and aggressive immunosuppressive therapies, increased survival in intensive care, increased numbers of transplant procedures and the greater use of antibiotics worldwide.

Clinically indispensable antifungal natural products include amphotericin B and nystatin A1, both members of the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, along with the food preservative and topical antifungal natamycin. However, the existing suite of clinically useful antifungals is limited. Although amphotericin B and nystatin A1 have been used widely over the past 50 years, they suffer from major liabilities, most notably high toxicity and negligible oral bioavailability.

Hence, there is a need for effective antifungal agents and methods of producing such agents.

Summary

In certain aspects, provided herein are compounds (e.g., antifungal compounds) having the structure of Formula I or Formula II:

Formula II

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, wherein R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R 5 , R 6 , R 7 , R 8 , R 9 , R 10 , R 11 , R 12 , R 13 , R 14 , R 15 , R 16 , R 17 , R 18 , R 19 , R 20 , R 21 , R 22 and R 24 are as defined herein.

In certain aspects, provided herein is a pharmaceutical composition comprising any one of the aforementioned compounds and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

In some aspects, provided herein is a method of inhibiting the growth of a fungus, the method comprising contacting a fungus with a compound of any one of the aforementioned compounds or compositions.

In some aspects, provided herein is a method of treating or lessening the severity of a fungal infection in a subject, the method comprising administering to the subject a compound of any one of the aforementioned compounds or compositions. In some embodiments the method comprises treating candidiasis in a subject comprising

administering to the subject a compound of any one of the aforementioned compounds or compositions. In some aspects, provided herein is a selvamicin biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC). In some embodiments, the selvamicin BCG comprises one or more polynucleotides encoding SelE (SEQ ID No.: 2), SelDIII (SEQ ID No.: 3), Sell (SEQ ID No.: 4), Sell (SEQ ID No.: 5), SelSI (SEQ ID No.: 6), SelSII (SEQ ID No.: 7), SelSIII (SEQ ID No.: 8), SelSIV (SEQ ID No.: 9), SelSV (SEQ ID No.: 10), SelSVI (SEQ ID No.: 11), and SelSVII (SEQ ID No.: 12), Sel A(SEQ ID No.: 13), SelB (SEQ ID No.: 14), SelC (SEQ ID No.: 15), SelK (SEQ ID No.: 16), SelL (SEQ ID No.: 17), SelP (SEQ ID No.: 18), SelDI (SEQ ID No.: 19), SelG(SEQ ID No.: 20), SelH (SEQ ID No.: 21), SelRI (SEQ ID No.: 22), SelRII (SEQ ID No.: 23), SelRIII (SEQ ID No.: 24), SelO (SEQ ID No.: 25), SelRIV (SEQ ID No.: 26), SelRV (SEQ ID No.: 27), and/or SelRVI (SEQ ID No.: 28). In some embodiments, the selvamicin BCG comprises a modified selvamicin BCG (e.g., comprising one or more inactivated or deleted genes selected from SelE, SelDIII, Sell, SelJ, SelSI, SelSII, SelSIII, SelSIV, SelSV, SelSVI, SelSVII , Sel A, SelB, SelC, SelK, SelL, SelP, SelDI, SelG, SelH, SelRI, SelRII, SelRIII, SelO, SelRIV, SelRV, and SelRVI).

In some aspects, provided herein is a polynucleotide or expression vector {e.g., an isolated polynucleotide or expression vector) comprising a selvamicin BGC described herein {e.g., a modified selvamicin BCG).

In some aspects, provided herein is an engineered microorganism {e.g., an engineered bacterium) comprising one or more nucleic acids encoding a selvamicin BGC {e.g., a modified selvamicin BCG described herein). In some embodiments, the engineered microorganism is not Pseudonocardia.

In some aspects, provided herein is a method for producing an antifungal agent {e.g., a polyene macrolide, including, for example, a compound of Formula I), the method comprising: culturing a microorganism {e.g., an engineered microorganism such as an engineered bacterium) comprising a selvamicin BCG described herein {e.g., a modified selvamicin BCG described herein) under conditions such that the bacterium produces the antifungal agent. In some embodiments, the engineered microorganism is not

Pseudonocardia. In some embodiments the microorganism is cultured in the presence of sodium buterate. In certain embodiments, provided herein are the antifungal agents produced by such methods. Brief Description of the Figures

Figure 1 includes 2 panels (Panels A and B). Panel A depicts structures of exemplary antifungal polyene natural products currently in clinical use. Panel B depicts the structure of selvamicin and NMR correlations establishing its planar structure.

Figure 2 shows the UV spectrum of selvamicin in methanol.

Figure 3 includes 2 panels (Panels A and B), which show the Selvamicin NMR correlations. Panel A depicts H2BC correlations supporting the planar structure of selvamicin. Panel B depicts ROESY correlations supporting the relative stereochemistry of selvamicin from C4-C13.

Figure 4 depicts Ac9-selvamicin NMR correlations supporting its planar structure

Figure 5 depicts NMR correlations and coupling constants supporting sugar stereochemistry.

Figure 6 includes 8 panels (Panels A-H), which show Selvamicin NMR spectra in DMSO-d 6 . Panel A shows the 600 MHz 1 H NMR spectrum. Panel B shows the 100 MHz 13 C NMR spectrum. Panel C shows the 600 MHz COSY spectrum. Panel D shows the 600 MHz TOCSY spectrum. Panel E shows the 500 MHz ROESY NMR spectrum. Panel F shows the 600 MHz multiplicity-edited HSQC NMR spectrum of selvamicin in DMSO-d6. CH and CH3 group correlations are shown in red and CH2 group correlations are shown in blue. Panel G shows the 500 MHz H2BC NMR spectrum. Panel H shows the 500 MHz HMBC spectrum.

Figure 7 includes 6 panels (Panels A-F), which show Ac9-selvamicin NMR spectra in DMSO-d 6 . Panel A shows the 600 MHz 1H NMR spectrum. Panel B the 600 MHz COSY spectrum. Panel C shows the 600 MHz TOCSY spectrum. Panel D shows the 600 MHz ROESY NMR spectrum. Panel E shows the 600 MHz multiplicity-edited HSQC NMR spectrum of Ac9-selvamicin in DMSO-d6. CH and CH3 group correlations are shown in red and CH2 group correlations are shown in blue. Panel F shows the 500 MHz HMBC spectrum.

Figure 8 is a bar graph showing the induction of selvamicin production by sodium propionate and sodium butyrate.

Figure 9 is the Selvamicin mass spectra from HPLC-ESI-HRMS of Pseudonocardia culture extracts. Figure 10 is a plot showing the growth inhibition of Candida albicans,

Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Trichoderma harzianum, and Aspergillus fitmigatus by selvamicin.

Figure 11 includes 2 panels (Panels A and B). Panel A shows the genomes of Pseudonocardia isolates LS I and LS2. The selvamicin BGC in each is marked with a box. B) Selvamicin BGCs from LSI and LS2. Mobile genetic element genes flanking the selvamicin clusters are shown.

Figure 12 includes 2 panels (Panels A and B) showing Nystatin (Panel A) and selvamicin (Panel B) BGCs. Polyketide synthase genes are labeled with bold font.

Figure 13 shows isothermal calorimetry traces assaying polyene-sterol interactions.

Figure 14 shows the extractions from PKS domain alignments. Active site residues and AT specificity motifs are in bold.

Figure 15 is a schematic of selvamicin PKS domain architecture. Putative inactive domains are shaded gray.

Figure 16 includes 3 panels (Panels A-C). Panel A is a schematic of selvamicin PKS domain architecture. Panel B is a schematic of a modified selvamicin domain structure where the ketoreductase domain of module 13 is disrupted. Panel C is a schematic of a modified selvamicin domain structure where the dehydratase domain of module 14 is disrupted.

Figure 17 is a table ofpredicted proteins of the selvamicin biosynthetic gene cluster

(BGC)

Figure 18 is a table of exemplary genes of the Selvamicin biosynthetic gene cluster

Figure 19 is a table of NMR Spectral data for selvamicin in DMSO-d 6 .

Figure 20 is a table of NMR Spectral data for Ac9-selvamicin in DMSO-d 6 .

Figure 21 is a table of MIC values (μΜ) for selvamicin and nystatin against a panel of fungi.

Figure 22 is a plot showing the in vivo antifungal activity of selvamicin.

Figure 23 shows in vitro and in vivo efficacy (Panels A and C, respectfully) and safety (Panel B - AmB is amphotericin). Single intraperitoneal doses of selvamicin in the neutropenic murine disseminated candidiasis model against strains of C. albicans, C.

glabrala, and C. auris are shown. Detailed Description

In certain aspects, provided herein are methods and compositions related to novel polyene macrolide compounds. In certain embodiments, the polyene macrolide compounds are related to selvamicin, a novel polyene macrolide isolated from Pseudonocardia. As disclosed herein, selvamicin elicits antifungal activity.

I. COMPOUNDS

In certain aspects, provided herein are compounds having the structure of Formula I or Formula II, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

Formula II

wherein

R 1 and R 2 are, independently for each occurrence, H or OR 23 , or R 1 and R 2 together with the carbon to which they are bound form a carbonyl moiety; R 3 and R 4 are, independently for each occurrence, H or OR 23 , or R 3 and R 4 together with the carbon to which they are bound form a carbonyl moiety;

R 5 and R 6 are, independently for each occurrence, H or OR 23 , or R 5 and R 6 together with the carbon to which they are bound form a carbonyl moiety;

R 7 and R 8 are, independently for each occurrence, H or OR 23 , or R 7 and R 8 together with the carbon to which they are bound form a carbonyl moiety;

R 9 , R 10 , R 11 , R 12 , R 13 , R 14 , R 15 , and R 16 are, independently for each occurrence, H or OR 23 ; R 17 , R 18 , R 19 , R 20 , R 21 , and R 22 are, independently for each occurrence, H or optionally substituted alkyl;

R 23 is, independently for each occurrence, H, optionally substituted alkyl, or optionally substituted acyl; and

R 24 is, independently for each occurrence, H, optionally substituted alkyl, or optionally substituted acyl.

In certain embodiments, the compound has a structure of Formula III or Formula IV or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

Formula III

Formula IV.

In certain embodiments, R 1 and R 2 are H.

In certain embodiments, R 3 is OR 23 and R 4 is H. In certain such embodiments, R 3 is OH and R 4 is H. In certain embodiments, R 5 is OR 23 and R 6 is H. In certain such

embodiments, R 5 is OH and R 6 is H. In certain embodiments, R 7 is OR 23 and R 8 is H. In certain such embodiments, R 7 is OH and R 8 is H.

In certain embodiments, R 9 is OR 23 . In certain such embodiments, R 9 is OH. In certain embodiments, R 10 is OR 23 . In certain such embodiments, R 10 is OH. In certain embodiments, wherein R 11 is OR 23 . In certain such embodiments, R 11 is OH. In certain such embodiments, R 12 is OR 23 . In certain embodiments,, wherein R 12 is OH. In certain embodiments, wherein R 13 is OR 23 . In certain such embodiments, R 13 is OH. In certain embodiments, wherein R 14 is OR 23 . In certain such embodiments, R 14 is OH. In certain embodiments, wherein R 15 is OR 23 . In certain such embodiments.R 15 is OH.

In certain embodiments, R 16 is OR 23 . In certain such embodiments, R 23 is lower alkyl, preferably R 16 is OCH 3 .

In certain embodiments, R 17 is lower alkyl, preferably ethyl. In certain embodiments, R 18 is lower alkyl, preferably methyl. In certain embodiments, R 19 is lower alkyl, preferably methyl. In certain embodiments, R 20 is lower alkyl, preferably methyl. In certain

embodiments, R 21 is lower alkyl, preferably methyl. In certain embodiments, R 22 is lower alkyl, preferably methyl.

In certain embodiments, the compound has the structure

or

or a pharmaceutically acceptable

salt thereof.

In certain embodiments, the compound does not have the following structure:

Exemplary compounds of Formula I and Formula II are depicted in Table 1. The compounds of Table 1 may be depicted as the free base or the conjugate acid. Compounds may be isolated in either the free base form, as a salt (e.g., a hydrochloride salt) or in both forms. In the chemical structures shown below, standard chemical abbreviations are sometimes used.

Table 1: Exemplary compounds of Formula I and Fonnula II

Selvamicin includes a hemiketal. Under the appropriate conditions, the molecule may adopt a ketone form (Scheme 1). Scheme 1

In certain embodiments, compounds of the invention may be racemic. In certain embodiments, compounds of the invention may be enriched in one enantiomer. For example, a compound of the invention may have greater than 30% ee, 40% ee, 50% ee, 60% ee, 70% ee, 80% ee, 90% ee, or even 95% or greater ee. The compounds of the invention have more than one stereocenter. Consequently, compounds of the invention may be enriched in one or more diastereomer. For example, a compound of the invention may have greater than 30% de, 40% de, 50% de, 60% de, 70% de, 80% de, 90% de, or even 95% or greater de.

II. PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS

In certain embodiments, the provided herein are pharmaceutical compositions comprising a compound disclosed herein and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

The compositions and methods described herein may be utilized to treat an individual in need thereof. In certain embodiments, the individual is a mammal such as a human, or a non-human mammal. When administered to an animal, such as a human, the composition or the compound is preferably administered as a pharmaceutical composition comprising, for example, a compound described herein and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers are well known in the art and include, for example, aqueous solutions such as water or physiologically buffered saline or other solvents or vehicles such as glycols, glycerol, oils such as olive oil, or injectable organic esters. In a preferred embodiment, when such pharmaceutical compositions are for human

administration, particularly for invasive routes of administration (i.e., routes, such as injection or implantation, that circumvent transport or diffusion through an epithelial barrier), the aqueous solution is pyrogen-free, or substantially pyrogen-free. The excipients can be chosen, for example, to effect delayed release of an agent or to selectively target one or more cells, tissues or organs. The pharmaceutical composition can be in dosage unit form such as tablet, capsule (including sprinkle capsule and gelatin capsule), granule, lyophile for reconstitution, powder, solution, syrup, suppository, injection or the like. The composition can also be present in a transdermal delivery system, e.g., a skin patch. The composition can also be present in a solution suitable for topical administration, such as an eye drop.

A pharmaceutically acceptable carrier can contain physiologically acceptable agents that act, for example, to stabilize, increase solubility or to increase the absorption of a compound such as a compound described herein. Such physiologically acceptable agents include, for example, carbohydrates, such as glucose, sucrose or dextrans, antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid or glutathione, chelating agents, low molecular weight proteins or other stabilizers or excipients. The choice of a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, including a physiological ly acceptable agent, depends, for example, on the route of administration of the composition. The preparation or pharmaceutical composition can be a selfemulsifying drug delivery system or a selfmicroemulsifying drug delivery system. The pharmaceutical composition (preparation) also can be a liposome or other polymer matrix, which can have incorporated therein, for example, a compound described herein. Liposomes, for example, which comprise phospholipids or other lipids, are nontoxic, physiologically acceptable and metabolizable carriers that are relatively simple to make and administer.

The phrase "pharmaceutically acceptable" is employed herein to refer to those compounds, materials, compositions, and/or dosage forms which are, within the scope of sound medical judgment, suitable for use in contact with the tissues of human beings and animals without excessive toxicity, irritation, allergic response, or other problem or complication, commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio.

The phrase "pharmaceutically acceptable carrier" as used herein means a

pharmaceutically acceptable material, composition or vehicle, such as a liquid or solid filler, diluent, excipient, solvent or encapsulating material. Each carrier must be "acceptable" in the sense of being compatible with the other ingredients of the formulation and not inj urious to the patient. Some examples of materials which can serve as pharmaceutically acceptable carriers include: (1) sugars, such as lactose, glucose and sucrose; (2) starches, such as corn starch and potato starch; (3) cellulose, and its derivatives, such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, ethyl cellulose and cellulose acetate; (4) powdered tragacanth; (5) malt; (6) gelatin; (7) talc; (8) excipients, such as cocoa butter and suppository waxes; (9) oils, such as peanut oil, cottonseed oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, olive oil, corn oil and soybean oil; (10) glycols, such as propylene glycol; (11 ) polyols, such as glycerin, sorbitol, mannitol and polyethylene glycol; (12) esters, such as ethyl oleate and ethyl laurate; (13) agar; (14) buffering agents, such as magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide; (15) alginic acid; (16) pyrogen-free water; (17) isotonic saline; (18) Ringer's solution; (19) ethyl alcohol; (20) phosphate buffer solutions; and (21) other non-toxic compatible substances employed in pharmaceutical formulations.

A pharmaceutical composition (preparation) can be administered to a subject by any of a number of routes of administration including, for example, orally (for example, drenches as in aqueous or non-aqueous solutions or suspensions, tablets, capsules (including sprinkle capsules and gelatin capsules), boluses, powders, granules, pastes for application to the tongue); absorption through the oral mucosa (e.g., sublingually); anally, rectally or vaginally (for example, as a pessary, cream or foam); parenterally (including intramuscularly, intravenously, subcutaneously or intrathecally as, for example, a sterile solution or suspension); nasally; intraperitoneally; subcutaneously; transdermally (for example as a patch applied to the skin); and topically (for example, as a cream, ointment or spray applied to the skin, or as an eye drop). The compound may also be formulated for inhalation. In certain embodiments, a compound may be simply dissolved or suspended in sterile water. Details of appropriate routes of administration and compositions suitable for same can be found in, for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,110,973, 5,731 ,000, 5,541,231, 5,427,798, 5,358,970 and 4,172,896, as well as in patents cited therein.

The formulations may conveniently be presented in unit dosage form and may be prepared by any methods well known in the art of pharmacy. The amount of active ingredient which can be combined with a carrier material to produce a single dosage form will vary depending upon the host being treated, the particular mode of administration. The amount of active ingredient that can be combined with a carrier material to produce a single dosage form will generally be that amount of the compound which produces a therapeutic effect. Generally, out of one hundred percent, this amount will range from about 1 percent to about ninety-nine percent of active ingredient, preferably from about 5 percent to about 70 percent, most preferably from about 10 percent to about 30 percent.

Methods of preparing these formulations or compositions include the step of bringing into association an active compound, such as a compound described herein, with the carrier and, optionally, one or more accessory ingredients. In general, the formulations are prepared by uniformly and intimately bringing into association a compound described herein with liquid carriers, or finely divided solid carriers, or both, and then, if necessary, shaping the product.

Formulations provided herein suitable for oral administration may be in the form of capsules (including sprinkle capsules and gelatin capsules), cachets, pills, tablets, lozenges (using a flavored basis, usually sucrose and acacia or tragacanth), lyophile, powders, granules, or as a solution or a suspension in an aqueous or non-aqueous liquid, or as an oil- in-water or water-in-oil liquid emulsion, or as an elixir or syrup, or as pastilles (using an inert base, such as gelatin and glycerin, or sucrose and acacia) and/or as mouth washes and the like, each containing a predetermined amount of a compound described herein as an active ingredient. Compositions or compounds may also be administered as a bolus, electuary or paste.

To prepare solid dosage forms for oral administration (capsules (including sprinkle capsules and gelatin capsules), tablets, pills, dragees, powders, granules and the like), the active ingredient is mixed with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, such as sodium citrate or dicalcium phosphate, and/or any of the following: (1) fillers or extenders, such as starches, lactose, sucrose, glucose, mannitol, and/or silicic acid; (2) binders, such as, for example, carboxymethylcellulose, alginates, gelatin, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, sucrose and/or acacia; (3) humectants, such as glycerol; (4) disintegrating agents, such as agar-agar, calcium carbonate, potato or tapioca starch, alginic acid, certain silicates, and sodium carbonate; (5) solution retarding agents, such as paraffin; (6) absorption accelerators, such as quaternary ammonium compounds; (7) wetting agents, such as, for example, cetyl alcohol and glycerol monostearate; (8) absorbents, such as kaolin and bentonite clay; (9) lubricants, such a talc, calcium stearate, magnesium stearate, solid polyethylene glycols, sodium lauryl sulfate, and mixtures thereof; (10) complexing agents, such as, modified and unmodified cyclodextrins; and (11) coloring agents. In the case of capsules (including sprinkle capsules and gelatin capsules), tablets and pills, the pharmaceutical compositions may also comprise buffering agents. Solid compositions of a similar type may also be employed as fillers in soft and hard-filled gelatin capsules using such excipients as lactose or milk sugars, as well as high molecular weight polyethylene glycols and the like.

A tablet may be made by compression or molding, optionally with one or more accessory ingredients. Compressed tablets may be prepared using binder (for example, gelatin or hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose), lubricant, inert diluent, preservative, disintegrant (for example, sodium starch glycolate or cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose), surface-active or dispersing agent. Molded tablets may be made by molding in a suitable machine a mixture of the powdered compound moistened with an inert liquid diluent.

The tablets, and other solid dosage forms of the pharmaceutical compositions, such as dragees, capsules (including sprinkle capsules and gelatin capsules), pills and granules, may optionally be scored or prepared with coatings and shells, such as enteric coatings and other coatings well known in the pharmaceutical-formulating art. They may also be formulated so as to provide slow or controlled release of the active ingredient therein using, for example, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose in varying proportions to provide the desired release profile, other polymer matrices, liposomes and/or microspheres. They may be sterilized by, for example, filtration through a bacteria-retaining filter, or by ιncorporating sterilizing agents in the form of sterile solid compositions that can be dissolved in sterile water, or some other sterile injectable medium immediately before use. These compositions may also optionally contain opacifying agents and may be of a composition that they release the active ingredient(s) only, or preferentially, in a certain portion of the gastrointestinal tract, optionally, in a delayed manner. Examples of embedding compositions that can be used include polymeric substances and waxes. The active ingredient can also be in microencapsulated form, if appropriate, with one or more of the above-described excipients.

Liquid dosage forms useful for oral administration include pharmaceutically acceptable emulsions, lyophiles for reconstitution, microemulsions, solutions, suspensions, syrups and elixirs. In addition to the active ingredient, the liquid dosage forms may contain inert diluents commonly used in the art, such as, for example, water or other solvents, cyclodextrins and derivatives thereof, solubilizing agents and emulsifiers, such as ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl carbonate, ethyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, propylene glycol, 1,3-butylene glycol, oils (in particular, cottonseed, groundnut, corn, germ, olive, castor and sesame oils), glycerol, tetrahydrofuryl alcohol, polyethylene glycols and fatty acid esters of sorbitan, and mixtures thereof.

Besides inert diluents, the oral compositions can also include adjuvants such as wetting agents, emulsifying and suspending agents, sweetening, flavoring, coloring, perfuming and preservative agents.

Suspensions, in addition to the active compounds, may contain suspending agents as, for example, ethoxylated isostearyl alcohols, polyoxyethylene sorbitol and sorbitan esters, microcrystalline cellulose, aluminum metahydroxide, bentonite, agar-agar and tragacanth, and mixtures thereof. Formulations of the pharm aceutical compositions for rectal, vagin al, or urethral administration may be presented as a suppository, which may be prepared by mixing one or more active compounds with one or more suitable nonirritating excipients or carriers comprising, for example, cocoa butter, polyethylene glycol, a suppository wax or a salicylate, and which is solid at room temperature, but liquid at body temperature and, therefore, will melt in the rectum or vaginal cavity and release the active compound.

Formulations of the pharmaceutical compositions for administration to the mouth may be presented as a mouthwash, or an oral spray, or an oral ointment.

Alternatively or additionally, compositions can be formulated for delivery via a catheter, stent, wire, or other intraluminal device. Delivery via such devices may be especially useful for delivery to the bladder, urethra, ureter, rectum, or intestine.

Formulations which are suitable for vaginal administration also include pessaries, tampons, creams, gels, pastes, foams or spray formulations containing such carriers as are known in the art to be appropriate.

Dosage forms for the topical or transdermal administration include powders, sprays, ointments, pastes, creams, lotions, gels, solutions, patches and inhalants. The active compound may be mixed under sterile conditions with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and with any preservatives, buffers, or propellants that may be required.

The ointments, pastes, creams and gels may contain, in addition to an active compound, excipients, such as animal and vegetable fats, oils, waxes, paraffins, starch, tragacanth, cellulose derivatives, polyethylene glycols, silicones, bentonites, silicic acid, talc and zinc oxide, or mixtures thereof.

Powders and sprays can contain, in addition to an active compound, excipients such as lactose, talc, silicic acid, aluminum hydroxide, calcium silicates and polyamide powder, or mixtures of these substances. Sprays can additionally contain customary propellants, such as chlorofiuorohydrocarbons and volatile unsubstituted hydrocarbons, such as butane and propane.

Transdermal patches have the added advantage of providing controlled delivery of a compound described herein to the body. Such dosage forms can be made by dissolving or dispersing the active compound in the proper medium. Absorption enhancers can also be used to increase the flux of the compound across the skin. The rate of such flux can be controlled by either providing a rate controlling membrane or dispersing the compound in a polymer matrix or gel. Ophthalmic formulations, eye ointments, powders, solutions and the like, are also contemplated herein. Exemplary ophthalmic formulations are described in U.S. Publication Nos. 2005/0080056, 2005/0059744, 2005/0031697 and 2005/004074 and U.S. Patent No. 6,583,124, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference. If desired, liquid ophthalmic formulations have properties similar to that of lacrimal fluids, aqueous humor or vitreous humor or are compatable with such fluids. A preferred route of administration is local administration (e.g., topical administration, such as eye drops, or administration via an implant).

The phrases "parenteral administration" and "administered parenterally" as used herein means modes of administration other than enteral and topical administration, usually by injection, and includes, without limitation, intravenous, intramuscular, intraarterial, intrathecal, intracapsular, intraorbital, intracardiac, intradermal, intraperitoneal, transtracheal, subcutaneous, subcuticular, intraarticular, subcapsular, subarachnoid, intraspinal and intrasternal injection and infusion. Pharmaceutical compositions suitable for parenteral administration comprise one or more active compounds in combination with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable sterile isotonic aqueous or nonaqueous solutions, dispersions, suspensions or emulsions, or sterile powders which may be reconstituted into sterile injectable solutions or dispersions just prior to use, which may contain antioxidants, buffers, bacteriostats, solutes which render the formulation isotonic with the blood of the intended recipient or suspending or thickening agents.

Examples of suitable aqueous and nonaqueous carriers that may be employed in the pharmaceutical compositions described herein include water, ethanol, polyols (such as glycerol, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, and the like), and suitable mixtures thereof, vegetable oils, such as olive oil, and injectable organic esters, such as ethyl oleate. Proper fluidity can be maintained, for example, by the use of coating materials, such as lecithin, by the maintenance of the required particle size in the case of dispersions, and by the use of surfactants.

These compositions may also contain adjuvants such as preservatives, wetting agents, emulsifying agents and dispersing agents. Prevention of the action of microorganisms may be ensured by the inclusion of vari ous antibacterial and antifungal agents, for example, paraben, chlorobutanol, phenol sorbic acid, and the like. It may also be desirable to include isotonic agents, such as sugars, sodium chloride, and the like into the compositions. In addition, prolonged absorption of the injectable pharmaceutical form may be brought about by the inclusion of agents that delay absorption such as aluminum monostearate and gelatin.

In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition may further comprise an adjuvant that can augment the immune response by increasing delivery of antigen, stimulating cytokine production, and/or stimulating antigen presenting cells. In some embodiments, the adjuvant can be administered concurrently with the pharmaceutical composition and/or vaccine composition disclosed herein, e.g., in the same composition or in separate compositions. For example, an adjuvant can be administered prior or subsequent to the pharmaceutical composition disclosed herein. Such adjuvants include, but are not limited to: aluminum salts, non-toxic bacterial fragments, cholera toxin (and detoxified fractions thereof), chitosan, homologous heat-labile of E. coli (and detoxified fractions thereof), lactide/glycolide homo and copolymers (PLA/GA), polyanhydride e.g. trimellitylimido-L- tyrosine, DEAE-dextran, saponins complexed to membrane protein antigens (immune stimulating complexes— ISCOMS), bacterial products such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and muramyl dipeptide, (MDP), liposomes, cochelates, proteinoids, cytokines (interleukins, interferons), genetically engineered live microbial vectors, non-infectious pertussis mutant toxin, neurimidase/galactose oxidase, and attenuated bacterial and viral toxins derived from mutant strains.

In some cases, in order to prolong the effect of a drug, it is desirable to slow the absorption of the drug from subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. This may be accomplished by the use of a liquid suspension of crystalline or amorphous material having poor water solubility. The rate of absorption of the drug then depends upon its rate of dissolution, which, in turn, may depend upon crystal size and ctystalline form. Alternatively, delayed absorption of a parenterally administered drug form is accomplished by dissolving or suspending the drug in an oil vehicle.

Injectable depot forms are made by forming microencapsulated matrices of the subject compounds in biodegradable polymers such as polylactide-polyglycolide. Depending on the ratio of drug to polymer, and the nature of the particular polymer employed, the rate of drug release can be controlled. Examples of other biodegradable polymers include poly(orthoesters) and poly(anhydrides). Depot injectable formulations are also prepared by- entrapping the drug in liposomes or microemulsions that are compatible with body tissue. For use in the methods provided herien, active compounds can be given per se or as a pharmaceutical composition containing, for example, 0.1 to 99.5% (more preferably, 0.5 to 90%) of active ingredient in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

Methods of introduction may also be provided by rechargeable or biodegradable devices. Various slow release polymeric devices have been developed and tested in vivo in recent years for the controlled delivery of drugs, including proteinacious biopharmaceuticals. A variety of biocompatible polymers (including hydrogels), including both biodegradable and non-degradable polymers, can be used to form an implant for the sustained release of a compound at a particular target site.

Actual dosage levels of the active ingredients in the pharmaceutical compositions may be varied so as to obtain an amount of the active ingredient that is effective to achieve the desired therapeutic response for a particular patient, composition, and mode of administration, without being toxic to the patient.

The selected dosage level will depend upon a variety of factors including the activity of the particular compound or combination of compounds employed, or the ester, salt or amide thereof, the route of administration, the time of administration, the rate of excretion of the particular compound(s) being employed, the duration of the treatment, other drugs, compounds and/or materials used in combination with the particular compound(s) employed, the age, sex, weight, condition, general health and prior medical history of the patient being treated, and like factors.

If desired, the effective daily dose of the active compound may be administered as one, two, three, four, five, six or more sub-doses administered separately at appropriate intervals throughout the day, optionally, in unit dosage forms. In certain embodiments described herein, the active compound may be administered two or three times daily. In preferred embodiments, the active compound will be administered once daily.

In some embodiments, provided herein is the use of pharmaceutically acceptable sal ts of compounds described herein in the compositions and methods described herein. The term "pharmaceutically acceptable salt" as used herein includes salts derived from inorganic or organic acids including, for example, hydrochloric, hydrobromic, sulfuric, nitric, perchloric, phosphoric, formic, acetic, lactic, maleic, fumaric, succinic, tartaric, glycolic, salicylic, citric, methanesulfonic, benzenesulfonic, benzoic, malonic, trifluoroacetic, trichloroacetic, naphthalene-2-sulfonic, and other acids. Pharmaceutically acceptable salt forms can include forms wherein the ratio of molecules comprising the salt is not 1: 1. For example, the salt may comprise more than one inorganic or organic acid molecule per molecule of base, such as two hydrochloric acid molecules per molecule of compound of Formula I or Formula II. As another example, the salt may comprise less than one inorganic or organic acid molecule per molecule of base, such as two molecules of compound of Formula I or Formula II per molecule of tartaric acid.

In further embodiments, contemplated salts described herein include, but are not limited to, alkyl, dialkyl, trialkyl or tetra-alkyl ammonium salts. In certain embodiments, contemplated salts described herein include, but are not limited to, L-arginine,

benenthamine, benzathine, betaine, calcium hydroxide, choline, deanol, diethanolamine, diethylamine, 2-(diethylamino)ethanol, ethanolamine, ethylenediamine, N-methylglucamine, hydrabamine, lH-imidazole, lithium, L-lysine, magnesium, 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)morpholine, piperazine, potassium, l-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidine, sodium, triethanolamine,

tromethamine, and zinc salts. In certain embodiments, contemplated salts described herein include, but are not limited to, Na, Ca, K, Mg, Zn or other metal salts.

The pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts can also exist as various solvates, such as with water, methanol, ethanol, dimethylformamide, and the like. Mixtures of such solvates can also be prepared. The source of such solvate can be from the solvent of crystallization, inherent in the solvent of preparation or crystallization, or adventitious to such solvent.

Wetting agents, emulsifiers and lubricants, such as sodium lauryl sulfate and magnesium stearate, as well as coloring agents, release agents, coating agents, sweetening, flavoring and perfuming agents, preservatives and antioxidants can also be present in the compositions.

Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable antioxidants include: (1) water-soluble antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, cysteine hydrochloride, sodium bisulfate, sodium metabisulfite, sodium sulfite and the like; (2) oil-soluble antioxidants, such as ascorbyl palmitate, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), lecithin, propyl gallate, alpha-tocopherol, and the like; and (3) metal-chelating agents, such as citric acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), sorbitol, tartaric acid, phosphoric acid, and the like.

In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical preparation may be enriched to provide predominantly one enantiomer of a compound (e.g., of Formula I or II). An

enantiomerically enriched mixture may comprise, for example, at least 60 mol percent of one enantiomer, or more preferably at least 75, 90, 95, or even 99 mol percent. In certain embodiments, the compound enriched in one enantiomer is subs tantially free of the other enantiomer, wherein substantially free means that the substance in question makes up less than 10%, or less than 5%, or less than 4%, or less than 3%, or less than 2%, or less than 1% as compared to the amount of the other enantiomer, e.g., in the composition or compound mixture. For example, if a composition or compound mixture contains 98 grams of a first enantiomer and 2 grams of a second enantiomer, it would be said to contain 98 mol percent of the fi rst enantiomer and only 2% of the second enantiomer.

In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical preparation may be enriched to provide predominantly one diastereomer of a compound (e.g., of Formula I or II). A

diastereomerically enriched mixture may comprise, for example, at least 60 mol percent of one diastereomer, or more preferably at least 75, 90, 95, or even 99 mol percent.

III. THERAPEUTIC USES

Provided herein are novel methods of inhibiting the growth of a fungus. In some embodiments, the method includes contacting a fungus with any compound or composition disclosed herein. In some embodiments, the method includes administering to a subject suffering from a fungal infection a compound or composition provided herein. In some embodiments, the method includes administering to a subject susceptible to fungal infection (e.g., an immunocompromised subject) a compound or composition disclosed herein. In some embodiments, the method includes treating an object (e.g., a food product or an exposed surface) with a compound or composition provided herein to prevent fungal growth on or in the object. In some embodiments, the fungus is Aspergillus (e.g., Aspergillus fiimigatus, Aspergillus flavus), Blastomyces, Candida, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus (e.g., Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus gattii), Histoplasma (e.g. , Histoplasma

capsulatum), Pneumocystis (e.g., Pneumocystis jirovecii), Sporothrix, Stachybotrys (e.g., Stachybotrys chartarum). Tinea, Exserohilum and/or Cladosporium. In certain embodiments, the fungus is Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichoderma harzianum, and/or Aspergillus fiimigatus. In some embodiments, the fungus is Candida glabrata. In certain embodiments, the fungus is Candida auris.

In certain embodiments, disclosed herein are methods of preventing, treating or lessening the severity of a fungal infection in a subject (e.g., a subject that has a fungal infection and/or a subject that is susceptible to fungal infections, such as an immunocompromised subject), the method comprising administering to the subject any compound or composition disclosed herein. In some embodiments, the fungal infection is an infection with Aspergillus (e.g., Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus), Blastomyces, Candida (e.g. Candida, albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida auris), Coccidioides, Cryptococcus (e.g., Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus gattii), Histoplasma (e.g., Histoplasma capsulatum), Pneumocystis (e.g., Pneumocystis jirovecii), Sporothrix,

Stachybotrys (e.g., Stachybotrys chartarum), Tinea, Exserohilum and/or Cladosporium.. In some embodiments, the subject treated has aspergillosis, blastomycosis, candidiasis, coccidioidomycosis (valley fever), a C. neuformans infection, a C. gattii infection, a fungal eye infection, histoplasmosis, mucormycosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, ringworm, sporotrichosis, tinea pedis and/or tinea cruris.

In certain embodiments, the compound or composition provided herien is administered to the subject , orally (for example, drenches as in aqueous or non-aqueous solutions or suspensions, tablets, capsules (including sprinkle capsules and gelatin capsules), boluses, powders, granules, pastes for application to the tongue); absorption through the oral mucosa (e.g., sublingually); anally, rectally or vaginally (for example, as a pessary, cream or foam): parenterally (including intramuscularly, intravenously, subcutaneously or intrathecally as, for example, a sterile solution or suspension); nasally; intraperitoneally; subcutaneously; transdermally (for example as a patch applied to the skin); and topically (for example, as a cream, ointment or spray applied to the skin, or as an eye drop). In some embodiments, the compound or composition is applied locally, directly to the site of the fungal infection.

IV. SELVAMICIN BIOSYNTHETIC GENE CLUSTER

Disclosed herein are is a selvamicin biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) and the proteins encoded by the selvamicin BGC (Figure 17).

In certain embodiments, also provided herein are modified selvamicin BGCs. In some embodiments, the modified selvamicin BGC comprises one or more inactivated or deleted genes selected from SelE, SelDIII, Sell, SelJ, SelSI, SelSII, SelSIII, SelSIV, SelSV, SelSVI, SelSVII , Sel A, SelB, SelC, SelK, SelL, SelP, SelDI, SelG, SelH, SelRI, SelRII, SelRIII, SelO, SelRIV, SelRV, and SelRVI (Figure 18). (Each Accession Number nucleotide sequence incorporated by reference herein). In certain embodiments, the inactivated gene is selected from SelP and SelL. In certain embodiments, the deleted gene is selected from SelP and SelL.

In some embodiments, provided herein are one or more polynucleotides encoding a selvamicin BCG. In some embodiments, the selvamicin BCG is a modified selvamicin BCG. In some embodiments, a the genes of the selvamicin BCG have an nucleic acid sequence that is at least 80 (e.g., at least 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, or 99) % identical to the sequences disclosed herein. In some embodiments, the selvamicin BGC polynucleotide comprises a mutation or deletion in one of the polynucleotides that encode the proteins selected from SelE (SEQ ID No.: 2), SelDIII (SEQ ID No.: 3), Sell (SEQ ID No.: 4), SelJ (SEQ ID No.: 5), SelSI (SEQ ID No.: 6), SelSII (SEQ ID No.: 7), SelSIII (SEQ ID No.: 8), SelSIV (SEQ ID No.: 9), SelSV (SEQ ID No.: 10), SelSVI (SEQ ID No.: 11), and SelSVII (SEQ ID No.: 12), Sel A(SEQ ID No.: 13), SelB (SEQ ID No.: 14), SelC (SEQ ID No.: 15), SelK (SEQ ID No.: 16), SelL (SEQ ID No.: 17), SelP (SEQ ID No.: 18), SelDI (SEQ ID No.: 19), SelG(SEQ ID No.: 20), SelH (SEQ ID No.: 21), SelRI (SEQ ID No.: 22), SelRII (SEQ ID No.: 23), SelRIII (SEQ ID No.: 24), SelO (SEQ ID No.: 25), SelRIV (SEQ ID No.: 26), SelRV (SEQ ID No.: 27), and SelRVI (SEQ ID No.: 28). In certain embodiments, SelP or SelL is mutated or deleted.

In some embodiments, the method includes a cell (e.g., a microbial cell, such as a bacterial cell) comprising a selvamicin BCG described herein. In certain embodiments, the polynucleotides can be introduced into the cell using any method known in the art. For example, in some embodiments, the polynucleotides are introduced in a vector. One type of vector is a "plasmid", which refers to a circular double stranded DNA loop into which additional DNA segments may be ligated. In some embodiments, the plasmid is linearized before introduction into the cell. Another type of vector is a viral vector, wherein additional DNA segments may be ligated into the viral genome. Certain vectors are capable of autonomous replication in a host cell into which they are introduced (e.g., bacterial vectors having a bacterial origin of replication and episomal eukaryotic vectors). Other vectors (e.g., non-episomal eukaryotic vectors) can be integrated into the genome of a host cell upon introduction into the host cell, and thereby are replicated along with the host genome.

Certain vectors are capable of directing the expression of genes to which they are operatively linked (expression vectors). The expression vectors provided herein are able to facilitate the expression of the encoded domain in a host cell, which means that the expression vectors include one or more regulatory sequences (e.g., promoters, enhancers), selected on the basis of the host cells to be used for expression, which is operatively linked to the nucleic acid sequence to be expressed. The design of the expression vector can depend on such factors as the choice of the host cell to be transformed, the level of expression of protein desired, and the like.

The polynucleotides can be introduced into prokaryotic or eukaryotic host cells via conventional transformation or transfection techniques. Examples of transformation and transfection techniques include calcium phosphate or calcium chloride co-precipitation, DEAE-dextran -mediated transfection, lipofection, electroporation, optical transfection, protoplast fusion, impalefection, hydrodynamic delivery, using a gene gun, magnetofection, and particle bombardment. Polynucleotides can also be introduced by infecting the cells with a viral vector (e.g., an adenovirus vector, an adeno-associated virus vector, a lentivirus vector or a retrovirus vector). Suitable methods for transforming or transfecting host cells can be found in Sambrook et al. (Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. 2nd, ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., 1989), and other laboratory manuals.

Also provided herein are proteins encoded by the selvamicin BGC polynucleotides disclosed herein. "Polypeptide," "peptide," and "protein" are used interchangeably and mean any peptide-linked chain of amino acids, regardless of length or post-translational modification. In some embodiments, the selvamicin BCG polynucleotides encode variant proteins. The variant proteins described herein comprise one or more amino acid substitutions, insertions, or deletions, relative to the wild-type protein from which they were derived, hi some embodiments, a variant protein comprises at least one (e.g., at least two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, or more than 100) amino acid substitutions, deletions, or insertions, relative to the wild-type, full-length NS3 protein from which it was derived. In some embodiments, a variant protein comprises no more than 150 (e.g. , no more than 145, 140, 135, 130, 125, 120, 115, 1 10, 105, 100, 95, 90, 85, 80, 75, 70, 65, 60, 55, 50, 45, 40, 35, 30, 25, 24, 23, 22, 21, 20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, or 1) amino acid substitution(s), deletion(s), or insertion(s), relative to the wild-type, full-length protein from which it was derived.

As used herein, the term "conservative substitution" refers to the replacement of an amino acid present in the native sequence in a given polypeptide with a naturally or non- naturally occurring amino acid having similar steric properties. Where the side-chain of the native amino acid to be replaced is either polar or hydrophobic, the conservative substitution should be with a naturally occurring amino acid, a non-naturally occurring amino acid that is also polar or hydrophobic, and, optionally, with the same or similar steric properties as the side-chain of the replaced amino acid. Conservative substitutions typically include substitutions within the following groups: glycine and alanine; valine, isoleucine, and leucine; aspartic acid and glutamic acid; asparagine, glutamine, serine and threonine; lysine, histidine and arginine; and phenylalanine and tyrosine. One letter amino acid abbreviations are as follows: alanine (A); arginine (R); asparagine (N); aspartic acid (D); cysteine (C); glycine (G); glutamine (Q); glutamic acid (E); histidine (H); isoleucine (I); leucine (L); lysine (K); methionine (M); phenylalanine (F); proline (P); serine (S); threonine (T);

tryptophan (W), tyrosine (Y); and valine (V).

The phrase "non-conservative substitutions" as used herein refers to replacement of the amino acid as present in the parent sequence by another naturally or non-naturally occurring amino acid, having different electrochemical and/or steric properties. Thus, the side chain of the substituting amino acid can be significantly larger (or smaller) than the side chain of the native amino acid being substituted and/or can have functional groups with significantly different electronic properties than the amino acid being substituted.

In some embodiments, a variant protein described herein, or a fragment thereof, has an amino acid sequence that is at least 80 (e.g., at least 81 , 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, or 99) % identical to the sequences disclosed herein. Percent amino acid sequence identity is defined as the percentage of amino acids in a candidate sequence that are identical to the amino acids in a reference sequence, after aligning the sequences and introducing gaps, if necessary, to achieve the maximum percent sequence identity. Alignment for purposes of determining percent sequence identity can be achieved in various ways that are within the skill in the art, for instance, using publicly available computer software, such as BLAST software or ClustalW2. Appropriate parameters for measuring alignment, including any algorithms needed to achieve maximal alignment over the full-length of the sequences being compared can be determined by known methods.

V. METHODS OF PRODUCING ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS

In certain embodiments, disclosed herein are methods for producing an antifungal agent (e.g., an antifungal agent described herein), the method comprising culturing a microorganism described herein (e.g. an engineered microorganism, such as an engineered bacterium comprising a selvamicin BGC described herein) under conditions such that the microorganism produces the antifungal agent. In some embodiments, the method further comprises isolating the antifungal agent. In some embodiments, the microorganism is cultured in the presence of sodium butyrate. In certain embodiments, provided herein are the antifungal agents produced by such methods.

In embodiments the microorganism is cultured on or in a microbial medium (e.g., an agar medium or a broth medium). In some embodiments, the agar or broth may contain nutrients that provide essential elements and specific factors that enable growth. An example would be a medium composed of 20 g/L glucose, 10 g/L yeast extract, 10 g/L soy peptone, 2 g/L citric acid, 1.5 g/L sodium phosphate monobasic, 100 mg/L ferric ammonium citrate, 80 mg/L magnesium sulfate, 10 mg/L hemin chloride, 2 mg/L calcium chloride, 1 mg/L menadione. Another examples would be a medium composed of 10 g/L beef extract, 10 g/L peptone, 5 g/L sodium chloride, 5 g/L dextrose, 3 g/L yeast extract, 3 g/L sodium acetate, 1 g/L soluble starch, and 0.5 g/L L-cysteine HC1, at pH 6.8. A variety of microbiological media and variations are well known in the art (e.g., R.M. Atlas, Handbook of

Microbiological Media (2010) CRC Press). Culture media can be added to the culture at the start, may be added during the culture, or may be intermittently/continuously flowed through the culture. The strains in the bacterial composition may be cultivated alone, as a subset of the microbial composition, or as an entire collection comprising the microbial composition. As an example, a first strain may be cultivated together with a second strain in a mixed continuous culture, at a dilution rate lower than the maximum growth rate of either cell to prevent the culture from washing out of the cultivation. Li some embodiments, the microbial medium comprises sodium butyrate (e.g., between 50 and 500 mM sodium butyrate, such as about 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, 290, 300, 350, 400, 450 or 500 mM sodium butyrate). In some embodiments, the microbial medium comprises between 100 and 200 mM sodium butyrate. In some embodiments, the microbial medium comprises about 150 mM sodium butyrate.

In certain embodiments, disclosed herein are methods for producing a modified polyene macrolide, the method comprising: culturing a host cell (e.g., a microorganism, such as a bacterium) comprising a polynucleotide encoding SelSI (SEQ ID No.: 6), SelSII (SEQ ID No.: 7), SelSIII (SEQ ID No.: 8), SelSIV (SEQ ID No.: 9), SelSV (SEQ ID No.: 10), SelSVI (SEQ ID No.: 11), and SelSVII (SEQ ID No.: 12), under conditions such that the host cell produces a modified polyene macrolide. In certain embodiments, disclosed herein are the modified polyene macrolide produced by such methods. In certain embodiments the host cell is a bacterium.

In certain aspects, provided herein are engineered microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) described herein. In some embodiments, the engineered microorganisms are modified to enhance certain desirable properties. The engineered microbe(s) may be produced using any technique known in the art, including but not limited to site-directed mutagenesis, transposon mutagenesis, knock-outs, knock-ins, polymerase chain reaction mutagenesis, chemical mutagenesis, ultraviolet light mutagenesis, transformation (chemically or by

electroporation), phage transduction, directed evolution, or any combination thereof.

In certain embodiments, disclosed herein are engineered microorganisms comprising a polynucleotide of selvamicin BGC (SEQ ID No.: 1). In certain embodiments, the polynucleotide of selvamicin BGC is modified. In certain embodiments, one or more of the polynucleotides selected from SelE (SEQ ID No.: 2), SelDIII (SEQ ID No.: 3), Sell (SEQ ID No.: 4), Sell (SEQ ID No.: 5), SelSI (SEQ ID No.: 6), SelSII (SEQ ID No.: 7), SelSIII (SEQ ID No.: 8), SelSIV (SEQ ID No.: 9), SelSV (SEQ ID No.: 10), SelSVI (SEQ ID No.: 11), and SelSVII (SEQ ID No.: 12), Sel A(SEQ ID No.: 13), SelB (SEQ ID No.: 14), SelC (SEQ ID No.: 15), SelK (SEQ ID No.: 16), SelL (SEQ ID No.: 17), SelP (SEQ ID No.: 18), SelDI (SEQ ID No.: 19), SelG(SEQ ID No.: 20), SelH (SEQ ID No.: 21), SelRI (SEQ ID No.: 22), SelRII (SEQ ID No.: 23), SelRIII (SEQ ID No.: 24), SelO (SEQ ID No.: 25), SelRIV (SEQ ID No.: 26), SelRV (SEQ ID No.: 27), and SelRVI (SEQ ID No.: 28) is mutated or deleted. In certain embodiments, the engineered microorganism is a bacteria other than

Pseudonocardia. In some embodiments, the engineered microorganism is Escherichia coli. In certain embodiments, disclosed herein are methods of producing a compound of Formula I, the method comprising: culturing an engineered microorganism of any disclosed herein; and allowing the compound of Formula I to accrue.

VI. DEFINITIONS

The articles "a" and "an" are used herein to refer to one or to more than one (i.e., to at least one) of the grammatical object of the article. By way of example, "an element" means one element or more than one element.

The term "acyl" is art-recognized and refers to a group represented by the general formula hydrocarbylC(O)-, preferably alkylC(O)-. The term "acylamino" is art-recognized and refers to an amino group substituted with an acyl group and may be represented, for example, by the formula hydrocarbylC(0)NH-.

The term "acyloxy" is art-recognized and refers to a group represented by the general formula hydrocarbylC(0)0-, preferably alkylC(0)0-.

The term "alkoxy" refers to an alkyl group, preferably a lower alkyl group, having an oxygen attached thereto. Representative alkoxy groups include methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, tert-butoxy and the like.

The term "alkoxyalkyl" refers to an alkyl group substituted with an alkoxy group and may be represented by the general formula alkyl-O-alkyl.

The term "alkenyl", as used herein, refers to an aliphatic group containing at least one double bond and is intended to include both "unsubstituted alkenyls" and "substituted alkenyls", the latter of which refers to alkenyl moieties having substituents replacing a hydrogen on one or more carbons of the alkenyl group. Such substituents may occur on one or more carbons that are included or not included in one or more double bonds. Moreover, such substituents include all those contemplated for alkyl groups, as discussed below, except where stability is prohibitive. For example, substitution of alkenyl groups by one or more alkyl, carbocyclyl, aryl, heterocyclyl, or heteroaryl groups is contemplated.

An "alkyl" group or "alkane" is a straight chained or branched non-aromatic hydrocarbon which is completely saturated. Typically, a straight chained or branched alkyl group has from 1 to about 20 carbon atoms, preferably from 1 to about 10 unless otherwise defined. Examples of straight chained and branched alkyl groups include methyl, ethyl, n- propyl, iso-propyl, n-butyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, hexyl, pentyl and octyl. A C 1 -C 6 straight chained or branched alkyl group is also referred to as a "lower alkyl" group.

Moreover, the term "alkyl" (or "lower alkyl") as used throughout the specification, examples, and claims is intended to include both "unsubstituted alkyls" and "substituted alkyls", the latter of which refers to alkyl moieties having substituents replacing a hydrogen on one or more carbons of the hydrocarbon backbone. Such substituents, if not otherwise specified, can include, for example, a halogen, a hydroxyl, a carbonyl (such as a carboxyl, an alkoxycarbonyl, a formyl, or an acyl), a thiocarbonyl (such as a thioester, a thioacetate, or a thioformate), an alkoxyl, a phosphoryl, a phosphate, a phosphonate, a phosphinate, an amino, an amido, an amidine, an imine, a cyano, a nitro, an azido, a sulfhydryl, an alkylthio, a sulfate, a sulfonate, a sulfamoyl, a sulfonamido, a sulfonyl, a heterocyclyl, an aralkyl, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic moiety. It will be understood by those skilled in the art that the moieties substituted on the hydrocarbon chain can themselves be substituted, if appropriate. For instance, the substituents of a substituted alkyl may include substituted and unsubstituted forms of amino, azido, imino, amido, phosphoryl (including phosphonate and phosphinate), sulfonyl (including sulfate, sulfonamido, sulfamoyl and sulfonate), and silyl groups, as well as ethers, alkylthios, carbonyls (including ketones, aldehydes, carboxylases, and esters), - CF3, -CN and the like. Exemplary substituted alkyls are described below. Cycloalkyls can be further substituted with alkyls, alkenyls, alkoxys, alkylthios, aminoalkyls, carbonyl- substituted alkyls, -CF3, -CN, and the like.

The term "C x-y " when used in conjunction with a chemical moiety, such as, acyl, acyloxy, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynj'l, or alkoxy is meant to include groups that contain from x to y carbons in the chain. For example, the term "Cx-yalkyl" refers to substituted or unsubstituted saturated hydrocarbon groups, including straight-chain alkyl and branched- chain alkyl groups that contain from x to y carbons in the chain, including haloalkyl groups such as trifluoromethyl and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyL etc. Co alkyl indicates a hydrogen where the group is in a terminal position, a bond if internal. The terms "C2- y alkenyl" and "C2- y alkynyl" refer to substituted or unsubstituted unsaturated aliphatic groups analogous in length and possible substitution to the alkyls described above, but that contain at least one double or triple bond respectively.

The term "carboxy", as used herein, refers to a group represented by the

formula -CO2H.

The term "heteroalkyl", as used herein, refers to a saturated or unsaturated chain of carbon atoms and at least one heteroatom, wherein no two heteroatoms are adjacent.

The term "lower" when used in conjunction with a chemical moiety, such as, acyl, acyloxy, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, or alkoxy is meant to include groups where there are ten or fewer non-hydrogen atoms in the substituent, preferably six or fewer. A "lower alkyl", for example, refers to an alkyl group that contains ten or fewer carbon atoms, preferably six or fewer. In certain embodiments, acyl, acyloxy, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, or alkoxy substituents defined herein are respectively lower acyl, lower acyloxy, lower alkyl, lower alkenyl, lower alkynyl, or lower alkoxy, whether they appear alone or in combination with other substituents, such as in the recitations hydroxyalkyl and aralkyl (in which case, for example, the atoms within the aryl group are not counted when counting the carbon atoms in the alkyl substituent). As used herein, the term "oxo" refers to a carbonyl group. When an oxo substituent occurs on an otherwise saturated group, such as with an oxo-substituted cycloalkyl group (e.g., 3-oxo-cyclobutyl), the substituted group is still intended to be a saturated group. When a group is referred to as being substituted by an "oxo" group, this can mean that a carbonyl moiety (i.e., -C(=0)-) replaces a methylene unit (i.e., -CH2-).

The term "substituted" refers to moieties having substituents replacing a hydrogen on one or more carbons of the backbone. It will be understood that "substitution" or "substituted with" includes the implicit proviso that such substitution is in accordance with permitted valence of the substituted atom and the substituent, and that the substitution results in a stable compound, e.g., which does not spontaneously undergo transformation such as by rearrangement, cyclization, elimination, etc. As used herein, the term "substituted" is contemplated to include all permissible substituents of organic compounds. In a broad aspect, the permissible substituents include acyclic and cyclic, branched and unbranched, carbocyclic and heterocyclic, aromatic and non-aromatic substituents of organic compounds. The permissible substituents can be one or more and the same or different for appropriate organic compounds. In some embodiments, the heteroatoms such as nitrogen may have hydrogen substituents and/or any permissible substituents of organic compounds described herein which satisfy the valences of the heteroatoms. Substituents can include any substituents described herein, for example, a halogen, a hydroxy], a carbonyl (such as a carboxyl, an alkoxycarbonyl, a formyl, or an acyl), a thiocarbonyl (such as a thioester, a thioacetate, or a thioformate), an alkoxyl, a phosphoryl, a phosphate, a phosphonate, a phosphinate, an amino, an amido, an amidine, an imine, a cyano, a nitro, an azido, a sulfhydryl, an alkylthio, a sulfate, a sulfonate, a sulfamoyl, a sulfonamido, a sulfonyl, a heterocyclyl, an aralkyl, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic moiety. It will be understood by those skilled in the art that substituents can themselves be substituted, if appropriate. Unless specifically stated as "unsubstituted," references to chemical moieties herein are understood to include substituted variants. For example, reference to an "aryl" group or moiety implicitly includes both substituted and unsubstituted variants.

"Protecting group" refers to a group of atoms that, when attached to a reactive functional group in a molecule, mask, reduce or prevent the reactivity of the functional group. Typically, a protecting group may be selectively removed as desired during the course of a synthesis. Examples of protecting groups can be found in Greene and Wuts, Protective Groups in Organic Chemistry, 3 rd Ed., 1999, John Wiley & Sons, NY and Harrison et al., Compendium of Synthetic Organic Methods, Vols. 1-8, 1971-1996, John Wiley & Sons, NY. Representative nitrogen protecting groups include, but are not limited to, formyl, acetyl, trifluoroacetyl, benzyl, benzyloxycarbonyl ("CBZ"), tert-butoxycarbonyl ("Boc"), trimethylsilyl ("TMS"), 2-trimetliylsilyl-ethanesulfonyl ("TES"), trityl and substituted trityl groups, allyloxycarbonyl, 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl ("FMOC"), nitro- veratryloxycarbonyl ("NVOC") and the like. Representative hydroxylprotecting groups include, but are not limited to, those where the hydroxyl group is either acylated (esterified) or alkylated such as benzyl and trityl ethers, as well as alkyl ethers, tetrahydropyranyl ethers, trialkylsilyl ethers (e.g., TMS or TIPS groups), glycol ethers, such as ethylene glycol and propylene glycol derivatives and allyl ethers.

As used herein, "administration" broadly refers to a route of administration of a composition to a subject. Examples of routes of administration include oral administration, rectal administration, topical administration, inhalation (nasal) or injection. Administration by injection includes intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), intratumoral (IT) and subcutaneous (SC) administration. The pharmaceutical compositions described herein can be administered in any form by any effective route, including but not limited to intratumoral, oral, parenteral, enteral, intravenous, intraperitoneal, topical, transdermal (e.g., using any standard patch), intradermal, ophthalmic, (intra)nasally, local, non-oral, such as aerosol, inhalation, subcutaneous, intramuscular, buccal, sublingual, (trans)rectal, vaginal, intraarterial, and intrathecal, transmucosal (e.g., sublingual, lingual, (trans)buccal, ( transurethral, vaginal (e.g. , trans- and perivaginally), intravesical, intrapulmonary, intraduodenal, intragastrical, and intrabronchial. In preferred embodiments, the pharmaceutical

compositions described herein are administered orally, rectally, intratumorally, topically, intravesically, by injection into or adjacent to a draining lymph node, intravenously, by inhalation or aerosol, or subcutaneously.

As used herein, a therapeutic that "prevents" a disorder or condition refers to a compound that, in a statistical sample, reduces the occurrence of the disorder or condition in the treated sample relative to an untreated control sample, or delays the onset or reduces the severity of one or more symptoms of the disorder or condition relative to the untreated control sample.

The term "treating" includes prophylactic and/or therapeutic treatments. The term "prophylactic or therapeutic" treatment is art-recognized and includes administration to the host of one or more of the subject compositions. If it is administered prior to clinical manifestation of the unwanted condition (e.g., disease or other unwanted state of the host animal) then the treatment is prophylactic (i.e., it protects the host against developing the unwanted condition), whereas if it is administered after manifestation of the unwanted condition, the treatment is therapeutic, (i.e., it is intended to diminish, ameliorate, or stabilize the existing unwanted condition or side effects thereof).

The terms "polynucleotide", and "nucleic acid" are used interchangeably. They refer to a polymeric form of nucleotides of any length, either deoxyribonucleotides or ribonucleotides, or analogs thereof. Polynucleotides may have any three-dimensional structure, and may perform any function. The following are non-limiting examples of polynucleotides: coding or non-coding regions of a gene or gene fragment, loci (locus) defined from linkage analysis, exons, introns, messenger RNA (niRNA), transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, ribozymes, cDNA, recombinant polynucleotides, branched polynucleotides, plasmids, vectors, isolated DNA of any sequence, isolated RNA of any sequence, nucleic acid probes, and primers. A polynucleotide may comprise modified nucleotides, such as methylated nucleotides and nucleotide analogs. If present, modifications to the nucleotide structure may be imparted before or after assembly of the polymer. A polynucleotide may be further modified, such as by conjugation with a labeling component. In all nucleic acid sequences provided herein, U nucleotides are interchangeable with T nucleotides.

The term "isolated nucleic acid" refers to a polynucleotide of natural or synthetic origin or some combination thereof, which (1) is not associated with the cell in which the "isolated nucleic acid" is found in nature, and/or (2) is operably linked to a polynucleotide to which it is not linked in nature.

The term "isolated polypeptide" refers to a polypeptide, in certain embodiments prepared from recombinant DNA or RNA, or of synthetic origin, or some combination thereof, which (1) is not associated with proteins that it is normally found with in nature, (2) is isolated from the cell in which it normally occurs, (3) is isolated free of other proteins from the same cellular source, (4) is expressed by a cell from a different species, or (5) does not occur in nature.

The term "percent identical" refers to sequence identity between two amino acid sequences or between two nucleotide sequences. Identity can each be determined by comparing a position in each sequence which may be aligned for purposes of comparison. When an equivalent position in the compared sequences is occupied by the same base or amino acid, then the molecules are identical at that position; when the equivalent site occupied by the same or a similar amino acid residue (e.g., similar in steric and/or electronic nature), then the molecules can be referred to as homologous (similar) at that position. Expression as a percentage of homology, similarity, or identity refers to a function of the number of identical or similar amino acids at positions shared by the compared sequences. Expression as a percentage of homology, similarity, or identity refers to a function of the number of identical or similar amino acids at positions shared by the compared sequences. Various alignment algorithms and/or programs may be used, including FASTA, BLAST, or ENTREZ. FASTA and BLAST are available as a part of the GCG sequence analysis package (University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.), and can be used with, e.g., default settings.

ENTREZ is available through the National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. In one embodiment, the percent identity of two sequences can be determined by the GCG program with a gap weight of 1, e.g., each amino acid gap is weighted as if it were a single amino acid or nucleotide mismatch between the two sequences.

The term "prodrug" is intended to encompass compounds which, under physiologic conditions, are converted into the therapeutically active agents described herein (e.g., a compound of formula I). A common method for making a prodrug is to include one or more selected moieties which are hydrolyzed under physiologic conditions to reveal the desired molecule. In other embodiments, the prodrug is converted by an enzymatic activity of the host animal. For example, esters or carbonates (e.g., esters or carbonates of alcohols or carboxylic acids) are preferred prodrugs described herein. In certain embodiments, some or all of the compounds of formula I in a formulation represented above can be replaced with the corresponding suitable prodrug, e.g., wherein a hydroxyl in the parent compound is presented as an ester or a carbonate or carboxylic acid present in the parent compound is presented as an ester.

Examples

The invention now being generally described will be more readily understood by reference to the following examples which are included merely for purposes of illustration of certain aspects and embodiments of the present invention , and are not intended to limit the invention in any way. Experimental Methods

General chemical analysis procedures: UV-visible absorbance spectra were collected on an Amersham Biosciences Ultrospec 5300 Pro spectrophotometer. High resolution mass spectrometry analysis was performed on an Agilent 6530 ESI QTOF mass spectrometer interfaced with an Agilent 1290 Infinity Binary LC. COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, HSQC, H2BC, HMBC, and 1H NMR experiments were performed on either a Varian VNMRS 600 MHz spectrometer equipped with a triple resonance HCN inverse probe or on a Varian INOVA 500 MHz spectrometer equipped with a triple resonance HCN coldprobe. 13C NMR experiments were performed on a Varian 400 MHz spectrometer equipped with a Varian OneNMR probe. Chemical shifts were referenced to the residual solvent peak in OMSO-d6. Optical rotation was measured on a Jasco P-2000 polarimeter fitted with a microcell (10 mm path length).

Selvamicin production and purification: Spores of Pseudonocardia LSI were diluted into sterile double distilled water (ddH20) and spread onto plates of ISP2 agar (BD DifcoTM ISP2; 60 mL agar per 150 x 15 mm Petri dish) supplemented with sodium butyrate (Aldrich, 150 raM final concentration, added after autoclaving), which were incubated at 30 °C for 14 d. Agar was then cut into squares and soaked in ethyl acetate overnight to extract organic components from the solid media. This extract was decanted and the agar was soaked in an additional volume of ethyl acetate for 3 h. The combined ethyl acetate extracts were concentrated in vacuo and adsorbed onto celite for dry packing onto a 10 g CI 8 SepPak column (Waters) that had been conditioned with acetonitrile and pre-equilibrated with 30% acetonitrile in water. Fractions were eluted with a step gradient of 30%, 50%, 70%, and 100% acetonitrile in water and concentrated to dryness. Consecutive fractions from elution at 50% acetonitrile were most active in inhibition of Candida albicans. Semipure material from these fractions was purified by reversed-phase HPLC (Agilent 1200 series preparative HPLC equipped with a diode array detector; Phenomenex Luna 10 μηι phenyl-hexyl preparative column, 250 χ 21.20 mm, 10 mL/min) with a gradient of 40% to 63% acetonitrile in water over 20 min. Selvamicin eluted at 12.5 min. The overall yield of pure selvamicin (isolated as an amorphous pale yellow solid) was 100 mg/L of agar. Selvamicin: [a]D 26 +128° (MeOH); UV (MeOH) λmαχ (log e) 305 (4.4), 319 (4.7), 334 (4.9), 352 (4.9) nm; NMR spectral data, see Figure 19; HR-ESI-TOFMS m/z 951.4928 [M+Na]+ (calcd for C47H76Na018: 951.4924)

Preparation of Ac9-selvamicin: Selvamicin (18 mg) was dissolved in anhydrous pyridine (0.5 mL) under nitrogen in an oven-dried vial containing a dry stir bar. This solution was cooled to 0 °C with stirring and a solution dimethylaminopyridine (1 mg) in anhydrous pyridine (100 μL) and acetic anhydride (100 μL) was added dropwise. After 5 min the reaction solution was warmed to room temperature and was stirred at room temperature under nitrogen for 5 h, at which point the reaction was complete by TLC. The reaction solution was evaporated to dryness in vacuo and Ac9-selvamicin was purified by reversed- phase HPLC (Agilent 1200 series semipreparative HPLC equipped with a diode array detector; Phenomenex Luna 5 μm C18 column, 250 χ 10 mm, 3 mL/min) with an isocratic solvent mixture of 87% acetonitrile in water. Ac9-selvamicin eluted at 8.4 min.

Ac9-selvamicin: NMR spectral data, see Figure 20; HR-ESI-TOFMS m/z 1329.5885

[M+Na]+ (calcd for C65H94Na027: 1329.5875)

Solubility determination: Solubility for selvamicin and nystatin was measured with minor modifications from a previously reported protocol.1 Briefly, in microcentrifuge tubes, 20 uL 5 mM HEPES (pH = 7.4) was added to 2.5 mg of selvamicin and of nystatin and the resulting suspensions were vortexed vigorously for 30 min at 22 °C. The tubes were centrifuged, the resulting supernatants were diluted in HEPES buffer, and concentrations were determined by UV-vis absorbance (306 nm for nystatin and 335 nm for selvamicin).

Isothermal calorimetry sterol binding assay:

Large unilamellar vesicle (LUV) preparation: In a glass vial, a 25 mg/mL solution of palmitoyl oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) in chloroform (0.96 mL, Avanti Polar Lipids) was mixed with a freshly prepared 4 mg/mL solution of the appropriate sterol (ergosterol or cholesterol, Aldrich) in chloroform (0.35 mL). The sterol solution was omitted for preparation of sterol-free POPC LUVs. The resulting solution was evaporated to dryness in vacuo to yield a lipid film, which was placed under high vacuum for at least 5 h. To this film was added 1 mL 5 mM HEPES (pH adjusted to 7.4 with KOH) and the resulting suspension was vortexed for 3 min. This lipid suspension was loaded into a syringe and passed through a 0.1 uM filter (Whatman) 21 times using an Avanti Polar Lipids Mini-Extruder to yield an LUV suspension (32 mM POPC, 11 mol % sterol; assumed no loss during extrusion).

Isothermal calorimetry (ITC) experiments: Solutions of polyene (150 uM selvamicin or nystatin) in 1% DMSO/ 5 mM HEPES (pH = 7.4) were prepared by dilution from a 15 mM solution in DMSO. 8 mM POPC LUV suspensions in 1% DMSO/ 5 mM HEPES (pH = 7.4) were prepared by dilution of the above LUV suspensions with HEPES buffer and DMSO. ITC experiments were performed on a MicroCal iTC200 instrument (Malvern Instruments) with the 150 μΜ polyene solution in the sample cell (200 uL) and the LUV suspension injected by pipette. Experiments were performed at 25 °C and consisted of an initial injection of 0.4 followed by 18 injections of 2 uL each at intervals of 150 s.

Experiments were performed for both nystatin and selvamicin with sterol-free LUVs, cholesterol-containing LUVs, and ergosterol-containingLUVs, with a minimum of two replicates for each condition. Robust binding, as indicated by heats evolved, was observed only for nystatin with ergosterol-containing vesicles. A dissociation constant for the nystatin- ergosterol interaction was estimated with the MicroCal ITC-ORIGIN analysis software in which the integrated heat for the last injection was subtracted from all of the data and a single binding site was assumed.

Induction with propionate and butyrate: Spores of each Pseudonocardia isolate were diluted into sterile double distilled water (ddH20) and spread onto ISP2 agar (BD DifcoTM ISP2; 1.5 mL agar per well in 12-well plates) supplemented with the appropriate inducer (sodium butyrate or sodium propionate, Aldrich; l-13C-sodium butyrate or l-13C-sodium propionate, Cambridge Isotope Labs; 0, 25, or 150 mM final concentration with all conditions in duplicate; added after autoclaving), which were incubated at 30 °C for 14 d. The agar was cut out of each well and soaked in 2 mL ethyl acetate for 48 h. The ethyl acetate extract was evaporated to dryness in vacuo, redissolved in 0.1 mL methanol, and analyzed by HPLC (Agilent 1200 series, equipped with a diode array detector). The selvamicin peak in the 375 mn absorbance chromatogram was integrated for each sample. Samples were also analyzed by HPLC-high resolution

Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration: Fresh DMSO solutions of selvamicin and nystatin were prepared as serial dilutions and dispensed into clear flat-bottom 96-well plates in four replicates. A starting inoculum of the appropriate test strain in media was added to each well to yield a final concentration of 1% DMSO by volume. The plates were incubated at 30 °C with shaking at 200 rpm. Growth was assayed by OD600 readings taken on a M5 plate reader (Molecular Devices). For E. coli, B. subtilis, and M. luteus, the starting inoculum consisted of an overnight culture in LB diluted into LB media at 10 μL/mL and final OD readings were taken at 22 h. For C. albicans and S. cerevisiae, the starting inoculum consisted of an overnight culture in YPD media diluted to an OD600 of 0.05 in YPD media and final OD readings were taken at 14 h. For T. harzianum and A. fumigatus, the starting inoculum consisted of a stock of concentrated conidia diluted into po tato dextrose broth at 2 μL/mL and final OD readings were taken at 22 h. Using Prism

(GraphPad), the OD data were normalized and fit to a Gompertz function, from which MIC values were extracted.

Genome sequencing and data deposition: DNA isolation and genome sequencing was performed. The complete genome for Pseudonocardia LS2 (HH130630- 07) has been deposited in the GenBank database (accession nos. CP013854, CP013855, and CP013856) and raw sequence data has been deposited in the Sequence Read Archive. The

Pseudonocardia LSI (HH130629-09) genome can be accessed using Genbank accession nos. CP01 1868 and CP011869.

Sequence comparison and analysis: Conserved replicons in the two chromosomes were compared using an average nucleotide identity (ANI) calculator, which provided a two-way ANI value of 83.3% from 8071 genomic fragments. The selvamicin gene cluster annotations were performed using antiSMASFi24 and blastp (nonredundant proteins db). The Geneious aligner was used for pairwise alignment with proteins from the nystatin biosynthetic gene cluster from S. noursei ATCC 11455 (accession no. AF263912). Polyketide synthase domains were detected by antiSMASFi2,4 and the translated protein sequences were aligned using Clustal W. Extractions from these domain alignments are displayed in Figure 14.

Example 1. Discovery and structure elucidation of selvamicin

Two Pseudonocardia isolates from ants in the genus Aplerostigma collected at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, HH130629-09 and HH130630-07 (hereafter LSI and LS2, respectively) were examined. Antifungal activity of organic-soluble extracts of cultures for both strains was evaluated against the common human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. The LSI extract was active and activity-guided fractionation was used though a C 18 cartridge followed by reverse-phase HPLC to trace this activity to a molecule with a previously unreported molecular formula of C 47 H 76 O 18 (high resolution ESI-MS [M+Na] + calcd 951.4924, expt 951.4928). The LS2 extract was examined by high resolution LC-MS and observed the same compound, although at approximately 5-fold lower abundance, clarifying this extract's lack of antifungal activity in our initial bioassay. The active compound's UV-vis spectrum is characteristic of a polyene, with three prominent peaks (319, 334, 352 nm) consistent with a chromophore of five conjugated double bonds (Figure 2). Subsequent NMR analysis using a variety of two-dimensional methods (COSY, TOCSY, HMBC, H2BC, and ROESY) revealed this compound to be a novel polyene macrolide, which has been named selvamicin after the site of original collection.

COSY and TOCSY correlations allowed construction of two major fragments of the selvamicin macrolide: one from C2-C8 and another from C13 across the pentaene to the molecule's terminus at C31 (overlap of the polyene resonances prevented definitive assignments of C19-C24). HMBC couplings link the C2-C8 fragment to quaternary carbons at either end: an ester carbonyl at CI (172.7 ppm) and a hemiketal at C9 (97.3 ppm). The hemiketal forms a 6-membered ring established by a series of HMBC couplings from the hemiketal OH at position 9, a tertiary alcohol and methyl substituent at C12, and the other bridgehead carbon at C13. H2BC correlations support the placement of substituents along the macrolide core of selvamicin (Figure 3). A series of ROES Y correlations establish an extended geometry for the C2-C8 aliphatic chain and a chair conformation for the hemiketal ring (Figure 3). These correlations, corroborated by available scalar coupling constants, allowed the assignment of relative stereochemistry from C4 to C13.

The NMR analysis also revealed two sugars in the structure of selvamicin. COSY and HMBC couplings revealed their planar structures as 6-deoxy and 2,6-dideoxy hexoses, as shown in Figure 1, Panel B. In order to better resolve the crowded sugar CH signals and reveal additional peak fine structure, selvamicin was reacted with acetic anhydride to modify its free hydroxyl groups. In the acetylation product, the hemiketal at position 9 was instead observed as a ketone, and with the exception of the tertiary alcohol at position 12, all OH groups were acetylated (Figure 4). Scalar couplings and ROESY correlations allowed the acetylated sugars in this product to be assigned as (Ac)3-P-6-deoxymannose and Ac-a-4-O- methyldigitoxose (Figure 5). The absolute configuration of the sugars was not determined. A clear HMBC coupling from the anomeric proton of the β-6-deoxymannose places this sugar at position 15 of the selvamicin macrolide (Figure 1, Panel B). While no HMBC couplings were observed for the anomeric proton of 4-O-methyldigitoxose, a series of ROESY correlations ( 1"-Η/27-Η, 1"-Η/33-Η, 5"-H/34"-H) locate this sugar on the opposite side of the macrolide at position 27. The 1 H and 13 C chemical shifts of the CH at position 27 support an oxygen substituent at this attachment point. From C25-C31, we observed broadened 1 H and 13 C resonances, which obscured scalar couplings to establish relative stereochemistry in this region. This peak broadening could reflect conformational exchange near the 4-O-methyldigitoxose glycosylation.

Selvamicin's structure diverges from the antifungal polyenes amphotericin B, nystatin A1, and natamycin in several key respects. Its 30-membered macrolide core is intermediate in size between that of the smaller antifungal natamycin and those of amphotericin B and nystatin A1. Selvamicin's unusual glycosylation is notable. The 6- deoxymannose replaces the mycosamine sugar common to most antifungal polyenes, and a second glycosylation, observed here at C27, is also unusual. Selvamicin represents, to our knowledge, the first report of either 6-deoxymannose or 4-O-methyldigitoxose sugars in a polyene natural product.

A second glycosylation located instead on the opposite end of the macrolide, as in selvamicin, has been observed among the minor fermentation products of the nystatin A1 producer Streptomyces noursei (nystatin A3, Figure 1, and NYST1070), and the candidin producer Streptomyces viridoflavus (candidoin), with the second sugar located at C35, the position corresponding to selvamicin's 4-O-methyldigitoxose attachment. While structurally distinct from 4-O-methyldigitoxose, these are also 2,6-dideoxy sugars (digitoxose, mycarose, and 2,6-dideoxy-L-erythro-hexopyranose-3-ulose, respectively). Notably, in contrast to fermentations of Streptomyces noursei and Streptomyces viridoflavus, we observe the diglycosylated polyene selvamicin as the major polyene species, and neither

monoglycosylated analog is detectable by LC-MS in extracts of LSI or LS2.

The presence of 4-deoxymannose in place of mycosamine represents the only- example of a non-cationic sugar at that position in a glycosylated polyene natural product. Correspondingly, the usual paired carboxylate substituent (position 16 in nystatin and amphotericin B and position 12 in natamycin) is absent in selvamicin. There is instead a methyl group and a tertiary alcohol at position 12. Example 2 - Chemical induction affords large quantities of selvamicin

The initial characterization and subsequent analysis of selvamicin was aided by the availability of large amounts of the compound (ultimately >100 mg) by chemical induction of Pseu donocardia isolate LSI using sodium butyrate. The addition of high concentrations of sodium butyrate (150 mM) to cultures of LSI and LS2 increased the production of selvamicin by approximately 20-fold (Figure 8). Using mass spectrometry, 13 C labeling of selvamicin was observed when 13 C sodium butyrate was used, indicating that butyrate can also act as a metabolic precursor (Figure 9). Sodium propionate also upregulated production in both LSI and LS2, and 13 C labeling also demonstrated incorporation into selvamicin.

Example 3 - Antifungal activity and solubility

Liquid broth-based activity testing confirmed selvamicin's antifungal activity against Candida albicans (MIC = 23 μΜ), with similar activity observed across a panel of fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus fiimigatus, and Trichoderma harzianum, Figure 10, Figure 21, Figure 23, Panel A). No activity was detected against either Gram-negative (E. coli) or Gram-positive (B. subtilis, M. luteus) bacteria. Selvamicin has more modest antifungal activity than clinically used polyene antifungals such as nystatin A1 (MIC = 1.0 uM against C. albicans). However, it has improved aqueous solubility (2.3 mM compared to 0.3 mM for nystatin A1), a major limitation of clinically available polyene antifungals. Selvamicin's improved solubility, despite its lack of charged carboxylate and ammonium groups, is probably contributed by its second sugar moiety.

The activity' of known polyene antifungals derives from interactions with ergosterol, the primary sterol of fungal plasma membranes. Such interactions can compromise membrane integrity and inhibit the function of membrane proteins. Not wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that ergosterol sequestration into extracellular aggregates may be the dominant mechanism of action, though several polyenes, including nystatin and

amphotericin B, have also long been known to permeabilize membranes by the formation of ergosterol-dependent transmembrane channels. The presumed geometry of these channels situates the charged end of the molecule at the lipid-water interface, with the polyene and polyol interacting with ergosterol within the plasma membrane. The dramatically different electrostatic nature of selvamicin would likely preclude channel formation, with a hydrophilic yet uncharged sugar at each end of the molecule. An interaction with ergosterol using an established isothermal calorimetry assay for binding to liposome-embedded ergosterol was probed. These experiments showed no evidence for binding, in stark contrast to control experiments using nystatin A1, suggesting that this interaction is much attenuated if present at all (Figure 13).

Example 4- Biosynthetic gene cluster

To understand the genetic origins of selvamicin biosynthesis, the genomes of Pseudonocardia isolates LSI and LS2, sequenced using PacBio technology, were examined. A large type I PKS gene cluster was identified in both genomes that satisfies the biosynthetic requirements for selvamicin (Figure 11). The 109 kbp selvamicin biosynthetic gene clusters (BGC) from each isolate share perfect synteny and 98.4% nucleotide identity over their length. In contrast, the whole genomes differ more substantially. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) calculated across conserved replicons on both chromosomes is only 83% and a comparison of housekeeping gene sequences places LSI and LS2 into distinct clades previously established for ant-associated Pseudonocardia. Overall, the two BGCs are much more similar to one another than are their bacterial hosts.

Surprisingly, the selvamicin BGC is situated in completely different genomic contexts in the two selvamicin producers; in LSI it resides on the 6.1 Mbp circular chromosome, while in LS2 it is on a 376 kbp plasmid, pLS2-l (Figure 11, Panel A). The presence of an identical BGC in two divergent Pseudonocardia isolates, and in different genomic contexts, points to recent horizontal transfer. In keeping with recent movement of this cluster, it is flanked by numerous mobile genetic elements in both genomes, including transposases and integrases (Figure 11, Panel B). Such genes are prevalent across both genomes. On the pLS2-l plasmid containing the selvamicin BGC, an impressive 24% of all RAST-annotated genes are mobile genetic elements.

Plasmid-encoded secondary metabolite biosynthesis in several other ant-associated Pseudonocardia. These plasmids are an unmatched source of genetic, chemical, and functional diversity. For example, an additional plasmid-borne cluster that encodes for an antibacterial rebeccamycin analog is thought to mediate niche defense between otherwise nearly indistinguishable Pseudonocardia. In contrast, here, a plasmid and a recent chromosomal insertion in two distinct bacterial isolates that represent convergence on an unususal polyene macrolide was identified. These results mirror those observed for the gerumycins, cyclic depsipeptides of unknown function. Both selvamicin and gerumycin BGCs are found on the LSI chromosome - though in other strains they are found on plasmids. Overall, these observations continue to implicate plasmid-based genetic exchange between these bacterial symbionts and the environment with the Pseudonocardia acting as a reservoir for mobile BGCs that encode useful biological activities.

Example 5- Biosynthesis

The selvamicin cluster resembles known type I PKS-derived polyene BGCs, and a side-by-side comparison with the well-characterized nystatin BGC readily reveals the origins of selvamicin 's unusual structural features (Figure 12). Both natural products derive from type I iterative PKSs with polyketide elongation modules spread across five genes (sel/nysB, -C, -I, -J, and -K). Relative to the corresponding genes for nystatin, selC and seU each lack two PKS modules, corresponding to the observed four-carbon truncations of selvamicin's polyene and polyol moieties opposite one another on the macrolide. The polyketide backbone of selvamicin can be traced through 14 PKS modules with ketoreductase (KR), dehydratase (DH), and enoylreductase (ER) domains dictating the oxidation state of each malonyl or methylmalonyl unit (Figures 14 and 15). As often observed in type I PKS modules, there are several presumably inactive vestigial domains with mutations and/or truncations at their active sites: a DH and ER in module 13 and a KR in module 11.

SelA, the putative PKS loading module for selvamicin's propionate starter unit, shares several unusual features with previously characterized polyene loading modules, the function of which are poorly understood. Unlike most type I PKS loading modules, SelA is a separate protein distinct from the first elongation module and a serine is found in place of the canonical KS active site cysteine. Like NysA, the nystatin loading module critical for initiation of its biosynthesis, SelA contains a presumably inacti ve DH domain with no obvious function. Most unusual, and without precedent in polyketide loading modules, the SelA AT domain lacks the critical active site histidine and has a large truncation of approximately 65 amino acids in the middle of the domain (Figure 14), suggesting that an alternative means of loading the initial acyl starter unit may be operative.

Tailoring of the polyketide core of selvamicin requires hydroxylations at C4 and C12. SelL, a cytochrome p450 with homology to the p450 NysL that installs nystatin's CIO hydroxyl, is the most probable oxidase for C4. SelP, a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase with homology to phytanoyl-CoA dioxygenases was also identified. No homologous enzyme has been observed in other polyene clusters and this oxidase could be responsible for selvamicin's unusual C12 hydroxylation. The canonical paired carboxylate and ammonium in polyene antifungals are both lacking in selvamicin. Notably, both the p450 NysN and ferredoxin NysM believed to install nystatin's carboxylate at C16 are absent in the selvamicin cluster, consistent with selvamicin's unoxidized methyl substituent at C12. The aminotransferase responsible for ammonium installation on the mycosamine sugar, NysDII, is also absent from the selvamicin cluster. The remaining sugar-related enzymes in the nystatin BGC, the mannose 4,6- dehydratase NysDIII and the glycosyltransferase NysDI, both have homologs in the selvamicin cluster and are consistent with the 6-deoxymannose found at C15.

Scheme 2: Proposed reactions carried out by the selvamicin 4-O-methyldigitoxose sugar subcluster

The most significant divergence from nystatin's BGC is a subcluster of seven sugar biosynthesis genes, selSI though selSVII, found in the middle of the selvamicin BGC. These include a glycosyltransferase gene, selSV, and six genes consistent with 4-O- methyldigitoxose biosynthesis as a TDP-sugar from glucose- 1 -phosphate (Scheme 2). The putative 4-O-methyldigitoxose biosynthesis proteins are homologous to a similar suite of proteins responsible for digitoxose biosynthesis in the BGC for jadomycin B in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230. However, the selvamicin sugar subcluster additionally contains an O- methyltransferase gene (selSI), and it curiously lacks an NDP-sugar 4-ketoreductase which should be required for digitoxose formation. Recently, 4-ketoreductase activity has been reported for a bifunctional SAM-dependent methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of mithramycin's sugars. Similar bifunctional activity could be operative for the SelSI methyltransferase or alternatively this activity could require a separate 4-ketoreductase outside the selvamicin BGC in both the LSI and LS2 genomes. This sugar subcluster s insertion within a cluster of familiar polyene biosynthetic genes fits well with the paradigm of modular subclusters recombining over the course of natural product evolution to generate new products. Presumably, a similar suite of genes synthesizes and attaches the digitoxose sugar to nystatin A3, though no such subcluster occurs in the nystatin BGC from Streptomyces noursei. Whole genome sequencing of this strain may eventually reveal the location of these genes. Nystatin A3 , s occurrence as a minor product of the nystatin BGC contrasts with selvamicin's occurrence as the principal product of the selvamicin cluster. The 4-(9-methyldigitoxose subcluster's incorporation into the selvamicin BGC likely reflects selection for diglycosylation in the principal product. If this subcluster is truly modular it should present a biosynthetic engineering opportunity for appending 4-O-methyldigitoxose to other polyene scaffolds. Encouragingly, diglycoslated nystatin analogs, currently available only as minor products from Streptomyces noursei fermentation, have comparable anti-Candida potency to nystatin A1. A boost in solubility from an additional sugar would address a major pharmacological limitation of antifungals such as nystatin A1 and amphotericin B.

Example 6 - Creation of solubility-improved polyene antifungals using selvamicin's subcluster of sugar biosynthetic genes (Prophetic)

The subcluster of sugar biosynthesis genes found in selvamicin's biosynthetic gene cluster (SelSI - SelSVII, Figure 12) should contain all genes required to synthesize the sugar 4-O-methyldigitoxose and attach it to a polyene macrolide. It is predicted that this suite of genes could be transferred to the producing organism of a structurally related polyene antifungal and would act in the same fashion, allowing for the creation of new glycosylated analogs of existing antifungal agents. Glycosylation should increase aqueous solubility, which is currently a major limitation of the clinically important antifungals amphotericin B and nystatin A1, shown below:

Example 7 - Generation of non-natural selvamicin analogs (Prophetic)

Non-natural analogs of selvamicin may be generated with retained or possibly improved antifungal activity by manipulating its biosynthetic gene cluster using gene knockouts. There are many possibilities here, including knockouts of the oxidases SelP or SelL to yield analogs lacking hydroxyl substituents at C4 or CI 2, respectively.

Selvamicin is a type I polyketide natural product whose macrolide core is generated by the iterative action polyketide modules. The types of domains comprising each module dictate the final polyketide structure, as depicted in Figure 16, Panel A.

Selvamicin analogs could be generated by deleting or disrupting individual modules (rather than entire genes), an approach that has been widely used to generate analogs of other polyene natural products. In one example, the ketoreductase domain of module 13 could be disrupted to generate analog 1 shown in Figure 16, Panel B.

In another example, the dehydratase domain of module 14 could be disrupted to generate analog 2 shown in Figure 16, Panel C.

Example 8 - Selvamicin in vivo antifungal activity

Selvamicin was tested in the neutropenic mouse disseminated candidiasis model. Briefly, mice were infected with an inoculum of 5.70 log 10 cfu/ml of Candida albicans Kl. Two hours after infection, the mice were administered either saline or selvamicin at 80 mg kg via the intraperitoneal route. Eight hours after therapy, the burden of Candida albicans in mouse kidneys was measured by viable plate counts of organ homogenates. Selvamicin demonstrated efficacy in preventing Candida albicans growth following a single administration. No animal toxicity was apparent throughout the study.

Example 9- Selvamicin in vivo antifungal activity

Selvamicin was tested in the neutropenic mouse disseminated candidiasis model. Mice were infected with an inoculum of C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. auris. After infection, the mice were administered either saline or selvamicin at 20 mg/kg or 80 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. After therapy, the burden of Candida albicans in mouse kidneys was measured by viable plate counts of organ homogenates. Selvamicin demonstrated efficacy in preventing C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. auris growth in a dose dependent fashion following administration (Figure 23, Panel B and C).

While the present disclosure has been described with reference to the specific embodiments thereof, it should be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted without departing from the true spirit and scope of the disclosure. In addition, many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation, material, composition of matter, process, process step or steps, to the objective, spirit and scope of the present disclosure. All such modifications are intended to be within the scope of the disclosure.

All publications, patents, patent applications and sequence accession numbers mentioned herein are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety as if each individual publication, patent or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference. In case of conflict, the present application, including any definitions herein, will control.