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Title:
APPARATUS, METHOD AND COMPUTER PROGRAM
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2020/064111
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
There is provided an apparatus, said apparatus comprising means for receiving a signal from a network, determining a plurality of time shifted time domain signals, each time shifted domain signal based on the received signal and a respective time shift operation, determining which of the time shifted time domain signals has the lowest number of taps above a threshold and providing an indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network.

Inventors:
ZIRWAS WOLFGANG (DE)
SIVASIVA GANESAN RAKASH (DE)
Application Number:
EP2018/076276
Publication Date:
April 02, 2020
Filing Date:
September 27, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
NOKIA TECHNOLOGIES OY (FI)
International Classes:
H04L25/02; H04B7/06; H04L5/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2014121845A12014-08-14
WO2011146606A12011-11-24
WO2017088925A12017-06-01
Foreign References:
EP2139124A12009-12-30
Other References:
ERICSSON: "Frequency parametrization for Type II CSI feedback", vol. RAN WG1, no. Spokane, USA; 20170403 - 20170407, 2 April 2017 (2017-04-02), XP051244038, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20170402]
None
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
NOKIA TECHNOLOGIES OY et al. (FI)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1. An apparatus, said apparatus comprising means for:

receiving a signal from a network;

determining a plurality of time shifted time domain signals, each time shifted domain signal based on the received signal and a respective time shift operation; determining which of the time shifted time domain signals has the lowest number of taps above a threshold; and

providing an indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network.

2. An apparatus according to claim 1 , comprising means for providing an indication of the respective time shift operation for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network.

3. An apparatus according to claim 1 or claim 2, wherein the indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal comprises quantised tap values.

4. An apparatus according to any of claims 1 to 3, wherein each time shift operation comprises a phase slope vector applied to the signal received from the network in the frequency domain.

5. An apparatus according to claims 1 to 4, wherein the received signal is a reference signal.

6. An apparatus according to any of claims 1 to 5 comprising means for:

providing a subsequent periodic indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal.

7. An apparatus according to any of claims 1 to 6 comprising means for:

determining, at the apparatus based on the indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal, parameters of the signal received from the network;

receiving an authentication value from the network;

determining if the authentication value is associated with the determined parameters; and

providing feedback to the network based on the determining.

8. An apparatus comprising means for: providing a signal to a user equipment; and

receiving from the user equipment an indication of taps for a time shifted domain signal, wherein the time shifted domain signal is determined from a plurality of time shifted time domain signals to have the lowest number of taps above a threshold, each of the plurality of time shifted domain signals based on the signal provided to the user equipment and a respective time shift operation.

9. An apparatus according to claim 8, comprising means for receiving an indication of the respective time shift operation for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network.

10. An apparatus according to claim 8 or claim 9 wherein the indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal comprises quantised tap values.

1 1. An apparatus according to any of claims 8 to 10, wherein each time shift operation comprises a phase slope vector applied to the signal received from the network in the frequency domain.

12. An apparatus according to claims 8 to 1 1 , wherein the signal provided to the user equipment is a reference signal.

13. An apparatus according to any of claims 8 to 12 comprising means for:

receiving a subsequent periodic indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal.

14. An apparatus according to any of claims 8 to 13 comprising means for:

determining, based on the indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal, parameters of the signal provided to the user equipment;

providing an authentication value associated with the parameters to the user equipment;

receiving feedback from the user equipment indicating whether authentication value is verified.

15. A method comprising:

receiving a signal from a network;

determining a plurality of time shifted time domain signals, each time shifted domain signal based on the received signal and a respective time shift operation; determining which of the time shifted time domain signals has the lowest number of taps above a threshold; and providing an indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network.

16. A method comprising:

providing a signal to a user equipment; and

receiving from the user equipment an indication of taps for a time shifted domain signal, wherein the time shifted domain signal is determined from a plurality of time shifted time domain signals to have the lowest number of taps above a threshold, each of the plurality of time shifted domain signals based on the signal provided to the user equipment and a respective time shift operation.

17. An apparatus comprising: at least one processor and at least one memory including a computer program code, the at least one memory and computer program code configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus at least to:

receive a signal from a network;

determine a plurality of time shifted time domain signals, each time shifted domain signal based on the received signal and a respective time shift operation; determine which of the time shifted time domain signals has the lowest number of taps above a threshold; and

provide an indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network.

18. An apparatus comprising: at least one processor and at least one memory including a computer program code, the at least one memory and computer program code configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus at least to:

provide a signal to a user equipment; and

receive from the user equipment an indication of taps for a time shifted domain signal, wherein the time shifted domain signal is determined from a plurality of time shifted time domain signals to have the lowest number of taps above a threshold, each of the plurality of time shifted domain signals based on the signal provided to the user equipment and a respective time shift operation.

19. A computer readable medium comprising program instructions for causing an apparatus to perform at least the following:

receiving a signal from a network; determining a plurality of time shifted time domain signals, each time shifted domain signal based on the received signal and a respective time shift operation; determining which of the time shifted time domain signals has the lowest number of taps above a threshold; and

providing an indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network.

20. A computer readable medium comprising program instructions for causing an apparatus to perform at least the following:

providing a signal to a user equipment; and

receiving from the user equipment an indication of taps for a time shifted domain signal, wherein the time shifted domain signal is determined from a plurality of time shifted time domain signals to have the lowest number of taps above a threshold, each of the plurality of time shifted domain signals based on the signal provided to the user equipment and a respective time shift operation.

Description:
Title

Apparatus, method and computer program

Field

The present application relates to a method, apparatus, system and computer program and in particular but not exclusively to explicit time domain channel state information (CSI) reporting for New Radio (NR).

Background

A communication system can be seen as a facility that enables communication sessions between two or more entities such as user terminals, base stations and/or other nodes by providing carriers between the various entities involved in the communications path. A communication system can be provided for example by means of a communication network and one or more compatible communication devices. The communication sessions may comprise, for example, communication of data for carrying communications such as voice, video, electronic mail (email), text message, multimedia and/or content data and so on. Non-limiting examples of services provided comprise two-way or multi-way calls, data communication or multimedia services and access to a data network system, such as the Internet.

In a wireless communication system at least a part of a communication session between at least two stations occurs over a wireless link. Examples of wireless systems comprise public land mobile networks (PLMN), satellite based communication systems and different wireless local networks, for example wireless local area networks (WLAN). The wireless systems can typically be divided into cells, and are therefore often referred to as cellular systems.

A user can access the communication system by means of an appropriate communication device or terminal. A communication device of a user may be referred to as user equipment (UE) or user device. A communication device is provided with an appropriate signal receiving and transmitting apparatus for enabling communications, for example enabling access to a communication network or communications directly with other users. The communication device may access a carrier provided by a station, for example a base station of a cell, and transmit and/or receive communications on the carrier. The communication system and associated devices typically operate in accordance with a given standard or specification which sets out what the various entities associated with the system are permitted to do and how that should be achieved. Communication protocols and/or parameters which shall be used for the connection are also typically defined. One example of a communications system is UTRAN (3G radio). Other examples of communication systems are the long-term evolution (LTE) of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) radio-access technology and so-called 5G or New Radio (NR) networks. NR is being standardized by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).

Summary

In a first aspect there is provided an apparatus, said apparatus comprising means for receiving a signal from a network, determining a plurality of time shifted time domain signals, each time shifted domain signal based on the received signal and a respective time shift operation, determining which of the time shifted time domain signals has the lowest number of taps above a threshold and providing an indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network.

The apparatus may comprise means for providing an indication of the respective time shift operation for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network.

The indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal may comprise quantised tap values.

Each time shift operation may comprise a phase slope vector applied to the signal received from the network in the frequency domain.

The received signal may be a reference signal.

The apparatus may comprise means for providing a subsequent periodic indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal.

The apparatus may comprise means for determining, at the apparatus based on the indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal, parameters of the signal received from the network, receiving an authentication value from the network, determining if the authentication value is associated with the determined parameters and providing feedback to the network based on the determining.

In a second aspect, there is provided an apparatus, said apparatus comprising means for providing a signal to a user equipment and receiving from the user equipment an indication of taps for a time shifted domain signal, wherein the time shifted domain signal is determined from a plurality of time shifted time domain signals to have the lowest number of taps above a threshold, each of the plurality of time shifted domain signals based on the signal provided to the user equipment and a respective time shift operation.

The apparatus may comprise means for receiving an indication of the respective time shift operation for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network.

The indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal may comprise quantised tap values.

Each time shift operation may comprises a phase slope vector applied to the signal received from the network in the frequency domain.

The signal provided to the user equipment may be a reference signal.

The apparatus may comprise means for receiving a subsequent periodic indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal.

The apparatus may comprise means for determining, based on the indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal, parameters of the signal provided to the user equipment, providing an authentication value associated with the parameters to the user equipment and receiving feedback from the user equipment indicating whether authentication value is verified.

In a third aspect, there is provided a method comprising receiving a signal from a network, determining a plurality of time shifted time domain signals, each time shifted domain signal based on the received signal and a respective time shift operation, determining which of the time shifted time domain signals has the lowest number of taps above a threshold and providing an indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network. The method may comprise providing an indication of the respective time shift operation for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network.

The indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal may comprise quantised tap values.

Each time shift operation may comprise a phase slope vector applied to the signal received from the network in the frequency domain.

The received signal may be a reference signal.

The method may comprise providing a subsequent periodic indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal.

The method may comprise determining, at the apparatus based on the indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal, parameters of the signal received from the network, receiving an authentication value from the network, determining if the authentication value is associated with the determined parameters and providing feedback to the network based on the determining.

In a fourth aspect, there is provided a method comprising providing a signal to a user equipment and receiving from the user equipment an indication of taps for a time shifted domain signal, wherein the time shifted domain signal is determined from a plurality of time shifted time domain signals to have the lowest number of taps above a threshold, each of the plurality of time shifted domain signals based on the signal provided to the user equipment and a respective time shift operation.

The method may comprise receiving an indication of the respective time shift operation for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network.

The indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal may comprise quantised tap values.

Each time shift operation may comprises a phase slope vector applied to the signal received from the network in the frequency domain.

The signal provided to the user equipment may be a reference signal. The method may comprise receiving a subsequent periodic indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal.

The method may comprise determining, based on the indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal, parameters of the signal provided to the user equipment, providing an authentication value associated with the parameters to the user equipment and receiving feedback from the user equipment indicating whether authentication value is verified.

In a fifth aspect there is provided an apparatus comprising at least one processor and at least one memory including a computer program code, the at least one memory and computer program code configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus at least to receive a signal from a network, determine a plurality of time shifted time domain signals, each time shifted domain signal based on the received signal and a respective time shift operation, determine which of the time shifted time domain signals has the lowest number of taps above a threshold and provide an indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network.

The apparatus may be configured to provide indication of the respective time shift operation for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network.

The indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal may comprise quantised tap values.

Each time shift operation may comprise a phase slope vector applied to the signal received from the network in the frequency domain.

The received signal may be a reference signal.

The apparatus may be configured to provide a subsequent periodic indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal.

The apparatus may be configured to determine, at the apparatus based on the indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal, parameters of the signal received from the network, receive an authentication value from the network, determine if the authentication value is associated with the determined parameters and provide feedback to the network based on the determining. In a sixth aspect there is provided apparatus comprising: at least one processor and at least one memory including a computer program code, the at least one memory and computer program code configured to, with the at least one processor, cause the apparatus at least to provide a signal to a user equipment and receive from the user equipment an indication of taps for a time shifted domain signal, wherein the time shifted domain signal is determined from a plurality of time shifted time domain signals to have the lowest number of taps above a threshold, each of the plurality of time shifted domain signals based on the signal provided to the user equipment and a respective time shift operation.

The apparatus may be configured to receive an indication of the respective time shift operation for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network.

The indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal may comprise quantised tap values.

Each time shift operation may comprises a phase slope vector applied to the signal received from the network in the frequency domain.

The signal provided to the user equipment may be a reference signal.

The apparatus may be configured to receive a subsequent periodic indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal.

The apparatus may be configured to determine, based on the indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal, parameters of the signal provided to the user equipment, provide an authentication value associated with the parameters to the user equipment and receive feedback from the user equipment indicating whether authentication value is verified.

In a seventh aspect there is provided a computer readable medium comprising program instructions for causing an apparatus to perform at least the following receiving a signal from a network, determining a plurality of time shifted time domain signals, each time shifted domain signal based on the received signal and a respective time shift operation, determining which of the time shifted time domain signals has the lowest number of taps above a threshold and

providing an indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network. The apparatus may be caused to perform providing an indication of the respective time shift operation for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network.

The indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal may comprise quantised tap values.

Each time shift operation may comprise a phase slope vector applied to the signal received from the network in the frequency domain.

The received signal may be a reference signal.

The apparatus may be caused to perform providing a subsequent periodic indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal.

The apparatus may be caused to perform determining, at the apparatus based on the indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal, parameters of the signal received from the network, receiving an authentication value from the network, determining if the authentication value is associated with the determined parameters and providing feedback to the network based on the determining.

In an eighth aspect there is provided a computer readable medium comprising program instructions for causing an apparatus to perform at least the following providing a signal to a user equipment and receiving from the user equipment an indication of taps for a time shifted domain signal, wherein the time shifted domain signal is determined from a plurality of time shifted time domain signals to have the lowest number of taps above a threshold, each of the plurality of time shifted domain signals based on the signal provided to the user equipment and a respective time shift operation.

The apparatus may be caused to perform receiving an indication of the respective time shift operation for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network.

The indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal may comprise quantised tap values.

Each time shift operation may comprises a phase slope vector applied to the signal received from the network in the frequency domain.

The signal provided to the user equipment may be a reference signal. The apparatus may be caused to perform receiving a subsequent periodic indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal.

The apparatus may be caused to perform determining, based on the indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal, parameters of the signal provided to the user equipment, providing an authentication value associated with the parameters to the user equipment and receiving feedback from the user equipment indicating whether authentication value is verified.

In a ninth aspect there is provided a non-transitory computer readable medium comprising program instructions for causing an apparatus to perform at least the method according to the third aspect or a method according to the fourth aspect.

In the above, many different embodiments have been described. It should be appreciated that further embodiments may be provided by the combination of any two or more of the embodiments described above.

Description of Figures

Embodiments will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying Figures in which:

Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of an example communication system comprising a base station and a plurality of communication devices;

Figure 2 shows a schematic diagram of an example mobile communication device;

Figure 3 shows a schematic diagram of an example control apparatus;

Figure 4 shows an illustration of a channel impulse response (CIR);

Figure 5 shows a graph illustrating subtap movement in a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) scenario; Figure 6 shows a graph illustrating the properties of a CIR and a reconstructed CIR;

Figure 7 shows a graph illustrating delay and amplitude of multipath components (MPC); Figure 8 shows a flowchart of a method according to an example embodiment;

Figure 9 shows a flowchart of a method according to an example embodiment;

Figure 10 shows a schematic block diagram of a method according to an example embodiment;

Figure 11 shows an illustration of the variable phase sloping applied to the frequency domain channel transfer function (CTF);

Figure 12 shows a plurality of time shifted CIRs;

Figure 13 shows a signalling flow according to an embodiment;

Figure 14 shows a signalling flow according to an embodiment;

Figure 15 shows a signalling flow according to an embodiment;

Figure 16 shows a graph illustrating the application of a time shift operation to a CIR comprising multiple MPCs;

Figure 17 shows a graph illustrating the number of relevant taps for different phase slopes;

Figure 18 shows an illustration of a radio channel CIR after time shifting;

Figure 19 shows a graph illustrating the number of feedback bits for a given normalised mean square error (NMSE);

Figure 20 shows a graph illustrating cumulative distributive functions (CDF) of signal-to- interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) for a single joint transmission coordinated multipoint (JT CoMP) inter site cooperation area;

Figure 21 shows a graph illustrating the CDFs of feedback overhead number of bits. Detailed description

Before explaining in detail the examples, certain general principles of a wireless communication system and mobile communication devices are briefly explained with reference to Figures 1 to 3 to assist in understanding the technology underlying the described examples.

In a wireless communication system 100, such as that shown in figure 1 , mobile communication devices or user equipment (UE) 102, 104, 105 are provided wireless access via at least one base station or similar wireless transmitting and/or receiving node or point. Base stations are typically controlled by at least one appropriate controller apparatus, so as to enable operation thereof and management of mobile communication devices in communication with the base stations. The controller apparatus may be located in a radio access network (e.g. wireless communication system 100) or in a core network (CN) (not shown) and may be implemented as one central apparatus or its functionality may be distributed over several apparatuses. The controller apparatus may be part of the base station and/or provided by a separate entity such as a Radio Network Controller. In Figure 1 control apparatus 108 and 109 are shown to control the respective macro level base stations 106 and 107. The control apparatus of a base station can be interconnected with other control entities. The control apparatus is typically provided with memory capacity and at least one data processor. The control apparatus and functions may be distributed between a plurality of control units. In some systems, the control apparatus may additionally or alternatively be provided in a radio network controller.

In Figure 1 base stations 106 and 107 are shown as connected to a wider communications network 1 13 via gateway 1 12. A further gateway function may be provided to connect to another network.

The smaller base stations 1 16, 1 18 and 120 may also be connected to the network 1 13, for example by a separate gateway function and/or via the controllers of the macro level stations. The base stations 1 16, 1 18 and 120 may be pico or femto level base stations or the like. In the example, stations 1 16 and 1 18 are connected via a gateway 1 1 1 whilst station 120 connects via the controller apparatus 108. In some embodiments, the smaller stations may not be provided. Smaller base stations 1 16, 1 18 and 120 may be part of a second network, for example WLAN and may be WLAN APs.

The communication devices 102, 104, 105 may access the communication system based on various access techniques, such as code division multiple access (CDMA), or wideband CDMA (WCDMA). Other non-limiting examples comprise time division multiple access (TDMA), frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and various schemes thereof such as the interleaved frequency division multiple access (IFDMA), single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) and orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), space division multiple access (SDMA) and so on.

An example of wireless communication systems are architectures standardized by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). A latest 3GPP based development is often referred to as the long term evolution (LTE) of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) radio-access technology. The various development stages of the 3GPP specifications are referred to as releases. More recent developments of the LTE are often referred to as LTE Advanced (LTE-A). The LTE (LTE-A) employs a radio mobile architecture known as the Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) and a core network known as the Evolved Packet Core (EPC). Base stations of such systems are known as evolved or enhanced Node Bs (eNBs) and provide E-UTRAN features such as user plane Packet Data Convergence/Radio Link Control/Medium Access Control/Physical layer protocol (PDCP/RLC/MAC/PHY) and control plane Radio Resource Control (RRC) protocol terminations towards the communication devices. Other examples of radio access system comprise those provided by base stations of systems that are based on technologies such as wireless local area network (WLAN) and/or WiMax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access). A base station can provide coverage for an entire cell or similar radio service area. Core network elements include Mobility Management Entity (MME), Serving Gateway (S-GW) and Packet Gateway (P-GW).

An example of a suitable communications system is the 5G or NR concept. Network architecture in NR may be similar to that of LTE-advanced. Base stations of NR systems may be known as next generation Node Bs (gNBs). Changes to the network architecture may depend on the need to support various radio technologies and finer QoS support, and some on-demand requirements for e.g. QoS levels to support QoE of user point of view. Also network aware services and applications, and service and application aware networks may bring changes to the architecture. Those are related to Information Centric Network (ICN) and User-Centric Content Delivery Network (UC-CDN) approaches. NR may use multiple input - multiple output (MIMO) antennas, many more base stations or nodes than the LTE (a so-called small cell concept), including macro sites operating in co-operation with smaller stations and perhaps also employing a variety of radio technologies for better coverage and enhanced data rates.

Future networks may utilise network functions virtualization (NFV) which is a network architecture concept that proposes virtualizing network node functions into“building blocks” or entities that may be operationally connected or linked together to provide services. A virtualized network function (VNF) may comprise one or more virtual machines running computer program codes using standard or general type servers instead of customized hardware. Cloud computing or data storage may also be utilized. In radio communications this may mean node operations to be carried out, at least partly, in a server, host or node operationally coupled to a remote radio head. It is also possible that node operations will be distributed among a plurality of servers, nodes or hosts. It should also be understood that the distribution of labour between core network operations and base station operations may differ from that of the LTE or even be non-existent.

An example 5G core network (CN) comprises functional entities. The CN is connected to a UE via the radio access network (RAN). An UPF (User Plane Function) whose role is called PSA (PDU Session Anchor) may be responsible for forwarding frames back and forth between the DN (data network) and the tunnels established over the 5G towards the UE(s) exchanging traffic with the DN.

The UPF is controlled by an SMF (Session Management Function) that receives policies from a PCF (Policy Control Function). The CN may also include an AMF (Access & Mobility Function).

A possible mobile communication device will now be described in more detail with reference to Figure 2 showing a schematic, partially sectioned view of a communication device 200. Such a communication device is often referred to as user equipment (UE) or terminal. An appropriate mobile communication device may be provided by any device capable of sending and receiving radio signals. Non-limiting examples comprise a mobile station (MS) or mobile device such as a mobile phone or what is known as a’smart phone’, a computer provided with a wireless interface card or other wireless interface facility (e.g., USB dongle), personal data assistant (PDA) or a tablet provided with wireless communication capabilities, or any combinations of these or the like. A mobile communication device may provide, for example, communication of data for carrying communications such as voice, electronic mail (email), text message, multimedia and so on. Users may thus be offered and provided numerous services via their communication devices. Non-limiting examples of these services comprise two-way or multi-way calls, data communication or multimedia services or simply an access to a data communications network system, such as the Internet. Users may also be provided broadcast or multicast data. Non-limiting examples of the content comprise downloads, television and radio programs, videos, advertisements, various alerts and other information.

A mobile device is typically provided with at least one data processing entity 201 , at least one memory 202 and other possible components 203 for use in software and hardware aided execution of tasks it is designed to perform, including control of access to and communications with access systems and other communication devices. The data processing, storage and other relevant control apparatus can be provided on an appropriate circuit board and/or in chipsets. This feature is denoted by reference 204. The user may control the operation of the mobile device by means of a suitable user interface such as key pad 205, voice commands, touch sensitive screen or pad, combinations thereof or the like. A display 208, a speaker and a microphone can be also provided. Furthermore, a mobile communication device may comprise appropriate connectors (either wired or wireless) to other devices and/or for connecting external accessories, for example hands-free equipment, thereto.

The mobile device 200 may receive signals over an air or radio interface 207 via appropriate apparatus for receiving and may transmit signals via appropriate apparatus for transmitting radio signals. In Figure 2 transceiver apparatus is designated schematically by block 206. The transceiver apparatus 206 may be provided for example by means of a radio part and associated antenna arrangement. The antenna arrangement may be arranged internally or externally to the mobile device.

Figure 3 shows an example of a control apparatus for a communication system, for example to be coupled to and/or for controlling a station of an access system, such as a RAN node, e.g. a base station, eNB or gNB, a relay node or a core network node such as an MME or S-GW or P-GW, or a core network function such as AMF/SMF, or a server or host. The method may be implanted in a single control apparatus or across more than one control apparatus. The control apparatus may be integrated with or external to a node or module of a core network or RAN. In some embodiments, base stations comprise a separate control apparatus unit or module. In other embodiments, the control apparatus can be another network element such as a radio network controller or a spectrum controller. In some embodiments, each base station may have such a control apparatus as well as a control apparatus being provided in a radio network controller. The control apparatus 300 can be arranged to provide control on communications in the service area of the system. The control apparatus 300 comprises at least one memory 301 , at least one data processing unit 302, 303 and an input/output interface 304. Via the interface the control apparatus can be coupled to a receiver and a transmitter of the base station. The receiver and/or the transmitter may be implemented as a radio front end or a remote radio head.

The following may be applicable to multi transmission point (TRP) NR phase II systems such as Multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU MIMO), inter site JT CoMP or non- linear (NL) precoding. These precoding solutions may be sensitive to the CSI accuracy. Here the focus is on optimization for efficient explicit time domain CSI reporting, which is currently under discussion for NR Release 16 under the term Type II CSI feedback.

Different options have been proposed for efficient reporting of explicit time domain CSI feedback for NR phase II, such as windowing and common channel support. These reporting schemes assume a compressed sensing approach. In a compressed sensing approach, sub-taps relative to the taps of a time domain channel impulse response (CIR) are identified by an orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm. The OMP algorithm identifies the relevant sub taps leading to the minimum description length of the CIR, given a certain distortion level.

Extensions to the explicit CSI feedback scheme are being considered to support scenarios with a high number of relevant channel components (i.e. beams) such as inter site JT CoMP, scenarios with high number of relevant taps and/or sub taps per channel component like Uma NLOS channels and applications where, instead of sub taps, the reporting of multi path component (MPC) parameters with low quantization errors would be desirable, for example for channel prediction or accurate positioning solutions.

In these cases, the number of relevant beams as well as the number of the relevant taps per UE may increase significantly compared to scenarios limited to MU MIMO at one site. Accordingly, reporting of the relevant CSI information for many relevant beams and a very high number of relevant taps in the most efficient way becomes even more important.

In the case of many sub taps, the overhead for reporting of the sub tap values or IDs as such may be considered a first challenge. Assuming eight sub taps per tap, with overall 200 taps, each sub tap would need log2(1600) = 1 1 bit for reporting of the sub tap positions.

Channel prediction may be an important enabler for advanced precoding schemes. Related work indicates that, for that purpose, reporting of MPC parameters (delay, amplitude and phase per MPC) would be beneficial. Reporting of MPC delay values may be seen as an extension of sub tap reporting, with significantly finer granularity, e.g., 1000 instead of only 8 sub taps per tap of the CIR. This would need log2(2 * 10 A 5) = 15 bit per MPC delay value for the identification of a single sub tap, i.e., the quantized MPC delay value T* . Assuming 50 MPCs per relevant channel component and 20 relevant channel components, a straightforward solution would result in 15 kbit per UE, just for the initial report of the sub tap delay values. From a PHY level point of view, the main challenge of CSI reporting without compressed sensing may be understood from Figure 4, which illustrates the most simple radio channel, i.e., one composed of a single multipath component (MPC) 401. Due to time misalignment, there are multiple relevant taps 402

In the time domain the single MPC will generate a single Dirac function with an infinite spectrum in the frequency domain. In the frequency domain this single MPC is filtered by the RF filter and down converted into the baseband.

For OFDM systems such as LTE or NR the baseband signal will be sampled in frequency domain by the sub carriers with Af = 15 kHz (or certain multiples of 15 kHz). For example, every 6th of these subcarriers might carry a CSI reference signal and, for channel estimation, only these resource elements will be taken into account. For a 20 MHz bandwidth there will be 100 PRB with 2 CSI RSs per PRB so that overall there are 200 CSI RSs. For calculation of the CIR these 200 CSI RS subcarriers will be converted into the time domain by an according IFFT. This results with 200 samples in the time domain with the complex values taps of the CIR. The IFFT operation of the bandwidth limited single MPC results, in the time domain, in a convolution with the according Si-function, describing the frequency domain rectangular filter operation.

Generally the MPC delay may have any real value. The MPC delay may not be time aligned with the time domain sample grid of the UE. Therefore, the single MPC smears the signal power according to the Si-function over all taps of the CIR, with the result that instead of one MPC now 200 taps would have to be reported.

Sub taps may remedy this problem to some extent as the sub tap closest to the MPC delay may be chosen and reported, i.e., a single complex value component is sufficient to describe the CIR. The sub tap ID may be seen as a coarse quantization of the MPC delay values.

For moderate sub tap numbers like 8 sub taps, there may still be some small residual power leakage into the adjacent taps due to the Si-function. This may generate a certain error floor if the channel comprises multiple MPCs. This may limit the CSI improvement by adding more sub taps for the description of the CIR. If the combined error signal does not follow the shape of an Si-function, it cannot be cancelled efficiently by adding one or few sub taps.

On the other hand, reporting of MPCs and their parameters would theoretically allow the CIR to decompose into one MPC after the other without generating an interference power leakage into other taps. This power leakage may depend on the parameter estimation quality. As these MPC delay values t* will have to be quantized, MPC reporting may be seen as sub tap reporting with a very high number of sub taps, e.g. 1000 instead of 8 sub taps per tap of the CIR. Due to the higher number of sub taps, the initial reporting of the sub taps (i.e. MPC delay values) requires per sub tap e.g. 15 instead of 10 bits with according higher overall reporting overhead. This may be an issue for high number of sub taps and high number of relevant channel components such as in multi TRP transmission.

Reporting of MPCs is not a minimum description length solution, but the number of MPCs is typically higher than that of the sub taps being estimated from the OMP algorithm.

There are however at least two reasons to consider MPC reporting despite the potential for higher CSI feedback overhead.

As mentioned, sub tap reporting inherently generates an error floor due to the residual power leakage into adjacent sub taps, which may eventually limit the achievable accuracy or end in a very high number of sub taps to compensate these error signals.

MPCs are very close to the physical layer description of the radio channel and therefore MPCs have, e.g. for an intended prediction horizon of about 10 ms, a smooth parameter evolution. While sub tap reporting achieves, for a given distortion level, the minimum description length for the CIR, these sub taps generally do not coincide with the MPCs and therefore have a less predictable evolution over time (or UE movement).

For a high level illustration of the different behaviour the results for an exemplary single real world NLOS radio channel, which has been measured with the LTE testbed in the Munich Nokia campus are shown in Figures 5 and 6. Figure 5 provides the sub tap evolution for this NLOS channel over a distance of 0.2 m and with a resolution of 0.01 m. i.e., for each UE location the optimum sub tap ID as well as its amplitude and phase have been calculated by an algorithm similar to the OMP procedure. It can be observed that the strongest sub taps experience a relative smooth evolution, while the lower power sub taps have a quite irregular evolution. An accurate prediction of the channel evolution is accordingly quite challenging for these sub taps.

To the same radio channel we applied a profiling solution, which enables accurate estimation of MPC parameters like delay T* , amplitude a t and phase (p t for each MPC i comprising the radio channel. Figure 6 illustrates this profiling result, where the Sl-functions 602 provide the delay and amplitude information for all relevant MPCs. One can estimate that the achieved accuracy for the strongest MPC path length differences is in the range of cm, which relates to very low delay errors in the range of 100 ps. This is quite accurate for noisy measurements including the unavoidable parasitic effects of real world measurements.

Figure 7 provides the delay and amplitude evolution of all relevant 48 MPCs over a distance of 6 cm. As expected the MPC evolution is significantly smoother compared to that for the sub taps solution in Figure 5.

The following aims to provide efficient explicit CSI reporting scheme for MPC parameters, being reported with low quantization errors, i.e., for the delay values with an accuracy in the 100 ps range.

One reporting scheme would be to feedback the MPC delay values (or equivalently high resolution sub tap IDs) with ND = e.g., 15 bit per MPC multiplied by the number, NMPC, of about 20 to 50 relevant MPCs multiplied by N qua nt = 10 bits for the quantized amplitude and phase bits. For the given measured NLOS radio channel of Figure 3 this would be 15 x 50 x 10 = 7.5 kbit. Assuming further reporting every 10 ms for, e.g., ten to several tens of relevant channel components in the case of inter site JT CoMP this scheme may be prohibitive with about 10 Mbit/s per UE.

Note, this is a worst case upper bound, a more practical scheme may report the MPCs semi statically, e.g., every 500 ms and the periodic reporting every 10 ms for these given MPCs. Even semi static reporting of MPCs for a higher number of relevant channel components may end in several 100 kbit/s per UE.

The following provides a compressed sensing mechanism based on reporting of relevant taps, or MPC delay values, instead of sub taps. The method may be used for initial CSI reporting. After the initial CSI reporting, a UE and gNB may extract from the reports either the sub tap locations or the MPC delay values. Further explicit CSI reporting is performed relative to these sub taps or MPC delays.

Figure 8 shows a flowchart of a method according to an example embodiment.

In a first step, S1 , the method comprises receiving a signal from a network.

In a second step, S2, the method comprises determining a plurality of time shifted time domain signals based on the received signal and a plurality of time shift operation. In a third step, S3, the method comprises determining which of the time shifted time domain signals has the lowest number of taps above a threshold.

In a fourth step, S4 the method comprises providing an indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network.

The method may be performed at a UE.

Figure 9 shows a flowchart of a method according to an example embodiment.

In a first step, T 1 , the method comprises providing a signal to a user equipment.

In a second step, T2, the method comprises receiving from the user equipment an indication of taps for a time shifted domain signal, wherein the time shifted domain signal is determined from a plurality of time shifted time domain signals to have the lowest number of taps above a threshold, each of the plurality of time shifted domain signals based on the signal provided to the user equipment and a respective time shift operation.

The method may be performed at a network entity, e.g. a gNB.

Figure 10 shows a block diagram of a method as described with reference to Figures 8 and 9. A UE modem 1001 applies the down conversion, time alignment, cyclic prefix removal etc. to beans received from a network. A FFT is applied to obtain the CTF.

The time shift operation may comprise a phase slope vector applied to the signal received from the network in the frequency domain. For generation of the time shift operation the frequency domain CTF may be multiplied with variable phase slopes as illustrated in Figure 1 1 . After IFFT operation, this generates the intended time shifted versions of the CIR. In the next step the best time aligned CIR is selected from the set of CIRs with different time shifts.

Note, the phase slope operation as well as the IFFT operation is done only for the resource elements carrying CSI RSs, which would be for example 200 subcarriers in case of a 20 MHz signal. Accordingly, the related processing overhead is relatively moderate.

Here it is proposed to perform initial CSI reporting on a tap instead of sub tap basis, which may avoid the high number of 1 1 to 15 bits per sub tap or per MPC ID. At a first glance, this may seem counter-productive, since tap wise reporting may increase the number of relevant taps for bandwidth limited systems as described above. To overcome this limitation, the tap wise reporting is combined with a frequency domain phase slope variation, applied to the relevant channel transfer functions (CTF). This provides an alternative compressed sensing approach on a tap instead of sub-tap basis.

Figure 12 shows an illustration of an Rx signal, in this case a single MPC convoluted with a Si-function, shifted, in the time domain, in several steps 1202 which have multiple relevant taps 1203. The function closest to the sample timing 1201 is selected. The alignment procedure may ensure that the Si-function is zero, or close to zero, at all tap locations with exception of the one falling together with the MPC delay. Similarly to compressed sensing, only a single tap has to be reported for a network to recover the full CSI information.

In an example, the UE applies to the time domain Rx-signal NTS time shifts. The time shifts may, for example, be realized in the frequency domain by applying NTS different phase slope vectors of length K Vk KxN - TS = exp(-j k f,/K), k=1 ...K, where K is the number resource elements or subcarriers of the OFDM symbol carrying CSI RSs. f, = (i 2 p) I NTS, i = 1 . . . NTS defines the i-th phase slope for the i-th time shift fi is defined in such a way that it generates NTS time shifts per tap after IFFT operation. For that purpose one multiplies the frequency domain CTF h f 1 ^ 1 with V k , i.e., h f shift = h f T nm ] . The according time domain CIRs h t Kx1 are then h t shift i = IFFT { h f shift i }.

Determining which of the time shifted time domain signals has the lowest number of taps above a threshold may comprise the UE calculating the number or relevant taps N ta ps for all time shifted CIRs. N ta ps(i) = length ( find ( abs( h t shift ) > TH taps ) ), where TH taps defines a power threshold relative to the strongest tap of the channel component h t shift i .

The indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal may comprise quantised tap values. A UE may quantize the relevant taps of CIR h t shift opt based on common support assumptions, power class windows, adaptive quantization levels per power class for amplitude and phase values etc.

The quantized tap values of h t shift quant = Q{ h t shift opt } may then be reported to the network, e.g., gNB, where Q{ . } is a power class specific quantization function.

The method may comprise providing an indication of the respective time shift operation for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network. That is, the parameter i may be reported with | log2(N T s) | bits, so that the gNB can recover the original CIR h t by applying the inverse shift operation -i. Note, this inverse shift operation is only needed in case more than one relevant channel component is being reported to ensure proper relative alignment of all channel components.

For reporting of accurate MPC parameters, reporting on a tap basis rather than a higher number of sub taps, is proposed. To minimize the feedback overhead, time shifting is performed. The time shifting and per tap reporting conveys the full CSI information from UE to gNB up to the level of distortion due to the quantization operation Q{ . }. For that reason the gNB may fully, or almost fully, reconstruct all MPC parameters by conventional parameter estimation techniques, such as profiling.

Reporting per tap may have the advantage that the reporting of relevant tap IDs can be done by either shorter bit maps or with less number of bits per tap.

The proposed time shift concept may allow reporting of accurate CSI information with low to moderate feedback overhead, being close to that of sub tap reporting based on compressed sensing. Note, in certain cases even lower overhead than for sub tap reporting may be possible due to the lower number of bits for reporting of taps.

Compressed reporting based on time shifting is a lossless compression scheme, i.e., the gNB can fully recover all MPC or sub tap parameters with accuracy just limited by the selected quantization scheme Q{.}.

The method may enable different variants of extended sub tap or MPC parameter reporting schemes as illustrated in the signaling flows shown in Figures 13 to 15.

In the example signaling flow in Figure 13, the time shift operation is applied to reference signals received at the UE side, e.g., every 500 ms. The CSI is reported as quantized tap values together with the time shift ID to the gNB. This allows the gNB to fully recover the CSI up to the given quantization error, which depends on the selected feedback rate. The gNB calculates from this reported CSI the MPC parameters delay T* , amplitude a t and phase (p t and sends these parameter values to the UE. The parameter values are then stored at UE side. After this initial CSI reporting, the UE reports the evolution of these parameters relative to the stored MPC parameters, for example, relative to the quantized delay values. The benefit of this concept may be a low overhead for the CSI reporting in UL from UE to gNB and the shift of the processing complexity for parameter estimation from UE to gNB side (with an extra DL transmission of the parameter values). Note, in the case of a coarse MPC delay quantization the same scheme may also support the sub tap concept. The method may comprise providing a subsequent periodic indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal. In the example signalling flow shown in Figure 14, following the flow as shown in Figure 13, the periodic CSI reporting every 5 to 10 ms is related to the relevant taps, instead of related to sub taps or MPCs. It is assumed that the same time shift value may be applied for all periodic reports. Otherwise, time shift adaptations may be considered. This concept may avoid complex parameter estimation calculations at gNB as well as UE side for the MPC parameters, but may not benefit from potential CSI prediction gains.

The method may comprise determining, at the apparatus based on the indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal, parameters of the signal received from the network, receiving an authentication value from the network, determining if the authentication value is associated with the determined parameters and providing feedback to the network based on the determining.

In the example shown in Figure 15, further to the signaling flow of Figure 13, the UE estimates the MPC parameter in parallel with the network with the same algorithm based on the reported and quantized CSI. This scheme targets minimum feedback as well as minimum DL transmission rates but may come at the cost of higher complexity at gNB and UE side as well as some risk for misalignment of the estimated MPC parameters. The gNB and the UE calculate a certain hashtag value (authentication value) for their CSI estimates. The gNB reports this hashtag value to the UE. Depending on the comparison of the hashtag values from UE and gNB the UE will send back a ACK/NACK message. In case of the NACK message the gNB starts a fallback procedure, e.g., sending a full MPC parameter report to the UE. The benefit of this concept may be a minimum UE feedback rate, since only semi static full CSI reports are needed, while otherwise delta reports per MPC are possible, which includes furthermore the option for accurate CSI prediction.

The method of Figure 15 may provide minimum feedback rates with accurate MPC parameter estimations so that powerful CSI prediction may still be supported.

The processing complexity for the proposed time shift operation may be limited as the calculation are limited to the subcarriers carrying CSI RSs, which would be for example for a 20 MHz signal about 200 values.

For a single MPC perfect time alignment may be possible, limited only by the quantization of the time shift operations. In the case of multiple MPCs the situation may be more challenging as the different MPCs will have different relative timing to the receiver sample time instances, i.e., there is not a single time shift fitting to all MPCs. The concept may be effective even in the case of multiple MPCs as can be concluded from Figure 16, where the time shift operation has been applied to a typical CIR, generated by the AHsim simulator for an UMi scenario. From Figure 16 one can conclude that the time shift for the CIRwith the darkest line might result in tenth of relevant taps, while for the CIR shown between 50 and 55 only a few taps will have to be reported from the UE to the gNB.

For a further verification of the concept in Figure 17 the number of relevant taps has been calculated for different time shifts applied to the already mentioned real world NLOS radio channel measurements in the NOKIA Munich campus. As can be observed, for the given power threshold defining the relevant taps for the best suited time shift - instead of otherwise up to 200 - only 25 taps have to be reported, which is even less than the number of 50 relevant MPCs.

Figure 18 provides the according CIR 1801 of the real world measured CIR after optimum time shifting and the according quantized CIR 1802 of the relevant taps, in this case with a very low power threshold for relevant taps of -35 dB below the strongest tap. From this figure may be recognized a further reason to limit the number of relevant taps in this scheme, i.e., the overlapping of multiple MPCs per tap. This is a well known effect from parameter estimation of MPC parameters, where the overlapping generates unobservable MPCs with according challenges for the parameter estimation. For CSI reporting we can benefit as few taps can carry the information for multiple MPCs and due to the exponential decay of the tap power a limited number of relevant taps close to the strongest taps contain already most of the relevant CSI information.

The advantage of this overlapping effect, together with optimized time shifting, one can adapt and optimize the CSI feedback (select certain thresholds, power class windows, etc.) for a certain intended normalized mean square error (NMSE) of the reported versus the ideal CTF.

Figure 19 illustrates the required number of feedback bits NB for a certain target NMSE, where NB includes the reporting of the time shift ID, the relevant tap IDs per power class as well as the quantized amplitude and phase values per relevant tap, adapted to the according power class. It can be observed that in the beginning the NMSE decreases rapidly with increasing number of bits while at a certain NMSE further improvements cost increasingly more feedback bits. This is due to the increasing number of small power relevant taps smeared over the whole length of the CIR (see again Figure 16), where each additional tap may provide only marginal performance gain and simultaneously costs relative high number of FB bits for reporting of the relevant tap ID. Note, the target NMSE may depend on the overall system concept, e.g., for simple MU MIMO a NMSE of -12 dB may be sufficient and so 50 bits would be reported, while for an advanced IF mitigation scheme an NMSE of -18 dB or even less might be useful.

The overlapping of MPC parameters may be also estimated from Figure 7. Assuming the first and strongest 25 taps with a sample time of 33ns results in a delay window of 825 ns (25x33). From Figure 4 one can find about 25 MPCs for this 825 ns time window.

The number of bits NB according to Figure 19 are for the strongest channel component, while for lower power channel components or beams one can shift the target NMSE according to the relative power difference to the strongest channel component. Therefore, most of the relevant channel components with lower Rx-power (low RSRP or high pathloss) can be reported with low to very low number of bits NB.

Figure 20 illustrates the result for an evaluation of the overall reporting for a single JT CoMP cooperation area for a three site or nine cell scenario, generated by the AHsim simulator for an UMi scenario with an ISD of 200 m serving simultaneously 90 randomly scheduled UEs. The CDFs of the SINR distribution varies on average between 15 to 19 dB, which results in very large gross spectral efficiencies of about 40 to 50 bits/s/Hz/cell. Note, this high performance may be partly due to the missing inter cooperation area interference. This simplified scenario has been selected so that the CSI feedback performance can be analyzed without being masked by inter CA interference effects.

The combined overhead NB for the CSI reporting based on the time shifting in combination with power class windows and power class dependent quantization of amplitude and phase values for the above described scenario can be found in Figure 21 where the SINR CDFs with higher average SINR will lead to accordingly higher feedback overhead NB. Furthermore, one can conclude that there is a strong variation of CSI FB overhead depending on the UE location, which can be explained by varying number of relevant channel components and additionally due to varying number of relevant taps per channel component.

On average the feedback overhead is here between 1.3 to 2.3 kbit, while some UEs have to report almost up to 6.5 kbit. Typically, one will cut the highest 10 % UEs so that the maximum feedback rate will be between 3 to 4 kbit. Taking the same AHsim scenario using MU MIMO without inter site CoMP achieved for a feedback rate of about 600 bit a net spectral efficiency of roughly best case 9 bit/s/Hz/cell. Accordingly, having twice to three times the CSI feedback overhead promise significant performance gains of up to a factor of 2 to 3.

The above mentioned overhead of average about 2 and max about 4 kbit is for each report instance, but assumes be a full self-contained CSI report. Self containment has its benefits, but for explicit CSI feedback may not realise for low FB rates. Instead these full reports maybe limited to semi static reporting, e.g., every 500 ms, while the periodic reports every 5 to 10 ms should be relative to the MPC parameters or sub tap IDs. That way the periodic overhead may be at least halved.

The proposed concept may flexibly support, with the same framework, either sub tap reporting as well as reporting per MPC. The difference is the way the sub tap values are being calculated and typically also lies in a significantly higher time resolution for MPCs. Note, reporting of MPC parameters may provide benefits with respect to channel prediction as well as in case of accurate UE localization algorithms in NLOS channels (this is often mentioned as super resolution).

The method may be implemented in a user equipment as described with reference to Figure 2 or a control apparatus as described with reference to figure 3. An apparatus may comprise means for apparatus to perform at least the following receiving a signal from a network, determining a plurality of time shifted time domain signals, each time shifted domain signal based on the received signal and a respective time shift operation, determining which of the time shifted time domain signals has the lowest number of taps above a threshold and providing an indication of the taps for the determined time shifted domain signal to the network.

Alternatively, or in addition, an apparatus may comprise means for providing a signal to a user equipment and receiving from the user equipment an indication of taps for a time shifted domain signal, wherein the time shifted domain signal is determined from a plurality of time shifted time domain signals to have the lowest number of taps above a threshold, each of the plurality of time shifted domain signals based on the signal provided to the user equipment and a respective time shift operation.

It should be understood that the apparatuses may comprise or be coupled to other units or modules etc., such as radio parts or radio heads, used in or for transmission and/or reception. Although the apparatuses have been described as one entity, different modules and memory may be implemented in one or more physical or logical entities. It is noted that whilst embodiments have been described in relation to multi TRP phase II systems, similar principles can be applied in relation to other networks and communication systems where explicit time domain CSI reporting is used. Therefore, although certain embodiments were described above by way of example with reference to certain example architectures for wireless networks, technologies and standards, embodiments may be applied to any other suitable forms of communication systems than those illustrated and described herein.

It is also noted herein that while the above describes example embodiments, there are several variations and modifications which may be made to the disclosed solution without departing from the scope of the present invention.

In general, the various embodiments may be implemented in hardware or special purpose circuits, software, logic or any combination thereof. Some aspects of the invention may be implemented in hardware, while other aspects may be implemented in firmware or software which may be executed by a controller, microprocessor or other computing device, although the invention is not limited thereto. While various aspects of the invention may be illustrated and described as block diagrams, flow charts, or using some other pictorial representation, it is well understood that these blocks, apparatus, systems, techniques or methods described herein may be implemented in, as non-limiting examples, hardware, software, firmware, special purpose circuits or logic, general purpose hardware or controller or other computing devices, or some combination thereof.

The embodiments of this invention may be implemented by computer software executable by a data processor of the mobile device, such as in the processor entity, or by hardware, or by a combination of software and hardware. Computer software or program, also called program product, including software routines, applets and/or macros, may be stored in any apparatus-readable data storage medium and they comprise program instructions to perform particular tasks. A computer program product may comprise one or more computer- executable components which, when the program is run, are configured to carry out embodiments. The one or more computer-executable components may be at least one software code or portions of it.

Further in this regard it should be noted that any blocks of the logic flow as in the Figures may represent program steps, or interconnected logic circuits, blocks and functions, or a combination of program steps and logic circuits, blocks and functions. The software may be stored on such physical media as memory chips, or memory blocks implemented within the processor, magnetic media such as hard disk or floppy disks, and optical media such as for example DVD and the data variants thereof, CD. The physical media is a non-transitory media.

The memory may be of any type suitable to the local technical environment and may be implemented using any suitable data storage technology, such as semiconductor based memory devices, magnetic memory devices and systems, optical memory devices and systems, fixed memory and removable memory. The data processors may be of any type suitable to the local technical environment, and may comprise one or more of general purpose computers, special purpose computers, microprocessors, digital signal processors (DSPs), application specific integrated circuits (ASIC), FPGA, gate level circuits and processors based on multi core processor architecture, as non-limiting examples.

Embodiments of the inventions may be practiced in various components such as integrated circuit modules. The design of integrated circuits is by and large a highly automated process. Complex and powerful software tools are available for converting a logic level design into a semiconductor circuit design ready to be etched and formed on a semiconductor substrate.

The foregoing description has provided by way of non-limiting examples a full and informative description of the exemplary embodiment of this invention. However, various modifications and adaptations may become apparent to those skilled in the relevant arts in view of the foregoing description, when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and the appended claims. However, all such and similar modifications of the teachings of this invention will still fall within the scope of this invention as defined in the appended claims. Indeed, there is a further embodiment comprising a combination of one or more embodiments with any of the other embodiments previously discussed.