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Title:
BAKING POWDER
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/044011
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention refers to a baking powder comprising a natural ground calcium carbonate having a volume median particle size d50 from 1 to 15 µm, and at least one solid organic acid having a pKa value in the range of 2.5 to 7.0, and wherein the baking powder is sodium-free. Furthermore, the present invention refers to a process for producing a baking powder, a product comprising the baking powder, a food obtainable by using the baking powder or a product comprising the same, and to the use of a composition comprising a natural ground calcium carbonate and a solid organic acid as a baking powder.

Inventors:
SHARMA LALIT (CH)
BUDDE TANJA (CH)
RÜEGG RAMONA (CH)
Application Number:
EP2020/074813
Publication Date:
March 11, 2021
Filing Date:
September 04, 2020
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
OMYA INT AG (CH)
International Classes:
A21D8/02; A21D10/00; C01F11/18; C08K3/26
Foreign References:
US4966782A1990-10-30
US5260082A1993-11-09
EP0607840A11994-07-27
Other References:
ANONYMOUS: "You Have the (Baking) Power with Low-Sodium Baking Powders - Aging & Disability Services for Seattle & King County", 14 December 2018 (2018-12-14), pages 1 - 8, XP055661588, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20200124]
CHRISTY: "The Daily Dish Low Sodium Recipes & MORE. Skip to content ? Home ? Links & FAQs ? My Story ? Quick Fixes ? Recipe Index <- Strawberry Shortcake Cast your vote for The Daily Dish! ->", 28 February 2011 (2011-02-28), pages 1 - 14, XP055661581, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20200124]
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MAIWALD PATENTANWALTS- UND RECHTSANWALTSGESELLSCHAFT MBH (Elisenstr. 3, Munich, DE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1 . A baking powder comprising a natural ground calcium carbonate having a volume median particle size c/50 from 1 to

15 pm, and at least one solid organic acid having a pKa value in the range of 2.5 to 7.0, wherein the baking powder is sodium-free.

2. The baking powder according claim 1 , wherein the at least one solid organic acid is a mono-, di- or tri-carboxylic acid, more preferably a tri-carboxylic acid, and most preferably is citric acid.

3. The baking powder according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the natural ground calcium carbonate is selected from the group consisting of marble, chalk, limestone, and mixtures thereof.

4. The baking powder according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the natural ground calcium carbonate has a volume median particle size c/50 from 1 .5 to 10 pm, preferably from 1 .5 to 8 pm, and most preferably from 2 to 6 pm, and/or wherein the natural ground calcium carbonate has a volume top cut particle size cfes from 2 to 30 pm, preferably from 3 to 20 pm, more preferably from 3 to 15 pm, and most preferably from 4 to 12 pm.

5. The baking powder according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the baking powder contains less than 10 wt.%, preferably less than 5 wt.%, more preferably less than 1 wt.% of a phosphate salt, and most preferably is phosphate-free.

6. The baking powder according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the natural ground calcium carbonate is present in an amount of from 20 to 80 wt.%, preferably from 30 to

70 wt.%, and more preferably from 40 to 60 wt.%, based on the total weight of the baking powder, and/or wherein the at least one solid organic acid is present in an amount of from 20 to 80 wt.%, preferably from 30 to 70 wt.%, and more preferably from 40 to 60 wt.%, based on the total weight of the baking powder.

7. The baking powder according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the molar ratio of the natural ground calcium carbonate to the carboxylic acid group(s) of the at least one solid organic acid ranges between 0.25:1 to 1 .5:1 , preferably from 0.4:1 to 1 .2:1 , more preferably from 0.6:1 to 1 :1 , and most preferably from 0.7:1 to 0.9:1 .

8. The baking powder according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the baking powder contains less than 10 wt.%, preferably less than 5 wt.%, more preferably less than 1 wt.%, of a separating agent, based on the total weight of the baking powder, and most preferably is essentially free of a separating agent.

9. The baking powder according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the at least one solid organic acid is a mixture of at least one organic acid, preferably lactic acid, and a salt thereof, and more preferably having a weight ratio of the at least one organic acid to the salt thereof in the range between 0.25:1 to 3:1 , preferably between 0.75:1 to 2.5:1 , and more preferably between 1 :1 to 2:1.

10. The baking powder according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the baking powder is free of a carbonate other than calcium carbonate, and preferably free of magnesium carbonate.

11. The baking powder according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the baking powder consists of the natural ground calcium carbonate and the at least one solid organic acid, and preferably wherein the baking powder consists of the natural ground calcium carbonate and one solid organic acid, and most preferably wherein the baking powder consists of the natural ground calcium carbonate and citric acid.

12. A product comprising the baking powder according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the product is preferably a baking mixture, more preferably a baking mixture for a pastry, a bread, a cake, a waffle, a pizza or a noodle.

13. A food obtainable by using the baking powder according to any one of claims 1 to 11 or the product according to claim 12.

14. A process for producing a baking powder comprising the steps of

(a) providing a natural ground calcium carbonate having a volume median particle size c/50 from 1 to 15 pm in dry form,

(b) providing a solid organic acid having a pKa value in the range of 2.5 to 7.0,

(c) mixing the natural ground calcium carbonate of step (a) with the solid organic acid of step (b) in a dry blending step to obtain a baking powder.

15. Use of a composition comprising a natural ground calcium carbonate having a volume median particle size c/50 from 1 to

15 pm, and a solid organic acid having a pKa value in the range of 2.5 to 7.0, wherein the composition is sodium-free, as a baking powder.

Description:
Baking powder

The present invention refers to a baking powder, a product comprising the baking powder, a food obtainable by using the baking powder or a product comprising the same, a process for producing a baking powder, and to the use of a composition comprising a natural ground calcium carbonate and a solid organic acid as a baking powder.

A sodium-rich diet may lead to physical conditions such as high blood pressure. It is believed that persons with high blood pressure a more likely to develop heart disease or have a stroke. In principle, sodium may be taken up into the body with any type of food. Often, the sodium in our diets comes from adding sodium when food is being prepared. Especially pre-packaged food, processed food and prepared foods tend to be high in sodium. The sodium-containing compounds in such food products are, for example, salt, mono sodium glutamate, baking soda or baking powder or disodium phosphate.

Furthermore, there is concern that a phosphate-rich diet may lead to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and a higher risk of heart attacks. It has further been suggested that high intake of phosphate can have a negative impact on bone health and may increase the risk for people with chronic kidney disorder of developing a disease. Phosphate-containing additives can be found in all types of packaged food or prepared food. Often phosphates are being added to food products in the form of sodium phosphate salts.

One food product, which usually contains high amounts of sodium and/or phosphate ions is baking powder. Baking powders are leavening agents, which are used to increase the volume of baked and/or cooked food. Most commercially available baking powders are based on a basic carbon dioxide source, often a carbonate, and an acidic component. Upon mixing the baking powder with other food ingredients in the presence of water and/or by heating the baking powder, the basic carbon dioxide source and the acidic component react and carbon dioxide is released. Common baking powders usually contain sodium bicarbonate as a carbon dioxide source and sodium pyrophosphate as an acidic component. Furthermore, separating agents such as dried starch are usually included into commercially available baking powders.

In view of the health concerns associated with a high uptake of sodium and/or phosphate, there is a demand for a baking powder, which is free of sodium-containing and/or phosphate-containing components. Furthermore, it is desired that the sodium-free and/or phosphate-free baking powder performs at least comparable to commercial baking powders when used for baking or cooking food. It is further desirable that the baking powder does not need to contain a separating agent. It is also desirable that the baking powder can be prepared by as few as possible components, which are readily accessible in large amounts.

Accordingly, it is one object of the present invention to provide a baking powder, which is free of sodium-containing and/or phosphate-containing components. It is another object that the baking powder performs at least comparable to, or better than, known baking powders, which contain sodium and/or phosphate components. Another object of the present invention is to provide a baking powder, which does not contain a separating agent. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a baking powder, which is based on as few as possible components. Another object of the present invention is to provide a baking powder, which is based on a single carbon dioxide source and/or a single acidic component.

One or more of the foregoing objects is achieved by the subject-matter according to independent claims 1 and 12 to 15.

According to one aspect of the present invention, a baking powder is provided, comprising a natural ground calcium carbonate having a volume median particle size c/50 from 1 to 15 pm, and at least one solid organic acid having a pKa value in the range of 2.5 to 7.0, wherein the baking powder is sodium-free.

The inventors have surprisingly found that the sodium-free baking powder defined herein performs comparable to prior art baking powders without the need for a sodium-containing carbon dioxide source such as sodium bicarbonate or a sodium-containing acidic component such as disodium hydrogen phosphate or sodium dihydrogen phosphate.

According to one aspect of the present invention, a product is provided, comprising the baking powder according to the present invention, wherein the product is preferably a baking mixture, more preferably a baking mixture for a pastry, a bread, a cake, a waffle, a pizza or a noodle.

According to another aspect of the present invention, a food is provided, which is obtainable by using the baking powder according to the present invention or the product according to the present invention.

According to another aspect of the present invention, a process for producing a baking powder is provided, comprising the steps of (a) providing a natural ground calcium carbonate having a volume median particle size c/50 from 1 to 15 pm in dry form, (b) providing a solid organic acid having a pKa value in the range of 2.5 to 7.0, (c) mixing the natural ground calcium carbonate of step (a) with the solid organic acid of step (b) in a dry blending step to obtain a baking powder.

Yet another aspect of the present invention is directed to the use of a composition comprising a natural ground calcium carbonate having a volume median particle size c/50 from 1 to 15 pm, and a solid organic acid having a pKa value in the range of 2.5 to 7.0, wherein the composition is sodium- free, as a baking powder.

Advantageous embodiments of the present invention are defined in the dependent claims.

According to one embodiment of the present invention, the at least one solid organic acid is a mono-, di- or tri-carboxylic acid, more preferably a tri-carboxylic acid, and most preferably is citric acid.

According to one embodiment of the present invention, the natural ground calcium carbonate is selected from the group consisting of marble, chalk, limestone, and mixtures thereof.

According to one embodiment of the present invention, the natural ground calcium carbonate has a volume median particle size c/50 from 1.5 to 10 pm, preferably from 1.5 to 8 pm, and most preferably from 2 to 6 pm, and/or wherein the natural ground calcium carbonate has a volume top cut particle size cfes from 2 to 30 pm, preferably from 3 to 20 pm, more preferably from 3 to 15 pm and most preferably from 4 to 12 pm.

According to one embodiment of the present invention, the baking powder contains less than 10 wt.%, preferably less than 5 wt.%, more preferably less than 1 wt.% of a phosphate salt, and most preferably is phosphate-free. According to one embodiment of the present invention, the natural ground calcium carbonate is present in an amount of from 20 to 80 wt.%, preferably from 30 to 70 wt.%, and more preferably from 40 to 60 wt.%, based on the total weight of the baking powder, and/or wherein the at least one solid organic acid is present in an amount of from 20 to 80 wt.%, preferably from 30 to 70 wt.%, and more preferably from 40 to 60 wt.%, based on the total weight of the baking powder.

According to one embodiment of the present invention, the molar ratio of the natural ground calcium carbonate to the carboxylic acid group(s) of the at least one solid organic acid ranges between 0.25:1 to 1 .5:1 , preferably from 0.4:1 to 1 .2:1 , more preferably from 0.6:1 to 1 :1 , and most preferably from 0.7:1 to 0.9:1 .

According to one embodiment of the present invention, the baking powder contains less than 10 wt.%, preferably less than 5 wt.%, more preferably less than 1 wt.%, of a separating agent, based on the total weight of the baking powder, and most preferably is free of a separating agent.

According to one embodiment of the present invention, the at least one solid organic acid is a mixture of at least one organic acid, preferably lactic acid, and a salt thereof, and more preferably having a weight ratio of the at least one organic acid to the salt thereof in the range between 0.25:1 to 3:1 , preferably between 0.75:1 to 2.5:1 , and more preferably between 1 :1 to 2:1 .

According to one embodiment of the present invention, the baking powder is free of a carbonate other than calcium carbonate, and preferably free of magnesium carbonate.

According to one embodiment of the present invention, the baking powder consists of the natural ground calcium carbonate and the at least one solid organic acid, and preferably wherein the baking powder consists of the natural ground calcium carbonate and one solid organic acid.

It should be understood that for the purposes of the present invention, the following terms have the following meanings:

“Natural ground calcium carbonate” (GCC) in the meaning of the present invention is a calcium carbonate obtained from natural sources, such as limestone, marble, or chalk, and processed through a wet and/or dry treatment such as grinding, screening and/or fractionating, for example, by a cyclone or classifier.

A “baking powder” in the meaning of the present invention refers to the composition, which is suitable for being used as a leavening agent in the preparation of food, i.e. an agent or a composition which releases carbon dioxide during the preparation of food for lightening and/or softening the food.

The term “organic acid” in the meaning of the present invention refers to a chemical compound, which includes at least one carboxylic acid group (-COOH). The term “organic acid” in the meaning of the present invention also encompasses a mixture of an organic acid and a salt thereof, and a mixture of an organic acid and a hydrate thereof. For example, the solid organic acid may be a mixture of lactic acid and lactate or citric acid and a citrate and/or a citric acid hydrate. The term “solid” organic acid in the meaning of the present invention refers to an organic acid, which is present in form of a solid at a temperature of 23°C and a pressure of 1 .013 Bar.

The “pKa value” refers to the negative decadic logarithm of the acid dissociation constant; pKa = - logio(Ka), wherein K a is the acid dissociation constant. The skilled person knows the pKa value of an acid, can look it up or determine it by suitable measures such as titration. The “particle size” of particulate materials is described by its distribution of particle sizes d x . Unless indicated otherwise, the “particle size” is described as volume-based particle size distribution. This is indicated, for example, by “volume based median particle size”, “volume median particle size” or “volume top cut particle size”. Volume median particle size c/50 was evaluated using a Malvern Mastersizer2000 or 3000 Laser Diffraction System. The c/50 or cfes value, measured using a Malvern Mastersizer2000 or 3000 Laser Diffraction System, preferably a Malvern Mastersizer 3000 Laser Diffraction System, indicates a diameter value such that 50 % or 98 % by volume, respectively, of the particles have a diameter of less than this value. The raw data obtained by the measurement are analysed using the Mie theory, with a particle refractive index of 1.57 and an absorption index of 0.005. The measurements were carried out in an aqueous solution of 0.1 wt.-% Na 4 P 2 C>7.

For certain materials specified herein, the value d x represents the diameter relative to which x % by weight of the particles have diameters less than d x . This means that, for example, the c/20 value is the particle size at which 20 wt.-% of all particles are smaller than that particle size. The c/50 value is thus the weight median particle size, i.e. 50 wt.-% of all particles are smaller than this particle size. For the purpose of the present invention, the particle size is specified as weight median particle size c/5o(wt.) unless indicated otherwise. Particle sizes were determined by using a Sedigraph™ 5100 instrument or Sedigraph™ 5120 instrument of Micromeritics Instrument Corporation. The method and the instrument are known to the skilled person and are commonly used to determine the particle size of fillers and pigments. The measurements were carried out in an aqueous solution of 0.1 wt.-%

N34P207.

When it is defined in the present application that the baking powder is “free” of a particular component, this means that such particular component has not been intentionally added to the baking powder. The baking powder is “free” of a particular component, if the baking powder contains less than 1 wt.%, preferably less than 0.5 wt.%, more preferably less than 0.2 wt.%, even more preferably less than 0.01 wt.%, and most preferably is essentially free of the particular component. For example, the term “sodium-free” in the meaning of the present invention means that no sodium component has been intentionally added to the baking powder. For example, a baking powder is “sodium-free”, if it contains less than 1 wt.%, preferably less than 0.5 wt.%, more preferably less than 0.2 wt.%, even more preferably less than 0.01 wt.%, and most preferably is essentially free of sodium-containing component. For example, the term “phosphate-free” in the meaning of the present invention means that no phosphate component has been intentionally added to the baking powder. For example, a baking powder is “phosphate-free”, if it contains less than 1 wt.%, preferably less than 0.5 wt.%, more preferably less than 0.2 wt.%, even more preferably less than 0.01 wt.%, and most preferably is essentially free of phosphate-containing component.

Where an indefinite or definite article is used when referring to a singular noun, e.g., “a”, “an” or “the”, this includes a plural of that noun unless anything else is specifically stated.

Where the term “comprising” is used in the present description and claims, it does not exclude other elements. For the purposes of the present invention, the terms “essentially consisting of and “consisting of are considered to be a preferred embodiment of the term “comprising”. If hereinafter a group is defined to comprise at least a certain number of embodiments, this is also to be understood to disclose a group, which preferably consists only of these embodiments. Terms like “obtainable” or “definable” and “obtained” or “defined” are used interchangeably.

This, for example, means that, unless the context clearly dictates otherwise, the term “obtained” does not mean to indicate that, for example, an embodiment must be obtained by, for example, the sequence of steps following the term “obtained” though such a limited understanding is always included by the terms “obtained” or “defined” as a preferred embodiment.

Whenever the terms “including” or “having” are used, these terms are meant to be equivalent to “comprising” as defined hereinabove.

In the following preferred embodiments of the inventive composition will be set out in more detail.

It is to be understood that all embodiments described herein of the baking powder according to the present invention are also embodiments of the process for producing the baking powder, and for the uses thereof. Likewise, all embodiments described herein of the natural ground calcium carbonate and/or the at least one solid organic acid present in the baking powder according to the present invention are also embodiments of the process for producing the inventive baking powder and for the uses thereof.

The baking powder

The baking powder according to the present invention comprises a natural ground calcium carbonate having a volume median particle size c/50 from 1 to 15 pm.

According to one embodiment, the natural ground calcium carbonate is present in dry form, i.e. the natural ground calcium carbonate contains a residual moisture content of below 3.0 wt.%, preferably of below 2.0 wt.%, and more preferably of below 1.0 wt.%, based on the total dry weight of the natural ground calcium carbonate.

It is appreciated that the natural ground calcium carbonate can be one specific natural ground calcium carbonate or a mixture of different kinds of natural ground calcium carbonate(s).

In one embodiment of the present invention, the natural ground calcium carbonate comprises, preferably consists of, one type of natural ground calcium carbonate. Alternatively, the natural ground calcium carbonate comprises, preferably consists of, two or more types of natural ground calcium carbonates. For example, the natural ground calcium carbonate comprises, preferably consists of, two or three types of natural ground calcium carbonates. Preferably, the natural ground calcium carbonate comprises, more preferably consists of, one type of natural ground calcium carbonate.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the natural ground calcium carbonate is selected from the group consisting of chalk, limestone or marble. More preferably, the natural ground calcium carbonate is limestone or marble, and most preferably marble.

A natural ground calcium carbonate may be obtained, for example, in a wet and/or dry comminution step, such as crushing and/or grinding, from natural calcium carbonate-containing minerals (e.g. chalk, limestone, marble or dolomite). According to one embodiment, the natural ground calcium carbonate is a natural wet-ground calcium carbonate. In another embodiment, the natural ground calcium carbonate is a natural dry-ground calcium carbonate.

The grinding step can be carried out with any conventional grinding device, for example, under conditions such that refinement predominantly results from impacts with a secondary body, i.e. in one or more of a ball mill, a rod mill, a vibrating mill, a roll crusher, a centrifugal impact mill, a vertical bead mill, an attrition mill, a pin mill, a hammer mill, a pulveriser, a shredder, a de-clumper, a knife cutter, or other such equipment known to the skilled man. The grinding step may also be performed under conditions such that autogenous grinding takes place and/or by horizontal ball milling, and/or other such processes known to the skilled man.

In one embodiment, grinding is carried out in a vertical or horizontal ball mill, preferably in a vertical ball mill. Such vertical and horizontal ball mills usually consist of a vertically or horizontally arranged, cylindrical grinding chamber comprising an axially fast rotating agitator shaft being equipped with a plurality of paddles and/or stirring discs, such as described for example in EP0607840 A1.

It is to be noted that grinding of the calcium carbonate mineral may be carried out by using at least one of the aforementioned grinding methods or devices. However, it is also possible to use a combination of any of the foregoing methods or a series of any of the aforementioned grinding devices.

Subsequent to the grinding step, the ground calcium carbonate mineral may, optionally, be divided into two or more fractions, each having different particle distributions, by use of a classifying step. A classifying step in general serves to divide a feed fraction having a certain particle size distribution into a coarse fraction, which may be subjected to another grinding cycle, and a fine fraction, which may be used as the final product. For this purpose, screening devices as well as gravity-based devices, such as centrifuges or cyclones (e.g. hydrocyclones) and any combination of the aforementioned devices may be used.

According to one embodiment of the present invention, the natural ground calcium carbonate has a volume median particle size c/50 from 1.5 to 10 pm, preferably from 1.5 to 8 pm, and most preferably from 2 to 6 pm, and/or the natural ground calcium carbonate has a volume top cut particle size c/98 from 2 to 30 pm, preferably from 3 to 20 pm, more preferably from 3 to 15 pm and most preferably from 4 to 12 pm.

According to one embodiment of the present invention, the natural ground calcium carbonate has a volume median particle size c/50 from 1.5 to 10 pm, preferably from 1.5 to 8 pm, and most preferably from 2 to 6 pm, and a volume top cut particle size c/98 from 2 to 30 pm, preferably from 3 to 20 pm, more preferably from 3 to 15 pm and most preferably from 4 to 12 pm.

According to one embodiment of the present invention, the natural ground calcium carbonate has a volume median particle size c/50 from 1.5 to 10 pm, preferably from 1.5 to 8 pm, and most preferably from 2 to 6 pm, and a volume top cut particle size cfes from 2 to 30 pm, preferably from 3 to 20 pm, more preferably from 3 to 15 pm and most preferably from 4 to 12 pm.

According to one preferred embodiment of the present invention, the natural ground calcium carbonate has a volume median particle size c/50 from 1.5 to 6 pm, and a volume top cut particle size c/98 from 4 to 12 pm.

The inventors surprisingly found that a natural ground calcium carbonate having a defined particle size distribution as defined in the foregoing paragraphs is particularly useful as a carbon dioxide source in the baking powder, compared to a natural ground calcium carbonate not having such a defined particle size distribution such as a coarse calcium carbonate.

The baking powder according to the present invention further comprises at least one solid organic acid having a pKa value in the range of 2.5 to 7.0. The at least one solid organic acid having a pKa value in the range of 2.5 to 7.0 may be a solid organic acid, which is approved for use as a food additive, for example, by the European Food Safety Authority. A list of approved solid organic acids, for example, is available in the latest consolidated version of Annex II of the Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on food additives. According to one embodiment, the solid organic acid is suitable for use as a food additive. According to one embodiment, the solid organic acid is approved by the European Food Safety Authority for use as a food additive.

According to one embodiment, the at least one solid organic acid is one solid organic acid. According to another embodiment, the at least one solid organic acid is two or more different solid organic acids. For example, the at least one solid organic acid can be two different solid organic acids. It is preferred that the at least one solid organic acid is one solid organic acid.

The at least one solid organic acid may be a solid organic acid or a mixture of a solid organic acid and a salt thereof. According to one embodiment, the at least one solid organic acid is present in fully protonated form, i.e. essentially all carboxylic acid groups of the solid organic acid are present in the form of -COOH. According to another embodiment, the at least one solid organic acid is a mixture of a solid organic acid and a salt thereof. For example, the at least one solid organic acid may be a mixture of at least one organic acid, preferably lactic acid, and a salt thereof.

In case the at least one solid organic acid is a mixture of at least one organic acid and the salt thereof, the mixture may have specific weight ratios with respect to the at least one organic acid and the salt thereof. According to one embodiment, the mixture has a weight ratio of the at least one organic acid to the salt thereof in the range between 0.25:1 to 3:1 , preferably between 0.75:1 to 2.5:1 , and more preferably between 1 :1 to 2:1.

The at least one solid organic acid is not particularly limited as long as the at least one solid organic acid has a pKa value of in the range of 2.5 to 7.0. However, certain solid organic acid are more preferred than others.

According to one embodiment, the at least one solid organic acid is a mono-, di- or tri-carboxylic acid, more preferably a tri-carboxylic acid, and most preferably is citric acid.

The at least one solid organic acid may be a mono-carboxylic acid. A preferred mono carboxylic acid is for example lactic acid. Thus, according to one embodiment, the at least one solid organic acid is a mono-carboxylic acid, preferably a lactic acid. According to another embodiment, the at least one solid organic acid is sorbic acid.

According to another embodiment, the at least one solid organic acid is a di-carboxylic acid. According to another embodiment, the at least one solid organic acid is a di-carboxylic acid selected from the group tartaric acid, fumaric acid, malic acid and salts thereof. A preferred di-carboxylic acid is for example tartaric acid or a salt thereof such as mono potassium tartrate.

According to another embodiment, the at least one solid organic acid is a tri-carboxylic acid. A preferred tri-carboxylic acid may be citric acid or iso-citric acid. Most preferably, the tri-carboxylic acid is citric acid.

According to one embodiment, the at least one acid is a mono-, di- or tri-carboxylic acid selected from the group consisting of lactic acid, sorbic acid, tartaric acid, fumaric acid, malic acid, iso- citric acid, citric acid, and mixtures thereof. The at least one solid organic acid may also be a mixture of a mono-, di- or tri-carboxylic acid. For example, the at least one solid organic acid may be a mixture of a mono-carboxylic acid and a tricarboxylic acid or a mixture of a di-carboxylic acid and a tri-carboxylic acid.

The baking powder according to the present invention is sodium-free.

Furthermore, the baking powder according to the present invention may also be free, or at least may contain a reduced amount compared to known baking powders, of other components, which may be considered a health risk when consumed in excess.

According to one embodiment of the present invention, the baking powder according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the baking powder contains less than 10 wt.%, preferably less than 5 wt.%, more preferably less than 1 wt.% of a phosphate salt, and most preferably is phosphate-free.

In principle, the baking powder may contain further additives such as an inorganic acid, a preservative and/or a separating agent. A “separating agent” in the meaning of the present invention is an agent, which moderates or suppresses the reaction between a carbon dioxide source and an acidic component of a baking powder and/or which ad-/absorbed moisture being in contact with a baking powder.

In one embodiment, the baking powder contains an additive, preferably an inorganic acid, a preservative and/or a separating agent, in an amount of in the range from 10 to 50 wt.%, preferably 20 to 40 wt.%, based on the total weight of the baking powder.

In one embodiment, the baking powder contains an additive, preferably an inorganic acid, a preservative and/or a separating agent, in an amount of in the range from 0.1 to 20 wt.%, preferably 1 to 10 wt.%, based on the total weight of the baking powder.

According to one embodiment, the baking powder contains a separating agent. Suitable separating agents are, for example, rice starch or corn starch.

In one embodiment, the baking powder contains an inorganic acid such as calcium hydrogen phosphate. An “inorganic acid” in the meaning of the present invention is an acid, which does not contain a carbon-hydrogen bond.

However, it has surprisingly been found by the inventors that the inventive baking powder does not need to contain a separating agent for providing a good performance. For example, a separating agent and/or an inorganic acid can be avoided for the inventive baking powder, which reduces the raw materials required for preparing the inventive baking powder.

According to one embodiment, the baking powder contains less than 10 wt.%, preferably less than 5 wt.%, more preferably less than 1 wt.%, even more preferably less than 0.01 wt.%, of a separating agent, based on the total weight of the baking powder, and most preferably is essentially free of a separating agent.

It has further been found by the inventors that the combination of a natural ground calcium carbonate as described herein and at least one solid organic acid having a pKa value in the range of 2.5 to 7.0 is sufficient for providing a baking powder, which shows a good performance or a performance comparable to baking powders known in the prior art.

The inventive baking powder does not contain sodium bicarbonate as carbon dioxide source. Furthermore, the baking powder also does not need to contain further carbonates or carbon dioxide sources other than the calcium carbonate for providing an appreciable performance. Therefore, in one preferred embodiment, the baking powder is free of further carbonates, and preferably free of magnesium carbonate. According to another preferred embodiment, the baking powder is free of further carbon dioxide sources. A “carbon dioxide source” in the meaning of the present invention is a substance, which may releases carbon dioxide upon reaction with another substance, preferably an acid.

According to another preferred embodiment, the baking powder consists of a natural ground calcium carbonate as defined herein and at least one solid organic acid as defined herein. According to another preferred embodiment, the baking powder consists of a natural ground calcium carbonate as defined herein and one solid organic acid as defined herein.

According to another preferred embodiment, the baking powder essentially consists of a natural ground calcium carbonate as defined herein and at least one solid organic acid as defined herein. According to another preferred embodiment, the baking powder essentially consists of a natural ground calcium carbonate as defined herein and one solid organic acid as defined herein.

According to another particularly preferred embodiment, the baking powder essentially consists of a natural ground calcium carbonate as defined herein and citric acid. According to another particularly preferred embodiment, the baking powder consists of a natural ground calcium carbonate as defined herein and citric acid.

According to another particularly preferred embodiment, the baking powder essentially consists of a natural ground calcium carbonate having a volume median particle size c/50 from 1 to 15 pm, and preferably from 1 .5 to 8 pm, and a volume top cut particle size cfes from 2 to 30 pm, preferably from 3 to 15 pm, and most preferably from 4 to 12 pm, and citric acid. According to another particularly preferred embodiment, the baking powder consists of a natural ground calcium carbonate having a volume median particle size dso from 1 to 15 pm, and preferably from 1 .5 to 8 pm, and a volume top cut particle size dgs from 2 to 30 pm, preferably from 3 to 15 pm, and most preferably from 4 to 12 pm, and citric acid.

According to another particularly preferred embodiment, the baking powder essentially consists of a natural ground calcium carbonate having a volume median particle size dso from 1 to 15 pm, and preferably from 1 .5 to 8 pm, and a volume top cut particle size dgs from 2 to 30 pm, preferably from 3 to 15 pm, and most preferably from 4 to 12 pm, and citric acid, wherein the natural ground calcium carbonate is present in an amount of from 20 to 80 wt.%, preferably from 30 to 70 wt.%, and more preferably from 40 to 60 wt.%, based on the total weight of the baking powder, and the citric acid is present in an amount of from 20 to 80 wt.%, preferably from 30 to 70 wt.%, and more preferably from 40 to 60 wt.%, based on the total weight of the baking powder. According to another particularly preferred embodiment, the baking powder consists of a natural ground calcium carbonate having a volume median particle size c/50 from 1 to 15 pm, and preferably from 1 .5 to 8 pm, and a volume top cut particle size cfes from 2 to 30 pm, preferably from 3 to 15 pm, and most preferably from 4 to 12 pm, and citric acid, wherein the natural ground calcium carbonate is present in an amount of from 20 to 80 wt.%, preferably from 30 to 70 wt.%, and more preferably from 40 to 60 wt.%, based on the total weight of the baking powder, and the citric acid is present in an amount of from 20 to 80 wt.%, preferably from 30 to 70 wt.%, and more preferably from 40 to 60 wt.%, based on the total weight of the baking powder. The inventive baking powder may comprise the natural ground calcium carbonate as defined herein and at least one solid organic acid as defined herein in specific amounts with respect to each other.

According to another embodiment, the molar ratio of the natural ground calcium carbonate to the carboxylic acid group(s) of the at least one solid organic acid ranges between 0.25:1 to 1 .5:1 , preferably from 0.4:1 to 1 .2:1 , more preferably from 0.6:1 to 1 :1 , and most preferably from 0.7:1 to 0.9:1 . The skilled person understands that 1 mol of the at least one solid organic acid may correspond to 1 mol, 2 mol or 3 mol of carboxylic acid groups, depending on the number of carboxylic acid groups being present in the organic acid. For example, 1 mol of citric acid corresponds to 3 mol of carboxylic acid groups. The skilled person knows the number of carboxylic acid groups of an organic acid, and, therefore, can calculate the molar ratio of the natural ground calcium carbonate to the carboxylic acid groups are the at least one solid organic acid.

The inventive baking powder may further comprise the natural ground calcium carbonate as defined herein and at least one solid organic acid as defined herein in specific total amounts. According to one embodiment, the natural ground calcium carbonate is present in an amount of from 20 to 80 wt.%, preferably from 30 to 70 wt.%, and more preferably from 40 to 60 wt.%, based on the total weight of the baking powder, and/or wherein the at least one solid organic acid is present in an amount of from 20 to 80 wt.%, preferably from 30 to 70 wt.%, and more preferably from 40 to 60 wt.%, based on the total weight of the baking powder.

According to one embodiment, the natural ground calcium carbonate is present in an amount of from 20 to 80 wt.%, preferably from 30 to 70 wt.%, and more preferably from 40 to 60 wt.%, and the at least one solid organic acid is present in an amount of from 20 to 80 wt.%, preferably from 30 to 70 wt.%, and more preferably from 40 to 60 wt.%, based on the total weight of the natural ground calcium carbonate and the at least one solid organic acid.

According to a preferred embodiment, the baking powder comprises a natural ground calcium carbonate having a volume median particle size c/50 from 1 .5 to 8 pm, and a volume top cut particle size c/98 from 3 to 15 pm and most preferably from 4 to 12 pm, at least one solid organic acid having a pKa value in the range of 2.5 to 7.0, wherein the at least one solid organic acid is a tri-carboxylic acid, preferably citric acid, and wherein the baking powder is sodium-free and phosphate-free.

According to a preferred embodiment, the baking powder comprises a natural ground calcium carbonate having a volume median particle size c/50 from 1 .5 to 8 pm, and a volume top cut particle size c/98 from 3 to 15 pm and most preferably from 4 to 12 pm, at least one solid organic acid having a pKa value in the range of 2.5 to 7.0, wherein the at least one solid organic acid is a tri-carboxylic acid, preferably citric acid, wherein the natural ground calcium carbonate is present in an amount of from 30 to 70 wt.%, preferably from 40 to 60 wt.%, and the at least one solid organic acid is present in an amount of from 30 to 70 wt.%, preferably from 40 to 60 wt.%, based on the total weight of the natural ground calcium carbonate and the at least one solid organic acid, and wherein the baking powder is sodium-free and phosphate-free.

According to a preferred embodiment, the baking powder comprises a natural ground calcium carbonate having a volume median particle size c/50 from 1 .5 to 8 pm, and a volume top cut particle size c/98 from 3 to 15 pm and most preferably from 4 to 12 mhi, at least one solid organic acid having a pKa value in the range of 2.5 to 7.0, wherein the at least one solid organic acid is a tri-carboxylic acid, preferably citric acid, wherein the natural ground calcium carbonate is present in an amount of from 30 to 70 wt.%, preferably from 40 to 60 wt.%, and the at least one solid organic acid is present in an amount of from 30 to 70 wt.%, preferably from 40 to 60 wt.%, based on the total weight of the natural ground calcium carbonate and the at least one solid organic acid, and wherein the baking powder is sodium-free, phosphate-free and free of a carbonate other than calcium carbonate.

According to a preferred embodiment, the baking powder consists of a natural ground calcium carbonate having a volume median particle size c/so from 1 .5 to 8 pm, and a volume top cut particle size c/98 from 3 to 15 pm and most preferably from 4 to 12 pm, and at least one solid organic acid having a pKa value in the range of 2.5 to 7.0.

Another aspect of the present invention refers to a product comprising the baking powder according to the present invention. The product may be any product, in which a baking powder may be present. For example, such a product is typically a baking and/or cooking mixture. According to preferred embodiment, the product is a baking mixture, more preferably a baking mixture for a pastry, a bread, a cake, a waffle, a pizza or a noodle. According to one embodiment, the product is a preprepared food product, preferably a dough.

Yet another aspect of the present invention refers to a food, which is obtainable by using the baking powder according to the present invention or the product according to the present invention. The food may be any food which is usually prepared by using a leavening agent. Usually such foods are prepared from a dough. Exemplary foods are pastry, bread, cake, waffle, pizza or noodles.

According to one embodiment, the food is obtainable by a process comprising the following steps: a) mixing the baking powder with other food ingredients, preferably in the presence of water, b) subjecting the mixture to a temperature of from 20 to 300°C, preferably from 80 to 250°C.

Preferably, the mixture is subjected to a temperature of from 20 to 300°C over a time period of from 1 min to 24 h, preferably from 30 min to 4 h.

The process of preparing the baking powder

According to another aspect of the present invention, a process for producing a baking powder is provided, comprising the steps of (a) providing a natural ground calcium carbonate having a volume median particle size c/so from 1 to 15 pm in dry form, (b) providing a solid organic acid having a pKa value in the range of 2.5 to 7.0, (c) mixing the natural ground calcium carbonate of step (a) with the solid organic acid of step (b) in a dry blending step to obtain a baking powder.

A natural ground calcium carbonate in “dry form” in the meaning of the present invention refers to a natural ground calcium carbonate, which contains a residual moisture content of below 3.0 wt.%, preferably of below 2.0 wt.%, and more preferably of below 1 .0 wt.%, based on the total dry weight of the natural ground calcium carbonate. A suitable method for determining the water content of the dry cosmetic and/or skin care composition will be selected by the skilled person. For example, the water content may be determined according to the Coulometric Karl Fischer measurement method, wherein the composition is heated to 220 °C, and the water content released as vapour and isolated using a stream of nitrogen gas (at 100 ml/min) is determined in a Coulometric Karl Fischer unit.

Mixing step c) is a dry blending step. A “dry blending” step in the meaning of the present invention is a mixing step of components in dry form in the absence of a liquid component. The dry blending step may be carried out with any known mixer for blending two or more dry components. The skilled person will select the appropriate mixer according to his equipment.

According to one particularly preferred embodiment, a process for producing a baking powder is provided, consisting of the steps of (a) providing a natural ground calcium carbonate having a volume median particle size c/50 from 1 to 15 pm in dry form, (b) providing citric acid, (c) mixing the natural ground calcium carbonate of step (a) with the citric acid of step (b) in a dry blending step to obtain a baking powder.

The natural ground calcium carbonate of step a) and the at least one solid organic acid of step b) may be added to a mixer in mixing step c) simultaneously or in any order. According to one embodiment, the natural ground calcium carbonate of step a) is added to the at least one solid organic acid of step b) to a mixing vessel in mixing step c), or vice versa. According to another embodiment, the natural ground calcium carbonate of step a) and the at least one solid organic acid of step b) are added simultaneously to a mixer in mixing step c).

In case the baking powder contains one or more additives in addition to the natural ground calcium carbonate and the at least one solid organic acid, the process according to the invention comprises the further steps of providing one or more additive and mixing the one or more additive with the natural ground calcium carbonate and the at least one solid organic acid simultaneously or in any possible order. According to one embodiment, the process further comprises a step of providing one or more additives, and the step of mixing the one or more additive with the natural ground calcium carbonate and the at least one solid organic acid simultaneously or in any possible order. According to one embodiment, the one or more additives are solids, which are provided in dry form.

The process according to the present invention may further comprise a step of packaging the baking powder obtained in step c). According to one embodiment, the process further comprises a step of packaging the baking powder obtained in step c).

The use

Another aspect of the present invention refers to the use of a composition comprising a natural ground calcium carbonate having a volume median particle size c/50 from 1 to 15 pm, and a solid organic acid having a pKa value in the range of 2.5 to 7.0, wherein the composition is sodium-free, as a baking powder.

According to one embodiment, the baking powder of the present invention is used by mixing the baking powder with other food ingredients, preferably in the presence of water, and subjecting the mixture to a temperature of from 20 to 300°C, preferably from 80 to 250°C. Preferably, the mixture is subjected to a temperature of from 20 to 300°C over a time period of from 1 min to 24 h, preferably from 30 min to 4 h.

The baking powder may be used in specific quantities with respect to other food ingredients. For example, the baking powder may be used in specific quantities with respect to flour as another food ingredient. According to one embodiment, the baking powder is used in an amount of from 10 to 100 g, preferably of from 30 to 70 g, more preferably from 40 to 60 g, and most preferably from 50 to 60 g, per kg of flour.

According to another embodiment of the present invention, a process is provided, comprising the steps of mixing the baking powder according to the present invention with one or more further food ingredients, preferably in the presence of water, and subjecting the mixture to a temperature of from 20 to 300°C, preferably from 80 to 250°C.

Figures

Figure 1 : Calculated slice area of the cakes prepared in baking trials 1 to 5.

Figure 2: Calculated pore diameter of the cakes prepared in baking trials 1 to 5.

Figure 3A: Calculated slice area of the cakes prepared in baking trial 1 and 6.

Figure 3B: Calculated pore diameter of the cakes prepared in baking trial 1 and 6.

Figure 4: Calculated slice area of the cakes prepared in baking trials 7 to 11 .

Figure 5: Calculated pore diameter of the cakes prepared in baking trials 7 to 11 .

Figure 6: Pictures of selected cakes prepared in baking trials 7 to 11 .

Figure 7A: Total gas formation of an inventive baking powder over time in a gas-release test.

Figure 7B: Normalized gas formation of an inventive baking powder in a gas-release test.

Examples

1 . Methods

Particle size distribution

Volume determined median particle size <&o(noI) and the volume determined top cut particle size c/98(vol) was evaluated using a Malvern Mastersizer 3000 Laser Diffraction System (Malvern Instruments Pic., Great Britain). The <¾o(noI) or <¾8(noI) value indicates a diameter value such that 50 % or 98 % by volume, respectively, of the particles have a diameter of less than this value. The raw data obtained by the measurement was analyzed using the Mie theory, with a particle refractive index of 1 .57 and an absorption index of 0.005. The methods and instruments are known to the skilled person and are commonly used to determine particle size distributions of fillers and pigments. The measurement was carried out in an aqueous solution of 0.1 wt.-% Na 4 P 2 C>7. The samples were dispersed using a high-speed stirrer and supersonicated.

Slice area and Pore diameter

The slice area and pore diameter of a cake slice was determined by image analysis. The image analysis of a cake slice was recorded and evaluated with a CCELL device (type: CC.400.01 , ser. no.: 415011 , 110-240 V, 50-60 H, 55-60 W). After the calibration of the device, a cake slice was selected from the middle of each cake and recorded in the CCELL. The following data of collected by the CCELL device were evaluated: Total area of the cake slice in mm 2 , pore density in number of pores/ 100 mm 2 and pore diameter in mm. Baking trials

All ingredients were mixed according to a cake recipe shown in Table 1 to obtain a mass, which was placed into a longish baking dish. The mass was baked at 200°C for 45 min, then the cake was allowed to cool to room temperature.

2. Components

Natural ground calcium carbonate (NGCC)

A natural ground calcium carbonate from turkey having a c/50 (vol) in the range of 1 .8 to 2.6 pm. The natural ground calcium carbonate is commercially available from Omya.

Solid organic acid

Citric acid anhydrous was purchased from Aurimex AG, Switzerland and had a purity of 99%.

Lactic acid/ calcium lactate mixture was purchased from Aurimex AG, Switzerland and had a purity of 99%. The mixture contains 58-60% of lactic acid and 36-42% of calcium lactate and 1-3% of silicates.

3. Baking powders

Inventive baking powders (IBP)

IBP1 : NGCC (11 g) + citric acid (14 g)

IBP2: NGCC (16.5 g) + citric acid (14 g)

IBP3: NGCC (22 g) + citric acid (14 g)

IBP4: NGCC (22 g) + Lactic acid/calcium lactate mixture (20 g)

The inventive baking powders IBP1 to IBP4 were prepared by dry blending the components in a mixer. All components were added to a Turbula mixer Type T10B and mixing was performed at 50 Hz for 15 min. After 15 min of mixing, the baking powders were ready to use.

A commercially available baking powder from Pistor AG was used as a comparative baking powder (CBP). The comparative baking powder consists of sodium bicarbonate (carbon dioxide source), disodium pyrophosphate (acidic component), wheat starch and calcium phosphate (separating agent).

The commercially available baking powder Ener-G Baking Powder from Ener-G Foods, Inc. was used as another comparative baking powder (CBP 2). According to the product information, the Ener-G Baking Powder consists of calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, glucono delta-lactone, and citric acid. The particle size dso of the calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate used in the Ener-G Baking Powder was unspecified.

4. Baking trials

Baking trials were carried out with the inventive baking powders IBP1 to IBP4, the comparative baking powder CBP and without a baking powder. In the baking trials, the baking powders were used for preparing a sponge cake according to the following recipe: Table 1 : Cake recipe

Baking trials were performed using the recipe as shown in Table 1 and the amount of the baking powder indicated in Table 2 or 3. Each baking trial was carried out in a series of n different baking trials. Table 2 refers to baking trials carried out with inventive baking powders IBP1 to IBP4, the comparative baking powder and a trial without a baking powder. Table 2: Baking trials 1 to 6

Figure 1 and Figure 2 shows the results of the baking trials 1 to 5.

Figure 1 shows the results for the slice area of the cakes of trials 1 to 5. The slice area of the cake can be used as an indicator for the performance of the baking powder, and especially for the release of carbon dioxide during the preparation of the cake mass and/or the baking process. The higher the slice area is, the more the volume of the cake has increased during the baking process. For example, baking trial 5 resulted in the smallest slice area of the cakes, which means that the cakes did not increase, or only relatively little, in volume during the baking process. This can be explained by the absence of baking powder. Baking trials 2 to 4, which were carried out with the inventive baking powders, show a significantly higher slice area than the baking trial without baking powder. Baking trials 2 to 4 further show comparable results as baking trial 1 , which was carried out with the commercially available baking powder. This shows that the inventive baking powders can be used as leavening agents for food preparation. Inventive baking powder 2 (baking trial 3) and inventive baking powder 3 (baking trial 4) performed equally good in the baking trials. Figure 2 shows the results for the pore diameter of the cakes of trials 1 to 5. The pore diameter is another indicator for the performance of the baking powder. For example, a cake, which has been prepared without or with a poorly performing baking powder usually has pores with a particular small pore diameter. Figure 2, trial 5 refers to cakes, which were prepared without baking powder. The cakes of trial 5 are the cakes with the smallest pore diameter. The cakes of trial 1 , which was prepared using the commercially available baking powder, show a pore diameter, which is comparable or smaller than the pore diameter of the cakes, which were prepared by using the inventive baking powder 1 to 3. It can be gathered from the results shown in Figure 2 that the inventive baking powders perform at least as good, or even better, regarding the pore diameter compared to the prior art reference.

Figure 3A and 3B show the results of baking trial 6 in comparison with the comparative trial 1. The slice area of the cakes according to trial 6 is comparable to the slice area of the cakes of trial 2 and lies significantly above the slice area of the cakes according to trial 5 (no baking powder) shown in Figure 2. The pore diameter of the cakes according to trial 6 is comparable to the pore diameter of the reference cakes. The results show that inventive baking powder 4 can be used as a leavening agent for food preparation.

Table 3 refers to baking trials, which were carried out with different amounts of inventive baking powder IBP2 (trials 8 to 11). For comparison, another series of baking trials was carried out with the commercially available baking powder (trial 7).

Table 3: Baking trials 7 to 11

The results of the baking trials according to Table 3 are shown in figure 4 to figure 6.

Figure 4 shows the results for the slice area of the cakes prepared in trials 7 to 11. The results of trials 8 to 11 show a significantly increased slice area of the cakes compared to cakes, which were prepared without baking powder (see figure 2, trial 5). It can further be gathered from the results shown in figure 4 that the increase of the amount of inventive baking powder 2 (trials 8 to 11) leads to a further increase in slice area of the prepared cakes. Trials 9 to 11 resulted in slice areas, which are the closest to the reference of trial 7. For example, the cakes of trial 11 had a slice area, which is only approximately 6 cm 3 per cakes smaller than that of the reference.

Figure 5 shows the results for the pore diameter of the cakes prepared in trials 7 to 11. The pore diameter of the cakes of trials 8 to 11 are comparable or higher than the pore diameter of the reference cakes prepared in trial 7. Figure 6 shows pictures of selected cakes from trials 7 to 11. The pictures from above the cake show that the selected cakes have a satisfactory crumb brightness and cake crack. The appearance of the slice area of the selected cakes is also satisfactory.

As can be gathered from the data presented in Figures 1 to 6, the inventive baking powder performs at least comparable to a commercially available baking powder. In certain aspects such as pore diameter of a baked cake, the inventive baking powder performs better than a comparative baking powder.

5. Gas-release tests

It is desirable that a baking powder produces a large volume of gas (carbon dioxide) in a comparatively short time to provide the prepared food with a desired volume and texture. A baking powder which has such desired properties can be used in comparatively low quantities, which avoids costs and/or an influence on the taste of the prepared food. Thus, the gas release profile of a baking powder is an indicator for its efficiency and/or effectiveness. The more gas (carbon dioxide) is released by a baking powder, the better it is.

Gas-release tests were carried out with IBP2 and CBP2.

The gas-release trials were carried out as follows:

1) 0.7 g of baking powder (IBP2 or CBP2) were charged in a three-neck-round bottom flask;

2) A magnetic stir bar was added, and one neck was closed (gas proof);

3) The second neck of the flask was connected to a volumetric measurement burette;

4) The flask was heated to 50°C with a water bath and a heating plate. The magnetic stirrer was started at 250 rpm;

6) 25 ml of demineralized water were added to the baking powder via a burette through the third neck of the flask and the volumetric measurement was started;

7) The produced gas volume was measured after 0.5, 1 , 1 .5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,

10, 15, 20, 30 and 45 minutes.

The results of the gas-release trials are shown in Figures 7 A and 7B. Figure 7 A shows the total amount of gas released overtime by IBP 2 or CBP 2, respectively. As can be seen in Figure 7 A, the inventive baking powder IBP 2 releases a significantly higher amount of gas overtime than the comparative baking powder CBP 2. Thus, the inventive baking powder IBP 2 is more effective than the comparative baking powder CBP 2. Figure 7B shows the normalized gas formation of the two baking powders. The normalized gas formation indicates the time needed for forming the total gas volume released by the respective baking powder. Thus, the normalized gas formation indicates the reaction kinetics of the baking powders. As can be gathered from Figure 7B, the inventive baking powder IBP 2 releases gas slightly faster than the comparative baking powder CBP 2. Overall, the inventive baking powder IBP 2 releases gas in a higher amount and faster than the comparative baking powder CBP 2.