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Title:
BARRIER SYSTEMS AND METHODS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2022/165315
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A barrier system for providing a barrier to water is provided. The barrier system includes a first plurality of interlocking wall elements, wherein each of the interlocking wall elements contains at least one notch. The barrier system includes a first plurality of connection elements for interlocking the interlocking wall elements of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements, wherein the connection elements are configured to connect at least two adjacent interlocking wall elements by fitting within notches of at least one of the adjacent interlocking wall elements, and wherein the first plurality of interlocking wall elements and the first plurality of connection elements together form a first barrier structure. The barrier system includes a first plurality of support, units arranged on at. least, one side of the first, barrier structure to support the first barrier structure and protect the first harrier structure from dynamic forces of water.

Inventors:
ROSA, Wilfredo (US)
HOLASEK, Bryan (US)
SÁNCHEZ PÉREZ, Manuel (ES)
Application Number:
PCT/US2022/014529
Publication Date:
August 04, 2022
Filing Date:
January 31, 2022
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ROSARUIZ ENTERPRISES INC. (US)
International Classes:
E04B2/02; E02B3/14; E02D9/02
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
RAWLS, Mark T. (US)
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Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A barrier system for providing a barrier to water, the barrier system comprising: a first plurality of interlocking wall elements, wherein each of the interlocking wall elements contains at least one notch; a first plurality of connection elements for interlocking the interlocking wall elements of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements, wherein the connection elements are configured to connect at least two adjacent interlocking wall elements by fitting within notches of at least one of the adjacent interlocking wall elements, and wherein the first plurality of interlocking wall elements and the first plurality of connection elements together form a first barrier structure; and a first plurality of support units arranged on at least one side of the first barrier structure to support the first barrier structure and protect the first barrier structure from dynamic forces of water.

2. The barrier system of claim 1, wherein one or more of the interlocking wall elements is rectangular-shaped.

3. The barrier system of any one of claims 1-2, wherein one or more of the notches is trapezoid-shaped, and the connection elements are configured to connect at least two adjacent interlocking wall elements by fitting within notches of at least two of the adjacent interlocking wall elements.

4. The barrier system of any one of claims 1-2, wherein one or more of the notches is a groove and one or more of the connection elements is a part of one of the wall elements and interfits into the groove in a tongue-and-groove fitting.

5. The barrier system of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the wall elements comprise natural stone.

6. The barrier system of claim 5, wherein the natural stone is granite.

7. The barrier system of any one of claims 1-6, wherein the connection elements comprise natural stone.

8. The barrier system of any one of claims 1-7, wherein the support units are gabion baskets.

9. The barrier system of any one of claims 1-8, wherein the support units comprise stainless steel.

10. The barrier system of any one of claims 1-9, wherein the support units are filled with gravel.

11. The barrier system of any one of claims 1-10, further comprising one or more tie rods, wherein each tie rod penetrates an interlocking wall element of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements and is fixed to one or more support units of the first plurality of support units, such that the tie rod is configured to restrict movement of the interlocking wall element it penetrates with respect to other interlocking wall elements on at least one axis of rotation.

12. The barrier system of any one of claims 1-11, wherein the barrier system forms a bulkhead, the barrier system further comprising: a bulkhead base at a bottom of the first barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the bulkhead base; a bulkhead cap at a top of the first barrier structure, wherein a top row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the bulkhead cap; and one or more bulkhead posts extending from the bulkhead base to the bulkhead cap.

13. The barrier system of any one of claims 1-11, wherein the barrier system forms a revetment, the barrier system further comprising: a revetment base at a bottom of the first barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the revetment base; and wherein the first barrier structure is sloped.

14. The barrier system of any one of claims 1-11, wherein the barrier system forms a toe, the barrier system further comprising: a toe base at a bottom of the first barri er structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the toe base; a toe cap at a top of the first barrier structure, wherein a top row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the toe cap; one or more toe posts extending from the bulkhead base to the bulkhead cap; and a second plurality of interlocking wall elements extending from the toe base in a different direction than the first plurality of interlocking wall elements.

15. The barrier system of any one of claims 1-11, wherein the barrier system forms a berm, the barrier system further comprising: a first berm base at a bottom of the first barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the first berm base; wherein the first barrier structure is sloped; a second plurality of interlocking wall elements, wherein each of the interlocking wall elements contains at least one notch; a second plurality of connection elements for interlocking the interlocking wall elements of the second plurality of interlocking wall elements, wherein the connection elements are configured to connect at least two adjacent interlocking wall elements by fitting within notches of at least one of the adjacent interlocking wall elements, and wherein the second plurality of interlocking wall elements and the second plurality of connection elements together form a second barrier structure; a second plurality of support units arranged on at least one side of the second barrier structure to support the second barrier structure and protect the second barrier structure from dynamic forces of water; a second berm base at a bottom of the second barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the second plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the second berm base; a cap extending between the first barrier structure and the second barrier structure; and a waterproof membrane extending between the first plurality of support units and the second plurality of support units.

16. The barrier system of any one of claims 1-11, wherein the barrier system forms a levee, the barrier system further comprising: a levee base at a bottom of the first barri er structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the levee base; a waterproof membrane extending from the first barrier structure; and wherein the first barrier structure is sloped.

17. The barrier system of any one of claims 1-11, wherein the barrier system forms a dam, the barrier system further comprising: a dam base at a bottom of the first barri er structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the dam base; a dam cap at a top of the first barrier structure, wherein a top row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the dam cap; one or more dam posts extending from the dam base to the dam cap; and wherein the first barrier structure has a U-like-shape in plan view.

18. A method of manufacturing a barrier system for providing a barrier to water, the method comprising: providing a first plurality of interlocking wall elements, wherein each of the interlocking wall elements contains at least one notch; connecting the wall elements with one or more connection elements of a first plurality of connection elements for interlocking the interlocking wall elements of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements, wherein the connection elements are configured to connect at least two adjacent interlocking wall elements by fitting within notches of at least one of the adjacent interlocking wall elements, and wherein the first plurality of interlocking wall elements and the first plurality of connection elements together form a first barrier structure; and supporting the barrier structure with a first plurality of support units arranged on at least one side of the first barrier structure to support the first barrier structure and protect the first barrier structure from dynamic forces of water.

19. The method of claim 18, further comprising drilling a push-through hole into the one or more support units of the first plurality of support units.

20. The method of claim 19, further comprising drilling a drainage hole into the first barrier structure, such that the drainage hole in the first barrier structure substantially aligns with the push-through hole.

21. The method of claim 20, further comprising overfilling the support units of the first plurality of support units with a material selected from the group consisting of gravel and stone.

22. The method of claim 18, further comprising capping the barrier system.

23. The method of any one of claims 18-22, further comprising providing one or more tie rods, wherein each tie rod penetrates an interlocking wall element of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements and is fixed to one or more support units of the first plurality of support units, such that the tie rod is configured to restrict movement of the interlocking wall element it penetrates with respect to other interlocking wall elements on at least one axis of rotation.

24. The method of any one of claims 18-23, wherein the barrier system forms a bulkhead, the method further comprising: providing a bulkhead base at a bottom of the first barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the bulkhead base; providing a bulkhead cap at a top of the first barrier structure, wherein a top row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the bulkhead cap; and providing one or more bulkhead posts extending from the bulkhead base to the bulkhead cap.

25. The method of any one of claims 18-23, wherein the barrier system forms a revetment, the barrier system further comprising: providing a revetment base at a bottom of the first barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the revetment base; and wherein the first barrier structure is sloped.

26. The method of any one of claims 18-23, wherein the barrier system forms a toe, the barrier system further comprising: providing a toe base at a bottom of the first barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the toe base; providing a toe cap at a top of the first barrier structure, wherein a top row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the toe cap; providing one or more toe posts extending from the bulkhead base to the bulkhead cap; and providing a second plurality of interlocking wall elements extending from the toe base in a different direction than the first plurality of interlocking wall elements.

27. The method of any one of claims 18-23, wherein the barrier system forms a berm, the barrier system further comprising: providing a first berm base at a bottom of the first barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the first berm base; wherein the first barrier structure is sloped; providing a second plurality of interlocking wall elements, wherein each of the interlocking wall elements contains at least one notch; providing a second plurality of connection elements for interlocking the interlocking wall elements of the second plurality of interlocking wall elements, wherein the connection elements are configured to connect at least two adjacent interlocking wall elements by fitting within notches of at least one of the adjacent interlocking wall elements, and wherein the second plurality of interlocking wall elements and the second plurality of connection elements together form a second barrier structure; providing a second plurality of support units arranged on at least one side of the second barrier structure to support the second barrier structure and protect the second barrier structure from dynamic forces of water; providing a second berm base at a bottom of the second barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the second plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the second berm base; providing a cap extending between the first barrier structure and the second barrier structure; and providing a waterproof membrane extending between the first plurality of support units and the second plurality of support units.

28. The method of any one of claims 18-23, wherein the barrier system forms a levee, the barrier system further comprising: providing a levee base at a bottom of the first barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the levee base; providing a waterproof membrane extending from the first barrier structure; and wherein the first barrier structure is sloped.

29. The method of any one of claims 18-23, wherein the barrier system forms a dam, the barrier system further comprising: providing a dam base at a bottom of the first barri er structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the dam base; providing a dam cap at a top of the first barrier structure, wherein a top row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the dam cap; providing one or more dam posts extending from the dam base to the dam cap; and wherein the first barrier structure has a U-like-shape in plan view.

30. A reef system, comprising: a plurality of reef base elements having a plurality of reef base holes, wherein said plurality of reef base elements are comprised of manufactured natural stone that are spaced apart to allow water to flow through one or more channels between said reef base elements, and wherein said reef base holes are configured to support the growth of organic material within and around said holes.

31. The reef system of claim 30, further compri sing seed material stored in the reef base holes to support the growth of organic material within and around said holes.

32. The reef system of claim 31, wherein the holes are undercut to create collars, wherein the collars are configured to assist in storing the seed material in the holes.

33. The reef system of any one of claims 30-32, wherein the seed material is comprised of at least one of shell s or coral.

34. The reef system of claim 32, wherein the reef base elements are stacked and staggered to create a plurality of channels that facilitate a water flow.

35. The reef system of claim 34, wherein the reef base elements are further arranged to have a wider opening for the entrance of the water flow into the channels and a narrower exit for the exit of the water flow from the channels.

36. The reef system of any one of claims 30-35, wherein the reef base elements are held in place and together by at least one of gravity, frictional forces, and normal forces.

37. The reef system of any one of claims 30-35, wherein the reef base elements are held in place and together by chains.

38. A method of regulating the dynamic flow of ocean water, comprising: fabricating at least two sets of reef base elements, wherein said reef base elements are made of natural stone and comprise a plurality of reef base holes; placing the first set of reef base elements on an ocean floor; stacking the second set of reef base elements on top of first plurality of reef base elements, wherein the first set and the second set of reef base elements are arranged to create at least one channel through which water can flow; and arranging said first set and said second set of reef base elements in a manner to allow water to flow through the at least one channel between said first set and second set of reef base elements.

39. The method of claim 38, wherein the at least one channel compri ses an opening that is wider than the exit of the at least one channel to facilitate the flow of water.

40. The method of any one of claims 38-39, further comprising depositing seed material into the plurality of reef base holes.

41. The method of any one of claims 38-40, further comprising connecting the first set of reef base elem ents and the second set of reef base elements by chains.

42. The method of claim 41, further comprising undercutting the reef base holes to create collars that aid in storing the seed material.

Description:
BARRIER SYSTEMS AND METHODS

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No.

63/143,649, filed on January 29, 2021, and U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 63/182,640, filed on April 30, 2021, the entire disclosures of which are incorporated herein in their entirety.

FIELD OF THE DISCLOSURE

[0002] The subject matter disclosed herein generally relates to seawalls, bulkhead systems, revetment systems, tie rod systems, toe systems, berm systems, levees, dams, reef and reef base systems, and other protective barrier products and methods of providing barriers to water for the purpose of land reclamation, protection, or other. This disclosure also addresses the fabrication, transport, and assembly of such systems.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Protection of land and structures against the dynamic forces of water driven by, inter alia, floods, currents, tides, and winds has existed at least since the erection of the first structures near water.

[0004] Systems created to provide this protection are formed from any readily available material, including, but not limited to, earthen berms, stone, wood, tires, used oil barrels, and cloth mats. These systems take the form of seawalls, bulkheads, revetments, tie rod systems, toe systems, berms, levees, dams, revetments, and other structures.

[0005] In recent years some of the building materials of choice have included timber, reinforced concrete, metal, synthetic materials, and other materials.

Timber [0006] Wood and, more recently, treated lumber may be used in the creation of bulkheads and seawall for both saltwater and freshwater applications. Timber materials comprise one of the materials of choice for local contractors because the materials may be easily shaped and manipulated with common hand tools. However, wood may suffer deterioration resulting from rot, insect damage, fastener rust, particularly in high salt and ice, plus freezing and thaw cycles, which can tear structures apart. For some implementations, useful life for such a system is in the range of 10-15 years.

Concrete

[0007] Reinforced concrete can be comprised of materials including, but not limited to,

Portland cement, aggregate stone, and rebar and has been the preferred method and material for some contractors to construct such protective systems. The material can be readily formed into the desired shape arduously through the use of concrete forms. Rebar may be added to improve the tensile strength, weight, and stress absorption and other characteristics of the material. Failure modes of such material, particularly in saltwater, include, but are not limited to, surface cracking under tensile load, carbonation, and chlori de exposure resorting to spalling of the concrete when the rebar expands. Freeze-thaw cycles also damage the reinforced concrete. For some implementations, useful life for such a system is in the range of 20 years with nearly unlimited height limitation. Reinforced concrete can be prepared in a factory setting and delivered precast.

Concrete blocks may be created in factories with interlocking features with structural properties that may be similar to concrete formed at a job site. These blocks may be susceptible to same environmental degradation as reinforced concrete.

Metal [0008] Other barrier solutions include, but are not limited to, steel seawalls constructed with heavy gauge steel sheet piling with interlocking geometries (available in aluminum and timber). In such systems, the raw material is considered expensive and durable and requires specific equipment to install (e.g., actuated hammer on crane). For some implementations, useful life for such a system is in the range of 25 years with good maintenance, including the application of protective surface coatings at 3-5 year intervals. Freeze-thaw cycles have also proven detrimental to the useful life of steel seawalls, and the overall life will depend on the severity and frequency of such freeze-thaw cycles, driving the life of such systems down.

Synthetics

[0009] Alternative barrier solutions include, but are not limited to, the use of synthetic materials such as vinyl to create interlocking boxes, in some cases attempting to mimic the steel sheet piling. Such systems typically consist of 80% or more recycled industrial materials providing, in some cases, an environmentally responsible solution. Such systems may be modular, may follow the contour of tight shorelines, and may be assembled by one or two individuals with the option to fill the center void with materials such as rebar and concrete for additional strength.

For some implementations, the useful life for such a system is in the range of 75 years. Synthetic materials used in such systems can be susceptible to ultraviolet (UV) rays common in sunshine, which can shorten useful life.

Stone

[00010] Referring to FIG. 11, the downward force caused by gravity acting on the mass of stone stacked vertically above the joint creates a normal force (F n ), which multiplied by the static coefficient of friction (η sf ) at the joint between the meeting stones directly forms a reactionary force (F sf ). This reactionary force (F sf ) reacts to loads applied by water (F w ), attempting to create movement (displacement) in the plane of the joint, when sized appropriately to the anticipated loading no mortar is required to hold blocks in place. Modem stone masonry has logistical and technological constraints (reducing the size of the stone) impacting the configuration, manufacture, movement, construction, and installation of such systems. This results in systems that are rudimentary, non-dynamic, rigid, and cost-prohibitive to construct, especially on a large scale.

However, the use of stone also allows for creating durable structures with a useful lifetime in the centuries that require little maintenance.

Barrier Systems and Methods

[00011] The systems and methods of the present disclosure provide significant innovative advancements over the prior art, including over the above-referenced approaches. For example, in some embodiments, the present disclosure creates, through a novel use of natural stone, a solution which is a semi-rigid, well-ordered array of structural elements that interlock to form a geometric pattern interlocking quarried armor stone forming a seawall, revetment or bulkhead protecting littoral, coastal, and inland lands from dynamic erosion of both sea and freshwater action.

[00012] The systems and methods of the present disclosure merge the longevity of massive stone structures with streamlined, integrated construction using modular prefabricated elements utilizing (in some embodiments) natural stones crafted at the quarry with direct-to-job-site logistics. The systems and methods of the present disclosure provide a waterfront sea-facing structure with minimal maintenance and useful life measured in centuries.

[00013] The present disclosure also provides enhanced reef base systems and methods. For example, embodiments disclosed herein show and describe a reef base system having individual or interconnected solid stone elements configured to regulate the dynamic flow of water, including, but not limited to, seawater in the vicinity of a beachhead, shoreline, or other region where water interfaces with land. Such systems provide solid, fabricated, natural stone structures upon which natural, organic materials and aquatic life build up over time to further enhance the desired regulation of dynamic water flow.

[00014] The systems and methods of the present disclosure also provide for enhanced barrier systems fabricated utilizing advanced stone cutting techniques, including, but not limited to, utilizing large-scale hardened stone wire or blade saws and drills.

[00015] The disclosure provides a solution that is attractive, resistant to freeze-thaw cycles, resistant to harsh/corrosive environment (saltwater and others), manufactured from natural materials (minimal CO 2 created), significantly more resilient (with useful life projected in the hundreds of years), minimal or no maintenance, and with a total anticipated construction cost and construction time each substantially lower than the conventional methods.

[00016] The disclosure also provides a solution with no requirement for build site or prefabrication mold fabrication as required by poured concrete structures. The disclosure also provides a solution that eliminates the requirement for reinforcing bar assembly at constructions site or prefabri cati on of such structures. The disclosure also provides a solution where the absence of mortar at the joints of elements eliminates the failure and maintenance of the mortar (joint repointing) in the final structure. The disclosure also provides a solution where the absence of mortar allows drain back of water from the stone structure, improving reaction to thawing-freezing cycles. The disclosure also provides a solution for the rapid assembly of seawalls with minimal site prep.

SUMMARY

[00017] The following summary provides an overview of the systems and methods of the present disclosure as disclosed and described herein. This summary is not an extensive overview of the claimed or described subject matter. It is intended to neither identify key or critical elements of the claimed subject matter nor delineate the scope thereof. Its sole purpose is to present some concepts in a simplified form as a prelude to the more detailed description that is presented herein.

[00018] Aspects of the disclosure are embodied in a barrier system, comprising: a plurality of wall elements, wherein at least one of the wall elements contains at least one notch; a plurality of connection elements, wherein the connection elements are configured to connect a first wall element to a second wall element, and wherein the connected wall elements comprise a barrier structure; and a plurality of support units, whereas at least one of the support units are arranged on at least one side of the barrier structure to support the barrier structure.

[00019] In another aspect of the disclosure, one or more of the wall elements are shaped like a rectangle.

[00020] In yet another aspect of the disclosure one or more of the notches are shaped like a trapezoid.

[00021] In yet another aspect of the disclosure the wall elements are made of natural stone.

[00022] In yet another aspect of the disclosure the natural stone is granite.

[00023] In yet another aspect of the disclosure the connection elements are made of natural stone.

[00024] In yet another aspect of the disclosure a first connection element is shaped to simultaneously fit within the contours of a first notch of a first wall element and a second notch of a second wall element.

[00025] In yet another aspect of the disclosure the support units are gabion baskets.

[00026] In yet another aspect of the disclosure the support units are composed of stainless steel. [00027] In yet another aspect of the disclosure the support units are filled with gravel.

[00028] Another aspect of the disclosure is embodied in a method of manufacturing a barrier system, the method comprising: providing a plurality of wall elements, wherein at least one of the wall elements contains at least one notch; connecting the wall elements with one or more connection elements; forming a barrier structure; and supporting the barrier structure with one or more support units.

[00029] In yet another aspect of the disclosure, the method of manufacturing further comprises drilling a push-through hole into the at least one support units.

[00030] In yet another aspect of the disclosure, the method of manufacturing further comprises drilling a drainage hole into the barrier structure, such that the drainage hole in the barrier structure substantially aligns with the push-through hole in the at least one support units.

[00031] In yet another aspect of the disclosure, the method of manufacturing further comprises overfilling the support units with a material selected from the group consisting of gravel and stone.

[00032] In yet another aspect of the disclosure, the method of manufacturing further comprises capping the barrier system.

[00033] Another aspect of the disclosure is embodied in a method of manufacturing a barrier system, comprising: notching a plurality of wall elements with at least one notch for at least one wall element; transporting the plurality of wall elements to a job site; constructing a barrier structure at the job site, wherein the barrier structure comprises the plurality of wall elements connected by a plurality of connecting elements; supporting the barrier structure with at least one support units. [00034] In yet another aspect of the disclosure, the method of manufacturing further comprises drilling a push-through hole into the at least one support units.

[00035] In yet another aspect of the disclosure, the method of manufacturing further comprises drilling a drainage hole into the barrier structure, such that the drainage hole in the barrier structure substantially aligns with the push-through hole in the at least one support units.

[00036] In yet another aspect of the disclosure, the method of manufacturing further comprises overfilling the support units with a material selected from the group consisting of gravel and stone.

[00037] In yet another aspect of the disclosure, the method of manufacturing further comprises capping the barrier system.

[00038] Another aspect of the disclosure is embodied in a reef system, comprising: a plurality of reef base elements having a plurality of reef base holes, wherein said plurality of reef base elements are comprised of manufactured natural stone that are spaced apart to allow water to flow through said reef base elements, and wherein said reef base holes are configured to support the growth of organic material within and around said holes.

[00039] In yet another aspect of the disclosure, the reef system further comprises seed material stored in the reef base holes to support the growth of organic material within and around said holes.

[00040] In yet another aspect of the disclosure, the reef system further comprises holes undercut to create collars, wherein the collars are configured to assist in storing the seed material in the holes.

[00041] In yet another aspect of the disclosure, the reef system further comprises seed material is comprised of at least one of shells or coral. [00042] In yet another aspect of the disclosure, the reef system further comprises reef base elements stacked and staggered to create a plurality of channels that facilitate a water flow.

[00043] In yet another aspect of the disclosure, the reef system further comprises reef base elements arranged to have a wider opening for the entrance of the water flow into the channels and a narrower exit for the exit of the water flow from the channels.

[00044] In yet another aspect of the disclosure, the reef system further comprises reef base elements held in place and together by at least one of gravity, frictional forces, and normal forces.

[00045] In yet another aspect of the disclosure, the reef system further compri ses reef base elements held in place and together by chains or similar retention methods.

[00046] Another aspect of the disclosure is embodied in a method of regulating the dynamic flow of ocean water, comprising: fabricating two or more reef base elements, wherein said reef base elements are made of natural stone and comprise a plurality of reef base holes; placing a first plurality of reef base elements on an ocean floor, stacking a second plurality of reef base elements on top of first plurality of reef base elements; arranging said first plurality and said second plurality of reef base elements in a manner to allow water to flow through said first and second plurality of reef base elements.

[00047] In yet another aspect of the disclosure the method of regulating the dynamic flow of ocean water comprises wherein the first plurality and second plurality of reef base elements are arranged to create channels through which water can flow.

[00048] In yet another aspect of the disclosure the method of regulating the dynamic flow of ocean water comprises wherein the first plurality and second plurality of reef elements are arranged to create channels wherein the opening of the channels are wider than the exit of the channels to facilitate the flow of water. [00049] In yet another aspect of the disclosure the method of regulating the dynamic flow of ocean water comprises depositing seed material into the plurality of reef base holes.

[00050] In yet another aspect of the disclosure the method of regulating the dynamic flow of ocean water comprises connecting the first plurality of reef base elements and the second plurality of reef base elements by chains.

[00051] In yet another aspect of the disclosure the method of regulating the dynamic flow of ocean water comprises undercutting the reef base holes to create collars that aid in storing the seed material.

[00052] The above and other various aspects and embodiments are described below with reference to the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[00053] The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated herein and form part of the disclosure, help illustrate various embodiments and, together with the description, further serve to enable a person skilled in the pertinent art to make and use the embodiments disclosed herein.

[00054] In the drawings, like reference numbers indicate identical or functionally similar elements.

[00055] FIG. 1 shows a perspective view of a barrier system showing a wall element, connecting element, and support units as one aspect of the present disclosure.

[00056] FIG. 1A shows a perspecti ve view of a wall element supported by a support unit, where a connecting element has been inserted into a notch of the wall element as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00057] FIG. 1B shows a perspective view of a wall element with a connecting element inserted in a notch of the wall element as another aspect of the present disclosure. [00058] FIG. 1C shows a perspective view of a wall element as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00059] FIG. 1D shows a perspective view of a connecting element as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00060] FIG. 1E shows a front view of a connecting element as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00061] FIG. 1F shows a perspective view of a tapered connecting element as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00062] FIG. 1G shows a perspective view of a connecting element with engagement pins inserted as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00063] FIG. 1H shows a front view of a connecting element with engagement pins inserted as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00064] FIG. 1I shows a perspective view of a rectangular support unit as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00065] FIG. 1J shows a perspective view of a tapered support unit as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00066] FIG. 1K shows a perspective view of a support unit filled with filler material as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00067] FIG. 1L shows a perspective view of a wall element supported by support units and a tie rod with a tie rod plate and tie rod nut.

[00068] FIG. 1M shows a perspective view of a tie rod with a tie rod anchor plate and tie rod nut as another aspect of the present disclosure. [00069] FIG. 1N shows a perspective view of a tie rod and tie rod anchor plate as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00070] FIG. 2 presents a block diagram description of a method of assembling a barrier system as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00071] FIG. 3 shows a first perspective view of a bulkhead system with bulkhead wall elements, a bulkhead connection element, bulkhead base elements, and a bulkhead cap as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00072] FIG. 3A shows a second perspective view of a bulkhead system with bulkhead wall elements, bulkhead base elements, a bulkhead cap, and support units as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00073] FIG. 3B shows a perspective view of a bulkhead post as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00074] FIG. 3C shows a perspective view of a plurality of bulkhead post pins as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00075] FIG. 3D shows a perspective view of a bulkhead cap as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00076] FIG. 3E shows a first perspective view of a bulkhead wall element as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00077] FIG. 3F shows a second perspective view of a first bulkhead wall element at one size and a second bulkhead wall element at a second size as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00078] FIG. 4 presents a block diagram description of a method of assembling a bulkhead system as another aspect of the present disclosure. [00079] FIG. 5 shows a perspective view of a revetment system as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00080] FIG. 5A shows a side view of a revetment system as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00081] FIG. 5B shows a perspective view of a revetment footing element as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00082] FIG. 6 presents a block diagram description of a method of assembling a revetment system as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00083] FIG. 7 shows a perspective view of a toe system as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00084] FIG. 7A shows a side view of a toe system as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00085] FIG. 7B shows a side view of toe system elements and support units as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00086] FIG. 7C shows a perspective view of toe system elements and support units as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00087] FIG. 8 shows a side view of a berm system as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00088] FIG. 9 shows a side view of a levee system as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00089] FIG. 10 shows a perspective view of a dam system as another aspect of the present disclosure [00090] FIG. 11 shows a diagram of frictional forces acting upon stacked stone as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00091] FIG. 12 shows a perspective view of a reef base system as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00092] FIG. 12A shows a perspective view of a reef base element as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00093] FIG. 12B shows a cutaway view of a reef base element with a hole exposed and a collar cut into the hole as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00094] FIG. 12C shows a side view of a reef base element as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00095] FIG. 12D shows a top view of a reef base system in a first arrangement as another aspect of the present disclosure.

[00096] FIG. 12E shows a top view of a reef base system in a second arrangement as another aspect of the present disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Barrier System

[00097] Barrier System Overview: As shown in FIGS. 1-IN, a barrier system 100 includes a plurality of wall elements 102, connecting elements 112, and support units 126. In some embodiments, the barrier system may also include a tie-rod 136. In other embodiments, the barrier system may include tapered support units 126' as substitutes for non-tapered support units 126, or tapered support units 126' may be included in addition to non-tapered support units 126. [00098] As described herein, the barrier system 100 provides a resilient barrier to protect the land and structures behind the barrier system 100 from dynamic forces of water and sea-level increase for a period of at least 70 years.

[00099] In some embodiments, the height of the barrier system 100 is 24 feet and the length is 32 feet. In other embodiments, the system 100 is between 23 feet and 25 feet in height, and the length is between 31 feet and 33 feet. It will be understood the height and length of the system may have dimensi onal tolerances of +/- 0.1 with a target +/-.01 feet. The depth (thickness) of the barrier system 100 will typically be 1 to 2 feet providing strength as well as mass to the elements.

The barrier system may be repeated to form a total length as appropriate for the area to be protected, the total length may in some cases extend miles. It will further be understood that the dimensions of the barrier system 100 will vary depending on the barri er system's 100 application. F or example, the barrier system 100 may be higher in locations where sea levels are anticipated to be higher or to rise, or where dynamic forces such as water are expected to be stronger. It will be understood that the examples of dimensions of the barrier system given are exemplary and that the barrier system may encompass a wide range of dimensions. Broadly speaking, the system could span a range of 10 to 40 feet, with dimensional tolerances of +/-.125 inches. Based on the particulars of the application of the barrier system 100, the element 102 may increase the dimensions 106, 108 and 110, with anticipation of the longest dimension being limited to 23 feet resulting in weight of element 102 ranging between 4 and 100 tons. The repeating pattern of element 102 in barrier system 100 can continue for tens of miles and reach heights of hundreds of feet, provided appropriate support units 126 are provided in a proportional height and depth pattern. For example, in at least one embodiment, the ratio of barrier height to depth of support unit 126 is 10: 1, with one support unit 126 for every 10 feet of barrier height. [000100] As described herein, the barrier system 100 presents low environmental impacts

( CO 2 ) over concrete and steel, as well as resistance to weather and seawall. For example, the environmental (CO 2 ) impact of the barrier system 100 and connecting elements 112 made of granite and the support units 126 are filled with natural stone and gravel. Using figures from the

EP A website: Global Warming Potential GWP where CO 2 is = 1, CO 2 generated by construction using natural stone = -10.9 kg/m 3 , Concrete = -290-410 kg/m 3 . In addition, natural stone, like granite, is nearly three times stronger than concrete, so the same structure would require 1/3 the volume for the same strength structure. Based on the projected useful life of natural stone

(compared to 20 years to 100 years for concrete) you might need to replace the concrete structure five times. So for every m 3 of natural stone as a similar concrete structure would potentially release

(410 x 3 x 5 == 6,150 kg of CO 2 ).

[000101] The seawalls are, when possible, made of stone, which in general is not subject to decomposition from electrical current. The seawall will not likely need a sacrificial zinc plate which need replacement every 5-7 years.

[000102] It will be understood that the system 100 can be capped, e.g. with a cap 314, 314',

714, 914, appropriately for the intended use. For example, the system 100 may be capped with a walkway for pedestrian traffic along certain portions. Alternatively, the system 100 may be capped and serve as a dock or j etty and function as a harbor. It will be understood that the system 100 may be capped in multiple other ways to serve discrete functions and that the examples of capping given are exemplary. The capstone serves, through its weight, to provide additional vertical downward force, increasing the static friction at the joints between primary elements like 102.

[000103] Wall Elements: As shown in FIGS. 1-lC and IL, the barrier system 100 includes a plurali ty of wall elements 102. Each wall elem ent 102 includes one or more notch es 104, shown in FIGS. 1-1C and 1L as trapezoidal in shape. The notches 104 are shaped such that connecting elements 112 may be inserted into the notches 104 and thereby connect the wall elements 102.

[000104] It will be understood that the notches 104 can be other shapes as well, including, but not limited to, rounded hourglass shapes, hexagonal shapes, or other geometric shapes configured to allow the elements 102 to be interconnected with one another through the utilization of one or more connecting elements 112. It will further be understood that the shape of the connecting elements 112 may be configured to fit within the shape of the notches 104 (e.g., a hexagonal -shaped notch 104 may have a hexagonal-shaped connecting element 112). It will also be understood that the notches 104 may not necessarily be uniformly shaped or uniformly sized.

It is desired that the spacing of notches 104 repeats in such a way so that they align when block

102 is staggered by half a length or 102 is matched edge to edge (stacked).

[000105] As shown to FIGS. 1-1C and 1L, the wall elements 102 can be in the shape of a rectangle with a certain thickness 106, height 108, and length 110. In one embodiment, the barrier system wall elements 102 are 1 foot thick, 6 feet high, and 8 feet long. In other embodiments, the bam er system wall elements 102 have a ratio of thickness to height to length of 1:6:8. However, the ratio of thickness to height to length in other embodiments could be 3:6:8 or 3:6:16. In still other embodiments, the wall elements 102 are between 0.5 - 1.5 feet thick, 5.5 feet - 6.5 feet high and 7.5 - 8.5 feet long. It will be understood the dimensions 106, 108, 110 of the wall elements

102 may have dimensional tolerances of +/- 0.025 feet.

[000106] It will be understood that the shape of the wall element 102 can be other geometric shapes including, for example squares, triangles, hexagonal and other geometric shapes configured to allow the elements 102 to be interconnected with one another for proper functioning of the system 100. [000107] It will be understood that in some embodiments, each of the wall elements 102 of the system 100 may be constructed out of natural granite. The wall elements 102 can be made of other natural stone materials as well, including, but not limited to, granite, gabbro, marble, limestone, sandstone, basalt or quartz. It will also be understood that each of the wall elements 102 of the system 100 need not necessarily be constructed out of the same stone. For example, one wall element 102 could be composed of granite while another wall element 102 could be composed of, for example, quartz, limestone, or sandstone. In some embodiments, the wall elements 102 may be constructed out of materials other than natural stone, such as wood, metal, concrete, or synthetics.

[000108] It will be understood that, in some embodiments, and as shown in FIGS. 1 and 1C, drainage holes 111 and/or support unit holes 133 may be cut, at appropriate locations, through wall elements 102 to a depth consistent with the front face of the support units 126; this can be accomplished by the dimensional consistency of the wall elements 102. The drainage holes 111 provide drainage and elimination of hydrostatic pressure from building up behind the wall elements, along with adequate drainage preventing freeze-thaw damage by removing water accumulation.

[000109] Connecting Elements: As shown in FIGS. 1 and 1D-1H, the wall elements 102 are interconnected with connecting elements 112. The connecting elements 112 connect the wall elements 102 at notches 104 that are notched at predefined intervals allowing the wall elements

102 to be staggered. The connecting element 112 provides a structural tie between wall elements

102, preventing separations.

[000110] It will be understood that the wall elements 102 when stacked without connecting elements 112 and assembled with appropriate support elements 126 the barrier may be a stable configuration and the barrier system 100 may withstand dynamic forces such as water impact; if the predicted lifting (vertical) from the water impact force is low enough to maintain a static friction force substantial enough to react the impact of the water. However, it will be further understood that the barrier system 100 may have increased stability when connecting elements 112 are fitted into the notches 104 of the wall elements 102, such that the connecting elements 112 secure the wall elements 102 to each other and increase the barrier system's 100 stability when subject to dynamic forces such as water.

[000111] As shown in FIGS. 1-1 C, the connecting elements 112 may serve as locking mechanisms or to serve as wedges that hold the wall elements 102 together and may therefore improve the ability of the barrier system 100 to withstand dynamic forces, such as water; that is, in some embodiments, when the connecting elements 112 are inserted into the notches 104 of the wall elements 102, the wall elements 102 are restricted along at least one axis of movement. For example, in some embodiments and as shown in FIG. 1, the connecting elements 112 are inserted into the notches 104 of the wall elements 102 such that a single wall element 102 would be restricted from moving significantly in the direction of its length 110 (e.g., in the horizontal direction) with respect to the other wall elements 102.

[000112] As shown in FIG. 1F, the connecting elements 112 may be tapered into tapered connecting elements 112'. The connecting element 112' may be shaped in such a way that it slopes upward along its depth-wise dimension 118. This configuration may allow for greater cohesion between the wall elements 102 when the tapered connecting element 112' is inserted into the notches 104, which may also be tapered. This greater cohesion is at least in part due to the frictional and gravitational forces compressing the wall elements 102 together when they are stacked on other wall elements 102 with the tapered connecting elements 112 interlinking the wall elements 102. The tapered element 112' may be configured for insertion from the backside of the barrier system 100 locking it in place by the support units 126. It will be understood that the tapered elements 112' may be inserted into the notches 104 of the wall elements 102 such that the wall elements 102 are also restricted from moving significantly with respect to other wall elements 102 in the direction of its height 108 (e.g., in the vertical direction) and width 106 (e.g., in the perpendicular direction).

[000113] In one embodiment, referring to FIG. 1F, the tapered connecting elements 112' can have a height 114', width 116', a slightly wider second width toward the non-tapered end 117', a depth 118', and an angle between the top and bottom of the tapered connecting elements 120'. The tapered connecting elements 112' may fit into notches 104 of the wall elements 102 that have been tapered to restrict movement with respect to other wall elements 102 along at least one axis of motion. It will be understood that, in some embodiments, the barrier system 100 may have tapered connecting elements 112' and non-tapered connecting elements 112. It will also be understood that, despite the dimensional differences between the tapered connecting elements 112' and the non-tapered connecting elements 112, many of the features between the two components 112, 112' are substantially similar.

[000114] As shown in FIGS. 1D-1H, and to further define the connecting elements 112 in at least some embodiments, the angle between the top and bottom of connecting element 120 may be customized to accommodate angles between wall elements 102. In some embodiments, the connecting element has a height 114, a width at its base of 116, and a depth of 118. In some embodiments, the height of the connecting element 114 may be 1.1 feet, the width 116 may be 0.8 feet, the depth 118 may be 1 foot, and the angle 120 between the top and bottom of the connecting element may be 45 degrees. In still other embodiments, the barrier system connecting elements 112 are between 1 - 1.2 feet high, 0.7 feet - 0.8 feet wide and 0.9 - 1.1 feet deep. It will be understood the dimensions 114, 116, and 118 of the barrier wall connecting elements 112 may have a dimensional tolerance of +/- 0.025 feet.

[000115] As shown in FIG. 1G-1H, the connecting elements 112 may also be enhanced with an internal locking bolt 124 which can rotate engagement pins 123 out of the connecting element

112 into the wall element 102. This internal locking bolt 124 can be actuated using a tool (for example, a hex key that matches the internal locking bolt 124, or an adjustable wrench) as the connecting element 112 is inserted into the wall element 102. In some embodiments, the engagement pins 123 are offset from the edge of the base of the connecting element 112 by a distance of 3 inches. It will be understood that the pins 123 and internal locking bolt 124 may be composed of the same material as the connecting element 112 and/or the wall element 102, such that the pins 123 and/or internal locking bolt 124 may expand or contract in response to external conditions at substantially the same or a proportional rate.

[000116] It will be understood the engagement pins 123 may be actuated into the wall elements 102, such that the engagement pins 123 secure the connecting elements 112 into the wall elements 102 and thereby further increase the stability of the barrier system 100. The engagement pins 123 can improve the connection between the connection elements 112 and the wall elements

102, such that they further prevent the movement of the wall elements 102 with respect to other wall elements 102 along at least one axis of rotation.

[000117] It will be understood that in some embodiments, each of the connecting elements

112 of the system 100 may be constructed out of stone, including, but not limited to, granite, limestone, sandstone, or quartz. However, it will also be understood that in some embodiments, the connecting elements 112 may be composed of other materials, such as wood, metal, concrete, or synthetic materials.

[000118] In a further aspect of the system 100, and as shown in FIG. 1, the wall elements 102 that are assembled together through utilization of connecting elements 112 become an interconnected plurality of wall elements 102 forming a barrier structure 101 larger than at least an individual wall element. In some embodiments, including but not limited to seawall applications, the barrier structure 101 is the system's 100 primary structure facing the water meant to be prevented from moving beyond the position of the system 100. The barrier structure 101 may be more stable and more capable of withstanding dynamic forces such as water than the wall elements 102 alone.

[000119] It will be understood that the connecting elements 112 and wall elements 102 may be constructed of the same or similar materials with identical or similar thermal qualities, such that the connecting elements 112 and wall elements 102, for example, may expand and contract at substantially the same rate in response to changing external conditions. In this way, at least, the wall elements 102 and connecting elements 112 remain interlocked even when undergoing thermal expansion or contraction. For example, wall elements 102 made of granite may have connecting elements 112 made of granite.

[000120] Support Units: Referring to FIGS. 1-1B, 1I-1J, IL, 3A, and 5 A, 7, 7A-7C, and 8-

9, the system 100 may also include support, units 126. In some embodiments, the support units 126 are configured to support the barrier structure 101. In certain applications, the support units 126 may be incorporated both between the barrier structure 101 and existing earth or other back structure to provide providing supportive structure, drainage, and relief of hydrostatic pressure. [000121] It will be understood that, in some embodiments, the support units 126 are gabion baskets. It will also be understood that the support units 126 may be made of a variety of materials, including, but not limited to, wire, mesh, composites, or stainless steel selected appropriately for the anticipated exposure environment. It will also be understood that, in some embodiments, the support units 126 may be filled with material that assists in drainage, such as pieces of stone and/or gravel. It will be further understood that the stone or gravel may vary in diameter depending on the application. For example, the stone, rubble, and/or gravel diameter may include each range between 4 and 14 inches in di ameter of regular or irregular shape. It will be further understood that the diameter of the stone and/or gravel may each range between 0.5 to 14 inches. It will be further understood that the support units 126 are configured to provide support, drainage, and erosion prevention to the system 100. In at least some embodiments, the support units 126 provide support, drainage, and erosion prevention by being overfilled with gravel or loose gravel. These materials may assist in the prevention of hydrostatic build-up by filtering, for example, rainwater down through the support units 126.

[000122] It will be understood that, in some embodiments, the support, units 126 may be assembled and filled at the job site. The support units 126 maybe staggered and connected by wire or composite cable. The support units 126 may be topped with appropriate filter paper and overfilled with soil, stone, or finished structure appropriate for use. The support units 126 provide a semi-rigid support structure for the wall elements 102 absorbing and dissipating the dynamic load of the wave, ice, and tidal action.

[000123] It will be understood that, in some embodiments, as shown in FIGS. 1I, 1K, 1K, and 5 A, the support units 126 may be rectangular, but, in other embodiments, the support units

126 may also be other geometric shapes including, but not limited to, cylinders, hexagons, or cubes. It will further be understood that the support units 126 may be configured to conform substantially to the shape of the wall elements 102; that is, as shown in FIGS. 1, 1A, and 1L, a rectangular wall element 102 may have a rectangular support, unit 126. It will be understood, however, that a rectangular wall 102 may also have a differently-shaped support unit 126 for a differently-shaped wall element 102, such as, for example, a cylinder. It will also be understood that a rectangular wall 102 may also have a tapered support unit 126'.

[000124] It will also be understood that the support units 126 may also be tapered, such as in

FIG. 1J, into tapered support units 126' with an angle 134. The tapered support unit 126' has a width 128', a length 130', and aheight 132'. It will also be understood that, despite the dimensional differences between the tapered support units 126' and the non-tapered support units 126, many of the features between the two components 126, 126' are substantially similar. The tapered variant of the support may be used to accommodate revetments wi th various slopes FIG 5A or changes in seawall path (non 90-degree comers)

[000125] The support units 126 may be tapered by a variety of means, including, but not limited to, a chamfer process.

[000126] Referring to FIG. 1K, in some embodiments, the support units 126 may be filled with a filler material 125. The filler material 125 may be comprised of materials including, but not limited to, gravel, stones, or loosely packed sand. It will be understood that the filler material 125 may be composed of a vari ety of materials. For example, in some embodiments, the filler material

125 may be composed of both gravel and loosely-packed sand.

[000127] As shown in FIGS. 1, 1A, 1K-1L, 3A, and 5A, and to further define the support units 126, in some embodiments, when the support units 126 are rectangular in shape, they may have a width of 128, a depth of 130, and a height of 132. In some embodiments, the support units 126 may be cube-shaped and have equal width, depth, and height values of 4 feet. It will be understood that the support units 126 may have dimensional tolerances of +/-0.025 feet.

[000128] Referring to FIGS. 1, 1A, 1K-1L, 3 A, and 5 A, it will be understood that the support units 126 serve to, among other things, distribute the loads resulting from dynamic water action on the wall elements 102 into the surrounding earth. This is to say that, in some embodiments, dynamic forces such as water that come into contact with the barrier system 100 will not topple, destroy, or otherwise impair the barrier system's functioning at least in part because the support units 126 may act as a brace for the wall elements 102 against the dynamic forces, such as water.

In some embodiments, and as shown in FIG. 1, support units 126 may be positioned on both sides of the wall elements 102 interlinked with connecting elements 112, which may further improve the barrier system's stability against dynamic forces.

[000129] Referring to FIG. 1I, the support units 126 may have holes 133 drilled in them that that allow for the pass through of, for example, a tie rod 136. It will be understood that wall elements 102 may also have drainage holes 111 that may align with the support unit holes 133, such that substances such as water will not build up against the system 100 as a result. It will also be understood that these holes 111 and 133 may be created in the support units 126 and wall elements 102 using, for example, tungsten-hardened or diamond-hardened saws/drills.

[000130] Tie Rods: As shown in FIGS. IL- 1N, a tie rod 136 includes an anchor plate 138 and a tie rod nut 140.

[000131] Tie rods 136 penetrate the face of the wall elements 102 to the back of the support units 126. The anchor plate 138 is placed at the back of the support units 126 to distribute the tension load induced by the tie rods 136. A tie rod nut 140 is played at the front of the wall element

102, such that the tie rod 136 is secured in place. That is, the tie rod nut 140 may be placed flush with the wall element 102 such that it restricts the movement of the wall element 102 with respect to other wall elements 102 on at least one axis of rotation. Additionally, the tie rod nut 136 may be capped with a tamper-proof cap to prevent individuals from potentially interfering with the tie rod 136.

[000132] It will be understood that, in some embodiments, the tie rods 136 may be incorporated into the barrier system 100 to improve the overall stability of the system 100. That is, the tie rods 136, once inserted into the wall elements 102 and/or the support units 126, support the system 100 from toppling backwards or forwards when the system 100 is subject to dynamic forces, such as water. It will be understood that the tie rods 136 may achieve this stability by securing the support units 126 to the wall elements 102, such that the tie rods 136 may prevent movement between the wall elements 102 and the support units 126 with respect to each other along at least one axis of rotation.

[000133] The tie rod 136 may be selected of a material that will withstand the environmental conditions and is dimensional sized to last the anticipated useful life of the system 100. Example materials for the tie rod 136 include, but are not limited to, corrosive resistant metals such as stainless steel or aluminum or an advanced composite such as a carbon fiber-reinforced plastic or similar (spectra) providing a high tensile strength but corrosion resistant.

[000134] As shown in FIGS. 1L-1N, tie rods 136 have a tie rod diameter 142 and a tie rod length 143. It will be understood that the tie rods 136 may be fabricated prior to construction and then cut to the appropriate length 143' for the barrier system 100 once inserted into the wall element 102 and support unit 126 (see FIG. 1L).

[000135] Tie rod nuts 140 and anchor plates 138 may be fabricated from materials appropriate for the environment in which the barrier system 100 is located. That is, tie rod nuts 140 and anchor plates 138 should be selected from materials that are corrosion-resistant and with thermally similar specifications to the other elements of the barrier system 100. That is, tie rod nuts and anchor plates, 140, 138 may be selected of a material that will withstand the environmental conditions and is anticipated to last the useful life of the system 100. Example materials for the tie rod nuts and anchor plates 140, 138 include, but are not limited to, corrosive resistant metals such as stainless steel or aluminum, or an advanced composite such as a carbon fiber-reinforced plastic. In some embodiment, the tie rod may be anchored by a thread system into the surrounding earth.

Method of Manufacturing and Assembling a Barrier System

[000136] Manufacturing and Assembling a Barrier System: FIG. 2 shows a method of assembling the barrier system 100.

1000137] Using modern mining and cutting technologies, such as, for example, large scale tungsten-hardened or diamond-hardened stone saws for cutting, allows the production of design and purpose-built wall elements 102 that can be created in geometrically and dimensionally consistent shapes to allow rapid on-site assembly of the system 100. The cutting would be limited to primary cutting and shaping, and the stone would not be finished or polished. This approach drastically reduces the energy, time, and money required to manufacture the stone. Stopping after the primary cutting and shaping produces a stone that is dimensionally correct with a rough surface which increases the frictional coefficient between the stones.

[000138] As described below, the wall elements 102 may be dimensioned and notched at the job site and then transferred directly to the construction site; alternatively, in some embodiments, the job site and the construction site may be the same site, obviating the need for transportation.

The interlinking of wall elements 102 by way of connecting elements 112 and then supporting through support units 126 arranged in to optimally support a barrier system 100 leads to a system

100 that is functional, durable, and resilient to water damage by ways that will be described in the steps that follow.

[000139] Referring to FIG. 2, in step 202, the wall elements 102 can be cut into appropriate dimension at the quarry. It will be understood that the wall elements 102 can be cut at the quarry, en route to the job site, at the job site, or at an alternative location. Cutting tools used for this job can include, but are not limited to large scale hardened stone saws hardened with, for example, tungsten or diamond.

[000140] It will be understood that, in some embodiments, portions of the wall elements 102 may be intentionally left unfinished, for example, retaining the quarry saw marks on the stone faces, thus creating surfaces with beneficial asperity while maintaining a high level of dimensional consistency between the wall elements 102. It will be understood that the planar faces of the wall elements 102 being harsher and unsmoothed from the quarry will lead to greater resistance against dynamic forces, such as water. It will also be understood that, in some embodiments, the wall elements 102 will still fit together with the connecting elements 112 to form a barrier structure 101 that is resilient to dynamic forces.

[000141] Still referring to FIG. 2, in step 204, notches 104 are cut into the wall elements 102 to accommodate the connecting elements 112. It will be understood that the notches 104 can be cut at the quarry, en route to the job site, at the job site, or at an alternative location. Cutting tools used for this job can include, but are not limited to large scale hardened stone saws.

[000142] It will be understood that the wall elements 102 and the connecting elements 112 may be cut into their desired dimensions using, for example, an end mill with a tungsten-hardened or diamond-hardened blade or wire. [000143] Still referring to FIG. 2, in step 206, the connecting elements 112 are formed to fit into the wall element notches 104 such that the connecting elements 112 lock at least adjacent wall elements 102 together. It will be understood that the connecting elements 112 can be cut at the quarry, at a factory, en route to the job site, at the job site, or at an alternative location. It will also be understood that the connecting elements 112 can be formed before the notches 104, and the notches 104 then cut based on the shape and dimensions of the connecting elements 112. Forming tools and methods used for this job can include, but are not limited to large scale hardened stone saws or wire.

[000144] The wall elements 102 may be stacked in a variety of arrangements depending on the needs of the specific job sites. To give two examples, the wall elements 102 may be stacked either vertically or at a prescribed slope. In either arrangement, the wall elements 102 may be stacked without mortar, creating a natural abutting joint at the edge to other associated wall elements 102 consistent with cyclopean or megalithic masonry. This structural arrangement of the wall elements 102 generates a compressive force perpendicular to the joint at which the wall elements 102 are attached, increasing the static friction force between each wall element 102 with each successive row. It will be understood that, as the wall elements 102, are stacked on top of each other, the compressive force will increase. This stacking of wall elements 102 will increase the stability of the system 100 in conjunction with the support units 126 and the connecting elements 112.

[000145] Still referring to FIG. 2, in step 208, the materials (which may include, but are not limited to, the wall elements 102, the connecting elements 112, and the support units 126) are transported to the job site. It will be understood that not all materials need to be transported in one trip. It will further be understood that some materials may already be at the job site. It will additionally be understood that, in some embodiments, the quarry is located at the job site, and in these embodiments, step 208 is essentially bypassed.

[000146] Still referring to FIG. 2, as an optional step 208a, to minimize the handling, wall elements 102 may be moved directly from the quarry to a seagoing barge. In optional step 208b, both barges can be positions along the shore next to the job site and jacked out of the surf to create stable work platforms. This will allow the elements 102 to be lifted directly from the seagoing barge to their final position at the job site using, for example, in optional step 208c, a barged heavy lift crane.

[000147] Referring to FIG. 2, in step 210, the wall elements 102 may be stacked in a substantially planar shape such that static friction between each wall element 102 increases with each successive wall element 102. Each wall element 102 pushes down on the wall elements 102 below it, connecting elements 112 prevent the wall elements 102 from shifting along at least one axis (e.g., lengthwise), and support units 126 prevent the wall elements 102 from toppling or being substantially impaired in their functioning by dynamic forces, such as water.

[000148] Still referring to FIG. 2, in step 212, the wall elements 102 are connected with connecting elements 112 that are inserted into the notches 104 in the wall elements 102, such that the connecting elements 112 restrict the motion of the wall elements 102 with respect to other wall elements 102 along at least one axis. For example, as shown in FIG. 1, the connecting elements

112 inserted into the wall elements 102, restrict the motion of the wall elements 102 with respect to the other wall elements 102 along at least the length-wise direction.

[000149] Still referring to FIG. 2, in step 216, the wall elements 102 are abutted with support units 126. The support units 126 are arranged to optimally support the barrier system 100. The precise arrangement varies with each location. However, it will be understood that the support units 126 may be arranged to support the wall elements 102 interlinked by the connecting elements

112 such that the wall elements 102 will not topple or be substantially impaired when subject to dynamic forces, such as water. It will be further understood that filling the support units 126 with drainage material, such as gravel or small stones, will prevent the build-up of water at the base of the barrier system 100. This will further support the barrier system 100 and prevent the toppling or erosion of the wall elements 102 interlinked with the connecting elements 112.

[000150] It will be understood that steps 210, 212, 214, and 216 may be performed non- linearly. For example, some wall elements 102 may be stacked, connected with connecting elements 112, abutted with support units 126, and then additional wall elements 102 may be stacked before more connecting elements 112 are inserted.

[000151] Still referring to FIG. 2, it will also be understood that, in some embodiments, tie rods 136 may be inserted into the wall elements 102 and/or the support units 126. And penetrations for the tie rod 136 may be cut into 102 as part of the fabrication.

[000152] Still referring to FIG. 2, in optional step 212a, drainage holes 111 are cut through the wall elements 102 by means including, but not limited to, a tungsten-hardened or diamond- hardened drill. It will be understood that, while the drainage holes 111 may be cut after the wall elements 102 have arrived at the job site, the drainage holes 111 may be cut at any point during the process. For example, the drainage holes 111 may be cut in the wall elements 102 at the quarry or at any point prior to arrival at the job site.

[000153] Still referring to FIG. 2, in optional steps 214a-214b, holes 133 may be cut through the support units 126, and tie rods 136 may be pushed through the support units 126 and the wall elements 102. The tie rods 136 may then be capped with a tie rod nut 140 on the side of the wall element 102 and with an anchor plate 138 on the side of the support unit 126. It will be understood that in some embodiments, the position of the anchor plate 138 and the tie rod nut 140 may be reversed. It will also be understood that, while the holes 133 may be cut after the support units 126 have arrived at the job site, the holes 133 may be cut at any point during the process. For example, the holes 133 may be cut in the support units 126 at the quarry or at any point prior to arrival at the job site.

Bulkhead System

[000154] As shown in FIGS. 3-3F, in one embodiment, a bulkhead system 300 can include bulkhead wall elements 302, bulkhead caps 314, bulkhead pins 324, bulkhead base elements 330, and bulkhead posts 334. In some embodiments, the bulkhead system 300 may include bulkhead connection elements 328 (see FIG. 3) and support units 126 (see FIG. 3 A).

[000155] In a further aspect of the system 300, the wall elements 302 that are assembled together as shown become an interconnected plurality of wall elements 302 forming a bulkhead structure 303 larger than at least an individual wall element. In some embodiments the bulkhead structure 303 is the system's 300 primary structure facing the water meant to be prevent the water from moving beyond the position of the system 300. The bulkhead structure 303 may be more stable and more capable of withstanding dynamic forces such as water than the wall elements 302 alone.

[000156] As shown in FIGS. 3 and 3 A, the design can create a resilient bulkhead system 300 or an alternate embodiment of a resilient bulkhead system 300 of a height required to protect the land and structures behind from dynamic forces of water and sea-level increase projected for the next 70 years. This system 300 can accommodate the length as necessary to prevent flow around.

The bulkhead system 300 may be capped 314 appropriately to accommodate harbor and seaport use. It will be understood that the system 300 can be capped 314 appropriately for intended use. For example, the system 300 may be capped with a walkway for pedestrian traffic along certain portions. Alternatively, the system 300 may be capped with a dock or j etty and function as a harbor.

It will be understood that the system 300 may be capped in multiple other ways including, but not limited to, a seaport, to serve discrete functions.

[000157] Bulkhead wall elements: As shown in FIGS. 3-3 A and 3E-3F, the bulkhead wall elements 302 have grooves 304 and tongues 306. It will further be understood that the bulkhead system 300 may be comprised of solely one size of bulkhead wall elements 302 or comprised of a mix of bulkhead wall elements 302 of varying sizes. For example, as shown in FIG. 3, the bulkhead system 300 may be composed of bulkhead wall elements 302 of similar or identical sizes.

Alternatively, as shown in FIG. 3A, the bulkhead system 300 may be composed of differently sized bulkhead wall elements 302. It will be understood that these embodiments are exemplary and the bulkhead system 300 may be comprised of a vast number of combinations of bulkhead wall elements 302.

[000158] The bulkhead wall element 302 may be of varying sizes, as shown in FIGS. 3E-3F.

It will be understood that these sizes are exemplary and bulkhead wall elements 302 may span a range of sizes. Bulkhead wall elements 302 have a length 308, a height 310, and a depth 312.

[000159] It will be understood that the bulkhead wall elements 302 can be other geometric shapes including, for example squares, triangles, and other geometric shapes configured to allow bulkhead wall elements 302 to be interconnected with one another for proper functioning of the system 300.

[000160] It will be understood that in some embodiments, each of the bulkhead wall elements

302 of the system 300 may be constructed out of stone including, but not limited to, granite, li mestone, sandstone, or quartz. It will also be understood that each of the bulkhead wall elements 302 of the system 300 need not necessarily be constructed out of the same stone. For example, bulkhead wall elements 302 could be composed of granite while another bulkhead wall element

302 could be composed of, for example, quartz, limestone, or sandstone. In some embodiments, the bulkhead wall elements 302 may be constructed out of materials other than natural stone, such as wood, metal, concrete, or synthetics.

[000161] The bulkhead wall elements 302 may slot together, such that their grooves 304 connect to the tongues 306 of the adjacent bulkhead wall elements 302. The bulkhead wall elements of 302 may also slot into the bulkhead base elements 330, be capped by the bulkhead cap 314, and flanked on either or both sides by bulkhead posts 334. In each of these ways, whether on their own or in combination, bulkhead wall elements 302 are secured in place by restricting their motion along multiple axes of rotation.

[000162] Bulkhead caps: As shown in FIG. 3D, the bulkhead caps 314 may be placed on top of the bulkhead system 300 by slotting on top of the bulkhead wall elements 302. That is, the bulkhead caps 314 have cap grooves 322 into which the bulkhead wall elements 302 may slot into the cap grooves 322. In this way, the bulkhead caps 314 restrict the motion of the bulkhead wall elements 302 along at least one axis of rotation.

[000163] It will be understood that the bulkhead caps 314 may be composed of the same material as the bulkhead wall elements 302. In this way, the bulkhead caps, 314 may have the same thermal properties of the bulkhead wall elements 302, such that the components will expand and contract at approximately the same rate in response to external conditions.

[000164] Bulkhead posts: As shown in FIGS. 3-3B, the bulkhead posts 334 have a width

338, height 340, and length 342. The bulkhead posts also have post pinholes 336 into which bulkhead pins 324 may be slotted. The bulkhead posts also have inserts 344 into which the tongues 306 of the bulkhead wall elements 302 may be slotted. The bulkhead posts 344 themselves may be set on top of the bulkhead base elements 300 such that they are held in place. It will be understood the bulkhead posts 344 may be stacked on top of each other and secured via the bulkhead pins 324, which, along with friction and gravity, secure the bulkhead posts 324 to each other and to the bulkhead base elements 330.

[000165] It will be understood that the bulkhead wall elements 302 slot into the bulkhead posts 324, and that the bulkhead posts 324 may restrict the motion of the bulkhead wall elements

302 along at least one axis of motion. In this way at least, the bulkhead posts 324 may further aid in the stability of the bulkhead system and increase its resilience to dynamic forces, such as water.

[000166] It will be understood that the bulkhead posts 334 may be composed of the same material as the bulkhead wall elements 302. In this way, the bulkhead posts 334 may have the same thermal properties of the bulkhead wall elements 302, such that the components will expand and contract at approximately the same rate in response to external conditions.

[000167] Bulkhead pins: As shown in FIGS. 3A and 3C, bulkhead pins 324 slot into post pinholes 336 in the bulkhead posts 334, thereby securing the bulkhead posts 334 to each other by restricting the motion of the bulkhead posts 334 with respect to each other along at least one axis of rotation. It will be further understood that the bulkhead pins 324 may be slotted into the bulkhead base elements 330, thereby securing the bulkhead posts 334 to the bulkhead base elements 330 by restricting the motion of the bulkhead posts 334 with respect to the bulkhead base elements 330 along at least one axis of rotation. It will additionally be understood that gravity and friction also secure the bulkhead posts 334 to each other and to the bulkhead base elements 330.

[000168] It will be understood that the bulkhead pins 324 may be composed of the same material as the bulkhead wall elements 302. In this way, the bulkhead pins 324 may have the same thermal properties of the bulkhead wall elements 302, such that the components will expand and contract at approximately the same rate in response to external conditions.

[000169] Bulkhead base elements: As shown in FIG. 3 and 3A, the bulkhead base elements

330 are set at the base of the bulkhead system 300. The bulkhead base elements 330 may have toe grooves 332 into which the bulkhead wall elements 302 may slot. In this way, the bulkhead base elements 330 secure the bulkhead wall elements 302 to the bulkhead base elements 330 and improve the stability of the barrier system 300 by restricting the motion of the bulkhead wall elements 302 with respect to the bulkhead base elements 330 along at least one axis of rotation.

[000170] It will be understood that the bulkhead base elements 330 may be composed of the same material as the bulkhead wall elements 302. In this way, the bulkhead base elements 330 may have the same thermal properties of the bulkhead wall elements 302, such that the components will expand and contract at approximately the same rate in response to external conditions.

[000171] Bulkhead connection elements: Connection elements 112 have been described above with respect to a barrier system 100. It will be understood that these components may be substantially similar to the bulkhead connection elements 328 when used in the bulkhead system

300. The connection element 112 and associated cuts in element 302 may be located concurrently to areas that have tongue and groove edges.

[000172] Support Units: Support units 126 have been described above with respect to a barrier system 100. It will be understood that these components are substantially similar when used in the bulkhead system 300.

Manufacturing and Assembling a Bulkhead System

[000173] Manufacturing and Assembling a Bulkhead System: FIG. 4 shows a method of assembling a bulkhead system 300. [000174] Using modem mining and cutting technologies, such as, for example, large scale tungsten-hardened or diamond-hardened stone saws for cutting, allows the production of design and purpose-built bulkhead wall elements of varying sizes 302 that can be created in geometrically and dimensionally consistent shapes to allow rapid, mortar free on-site assembly of the system

300.

[000175] As described below, the bulkhead wall elements 302 may be dimensioned at the job site and then transferred directly to the construction site; alternatively, in some embodiments, the job site and the construction site may be the same site, obviating the need for transportation.

The interlinking of bulkhead wall elements 302 by way of tongues and grooves 304, 306 cut into the bulkhead wall elements 302. In some embodiments, connecting elements 112 and then supporting through support units 126 arranged to optimally support a bulkhead system 300. This leads to a system 300 that is functional, durable, and resilient to water damage by ways that will be described in the steps that follow.

[000176] Referring to FIG. 4, in step 402, bulkhead wall elements 302 may be dimensioned at a quarry into varying sizes with a length 308, a height 310, and a depth 312.

[000177] Still referring to FIG. 4, it will be understood that, in an optional step 402a, the bulkhead wall elements 302 may be notched at the quarry for a bulkhead connection element 328.

[000178] Still referring to FIG. 4, in step 404, the bulkhead wall elements 302 may have grooves cut into their structures 304 and may also have tongues 306 formed on the side opposite the groove 304. These tongues 306 and grooves 304 may be formed using modem cutting tools, such as tungsten-hardened saws and diamond-hardened saws.

[000179] It will be understood that, in some embodiments, portions of the bulkhead wall elements 302 may be intentionally left unfinished, for example, retaining the quarry saw marks on the stone faces, thus creating surfaces with beneficial asperity while maintaining a high level of dimensional consistency between the respective bulkhead wall elements 302. It will be understood that the planar faces of the bulkhead wall elements 302 being harsher and unsmoothed from the quarry will lead to an increased coefficient of friction and greater resistance against dynamic forces, such as water. It will also be understood that, in some embodiments, the bulkhead wall elements 302 will still fit together to form a bulkhead system 300 that is resilient to dynamic forces.

[000180] Still referring to FIG. 4, in step 406, the material s are transported to the job site for construction. In optional steps 406a-406c, the bulkhead wall elements 302 may be transported to the job site by seagoing barge, where the barge is positioned along the shore next to the job site, and then a crane is utilized to move the bulkhead wall elements 302 from the seagoing barge to the job site. This option eliminated the need for offloading to a truck, then transporting via truck

(likely requiring special permits), then offloading at the construction site, then again positioning from land to the final position.

[000181] Still referring to FIG. 4, in step 408, bulkhead base elements 330 are placed on the job site at a location where it is desired that the bulkhead system 300 be erected. For example, depending on the conditions at the job site and the requirements of the bulkhead system 300, the system 300 may be positioned close to the shoreline or farther away.

[000182] Still referring to FIG. 4, in step 410, the bulkhead wall elements 302 are slotted into the bulkhead base elements 330, and the tongues 306 are slotted into the grooves 304 of the adjacent bulkhead wall elements 302. In this way, the bulkhead wall elements 302 are secured to each other, such that their motion is limited with respect to each other along at least one axis of rotation. Further, the bulkhead wall elements 302, by being slotted into the bulkhead base elements

330, are limited along at least another axis of rotation. [000183] Still referring to FIG. 4, in optional step 410a, in some embodiments, bulkhead connection elements 328 may be interlinked with the bulkhead wall elements 302 to provide greater stability to the system 300. That is, the connection elements 328 may slot between the bulkhead wall elements 302 in notches created in optional step 402a, such that the connection elements 328 link the bulkhead wall elements 302 and restrict their movement with respect to each other.

[000184] Still referring to FIG. 4, in step 412, the bulkhead wall elements 302 are abutted with support units 126 on at least one side, such that the support units 126 provide support to the bulkhead system 300.

[000185] Still referring to FIG. 4, in step 414, the bulkhead wall elements 302 are capped with a bulkhead cap 314 that further supports the cohesion of the bulkhead wall elements 302, such that the motion of the bulkhead wall elements 302 with respect to one another is further constrained. The bulkhead cap also contributes to the vertical load created through weight further securing the bulkhead wall element 302.

[000186] Still referring to FIG. 4, in step 416, the bulkhead wall elements 302 are secured on opposite sides by bulkhead posts 334 that are stacked on top of the bulkhead base elements 330 and pushed flush with the bulkhead wall elements 302. On at least one side, the tongues 306 of the bulkhead wall elements 302 slot into the bulkhead post inserts 344. In this way, the bulkhead posts

334 provide further stability to the system by continuing to restrict the motion of the bulkhead wall elements 302 when subject to dynamic forces, such as water.

[000187] Still referring to FIG. 4, in step 418 and in some embodiments, support units 126 may be arranged along the bulkhead system 300 in a way to provide optimal support for the bulkhead system 300. That is, the support units 126 may, for example, be arranged to counteract seawater erosion at the base of the bulkhead system 300. Alternatively, the support units 126 may be arranged to provide maximum relief from the build-up of hydrostatic forces on the bulkhead system 300 due to natural causes, such as rainwater build-up by stacking the support units 126 in the rear of the revetment system. It will be understood that there are a large number of ways to arrange the support units 126, and that the examples given are in no way exhaustive.

[000188] It will be understood that steps 408-418 may be performed non-linearly. For example, some bulkhead wall elements 302 may be stacked in the bulkhead base elements 330, interlinked by their tongues 306 and grooves 308, abutted with support units 126, and then the bulkhead posts 334 may be placed on the bulkhead base elements 330 before more bulkhead wall elements 302 are placed on the bulkhead base elements 330.

Revetment System

[000189] Revetment System: As shown in FIGS. 5-5B, a revetment system 500 includes revetment wall elements 502, a revetment footing element 508, and support units 126. As shown in FIGS. 5-5B, a resilient revetment system 500 with a slot appropriate for the local water conditions, of a height required to protect the land and structures behind from dynamic forces of water and sea-level increase projected for next 70 years. This system 500 can accommodate the length as necessary to prevent flow around. This revetment system 500 will react positively to being continuously exposed to saltwater. It will be understood that the system 500 can be capped appropriately for the intended use. For example, the system 500 may be capped with a walkway for pedestrian traffic along certain portions. Alternatively, the system 500 may be capped with a dock or jetty and function as a harbor. It will be understood that the system 500 may be capped in multiple other ways to serve discrete functions. [000190] It will be understood that the revetment system 500 will have support units 126 arranged in such a way that the support units 126, when exposed to dynamic forces (such as water), will arrange themselves overtime into an equilibrium profile. That is, in some embodiments, either the materials in the support units 126 or the support units themselves 126 will be arranged by the dynamic forces of, for example, the sea, to better disrupt wave action and wave energy.

[000191] Revetment Wall Elements: As shown in FIGS. 5-5 A, the revetment wall element

502 may have grooves 504 and tongues 506 that slot into the grooves 504 of adjacent revetment wall elements 502 or into grooves 516 of the revetment base elements 508. In this way, the revetment stone elements 502 may slot into each other and into the revetment foot elements 508 such that the wall elements 502 are restricted with respect to each other, producing a more stable system.

[000192] In a further aspect of the revetment system 500, the wall elements 502 that are assembled together as shown become an interconnected plurality of wall elements 502 forming a revetment structure 503 larger than at least an individual wall element 502. In some embodiments, the revetment structure 503 is the system's 500 primary structure facing the water meant to prevent the water from moving beyond the position of the system 500. The revetment structure 503 may be more stable and more capable of withstanding dynamic forces such as water than the wall elements 502 alone.

[000193] It will be understood that in some embodiments, each of the revetment wall elements 502 of the system 500 may be constructed out of stone including, but not limited to, granite, limestone, sandstone, or quartz. It will also be understood that each of the revetment wall elements 502 of the system 500 need not necessarily be constructed out of the same stone. For example, one wall element 502 could be composed of granite, while another wall element 502 could be composed of, for example, quartz, limestone, or sandstone. In some embodiments, the wall elements 502 may be constructed out of materials other than natural stone, such as wood, metal, concrete, or synthetics.

[000194] It will be understood that the shape of the revetment wall elements 502 can be other geometric shapes including, for example squares, triangles, and other geometric shapes configured to allow the elements 502 to be interconnected with one another for proper functioning of the system 500.

[000195] Revetment Base Elements: As shown in FIGS. 5-5B, the base elements 508 may be placed at the base of the revetment system 500. The base elements 508 have a groove 516. To stabilize the system 500 and restrict the motion of the wall elements 502 along at least one axis of rotation the wall elements 502 are slotted into the grooves 516 of the base elements 508.

[000196] The groove of the base elements 516 is at an angle, such that when the wall elements

502 are inserted by their tongues 506 into the groove of the footing element 516, the system 500 will be sloped at an angle 520. In this way, the system 500 is able to response to dynamic forces, such as water, because, for example, the angle 520 of the surface reduces the overall impact of the dynamic forces against the revetment 500 by helping the system 500 to absorb the shock of the forces.

[000197] As shown in FIGS. 5A-5B, and to further define the revetment base elements 508, the base elements 508 have a length 510, height 512, width 514, and may have a front-angled slope

518.

[000198] The base elements 508 may be constructed out of stone, such as granite, but could also be constructed out of other materials, such as wood, metal, concrete, or synthetics. It will be understood that the base elements 508 may be constructed out of the same material as the wall elements 502, such that the two components have similar responses to external conditions. For example, if the wall elements 502 and the base elements 508 have similar or the same thermal properties, then they will expand and contract together in response to changing weather conditions, which will contribute to their cohesiveness.

[000199] Support Units: These components have been described above with respect to a barrier system 100. It will be understood that these components are substantially similar when used in the revetment system 500. However, the following differences may be present when these components are used in the revetment system 500:

Manufacturing and Assembling a Revetment System

[000200] Manufacturing and Assembling a Revetment System: FIG. 6 shows a method of assembling a revetment system 500.

[000201] Using modern mining and cutting technologies, such as, for example, large scale tungsten-hardened or diamond-hardened stone saws for cutting, allows the production of design and purpose-built revetment wall elements 502 that can be created in geometrically and dimensionally consistent shapes to allow rapid on-site assembly of the system 500.

[000202] As described below, the revetment wall elements 502 may be dimensioned at the job site and then transferred directly to the construction site; alternatively, in some embodiments, the job site and the construction site may be the same site, obviating the need for transportation.

The interlinking of revetment wall elements 502 by way of tongues and grooves 504, 506 cut into the revetment wall elements 502. In some embodiments, support units 126 may be arranged to optimally support a revetment system 500. This leads to a revetment system 500 that is functional, durable, and resilient to water damage by ways that will be described in the steps that follow. [000203] Referring to FIG. 6, in step 602, revetment wall elements 502 may be dimensioned at a quarry into varying sizes. Additionally, in step 504, the revetment wall elements 502 may be cut with grooves 504 and tongues 506 may be formed on the side opposite the tongues 506. In this way, the tongues 506 of some revetment wall elements 502 may slot into the grooves 504 of other revetment wall elements 502. The tongues 506 and grooves 504 may be created by modem cutting techniques using, for example, tungsten-hardened saws or diamond-hardened saws.

[000204] Still referring to FIG. 6 and step 602, revetment base elements 508 may also be dimensioned at the quarry using identical or similar modem mining and cutting techniques that were used to dimension the revetment wall elements 502. The revetment base elements 508 may be dimensioned to have length 510, height 512, width 514, and a groove 516 into which a tongue

506 of the revetment wall element 502 may slot into.

[000205] It will be understood that, in some embodiments, portions of the revetment wall elements 502 may be intentionally left unfinished, for example, retaining the quarry saw marks on the stone faces, thus creating surfaces with beneficial asperity while maintaining a high level of dimensional consistency between the respective revetment wall elements 502. It will be understood that the planar faces of the revetment wall elements 502 being harsher and unsmoothed from the quarry will lead to greater resistance against dynamic forces, such as water. It will also be understood that, in some embodiments, the revetment wall elements 502 will still fit together to form a revetment system 500 that is resilient to dynamic forces.

[000206] Still referring to FIG. 6, in step 606, the materials are transported to the job site for construction. In optional steps 606a-606c, the revetment wall elements 502 and revetment footing element 508 may be transported to the job site by seagoing barge, where the barge is positioned along the shore next to the job site, and then a crane is utilized to move the revetment wall elements

502 and base elements 508 from the seagoing barge to the job site.

[000207] Still referring to FIG. 6, in step 608, the revetment stones 508 are placed on the job site at a location where it is desired that revetment system 500 be erected. For example, depending on the conditions at the job site and the requirements of the revetment system 500 may be positioned close to the shoreline or farther away.

[000208] Still referring to FIG. 6, in step 610, the revetment wall elements 502 are slotted into the revetment foot stones 508, and the tongues 506 are slotted into the grooves 504 of the adjacent revetment wall elements 502. In this way, the revetment wall elements 502 are secured to each other, such that their motion is limited with respect to each other along at least one axis of rotation. Further, the revetment wall elements 502, by being slotted into the revetment base elements 508, are limited along at least another axis of rotation. Further still, the revetment elements 502 may be angled in their stacking arrangement such that they have a sloped at an angle of 520.

[000209] Still referring to FIG. 6, in step 612, revetment wall elements 502 and revetment base elements 508 are abutted with support units 126 on at least one side, such that the support units 126 provide support to the revetment wall system 500.

[000210] Still referring to FIG. 6, in step 614 and in some embodiments, support units 126 may be arranged along the revetment system 500 in a way to provide optimal support for the revetment system 500. That is, the support units 126 may, for example, be arranged to counteract seawater erosion at the base of the revetment system 500. Alternatively, the support units 126 may be arranged to provide maximum relief from the build-up of hydrostatic forces on the revetment system 500 due to natural causes, such as rainwater build-up by stacking the support units 126 in the rear of the revetment system. It will be understood that there are a large number of ways to arrange the support units 126, and that the examples given are in no way exhaustive.

[000211] It will be understood that steps 608-614 may be performed non-linearly. For example, some revetment wall elements 502 may be stacked in the revetment base elements, interlinked by their tongues 506 and grooves 504, and abutted with support units 126 before more revetment wall elements 502 are placed on the revetment base elements 508.

Toe System

[000212] Toe System: As shown in FIGS. 7-7C, in one embodiment, a toe system 700 is composed of toe system elements 702, a toe system cap 714, toe system pins 724, toe system base elements 730, and toe system posts 734. In some embodiments, the toe system 700 also includes support, units 126.

[000213] Still referring to FIG. 7 and in some embodiments, the toe system elements 702 are positioned at the base of the toe system 700. The toe system elements 702 abut the toe system base elements 730, such that the toe system 700 is further supported against dynamic forces such as water. The purpose of the toe system 700 is to prevent seawater and wave action from scouring the seafloor from under the footing of the system 700.

[000214] The toe system 700 may be compared to the bulkhead system 300. However, those with ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that the toe system 700 may offer certain benefits over the bulkhead system 300 depending on the desired application.

Berm System

[000215] Berm System: As shown in FIG. 8, in some embodiments, a berm system 800 includes berm wall elements 802, a berm footing element 808, and support units 126. A berm system also contains a cap 840, at least one water proof membrane 850, and aggregate fill material

860.

[000216] The berm system 800 may be constructed in a similar fashion to the revetment system 500, facing the sea or some other body of water, but with a minored image on the opposite side facing the land. The area between the two system will be supported with support units 126 and aggregate fill material 860 that may include soil, clay, stone, gravel, and other fill materials known to those of ordinary skill in the art. One or multiple waterproof membranes 850 will be placed between the two systems to prevent water migration across.

[000217] The wall elements 802 that are assembled together as shown become an interconnected plurality of wall elements 802 forming a berm structure 803 larger than at least an individual wall element 802. In some embodiments, the berm structure 803 is the system's 800 primary structure facing the water meant to prevent the water from moving beyond the position of the system 800. The berm structure 803 may be more stable and more capable of withstanding dynamic forces such as water than the wall elements 802 alone.

[000218] The berm system 800 may be compared to the revetment system 500. However, those with ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that the berm system 800 may offer certain benefits over the revetment system 500 depending on the desired application.

Levee

[000219] Levee: As shown in FIG. 9, in some embodiments, a levee system 900 includes levee wall elements 902, a levee footing element 908, and support units 126. A levee system 900 may also include at least one waterproof membrane 950 and aggregate fill material 940.

[000220] In some embodiments, the levee system 900 may be composed of a combination of the bulkhead system 300 and the revetment system 500 and may be configured based on the slope of the surrounding area. As with the berm system 800, one or multiple waterproof membrane materials 950 will be place between the levee and surrounding earth.

[000221] The levee system 900 may be supported with support units 126 that will further assist the levee system 900 in withstanding the dynamic forces of water. The area behind the levee system 900 may be filled with filler material 940 including, but not limited to, soil, clay, gravel, and other materials known to those of ordinary skill in the art.

[000222] The wall elements 902 that are assembled together as shown become an interconnected plurality of wall elements 902 forming a levee structure 903 larger than at least an individual wall element 902. In some embodiments, the levee structure 903 is the system's 900 primary structure facing the water meant to prevent the water from moving beyond the position of the system 900. The levee structure 903 may be more stable and more capable of withstanding dynamic forces such as water than the wall elements 902 alone.

[000223] The levee system 900 may be compared to the revetment system 500. However, those with ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that the levee system 900 may offer certain benefits over the revetment system 500 depending on the desired application.

Dam

[000224] Dam: As shown in FIGS. 10-10B, in one embodiment, a dam system 1000 is composed of dam wall elements 1002, dam system base elements 1030, and toe system posts 1034.

[000225] The dam system 1000 will use the bulkhead system 300 as illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 3A but positioned in a fashion to form a reclined or laydown arch (or a parabola) with the water on the top side of the arch and the bulk of the force being transmitted in the bulkhead as compressive load into the stone. The stone will be of sufficient height to offset the dynamic pressure of the water behind the dam at peak water high with appropriate factors of safety. [000226] In some embodiments, a waterproof membrane material (not shown) would likely be positioned between the water and the stone.

[000227] The wall elements 1002 that are assembled together as shown become an interconnected plurality of wall elements 1002 forming a dam structure 1003 larger than at least an individual wall element 1002. In some embodiments, the dam structure 1003 is the system's

1000 primary structure facing the water meant to prevent the water from moving beyond the position of the system 1000. The dam structure 1003 may be more stable and more capable of withstanding dynamic forces such as water than the wall elements 1002 alone.

Reef Base System

[000228] Reef Base System: As shown in FIGS. 12-12E, a reef base system 1200 is provided. Here, the reef base system 1200 includes a plurality of reef base elements 1202. The size and positioning of the reef base elements 1202 in relation to one another provide an overall reef base system 1200. The reef base system 1200 provides a unique structure that regulates water flow and has surface properties that allow aquatic life and other sedimentary materials can take hold and build up over time on the surface of the contours of reef base elements 1202, reef base element holes 1204, and the system 1200 overall.

[000229] As shown in FIGS. 12, 12 A, 12D, and 12E in at least one embodiment, the reef base elements 1202 are solid rectangular blocks. As shown in FIGS. 12 and 12 A, in certain embodiments, each reef base element 1204 has one or more reef base element holes 1204. The reef base element holes 1204 may be located on the top, bottom, and any side of, and any other location on, the reef base elements 1202. In some embodiments, the reef base element holes 1204 are randomly spaced, but the reef element holes 1204 may also be spaced in a predetermined fashion. [000230] The reef base element holes 1204 are of varying depths. In some embodiments, the holes 1204 are cut to a depth of 8 cm (-3.14 inches) and 8 cm in diameter. It will be understood that the reef base element holes 1204 may be from 1 cm to 12 cm in diameter, and 4 cm to 15 cm in depth.

[000231] Further, in some embodiments, the holes 1204 are configured to hold organic

“seed” materials 1206 conducive to supporting the growth of aquatic life such as oysters, coral, mussels, and other aquatic life that feed off of the seed material. The growth of the sea life on the reef base system 1200 transforms the static reef base system 1200 into a growing structure and environment to support aquatic life creating its own underwater ecosystem like a natural reef, with significant underlying structural integrity.

[000232] In some embodiments, the seed materials 1206 may be comprised of coral that is attached to an anchor base configured to engage inside the holes 1204 in the elements 1202. The anchor base may be comprised of limestone with prehistoric shells deposited in the limestone that is cut to engage the holes 1204 secured by the force of friction or secured with an attachment fabricated out a biologically inert material, such as polypropylene tie wraps or other attachments sufficient to hold the anchor base in place but not disrupt organic generation once submerged under water. It will be further understood that the organic seed materials 1206 may be in the form of a paste, or a powder.

[000233] It will be further understood that the variety of holes 1204 in the reef base elements

1202 may also allow for a variety of coral polyps with varying DNA to be transplanted to allow both sexual and asexual reproduction to produce a colony of bio-diverse coral. It will be understood that the holes 1204 can accept zooxanthellae, mangrove, sea weed, sea lettuce, kelp, Neptune grass, eel grass, sea grass, calcareous red seaweed, fucus serratus, and other aquatic life. The choice will be based on the location and the water depth and clarity.

[000234] The reef base system 1202 provides a solid, underlying structure configured to withstand significant currents, tides, and violent sea movements caused by storms. In some embodiments, the organic seed materials 1206 may be packaged in an organic “pot” such as a burlap material with porous sand to allow seawater to flow to the root systems. These pots can be pressed into the holes 1204 or may be fitted with a non-metallic snap ring (a ring that can be collapsed and inserted then allow to expand and lock in to a hole detent of notch 1208). In some embodiments, the organic seed materials 1206 may include crushed shells, such as from oysters.

[000235] In some embodiments, the reef base system 1200 may be maintained or used to harvest other sea creatures, such as mussels. Organic materials used for seed material 1206 may alternatively (or additionally) include mussels, wherein the mussel larvae may be seeded on to numerous ropes or rope tails (e.g., 5 to 8 individual tails) that are each, for example, 5 to 10 feet long with the ropes or rope tails also in some embodiments including one or more knots. It will be understood that in this embodiment, the ropes may be made of any number of rope materials, including, but not limited to, hemp. It will be further understood that the ropes and/or rope tails may be positioned or implanted within the holes 1204, such that the ropes are secured to the system

1200 and the mussels may grow on the ropes.

[000236] The reef base system 1200 also provides a structure on and around which oysters can be cultivated, through both an on-bottom and off-bottom method of cultivating oysters. For the on-bottom method, the spent oyster shells may be distributed around the reef base elements

1202 and oysters can be seeded directly on the spent shells. In some embodiments, the cultivation of oysters occurs in a location in the vicinity of the system 1200 where the oysters will be protected from violent shifts in water current, including caused by storms. In the off-bottom method, crushed oyster shells or other seed material useful in growing oysters are loaded into pre-cut or pre-drilled holes 1204 or other notches in the reef base system elements 1202 allowing oysters to grow and later be harvested from the system 1200. It will be further understood that the off-bottom method may also be a rack-and-bag culture, where oysters are placed into oyster grow-out bags that are secured to the system 1200 via the holes 1204 (for example tied to elements that are secured to the holes) and detached when the oysters are fully grown. It will be further understood that the off- bottom method may also be performed via suspended culture, tray culture, or other cultures utilizing the reef base system to secure such culture systems and methods.

[000237] It will be understood that there are a variety of methods for attaching the organic seed materials 1206 to the reef base system 1200. That is, the seed material 1206 may be implanted into the holes 1204 in multiple ways, including, but not limited, to, a Mechanical attachment such as a spring/ snap ring (e.g., an internal retaining ring) that may hold the seed material 1206 in place in the holes 1204 by mechanical force.

[000238] In other embodiments the seed material 1206 may be secured in the holes 1204 by an aquarium epoxy proven safe for marine life. For example, the seed material 1206 can be prepped with the epoxy on the delivery vessel / ship just prior to positioning of the base elements 1202 and placement on the sea floor. Short cure time for the epoxy allows the seed material 1206 to be set before being delivered to the sea floor. That is, the epoxy may be utilized on the seed material

1206 such that the seed material 1206 is implanted in the hole 1204 by adhesive force. It will be understood that this epoxy may also be used as the rope tails for mussels (discussed above), which may be present in the organic seed material 1206. [000239] In some embodiments the seed material 1206 that is natural stone (e.g., limestone) may be cut to size and secured in the holes 1204 with shells present in the stone that may be cut to fit the holes 1204. That is, it will be understood in some embodiments that the seed material 1206 may be present in natural stone that is then inserted into the holes 1204 of the elements 1202 such that the seed material 1206 is held in place by at least a frictional force.

[000240] As shown in FIGS. 12B and 12C, in a reef base element 1202, the reef base element holes 1204 may be configured to include a collar notch 1208 undercut from the hole 1204. In this embodiment, organic seed materials 1206 are placed into the reef base element holes 1204 such that the materials fill the cylindrical portion 1210 of the reef base element holes 1204, the collar notch 1208 portion of the reef base element holes 1204, and fill to the top surface 1212 of the reef base element 1202. This notch 1208 may also serve to receive an internal retention ring to allow attachment and potentially future detachment of “seed” elements.

[000241] It will be understood that in this embodiment with the reef base element 1202 the organic seed materials 1206 that are placed or packed into the reef base element holes 1204 in this manner are configured to solidify in the ambient air (e.g., on land or on a vessel on the water) before being placed into the water.

[000242] It will be further understood that, in some embodiments, the organic seed materials

1206 may be placed within the reef base element holes 1204 when the reef base elements 1202 have already been placed beneath the water. Retention rings may be used to engage the collar notch

1208 to retain the organic seed material and later compress for removal , releasing the organic seed materials 1206 for later replacement.

[000243] The solidification of the organic materials 1206, in combination with the configuration of the collar notch 1208, ensures that the materials do not fall out or immediately wash away when the reef base elements 1202 are placed in the water. Here, the materials are prevented from departing the reef base element 1202 at least in part by virtue of the collar notch

1208.

[000244] The reef base system 1200 and subsequent build-up of aquatic life and other sedimentary materials is configured to regulate the dynamic flow of water, including in connection with the dynamic flow of offshore ocean water. The size and configuration of the reef base system

1200, its component reef base elements 1202, and reef base element holes 1204 will vary depending on the application.

[000245] For example, in one embodiment, reef base elements 1202 may be made of natural stone such as limestone or granite and have dimensions of 100 cm high by 200 cm wide by 250 cm long and a weight of approximately 18 tons. The reef base elements 1202 may have dimensional tolerances of +/- 10 cm. It will be understood that the reef base elements 1202 can also be of a number of other dimensions to suit a particular application, including, for example, ranging from 16 cm to 120 cm high, 150 cm to 250 cm wide and 200 cm to 300 cm long. In some embodiments of the reef base system, the weight of the stone keeps the stones in position during, for example, storms and heavy seas, such that the reef base system 1200 moves only moderately, if it moves at all.

[000246] It will be further understood that the natural stone may be “rough cut” in a manner conducive to encouraging additional growth of organic and sedimentary materials on the surface of the reef base elements 1202 and system 1200 as a whole. The holes 1204 may be bored through by a drilling method. In some embodiments, the holes 1204 have dimensions of 8 cm diameter by

8 cm depth. [000247] In some embodiments, the reef base elements 1202 may be placed one-half of a mile offshore and completely underwater.

[000248] It wi ll be understood that the placem ent of the reef base elements 1202 depends on a variety of factors including, but not limited to, purpose of placement (e.g., to break up wave action), the depth of the water, the clarity of the water (e.g., to allow sunlight to reach the reef base elements 1202 such that coral and other organic life may grow), the presence of naval vessels, tide actions.

[000249] The distance at which the reef base elements 1202 may be placed from the shore may vary from, for example, 50 meters to 500 meters. The positioning of the reef base elements

1202 depends on the depth and design of the system 1200, as will be understood. It will additionally be understood that the system 1200 may function at a wide range of depths of water and di stances from the shore.

[000250] The base elements of the reef base system may be positioned to allow water to flow through the reef base system in a controlled manner. In some embodiments, the reef base elements

1202, as shown in FIG. 12, are spaced and stacked as depicted to slow or otherwise regulate massive volumes of advancing and retreating ocean water. In this embodiment, the water will accelerate through the channels 1214 and release energy. In the slow region in front of the reef system 1200, the water will also momentarily slow releasing sand. Alternatively, in some embodiments, the reef base elements 1202 may be configured in a stacked and staggered pattern.

In some embodiments, reusable dive floats can be used to position the individual reef base elements

1202 when constructing the reef base system. The dive floats and tethered reef base elements 1202 may be positioned by divers or remote operated vehicles (ROV) and slowly lowered into final position by the steady and controlled release of gas from each float bag. In areas of extreme current, reef base elements 1202 may be position and lowered from a surface ship via crane or similar device. The holes 1204 in the reef base elements 1202 may be used as attachment points for the positioning lift.

[000251] It will be understood that when reef base elements 1202 are stacked, the gaps (e.g., channels 1214) are no greater than half the length of the reef base elements 1202, such that a reef system 1200 with an open space (e.g., channels 1214) between the elements 1202 is created to force water to either accelerate or decelerate as it moves through the reef system 1200, depending on the ori entation of the reef system 1200.

[000252] That is, if the length of the reef base elements 1202 is 100 cm, then the gaps between the reef base elements 1202 should be no greater than 50 cm. Regarding orientation, the elements

1202 may be stacked and arranged in a variety of patterns to form the system 1200. For example, as shown in FIG. 12, the elements 1202 may be stacked with four at the base, three in the middle, and two on the top, with spacing in between the elements 1202 (to form channels 1214). However, it will be understood that this is one arrangement of many potential arrangements of the system

1200.

[000253] For further example, more elements 1202 may be stacked on the bottom, or the gaps

(e.g., channels 1214) between the elements 1202 may be wider or narrower. For each arrangement, however, it will be understood that the goal of the system 1200 is such that, on the retreating side of the system 1200 (that is, the side from which the flow of water comes), the water will be trapped as it drains back into the other side of the system allowing for regulation of water flow and the regulated release of beach sand.

[000254] The exact pattern of the elements 1202 will influence the resulting velocity of the water. That is, a narrower channel 1214 will lead to a faster velocity as the space through which the water must travel is compressed, while a wider channel 1214 will conversely lead to a slower velocity. In some embodiments, the system and its elements are configured to prevent scouring of sand from below the reef base system 1200 resulting from any moderate shifting of the elements

1202. For example, addition of gravel or stones to serve as a toe for the system 1218, in some embodiments, help prevent scouring of the system 1200.

[000255] Further, in some embodiments, the reef base elements 1202 may be arranged in a valvular conduit pattern such that the reef base elements 1202 are arranged to create partitions in the channel 1214. In this embodiment, the reef base elements 1202 are arranged such that there is a high level of resistance when water pressure is high in the channels 1214, but significantly less resistance when there is low water pressure in the channel 1214. Additionally, in at least this embodiment, the reef base elements 1202 are arranged such that resistance is greater when water progresses in one direction (e.g., the direction labeled “flow of water” in FIG. 12) and resistance is lesser when water progresses in the opposite direction.

[000256] Figures 12D and 12E show additional exemplary reef base system embodiments where the arrangements of reef base elements 1202 are designed to further manipulate the flow of water and remove energy from water flow. In some embodiments the reef base system 1200 is configured to reduce the total number of reef base elements 1202 required per mile of reef to meet application parameters.

[000257] As shown in FIGS 12D and 12E, the reef base system 1200 can have multiple layers

(here, two layers are shown (1231 and 1233), but there could be additional layers). Further, the reef base elements 1202 can be arranged in multiple rows (e.g., Row 1 1235, Row 2 1237, and

Row 3 1239) or in clusters (e.g., Clusters 1241, 1243, 1245). [000258] In FIG. 12D, the reef base system 1200 is configured such that the water must flow along a convoluted flow path, thereby slowing the water flow down and releasing energy. In this embodiment, the reef base elements 1202 in layer 1 1231 are placed in rows of alternating numbers and positions, with three rows shown in FIG. 12D, with four blocks in the first row, three blocks in the second row, and four blocks in the third row.

[000259] It will be understood that the total number of reef base elements 1202 may far exceed three and four blocks as shown, and it will be further understood that the staggered configuration as shown in FIG. 12D creates maze-like channels for convoluted water flow and the total length of the system can extent for significant lengths of distances including up to one mile,

1 to 2 miles, 3 to 5 miles, and over 5 miles.

[000260] In the embodiment of FIG. 12D, the reef base elements 1202 in layer 2 1233 are stacked on the reef base elements 1202 in layer 1 1231 and positioned at acute angles to the reef base elements 1202 in layer 1 1231. In at least this way, the arrangement of the reef system 1200 in FIG. 12D creates a convoluted water path flow to reduce the dynamic flow of water, including pulsating wave action, protecting the shore 1251 from such dynamic flow of water.

[000261] As shown in FIG 12E, the reef base system 1200 is configured such that the reef base elements 1202 are grouped in clusters of five elements 1202, with, for example, three elements 1202 on layer 1 1231 and two reef base elements 1202 on layer 2 1233, stacked on layer

1 1231. In this embodiment, the reef base elements 1202 in layer 1 are arranged such that, for each cluster of reef base elements 1202, two reef base elements 1202 flank a third reef base element

1202. The reef base elements 1202 in layer 2 1233 are arranged to be parallel to each other along their shorter sides. The configurations regulate the pulsating wave action shown in the figures as the energy from the pulsating wave action and other dynamic water flow dissipates withing the channels 1253 and gully 1255 formed between the two or more cluster rows 1257.

[000262] It will be understood that the arrangements of the elements in rows and groupings and layers are exemplary, non-exhaustive, and that there are many additional potential arrangements depending on a given application.

[000263] The reef base elements 1202 may be stacked and arranged in other configurations engineered for the application at hand, and may also be stacked or grouped randomly. In some embodiments, the reef base elements 1202 are held in place and in relation to one another by the force of gravity, friction, and normal force, as depicted in FIG. 11. It will be further understood that the reef base elements 1202 may also be connected by other means, such as, for example, chains 1216 as shown in FIG. 12 and eyelets being connecting two or more reef base elements together. Stone pins (8 cm diameter by 10-30 cm length) may be placed in adjacent holes 1204 to connect separate elements 1202.

[000264] It will be further understood that the reef base elements 1202 may be alternatively shaped, such as cubes, spheres, and other solid configurations that have varying dimensions depending on the application at hand.

[000265] In addition to providing a natural reef system, the reef base system 1200 may regulate water flow within the arrangement of the reef base elements 1202. For example, the reef base elements 1202 may be arranged such that the water flows into a wide entrance and exits through a narrow exit. In some embodiments, the reef base elements 1202 may be arranged to form maze-like channels 1214, such that there is not a direct path from the entrance of the system 1200 to the exit of the system 1200 through which water can flow and be further regulated. [000266] Edges of the block will impact the flow between the individual elements 1202. For example, if the inlet or exhaust is rounded (i.e., a comer radius verse sharp edge) the water will have a lower loss passing through. If this is an important feature to a particular location the appropriate edge of the elements 1202 may be rounded or given other modifications to accommodate the given application. In some embodiments, this rounding might be used on the beach facing side of the elements 1202 to allow the water to retreat back into the sea. but the water will be restricted with sharp edges on the ocean side, as the water (wave) approaches the beach.

[000267] In still other embodiments, the reef base elements 1202 may be stacked and staggered such that there are multiple channels 1214 through which water may flow, such that, for example, water may flow more swiftly through some channels 1214 than through other channels

1214. It will be appreciated that these different embodiments may be combined. For example, stacked and staggered reef base elements 1202 may also have wide entrances and narrow exits. It will additionally be appreciated that these recited embodiments are non-exhaustive ways of arranging the reef base elements 1202 (and/or the reef base elements 1220) to regulate water flow.

Method of Manufacturing and Assembling a Reef Base System

[000268] Manufacturing and Assembling a Reef Base System: Using modern mining and cutting technologies, such as, for example, large scale tungsten-hardened or diamond-hardened stone saws for cutting, allows the production of design and purpose-built reef base elements 1202 that can be created in geometrically and dimensionally consistent shapes to allow rapid on-site assembly of the system 1200. The cutting would be limited to primary cutting and shaping, and the elements 1202 would not be finished or polished. This approach drastically reduces the energy, time, and money required to manufacture the system 1200. Stopping after the primary cutting and shaping produces an element 1202 that is dimensionally correct and, in some embodiments, has a rough surface.

[000269] The reef base elements 1202 can be cut into appropriate dimension at the quarry. It will be understood that the elements 1202 can be cut at the quarry, en route to the job site, at the job site, or at an alternative location. Cutting tools used for this job can include, but are not limited to large scale hardened stone saws hardened with, for example, tungsten or diamond.

[000270] It will be understood that, in som e embodiments, portion s of the reef base elements

1202 may be intentionally left unfinished, for example, retaining the quarry saw marks on the stone faces, thus creating surfaces with beneficial asperity while maintaining a high level of dimensional consistency between the elements 1202.

[000271] As described below, the reef base elements 1202 may be dimensioned and undercut at the job site and then transferred directly to the construction site, which may be, for example, a ship, a barge, or a raised platform in the ocean.

[000272] In some embodiments, the reef element holes 1204 are undercut 1208 to accommodate the seed material 1206 within the holes 1204. It will be understood that the notches

1208 can be cut at the quarry, en route to the job site, at the job site, or at an alternative location.

Cutting tools used for this job can include, but are not limited to, large diameter masonry drills, routers, large scale hardened stone saws.

[000273] It will be understood that the elements 1202 may be cut into their desired dimensions using, for example, an end mill with a tungsten-hardened or diamond-hardened blade or wire.

[000274] Holes 1204 are cut through the elements 1202 by means including, but not limited to, a tungsten-hardened or diamond-hardened drill. It will be understood that, while the holes 1204 may be cut after the elements 1202 have arrived at the job site, the holes 1204 may be cut at any point during the process.

[000275] In some embodiments, undercutting may be used to create a collar notch 1208. Seed material 1206 may be placed within the holes 1206 and further held in place by way of the collar notch 1208. Alternatively, the seed material may be placed in the holes 1204 without utilizing a collar notch 1208. Further, it will be understood that in some embodiments, seed material 1206 may be placed in the reef base elements 1202 either before or after the elements 1202 are placed on the ocean floor. The seed material 1206 may be maintained and replaced while the reef base elements 1202 are on the ocean floor through, for example, divers.

[000276] To minimize the handling, reef base elements 1202 may be moved directly from the quarry to a seagoing barge. Barges can be positioned next to the job site and jacked out of the surf to create stable work platforms. This will allow the elements 1202 to be lifted directly from the seagoing barge to their final position at the job site using, for example, a barged heavy lift crane.

[000277] It will be understood that the reef system 1200 may be manufactured and assembled non-linearly. For example, some elements 1202 may be stacked, filled with seed material 1206, and then further elements 1202 may be stacked and arranged. Alternatively, the elements 1202 may all be stacked and filled with seed material 1206 afterwards, if the particular arrangement allows for it. Further still, the seed material 1206 may, in some embodiments, be implanted in the elements 1202 before the elements 1202 are placed on the ocean floor. It will be understood that the manufacturing and assembly of the system 1200 may be an ongoing process, as well, with potential breaks between the stacking and arranging of elements 1202 and implanting of seed 1206. The maintenance of a reef system 1200 is understood as a potentially long-term process with the potential for repeated steps and procedures.

[000278] Using modem diving, navigation, and construction techniques, reef base elements

1202 may be placed on an ocean floor in a set design to form a reef base system 1200. For example, in some embodiments, reusable dive floats can be used to position the individual elements of the reef base system when constructing the reef base system. The floats move the base elements 1202 into position, and the elements are released onto the sea floor, then on top of one another.

[000279] Reef base elements 1202 may be placed on an ocean floor, and additional elements

1202 may be placed on top of those elements 1202. This process may be repeated as many times as necessary, and in whatever arrangement required, to form a desired reef base system 1200. It will be understood that the number of reef base elements 1202 and their arrangement may vary based on the desired function of the reef base system 1200.

[000280] The reef base elements 1202 may be arranged on the ocean floor to create gaps that form channels 1214 in the system 1200 through which water will flow. In some embodiments, the channels 1214 are wider at the entrance of the system 1200 than at the exit of the system 1200.

[000281] The systems and methods of the present disclosure provide for enhanced barrier systems fabricated utilizing advanced stone cutting techniques (including, but not limited to, large scale hardened stone saws), transportation and logistical processes (e.g., seagoing barges), and various handling techniques (such as cranes and lift systems capable of loads of millions of pounds) located at both at the quarries, in transport, and at the job site, to make and use the systems and methods of the present disclosure.

[000282] The disclosure provides a solution that is attractive, resistant to freeze-thaw cycles, resistant to harsh/corrosive environment (saltwater and others), manufactured from natural materials (minimal CO 2 created), significantly more resilient (with useful life projected in the hundreds of years), minimal or no maintenance, and with total anticipated construction cost substantially lower than the conventional methods.

[000283] The disclosure also provides a solution with no requirement for build site or prefabrication mold fabrication as required by poured concrete structures. The disclosure also provides a solution that eliminates the requirement for reinforcing bar assembly at constructions site or prefabrication of such structures. The disclosure also provides a solution where the absence of mortar at the joints of elements eliminates the failure and maintenance of the mortar in the final structure. The disclosure also provides a solution where the absence of mortar allows drain back of water from the stone structure, improving reaction to thawing-freezing cycles. The disclosure also provides a solution for rapid assembly of seawalls with minimal site prep.

[000284] Concise Description of Embodiments

Unit 1. A barrier system for providing a barrier to water, the barrier system comprising: a first plurality of interlocking wall elements, wherein each of the interlocking wall elements contains at least one notch; a first plurality of connection elements for interlocking the interlocking wall elements of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements, wherein the connection elements are configured to connect at least two adjacent interlocking wall elements by fitting within notches of at least one of the adjacent interlocking wall elements, and wherein the first plurality of interlocking wall elements and the first plurality of connection elements together form a first barrier structure; and a first plurality of support units arranged on at least one side of the first barri er structure to support the first barrier structure and protect the first barrier structure from dynamic forces of water.

Unit 2. The barrier system of Unit 1, wherein one or more of the interlocking wall elements is rectangular-shaped. Unit 3. The barrier system of any one of Units 1-2, wherein one or more of the notches is trapezoid-shaped, and the connection elements are configured to connect at least two adjacent interlocking wall elements by fitting within notches of at least two of the adjacent interlocking wall elements.

Unit 4. The barrier system of any one of Units 1-2, wherein one or more of the notches is a groove and one or more of the connection elements is a part of one of the wall elements and interfits into the groove in a tongue-and-groove fitting.

Unit 5. The barrier system of any one of Units 1-3, wherein the wall elements comprise natural stone.

Unit 6. The barrier system of Units 5, wherein the natural stone is granite.

Unit 7. The barrier system of any one of Units 1-6, wherein the connection elements comprise natural stone.

Unit 8. The barrier system of any one of Units 1-7, wherein the support units are gabion baskets.

Unit 9. The barrier system of any one of Units 1-8, wherein the support units comprise stainless steel.

Unit 10. The barrier system of any one of Units 1-9, wherein the support units are filled with gravel.

Unit 11. The barrier system of any one of Units 1-10, further comprising one or more tie rods, wherein each tie rod penetrates an interlocking wall element of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements and is fixed to one or more support units of the first plurality of support units, such that the tie rod is configured to restrict movement of the interlocking wall element it penetrates with respect to other interlocking wall elements on at least one axis of rotation.

Unit 12. The barrier system of any one of Units 1-11, wherein the barrier system forms a bulkhead, the barrier system further comprising: a bulkhead base at a bottom of the first barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the bulkhead base; a bulkhead cap at a top of the first barrier structure, wherein a top row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the bulkhead cap; and one or more bulkhead posts extending from the bulkhead base to the bulkhead cap.

Unit 13. The barrier system of any one of Units 1-11, wherein the barrier system forms a revetment, the barrier system further comprising: a revetment base at a bottom of the first barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the revetment base; and wherein the first barrier structure is sloped.

Unit 14. The barrier system of any one of Units 1-11, wherein the barrier system forms a toe, the barrier system further comprising: a toe base at a bottom of the first barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the toe base; a toe cap at a top of the first barrier structure, wherein a top row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the toe cap; one or more toe posts extending from the bulkhead base to the bulkhead cap; and a second plurality of interlocking wall elements extending from the toe base in a different direction than the first plurality of interlocking wall elements.

Unit 15. The barrier system of any one of Units 1-11, wherein the barrier system forms a berm, the barrier system further comprising: a first berm base at a bottom of the first barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the first berm base; wherein the first barrier structure is sloped; a second plurality of interlocking wall elements, wherein each of the interlocking wall elements contains at least one notch; a second plurality of connection elements for interlocking the interlocking wall elements of the second plurality of interlocking wall elements, wherein the connection elements are configured to connect at least two adjacent interlocking wall elements by fitting within notches of at least one of the adjacent interlocking wall elements, and wherein the second plurality of interlocking wall elements and the second plurality of connection elements together form a second barrier structure; a second plurality of support units arranged on at least one side of the second barrier structure to support the second barrier structure and protect the second barrier structure from dynamic forces of water; a second berm base at a bottom of the second barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the second plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the second berm base; a cap extending between the first barrier structure and the second barrier structure; and a waterproof membrane extending between the first plurality of support units and the second plurality of support units.

Unit 16. The barri er system of any one of Units 1-11, wherein the barrier system form s a levee, the barrier system further comprising: a levee base at a bottom of the first barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the levee base; a waterproof membrane extending from the first barrier structure; and wherein the first barrier structure is sloped.

Unit 17. The barrier system of any one of Units 1-11, wherein the barrier system forms a dam, the barrier system further comprising: a dam base at a bottom of the first barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the dam base; a dam cap at a top of the first barri er structure, wherein a top row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the dam cap; one or more dam posts extending from the dam base to the dam cap; and wherein the first barrier structure has a U-like-shape in plan view.

Unit 18. A method of manufacturing a barrier system for providing a barrier to water, the method comprising: providing a first plurality of interlocking wall elements, wherein each of the interlocking wall elements contains at least one notch; connecting the wall elements with one or more connection elements of a first plurality of connection elements for interlocking the interlocking wall elements of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements, wherein the connection elements are configured to connect at least two adjacent interlocking wall elements by fitting within notches of at least one of the adjacent interlocking wall elements, and wherein the first plurality of interlocking wall elements and the first plurality of connection elements together form a first barrier structure; and supporting the barrier structure with a first plurality of support units arranged on at least one side of the first barrier structure to support the first barrier structure and protect the first barrier structure from dynamic forces of water.

Unit 19. The method of Unit 18, further comprising drilling a push-through hole into the one or more support units of the first plurality of support units.

Unit 20. The method of Unit 19, further comprising drilling a drainage hole into the first barrier structure, such that the drainage hole in the first barrier structure substantially aligns with the push-through hole.

Unit 21. The method of Unit 20, further compri sing overfilling the support units of the first plurality of support units with a material selected from the group consisting of gravel and stone.

Unit 22. The method of Unit 18, further comprising capping the barrier system. Unit 23. The method of any one of Units 18-22, further comprising providing one or more tie rods, wherein each tie rod penetrates an interlocking wall element of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements and is fixed to one or more support units of the first plurality of support units, such that the tie rod is configured to restrict movement of the interlocking wall element it penetrates with respect to other interlocking wall elements on at least one axis of rotation.

Unit 24. The method of any one of Units 18-23, wherein the barrier system forms a bulkhead, the method further comprising: providing a bulkhead base at a bottom of the first barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the bulkhead base; providing a bul khead cap at a top of the first barri er structure, wherein a top row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the bulkhead cap; and providing one or more bulkhead posts extending from the bulkhead base to the bulkhead cap.

Unit 25. The method of any one of Units 18-23, wherein the barrier system forms a revetment, the barrier system further comprising: providing a revetment base at a bottom of the first barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the revetment base; and wherein the first barrier structure is sloped.

Unit 26. The method of any one of Units 18-23, wherein the barrier system forms a toe, the barrier system further comprising: providing a toe base at a bottom of the first barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the toe base; providing a toe cap at a top of the first barrier structure, wherein a top row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the toe cap; providing one or more toe posts extending from the bulkhead base to the bulkhead cap; and providing a second plurality of interlocking wall elements extending from the toe base in a different direction than the first plurality of interlocking wall elements.

Unit 27. The method of any one of Units 18-23, wherein the barrier system forms a berm, the barrier system further comprising: providing a first berm base at a bottom of the first barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the first berm base; wherein the first barrier structure is sloped; providing a second plurality of interlocking wall elements, wherein each of the interlocking wall elements contains at least one notch; providing a second plurality of connection elements for interlocking the interlocking wall elements of the second plurality of interlocking wall elements, wherein the connection elements are configured to connect at least two adjacent interlocking wall elements by fitting within notches of at least one of the adjacent interlocking wall elements, and wherein the second plurality of interlocking wall elements and the second plurality of connection elements together form a second barrier structure; providing a second plurality of support units arranged on at least one side of the second barrier structure to support the second barrier structure and protect the second barrier structure from dynamic forces of water; providing a second berm base at a bottom of the second barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the second plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the second berm base; providing a cap extending between the first barrier structure and the second barrier structure; and providing a waterproof membrane extending between the first plurality of support units and the second plurality of support units.

Unit 28. The method of any one of Units 18-23, wherein the barrier system forms a levee, the barrier system further comprising: providing a levee base at a bottom of the first barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the levee base; providing a waterproof membrane extending from the first barrier structure; and wherein the first barrier structure is sloped.

Unit 29. The method of any one of Units 18-23, wherein the barrier system forms a dam, the barrier system further comprising: providing a dam base at a bottom of the first barrier structure, wherein a bottom row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the dam base; providing a dam cap at a top of the first barrier structure, wherein a top row of the first plurality of interlocking wall elements are secured into the dam cap; providing one or more dam posts extending from the dam base to the dam cap; and wherein the first barrier structure has a U-like-shape in plan view.

Unit 30. A reef system, comprising: a plurality of reef base elements having a plurality of reef base holes, wherein said plurality of reef base elements are comprised of manufactured natural stone that are spaced apart to allow water to flow through one or more channels between said reef base elements, and wherein said reef base holes are configured to support the growth of organic material within and around said holes.

Unit 31. The reef system of Unit 30, further comprising seed material stored in the reef base holes to support the growth of organic material within and around said holes.

Unit 32. The reef system of Unit 31, wherein the holes are undercut to create collars, wherein the collars are configured to assist in storing the seed material in the holes.

Unit 33. The reef system of any one of Units 30-32, wherein the seed material is comprised of at least one of shells or coral.

Unit 34. The reef system of Unit 32, wherein the reef base elements are stacked and staggered to create a plurality of channels that facilitate a water flow. Unit 35. The reef system of Unit 34, wherein the reef base elements are further arranged to have a wider opening for the entrance of the water flow into the channels and a narrower exit for the exit of the water flow from the channels.

Unit 36. The reef system of any one of Units 30-35, wherein the reef base elements are held in place and together by at least one of gravity, frictional forces, and normal forces.

Unit 37. The reef system of any one of Units 30-35, wherein the reef base elements are held in place and together by chains.

Unit 38. A method of regulating the dynamic flow of ocean water, comprising: fabricating at least two sets of reef base elements, wherein said reef base elements are made of natural stone and comprise a plurality of reef base holes; placing the first set of reef base elements on an ocean floor; stacking the second set of reef base elements on top of first plurality of reef base elements, wherein the first set and the second set of reef base elements are arranged to create at least one channel through which water can flow; and arranging said first set and said second set of reef base elements in a manner to allow water to flow through the at least one channel between said first set and second set of reef base elements.

Unit 39. The method of Unit 38, wherein the at least one channel comprises an opening that is wider than the exit of the at least one channel to facilitate the flow of water.

Unit 40. The method of any one of Units 38-39, further comprising depositing seed material into the plurality of reef base holes.

Unit 41. The method of any one of Units 38-40, further comprising connecting the first set of reef base elements and the second set of reef base elements by chains. Unit 42. The method of Unit 41, further comprising undercutting the reef base holes to create collars that aid in storing the seed material.

[000285] While the subject matter of this disclosure has been described and shown in considerable detail with reference to certain illustrative embodiments, including various combinations and sub-combinations of features, those skilled in the art will readily appreciate other embodiments and variations and modifications thereof as encompassed within the scope of the present disclosure. Moreover, the descriptions of such embodiments, combinations, and sub- combinations is not intended to convey that the claimed subject matter requires features or combinations of features other than those expressly recited in the claims. Accordingly, the scope of this disclosure is intended to include all modifications and variations encompassed within the spirit and scope of the following appended clai m s.

[000286] Unless defined otherwise, all terms of art, notations and other technical terms or terminology used herein have the same meaning as is commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this disclosure belongs. The embodiments of the disclosure described above are intended to be merely exemplary; numerous variations and modifications will be apparent to those skilled in the art. All such variations and modifications are intended to be within the scope of the present disclosure as defined in any appended claims. Furthermore, unless otherwise stated, any specific dimensions mentioned in this description are merely representative of an exemplary implementation of certain embodiments in accordance with the present disclosure and such disclosures are not intended to be limiting.