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Title:
BENZAZEPINE DERIVATIVES USEFUL FOR THE TREATMENT OF 5HT2C RECEPTOR ASSOCIATED DISEASES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2005/019179
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
The present invention provides processes and intermediates for the preparation of 3-benzazepines and salts thereof which can be useful as serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonists for the treatment of , for example, central nervous system disorders such as obesity.

Inventors:
BURBAUM BEVERLY W (US)
GILSON CHARLES A III (US)
AYTES SHELLEY (US)
ESTRADA SCOTT A (US)
SENGUPTA DIPANJAN (US)
SMITH BRIAN (US)
REY MAX (CH)
WEIGL ULRICH (DE)
Application Number:
PCT/US2004/019279
Publication Date:
March 03, 2005
Filing Date:
June 16, 2004
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ARENA PHARM INC (US)
BURBAUM BEVERLY W (US)
GILSON CHARLES A III (US)
AYTES SHELLEY (US)
ESTRADA SCOTT A (US)
SENGUPTA DIPANJAN (US)
SMITH BRIAN (US)
REY MAX (CH)
WEIGL ULRICH (DE)
International Classes:
C07C233/13; C07D223/16; (IPC1-7): C07D223/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2003086306A22003-10-23
Foreign References:
EP0204349A21986-12-10
EP0285919A11988-10-12
CH500194A1970-12-15
US4957914A1990-09-18
US5015639A1991-05-14
EP0285919A11988-10-12
DE1944121A11970-03-19
Other References:
TETRAHEDRON LETTERS, vol. 41, 2000, pages 3011
ROBERT ET AL., J. ORG. CHEM., vol. 52, 1987, pages 5594
DEADY ET AL., J. CHEM SOC., PERKIN TRANS. I, 1973, pages 782
LADD ET AL., J. MED. CHEM., vol. 29, 1986, pages 1904
TETRAHEDRON LETTERS, vol. 27, 1986, pages 2023
GER. OFFEN, 21 November 1985 (1985-11-21)
J. ORG. CHEM., vol. 50, 1985, pages 743
SYNTHETIC COMMUN., vol. 18, 1988, pages 671
TETRAHEDRON, vol. 41, 1985, pages 2557
HOKKAIDO DAIGAKU KOGAKUBU KENKYU HOKOKU, vol. 96, 1979, pages 41 - 4
CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN, vol. 23, 1975, pages 2584
J. AM. CHEM. SOC., vol. 92, 1970, pages 5686
J. AM. CHEM. SOC., vol. 90, 1968, pages 6522
J. AM. CHEM. SOC., vol. 90, 1968, pages 776
J. AM. CHEM. SOC., vol. 89, 1967, pages 1039
CHANG ET AL., BIOORG. MED. CHEM. LETTERS, vol. 2, 1992, pages 399
ORITO ET AL.: "Total Synthesis of Proptopine Alkaloids", HETEROCYCLES, vol. 14, no. 1, 1980, pages 11 - 13
CHANG ET AL.: "Dopamine receptor binding properties of some 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 H-3- benzazepine-7-ols with nonaromatic substituents in the 5-position", BIO. & MED. CHEM. LETT., vol. 2, no. 5, 1992, pages 399 - 402
LADD ET AL.: "Synthesis and dopaminergic binding of 2-aryldopamine analogues: Phenylethylamines, 3-benzazepines, and 9-(aminomethyl) fluorines", J. MED. CHEM., vol. 29, no. 10, 1986, pages 1904 - 1912
PAUVERT ET AL.: "Silver nitrate-promoted ring enlargement of 1-tribromomethyl-1,2-dihydro- and 1-tribromomethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline derivatives: application to the synthesis of the anti-anginal zatebradine", TETRAHEDRON LETT., vol. 44, no. 22, 2003, pages 4203 - 4206
ORITO ET AL.: "Synthetic studies of heterocyclic compounds. 1. Alkylation and acylation of 1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-3H-3-benzazepin-2-one", HOKKAIDO DAIGAKU KOGAKUBU KENKYU HOKOKU, vol. 96, 1979, pages 41 - 44
ORITO ET AL.: "Benzolactams. I. Alkylation of 1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-3H-3- benzazepin-2-one with sodium hydride and alkyl halide", TETRAHEDRON, vol. 36, no. 8, 1980, pages 1017 - 1021
FUCHS ET AL.: "Total synthesis of (+ -)-Lennoxamine and (+ -)-Aphanorphine by intramolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions of 2-amidoacroleins", ORG. LETT., vol. 3, no. 24, 2001, pages 3923 - 3925
HASAN ET AL., INDIAN J. CHEM., vol. 9, no. 9, 1971, pages 1022
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Goddard, Christine A. (1900 Market Street Philadelphia, PA, US)
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Claims:
What is claimed is:
1. A process for preparing a compound of Formula I : or salt form thereof, wherein: R'is H; R2 is C1C8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), C1C4 haloalkyl, or CH20H ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloallcyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, Clces haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or Ri and RS together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6 member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a and R7b are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and R7b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and Wb together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1C8 alkyl, ClC8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; Rl° and Rll are each, independently, H, CC8 alkyl, CC8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising reacting a compound of Formula II: with a reducing agent optionally in the presence of a Lewis acid for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula I or salt form thereof.
2. The process of claim 1 wherein said reducing agent comprises a borane.
3. The process of claim 1 wherein said reducing agent comprises BH3.
4. The process of claim 1 wherein said reducing agent comprises a metal hydride.
5. The process of claim 1 wherein said reducing agent comprises a borohydride or aluminum hydride.
6. The process of claim 1 wherein: R2 is ClC8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), OH, or CH20H ; R3 and R6 are each H; and R 5are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, NHR'°, NR'°R", aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and ClC8 alkyl ; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a is H; R7b is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R8a and R8b are each H; and Rl° and R"are each, independently, C1C8 alkyl, ClC8 alkenyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl ; provided that: (A) if R2 is methyl and R4 is H, then Rus ils not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative ; and (B) if R7a is H and R7b is other than H, then neither R4 nor R5 can be H.
7. The process of claim 6 wherein R2 is methyl, ethyl, npropyl, or isopropyl.
8. The process of claim 6 wherein R2 is methyl.
9. The process of claim 6 wherein is Cl, Br, haloalkyl, CF3, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, or imidazolyl.
10. The process of claim 6 wherein is Cl.
11. The process of claim 6 wherein R' is methoxy, ethoxy, npropoxy, isopropoxy, allyloxy, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, or phenyl, wherein said imidazolyl is optionally substituted by one or more halo or methyl and said phenyl is optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, halo, and alkoxy.
12. The process of claim 6 wherein R5 is H.
13. The process of claim 1 wherein: R2 is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), C1C4 haloalkyl, or CHzOH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C4 alkyl, C1C4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or NO2 ; and R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H; provided that: (H) when R2 is C1C4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), or CH2OH, then R3 and R6 are not both H; and (I) when R2 is CH3, then R3, R4, and R6 are each H and R5is not H or isopropyl.
14. The process of claim 13 wherein R2 is ClC4 alkyl or ClC4 haloalkyl.
15. The process of claim 13 wherein R2 is methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, nbutyl, or CF3.
16. The process of claim 13 wherein R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, methyl, NH2, CN, halo, CF3, NO2, or OH.
17. The process of claim 1 wherein R7a, R7b, R8a, and Rlb are each H.
18. The process of claim 1 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
19. The process of claim 1 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
20. The process of claim 1 wherein R4 is halo.
21. The process of claim 1 wherein R4 is Cl.
22. The process of claim 1 wherein is ClC4 alkyl.
23. The process of claim 1 wherein is methyl.
24. The process of claim 1 wherein R2 is ClC4 alkyl, R3 is H, R4 is halo, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, Rla is H, and R"is H.
25. The process of claim 1 wherein W is Me, R3 is H, R4 is Cl, Rus ils H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, Rla is H, and R8b is H.
26. The process of claim 1 wherein said compound of Formula I has an S configuration at the carbon bearing R2.
27. The process of claim 1 wherein said compound of Formula I has an R configuration at the carbon bearing R2.
28. A process for preparing a compound of Formula II : II or salt form thereof, wherein: R'is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R2 is C1C8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), OH, Cl C4 haloalkyl, or CH20H ; R3, R4, R5, and are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NRIOR", CN, NO2, heterocycloallcyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy ; or R4 and RS together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6 member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a and Ruz are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and R7b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHallcyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; R10 and R11 are each, independently, H, ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, ClCs alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClCs haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and Rll together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising reacting a compound of Formula III: III or salt form thereof, wherein: L is halo, hydroxy, C1C8 alkoxy, C1C8 thioalkoxy, C1C8 acyloxy,OSO2R, or OSi (R') 3; R is ClC8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, C1C4 alkyl, ClC4 haloalkyl, ClC4 alkoxy, or ClC4 haloalkoxy; and R'is ClC8 alkyl ; with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula II or salt form thereof.
29. The process of claim 28 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises a Lewis acid.
30. The process of claim 28 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises a ClC8 alkyl aluminum halide.
31. The process of claim 28 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises a C2C16 dialkyl aluminum halide.
32. The process of claim 28 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises A1C13.
33. The process of claim 28 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises an acid.
34. The process of claim 28 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises sulfuric acid.
35. The process of claim 28 wherein said reacting is carried out in the absence of solvent.
36. The process of claim 28 wherein said reacting is carried out in the presence of solvent.
37. The process of claim 28 wherein said reacting is carried out in a nonpolar solvent.
38. The process of claim 28 wherein said reacting is carried out in a solvent comprising decahydronaphthalene or 1,2dichlorobenzene.
39. The process of claim 28 wherein said reacting is carried out at elevated temperature.
40. The process of claim 28 wherein: R2 is ClC8 alkyl,CH2O(CIC8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), OH, or CHzOH ; R3 and R6 are each H; R4 and Rare each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, NHR10, NR'OR", aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and ClC8 alkyl ; or W and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a is H; R7b is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R8a and R8b are each H; and R'° and R"are each, independently, ClC8 alkyl, ClC8 alkenyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, arallcyl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; provided that: (A) if R2 is methyl and R4 is H, then RS is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative; (B) if R7a is H and R7b is other than H, then neither R4 nor R5 can be H; (C) if R'and R2 are methyl, and R5 is H then is not NHR10 or NR10R11 ; and (D) if R'and R2 are methyl and R5 is H, then is not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative.
41. The process of claim 40 wherein Rl is H.
42. The process of claim 40 wherein R1 is C1C8 alkyl.
43. The process of claim 40 wherein is methyl, ethyl, npropyl, or isopropyl.
44. The process of claim 40 wherein is methyl.
45. The process of claim 40 wherein is Cl, Br, haloalkyl, CF3, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, or imidazolyl.
46. The process of claim 40 wherein is Cl.
47. The process of claim 40 wherein R5 is methoxy, ethoxy, npropoxy, isopropoxy, allyloxy, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, or phenyl, wherein said imidazolyl is optionally substituted by one or more halo or methyl and said phenyl is optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, halo, and alkoxy.
48. The process of claim 40 wherein RS is H.
49. The process of claim 28 wherein: R2 is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), ClC4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, ClC4 alkyl, C1C4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or NO2 ; and Wa, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H ; provided that: (H) when R2 is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), or CH2OH, then R3 and R6 are not both H; and (I) when R2 is CH3, then R3, R4, and R6 are each H and R5 is not H or isopropyl.
50. The process of claim 49 wherein Rl is H.
51. The process of claim 212 wherein Rl is ClCs alkyl.
52. The process of claim 213 wherein is ClC4 alkyl or ClC4 haloalkyl.
53. The process of claim 214 wherein is methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, nbutyl, or CF3.
54. The process of claim 49 wherein R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, methyl, NH2, CN, halo, CF3, NO2, or OH.
55. The process of claim 28 wherein R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H.
56. The process of claim 28 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
57. The process of claim 28 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
58. The process of claim 28 wherein R4 is halo.
59. The process of claim 28 wherein R4 is Cl.
60. The process of claim 28 wherein R is ClC4 alkyl.
61. The process of claim 28 wherein R2 is methyl.
62. The process of claim 28 wherein R'is H.
63. The process of claim 28 wherein R'is H or ClC4 alkyl, RZ is ClC4 alkyl, R3 is H, is halo, isH, R6isH, R7aisH, R7bisH, R$aisH, andR8bisH.
64. The process of claim 28 wherein R'is H, R is Me, R3 is H, R is Cl, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
65. A process for preparing a compound of Formula I: or salt form thereof, wherein: RI is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R2 is ClC8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O (CIC8 alkyl),C (O) NH (CIC8 alkyl), OH, Cl C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6 member heterocyclic ring having one O atom ; R7a and R7b are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and R7b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (0)alkyl, C (O) 0alkyl, C (O) NHallcyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, ClC8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; and R'° and R"are each, independently, H, C1C8 allcyl, Clces alkenyl, ClCs alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising : (a) reacting a compound of Formula III: or salt form thereof, wherein: L is halo, hydroxy, ClC8 alkoxy, ClC8 thioalkoxy, ClCs acyloxy, OSO2R, or OSi (R') 3; R is ClC8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, ClC4 alkyl, ClC4 haloalkyl, ClC4 alkoxy, or ClC4 haloalkoxy ; and R'is ClC8 alkyl ; with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula II : II or salt form thereof ; and (b) reacting said compound of Formula II or salt form thereof with a reducing agent optionally in the presence of a Lewis acid for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula I or salt form thereof.
66. The process of claim 65 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises a Lewis acid.
67. The process of claim 65 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises a ClC8 alkyl aluminum halide.
68. The process of claim 65 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises a C2CI6 dialkyl aluminum halide.
69. The process of claim 65 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises AIC13.
70. The process of claim 65 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises an acid.
71. The process of claim 65 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises sulfuric acid.
72. The process of claim 65 wherein said reacting of step a) is carried out in the absence of solvent.
73. The process of claim 65 wherein said reacting of step a) is carried out in the presence of solvent.
74. The process of claim 65 wherein said reacting of step a) is carried out in a nonpolar solvent.
75. The process of claim 65 wherein said reacting of step a) is carried out in a solvent comprising decahydronaphthalene or 1, 2dichlorobenzene.
76. The process of claim 65 wherein said reducing agent comprises a borane.
77. The process of claim 65 wherein said reducing agent comprises BH3.
78. The process of claim 65 wherein said reducing agent comprises a metal hydride.
79. The process of claim 65 wherein said reducing agent comprises a borohydride or aluminum hydride.
80. The process of claim 65 wherein: R is ClC8 alkyl,CH2O(CIC8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), OH, or CH2OH ; and are each H; and are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, NHR10, NR10R11, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and ClC8 alkyl ; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; Ruz is H; R7b is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R8a and R8b are each H; and Rl° and R"are each, independently, ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; provided that: (A) if R2 is methyl and R4 is H, then RS is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative; (B) if R7a is H and R7b is other than H, then neither R4 nor R5 can be H; (C) if R'and R2 are methyl, and Rs is H then R4 is not NHR10 or NR10R11 ; and (D) if R1 and R2 are methyl and Rus ils H, then R4 is not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative.
81. The process of claim 80 wherein R2 is methyl, ethyl, npropyl, or isopropyl.
82. The process of claim 80 wherein R2 is methyl.
83. The process of claim 80 wherein Ri is Cl, Br, haloalkyl, CF3, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, or imidazolyl.
84. The process of claim 80 wherein R4 is Cl.
85. The process of claim 80 wherein R5 is methoxy, ethoxy, npropoxy, isopropoxy, allyloxy, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, or phenyl, wherein said imidazolyl is optionally substituted by one or more halo or methyl and said phenyl is optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, halo, and alkoxy.
86. The process of claim 80 wherein R5 is H.
87. The process of claim 65 wherein: W is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), C1C4 haloalkyl, or CH20H ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, ClC4 alkyl, C1C4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or NO2 ; and R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H ; provided that: (H) when R2 is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), or CH2OH, then R3 and R6 are not both H; and (I) when R2 is CH3, then R3, R4, and R6 are each H and R5 is not H or isopropyl.
88. The process of claim 65 wherein R7a, R7b, Roba, and R8b are each H.
89. The process of claim 65 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
90. The process of claim 65 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
91. The process of claim 65 wherein is halo.
92. The process of claim 65 wherein is Cl.
93. The process of claim 65 wherein R2 is C1C4 alkyl.
94. The process of claim 65 wherein R2 is methyl.
95. The process of claim 65 wherein R'is H.
96. The process of claim 65 wherein R'is H or ClC4 alkyl, R2 is ClC4 alkyl, R3 is H, Ri is halo, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
97. The process of claim 65 wherein R'is H, W is Me, R3 is H, R4 is cl, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
98. The process of claim 65 wherein said compound of Formula I has an S configuration at the carbon bearing.
99. The process of claim 65 wherein said compound of Formula I has an R configuration at the carbon bearing R2.
100. A process for preparing a compound of Formula I : I or salt form thereof, wherein: R'is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R2 is C1C8 alkyl,CHzO (CC8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), OH, Cl C4 haloalkyl, or CH20H ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 allyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, hydroxyallcyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6 member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a and R7b are each, independently, H, halo, ClC$ alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and R7b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3c7 cycloalkyl group; R Sa and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2c8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; and Rl° and Rll are each, independently, H, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylallcyl, or allyl, or R'° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising: (a) reacting a compound of Formula IV: IV or salt form thereof, with a compound of Formula: wherein: L is halo, hydroxy, ClC8 alkoxy, C1C8 thioalkoxy, C1C8 acyloxy,OSO2R, or OSi (R') 3; R is ClC8 allyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, ClC4 alkyl, ClC4 haloallcyl, ClC4 alkoxy, or ClC4 haloalkoxy; R'is ClC8 allyl ; and Q is a leaving group, for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula III: III or salt form thereof; (b) reacting said compound of Formula III or salt form thereof, with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula II: or salt form thereof; and (c) reacting said compound of Formula II with a reducing agent optionally in the presence of a Lewis acid for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula I or salt form thereof.
101. The process of claim 100 wherein Q is hydroxy, alkoxy, halo, or O (CO) RQ, wherein RQ is ClC8 alkyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, or heterocycloalkyl.
102. The process of claim 100 wherein Q is halo.
103. The process of claim 100 wherein Q is Cl.
104. The process of claim 100 wherein then reacting of step (a) is carried out in the presence of base.
105. The process of claim 100 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises a Lewis acid.
106. The process of claim 100 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises a ClC8 alkyl aluminum halide.
107. The process of claim 100 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises a C2CI6 dialkyl aluminum halide.
108. The process of claim 100a wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises Aids.
109. The process of claim 100 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises an acid.
110. The process of claim 100 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises sulfuric acid.
111. The process of claim 100 wherein said reacting of step b) is carried out in the absence of solvent.
112. The process of claim 100 wherein said reacting of step b) is carried out in the presence of solvent.
113. The process of claim 100 wherein said reacting of step b) is carried out in a nonpolar solvent.
114. The process of claim 100 wherein said reacting of step b) is carried out in a solvent comprising decahydronaphthalene or 1,2dichlorobenzene.
115. The process of claim 100 wherein said reducing agent comprises a borane.
116. The process of claim 100 wherein said reducing agent comprises BH3.
117. The process of claim 100 wherein said reducing agent comprises a metal hydride.
118. The process of claim 100 wherein said reducing agent comprises a borohydride or aluminum hydride.
119. The process of claim 100 wherein: W is ClC8 alkyl,CH2O(CIC8 alkyl), C (O) O (CIC8 alkyl),C (O) NH (CICs alkyl), OH, or CH20H ; R3 and R6 are each H; and Rare each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, oR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, No, NR'°Ry aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and C1C8 alkyl ; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; Ruais H; R7b is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R8a and R8b are each H; and Rl° and Rll are each, independently, C1C8 alkyl, ClC8 alkenyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroarylallcyl, or allyl; provided that: (A) if R2 is methyl and R4 is H, then W is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative; (B) if R7a is H and R7b is other than H, then neither R4 nor R5 can be H; (C) if R'and R2 are methyl, and W is H then Ri is not NHR'° or NR'°R" ; and (D) if R'and W are methyl and R5 is H, then R4 is not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative.
120. The process of claim 119 wherein W is methyl, ethyl, npropyl, or isopropyl.
121. The process of claim 119 wherein R2 is methyl.
122. The process of claim 119 wherein R4 is Cl, Br, haloalkyl, CF3, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, or imidazolyl.
123. The process of claim 119 wherein R4 is Cl.
124. The process of claim 119 wherein is methoxy, ethoxy, npropoxy, isopropoxy, allyloxy, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, or phenyl, wherein said imidazolyl is optionally substituted by one or more halo or methyl and said phenyl is optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 haloallcyl, halo, and alkoxy.
125. The process of claim 119 wherein R'is H.
126. The process of claim 100 wherein : R2 is C1C4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), C1C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C4 alkyl, ClC4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or NO2 ; and R7a, R7b, R", and R8b are each H; provided that: (H) when R2 is ClC4 allyl,CH2O(CIC4 allyl), or CH2OH, then R3 and R6 are not both H; and (I) when R2 is CH3, then R3, R4, and R6 are each H and R'is not H or isopropyl.
127. The process of claim 100 wherein R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H.
128. The process of claim 100 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
129. The process of claim 100 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
130. The process of claim 100 wherein Ri is halo.
131. The process of claim 100 wherein R4 is Cl.
132. The process of claim 100 wherein R2 is C1C4 alkyl.
133. The process of claim 100 wherein is methyl.
134. The process of claim 100 wherein Rlis H.
135. The process of claim 100 wherein R'is H or ClC4 alkyl, R2 is C1C4 alkyl, R3 is H, R4 is halo, RS is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
136. The process of claim 100 wherein R'is H, W is Me, R3 is H, R4 is Cl, R'is H, R6 is H, R7ais H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
137. The process of claim 100 wherein said compound of Formula I has an S configuration at the carbon bearing R2.
138. The process of claim 100 wherein said compound of Formula I has an R configuration at the carbon bearing R2.
139. A process for preparing a compound of Formula I: or salt form thereof, wherein: R'is H or C1C8 alkyl ; R2 is ClC8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), OH, C1 C4 haloallcyl, or CH2OH; R3, R4, R, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, Clces haloalkyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oallyl, C (O) NHalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, lieterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6 member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a and R7b are, each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and R7b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group ; R9 is H, ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylallcyl, or allyl ; and Rl° and R11 are each, independently, H, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or R'° and Together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising reacting a compound of Formula IIIa : wherein: L is halo, hydroxy, CIC8 alkoxy, ClC8 thioalkoxy, ClCs acyloxy,OSO2R, or OSi (R') 3; R is ClC8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, ClC4 alkyl, ClC4 haloalkyl, ClC4 alkoxy, or ClC4 haloalkoxy; and R'is ClC8 alkyl ; with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula I.
140. The process of claim 139 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises Lewis acid.
141. The process of claim 139 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises a ClC8 alkyl aluminum halide.
142. The process of claim 139 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises a C2CI6 dialkyl aluminum halide.
143. The process of claim 139 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises AlC13.
144. The process of claim 139 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises an acid.
145. The process of claim 139 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises sulfuric acid.
146. The process of claim 139 wherein said reacting is carried out in the absence of solvent.
147. The process of claim 139 wherein said reacting is carried out in the presence of solvent.
148. The process of claim 139 wherein said reacting is carried out in a nonpolar solvent.
149. The process of claim 139 wherein said reacting is carried out in a solvent comprising decahydronaphthalene or 1,2dichlorobenzene.
150. The process of claim 139 wherein said reacting is carried out at elevated temperature.
151. The process of claim 139 wherein : R2 is ClC8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) Q (CIC8 alkyl),C (O) NH (CIC8 alkyl), OH, or CH20H ; R3 and R6 are each H; R4 and Rs are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, SR9, alkoxyallcyl, NHR10, NR10R11, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 allyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and ClC8 alkyl ; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a is H; R7b is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R8a and R8b are each H; and Rl° and R"are each, independently, ClC8 alkyl, ClC8 alkenyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; provided that: (A) if R2 is methyl and Ri is H, then Rs is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative; (B) if R7a is H and R7b is other than H, then neither R4 nor Rs can be H; (C) if R1 and R2 are methyl, and Rus vis H then R4 is not NHRI° or NR'°R" ; and (D) if R'and W are methyl and Rs is H, then Ri is not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative.
152. The process of claim 151 wherein R'is H.
153. The process of claim 151 wherein Rlis ClC8 alkyl.
154. The process of claim 151 wherein W is methyl, ethyl, npropyl, or isopropyl.
155. The process of claim 151 wherein R2 is methyl.
156. The process of claim 151 wherein W is Cl, Br, haloallcyl, CF3, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, or imidazolyl.
157. The process of claim 151 wherein W is Cl.
158. The process of claim 151 wherein R5 is methoxy, ethoxy, npropoxy, isopropoxy, allyloxy, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, or phenyl, wherein said imidazolyl is optionally substituted by one or more halo or methyl and said phenyl is optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from C1C8 allcyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, halo, and alkoxy.
159. The process of claim 151 wherein R5 is H.
160. The process of claim 139 wherein: R2 is C1C4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), C1C4 haloalkyl, or CHzOH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C4 alkyl, C1C4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or NO2; and R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H; provided that: (H) when R is C1C4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), or CH2OH, then R3 and R6 are not both H; and (I) when R2 is CH3, then R3, R4, and R6 are each H and R5 is not H or isopropyl.
161. The process of claim 160 wherein Rlis H.
162. The process of claim 160 wherein Rlis ClC8 alkyl.
163. The process of claim 160 wherein R2is ClC4 alkyl or ClC4 haloalkyl.
164. The process of claim 160 wherein R2 is methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, nbutyl, or CF3.
165. The process of claim 160 wherein R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, methyl, NH2, CN, halo, CF3, N02, or OH.
166. The process of claim 139 wherein R7a, R7b, R8a, and Ruz are each H.
167. The process of claim 139 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
168. The process of claim 139 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
169. The process of claim 139 wherein is halo.
170. The process of claim 139 wherein is Cl.
171. The process of claim 139 wherein R2 is C1C4 alkyl.
172. The process of claim 139 wherein W is methyl.
173. The process of claim 139 wherein R1 is H.
174. The process of claim 139 wherein R'is H or ClC4 alkyl, R2 isc1C4 alkyl, R3 is H, R4 is halo, R5 is R6isH, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
175. The process of claim 139 wherein Rl is H, W is Me, R3 is H, R4 is Cl, R5 is H, R6 is H, Ruais H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
176. A process for preparing a compound of Formula IIIa : IIIa or salt form thereof, wherein: R'is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R2 is ClC8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), OH, Cl C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy ; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6 member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a and R7b are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and R7b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group ; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClCs haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or Rua and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylallcyl, or allyl ; Rl° and R"are each, independently, H, C1C8 alkyl, ClC8 alkenyl, ClC8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and Rll together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; L is halo, hydroxy, ClCs alkoxy, ClC8 thioalkoxy, C1C8 acyloxy,OSO2R, or OSi (R') 3; R is ClC8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, ClC4 alkyl, ClC4 haloalkyl, ClC4 alkoxy, or ClC4 haloalkoxy; and R'is ClC8 alkyl ; comprising reacting a compound of Formula III: III with a reducing agent optionally in the presence of a Lewis acid for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula IIIa.
177. The process of claim 176 wherein the stereochemistry of chiral centers present in said compound of Formula IIIa is retained in said compound of Formula III.
178. The process of claim 176 wherein said reducing agent comprises a borane.
179. The process of claim 176 wherein said reducing agent comprises BH3. l.
180. The process of claim 176 wherein said reducing agent comprises a metal hydride.
181. The process of claim 176 wherein said reducing agent comprises a borohydride or aluminum hydride.
182. The process of claim 176 wherein: R2 is C1C8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (0) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), OH, or CH20H ; R3 and R6 are each H; R4 and R5 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, NHR10, NR10R11, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloallcyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and C1C8 alkyl ; or W and Rs together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a is H; R7b is H or C1C8 alkyl ; R8a and R8b are each H; and Rl° and R"are each, independently, ClC8 alkyl, ClC$ alkenyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; provided that: (A) if R2 is methyl and R4 is H, then Rs is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative; (B) if R7a is H and R7b is other than H, then neither R4 nor Rs can be H; (C) if R1 and R2 are methyl, and Rs is H then R4 is not NHR10 or NR°RIl ; and (D) if R'and W are methyl and Rs is H, then R4 is not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative.
183. The process of claim 182 wherein R'is H.
184. The process of claim 182 wherein R'is ClC8 alkyl.
185. The process of claim 182 wherein R2 is methyl, ethyl, npropyl, or isopropyl.
186. The process of claim 182 wherein is methyl.
187. The process of claim 182 wherein is Cl, Br, haloalkyl, CF3, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, or imidazolyl.
188. The process of claim 182 wherein R4 is Cl.
189. The process of claim 182 wherein R'is methoxy, ethoxy, npropoxy, isopropoxy, allyloxy, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, or phenyl, wherein said imidazolyl is optionally substituted by one or more halo or methyl and said phenyl is optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from Clces alkyl, C1C8 haloallcyl, halo, and alkoxy.
190. The process of claim 182 wherein Rs is H.
191. The process of claim 176 wherein: R2 is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), C1C4 haloalkyl, or CHzOH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C4 alkyl, C1C4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or NO2 ; and R7a, R7b, Rua and R8b are each H ; provided that: (H) when RZ is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), or CH2OH, then R3 and R6 are not both H; and (I) when R2 is CH3, then R3, R4, and R6 are each H and Rus vis not H or isopropyl.
192. The process of claim 191 wherein R'is H.
193. The process of claim 191 wherein R1 is C1C8 alkyl.
194. The process of claim 191 wherein R is ClC4 alkyl or ClC4 haloalkyl.
195. The process of claim 191 wherein R2 is methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, nbutyl, or CF3.
196. The process of claim 191 wherein R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, methyl, NH2, CN, halo, CF3, NO2, or OH.
197. The process of claim 176 wherein R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H.
198. The process of claim 176 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
199. The process of claim 176 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
200. 176 The process of claim 176 wherein Ri is halo.
201. The process of claim 176 wherein R4 is Cl.
202. The process of claim 176 wherein R2 is ClC4 alkyl.
203. The process of claim 176 wherein R2 is methyl.
204. The process of claim 176 wherein R1 is H.
205. The process of claim 176 wherein R'is H or ClC4 alkyl, R2 is C1C4 alkyl, R3 is H, R4 is halo, RS is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
206. The process of claim 176 wherein R'is H, R2 is Me, R3 is H, R4 is Cl, R'is H, R6 is H, R7ais H, R7bis H, RBais H, and R8 is H.
207. A process for preparing a compound of Formula I : I or salt form thereof, wherein: R'is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R2 is ClC8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) 0 (CIC8 allql),C (O) NH (CICs alkyl), OH, Cl C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, hydroxyallryl, NR'°R", CN, NOz, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from C1C8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and Rs together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6 member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; F7bC8 allql, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClCs haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and R7b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloallcyl group; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 allcynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylallcyl, or allyl ; Rio and Rll are each, independently, H, C1C8 alkyl, ClC8 alkenyl, ClC8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising a) reacting a compound of Formula III: III wherein: L is halo, hydroxy, C1C8 alkoxy, ClC8 thioalkoxy, ClC8 acyloxy,OSO2R, or OSi (R') 3 ; R is ClC8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, C1C4 alkyl, C1C4 haloalkyl, C1C4 alkoxy, or ClC4 haloalkoxy ; and R'is ClC8 alkyl ; with a reducing agent optionally in the presence of a Lewis acid for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula IIIa : IIIa and b) reacting said compound of Formula IIIa with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula I.
208. The process of claim 207 wherein the stereochemistry of chiral centers present in said compound of Formula III is retained.
209. The process of claim 207 wherein said reducing agent comprises a borane.
210. The process of claim 207 wherein said reducing agent comprises BH3.
211. The process of claim 207 wherein said reducing agent comprises a metal hydride.
212. The process of claim 207 wherein said reducing agent comprises a borohydride or aluminum hydride.
213. The process of claim 207 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises a Lewis acid.
214. The process of claim 207 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises a ClC8 alkyl aluminum halide.
215. The process of claim 207 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises a C2CI6 dialkyl aluminum halide.
216. The process of claim 207 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises AICI3.
217. The process of claim 207 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises an acid.
218. The process of claim 207 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises sulfuric acid.
219. The process of claim 207 wherein said reacting of step b) is carried out in the absence of solvent.
220. The process of claim 207 wherein said reacting of step b) is carried out in the presence of solvent.
221. The process of claim 207 wherein said reacting of step b) is carried out in a nonpolar solvent.
222. The process of claim 207 wherein said reacting of step b) is carried out in a solvent comprising decahydronaphthalene or 1,2dichlorobenzene.
223. The process of claim 207 wherein: R2 is ClC8 alkyl,CH2O(CIC8 alkyl), C (O) O(CsC8 alkyl),C (O) NH(CIC8 allcyl), OH, or CH2OH ; R3 and R6 are each H; R4 and Rs are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, NHR10, NRR", aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, ClCs haloalkyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and ClC8 alkyl ; or R4 and R together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a is H; R7b is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R8a and Ruz are each H; and Rl° and R"are each, independently, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; provided that: (A) if R2 is methyl and R4 is H, then Rs is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative; (B) if R7a is H and R7b is other than H, then neither Ri nor Rs can be H; (C) if R1 and R2 are methyl, and Rs is H then le is not NHR'° or NR'°R'' ; and (D) if R'and R2 are methyl and Rs is H, then Ri is not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative.
224. The process of claim 223 wherein R'is H.
225. The process of claim 223 wherein R1 is C1C8 alkyl.
226. The process of claim 223 wherein W is methyl, ethyl, npropyl, or isopropyl.
227. The process of claim 223 wherein R2 is methyl.
228. The process of claim 223 wherein Ri is Cl, Br, haloallcyl, CF3, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, or imidazolyl.
229. The process of claim 223 wherein R4 is Cl.
230. The process of claim 223 wherein Rs is methoxy, ethoxy, npropoxy, isopropoxy, allyloxy, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, or phenyl, wherein said imidazolyl is optionally substituted by one or more halo or methyl and said phenyl is optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, halo, and alkoxy.
231. The process of claim 223 wherein Rs is H.
232. The process of claim 207 wherein : R2 is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), C1C4 haloalkyl, or CH20H ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C4 alkyl, C1C4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or NO2 ; and R7a, R7b, Rua and R8b are each H ; provided that: (H) when R2 is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), or CH20H, then R3 and R6 are not both H; and (I) when R2 is CH3, then R3, R4, and R6 are each H and Rs is not H or isopropyl.
233. The process of claim 232 wherein R'is H.
234. The process of claim 232 wherein Rl is ClC8 alkyl.
235. The process of claim 232 wherein R2 is ClC4 alkyl or ClC4 haloalkyl.
236. The process of claim 232 wherein R2 is methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, nbutyl, or CF3.
237. The process of claim 232 wherein R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, methyl, NH2, CN, halo, CF3, NO2, or OH.
238. The process of claim 207 wherein R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H.
239. The process of claim 207 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
240. The process of claim 207 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
241. The process of claim 207 wherein R4 is halo.
242. The process of claim 207 wherein R4 is cl.
243. The process of claim 207 wherein R2 is ClC4 alkyl.
244. The process of claim 207 wherein R2 is methyl.
245. The process of claim 207 wherein Rl is H.
246. The process of claim 207 wherein Rl is H or ClC4 alkyl, R is ClC4 alkyl, Rois H, Ri is halo, Rs is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
247. The process of claim 207 wherein R'is H, R2 is Me, R3 is H, R4 is Cl, Rus vis H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R"is H.
248. A process for preparing a compound of Formula I : or salt form thereof, wherein: RI is H or C1C8 alkyl ; w is ClC8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), OH, Cl C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from ClC$ alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and Rs together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6 member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a and R7b are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and R7b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloallcyl group; R9 is H, C1C8 alkyl, Clces alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; R10 and R"are each, independently, H, ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, ClC8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and Rll together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising: (a) reacting a compound of Formula IV : or salt form thereof, with a compound of Formula: wherein: L is halo, hydroxy, C1C8 alkoxy, ClC8 thioalkoxy, ClC8 acyloxy,OSO2R, or OSi (R') 3; R is ClC8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, ClC4 alkyl, ClC4 haloalkyl, ClC4 alkoxy, or ClC4 haloalkoxy; R'is ClC8 alkyl ; and Q is a leaving group, for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula III: III or salt form thereof; (b) reacting said compound of Formula III with a reducing agent optionally in the presence of a Lewis acid for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula IIIa : and (c) reacting said compound of Formula IIIa with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula I.
249. The process of claim 248 wherein Q is Cl.
250. The process of claim 248 wherein then reacting of step (a) is carried out in the presence of base.
251. The process of claim 248 wherein said reducing agent comprises a borane.
252. The process of claim 248 wherein said reducing agent comprises BH3.
253. The process of claim 248 wherein said reducing agent comprises a metal hydride.
254. The process of claim 248 wherein said reducing agent comprises a borohydride or aluminum hydride.
255. The process of claim 248 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises a Lewis acid.
256. The process of claim 248 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises a ClC8 alkyl aluminum halide.
257. The process of claim 248 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises a C2CI6 dialkyl aluminum halide.
258. The process of claim 248a wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises AICl3.
259. The process of claim 248 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises an acid.
260. The process of claim 248 wherein said cyclizing reagent comprises sulfuric acid.
261. The process of claim 248 wherein said reacting of step c) is carried out in the absence of solvent.
262. The process of claim 248 wherein said reacting of step c) is carried out in the presence of solvent.
263. The process of claim 248 wherein said reacting of step c) is carried out in a nonpolar solvent.
264. The process of claim 248 wherein said reacting of step c) is carried out in a solvent comprising decahydronaphthalene or 1,2dichlorobenzene.
265. The process of claim 248 wherein: R2 is ClC8 alkyl,CH2O (CIC8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), OH, or CHzOH ; R3 and R6 are each H; R4 and Rare each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, NHR10, NR'OR'l, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and C1C8 alkyl ; or R4 and Rs together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; kla is H; R7b is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R8a and R8b are each H; and R'° and R"are each, independently, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 haloallcyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; provided that: (A) if R2 is methyl and R4 is H, then W is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative ; \ (B) if R7a is H and R7b is other than H, then neither R4 nor Rs can be H; (C) if R1 and R2 are methyl, and Rs is H then R4 is not NHRI° or NRI°Rll ; and (D) if R'and R2 are methyl and Rs is H, then R4 is not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative.
266. The process of claim 265 wherein Rl is H.
267. The process of claim 265 wherein R1 is C1C8 alkyl.
268. The process of claim 265 wherein W is methyl, ethyl, npropyl, or isopropyl.
269. The process of claim 265 wherein R2 is methyl.
270. The process of claim 265 wherein Ri is Cl, Br, haloalkyl, CF3, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, or imidazolyl.
271. The process of claim 265 wherein R4 is cl.
272. The process of claim 265 wherein Rs is methoxy, ethoxy, npropoxy, isopropoxy, allyloxy, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, or phenyl, wherein said imidazolyl is optionally substituted by one or more halo or methyl and said phenyl is optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, halo, and alkoxy.
273. The process of claim 265 wherein Rs is H.
274. The process of claim 248 wherein: R2 is C1C4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), C1C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, ClC4 alkyl, ClC4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or NO2 ; and R7a, R7b RBa, and R8b are each H ; provided that: (H) when R2 is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), or CH2OH, then R3 and R6 are not both H; and (I) when R2 is CH3, then R3, R4, and R6 are each H and Rus vis not H or isopropyl.
275. The process of claim 274 wherein RI is H.
276. The process of claim 274 wherein R1 is C1C8 alkyl.
277. The process of claim 274 wherein R2 is ClC4 alkyl or ClC4 haloalkyl.
278. The process of claim 274 wherein R2 is methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, nbutyl, or CF3.
279. The process of claim 274 wherein R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, methyl, NH2, CN, halo, CF3, N02, or OH.
280. The process of claim 248 wherein R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H.
281. The process of claim 248 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
282. The process of claim 248 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
283. The process of claim 248 wherein is halo.
284. The process of claim 248 wherein is Cl.
285. The process of claim 248 wherein is ClC4 alkyl.
286. The process of claim 248 wherein is methyl.
287. The process of claim 248 wherein RI is H.
288. The process of claim 248 wherein R'is H or ClC4 alkyl, R2 is ClC4 alkyl, R3 is H, R4 is halo, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
289. The process of claim 248 wherein RI is H, R2 is Me, R3 is H, R4 is Cl, Rs is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and Ruz is H.
290. A method of resolving a mixture of compounds of Formula Ia and Ib : wherein: Rl is H or ClC8 alkyl ; W is C1C8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), OH, Cl C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, Rs, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 allcynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, N02, heterocycloallcyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy ; or R4 and R together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6 member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a and R7b are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and Rlb together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group ; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloallcyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylallcyl, or allyl ; R10 and R11 are each, independently, H, ClC8 alkyl, ClCs alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising: contacting said mixture of compounds with a chiral resolving acid to form chiral resolving acid salts of said compounds, wherein said chiral resolving acid comprises substantially one stereoisomer; and precipitating said chiral resolving acid salts of said compounds, wherein the resulting precipitate is enriched in the chiral resolving acid salt of one of said compounds of Formula Ia or Ib.
291. The method of claim 290 wherein said chiral resolving acid is tartaric acid.
292. The method of claim 290 wherein said tartaric acid is L (+)tartaric acid.
293. The method of claim 290 wherein said precipitate is enriched in the tartaric acid salt form of said compound of Formula la or said compound of Formula Ib.
294. The method of claim 290 wherein: R2 is ClC8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), OH, or CHzOH ; R3 and R6 are each H; R and RS are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, NHR10, NR10R11, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, ClC8 haloallcyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and C1C8 alkyl ; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a is H; R'b is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R8a and R8b are each H; and Rl° and Rll are each, independently, ClC8 alkyl, ClC8 alkenyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, arallcyl, heteroarylallcyl, or allyl ; provided that: (A) if R2 is methyl and Ri is H, then Rs is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative; (B) if R7a is H and R7b is other than H, then neither R4 nor Rs can be H; (C) if R'and W are methyl, and Rs is H then R4 is not NHRI° or NR10R11 ; and (D) if R'and W are methyl and Rs is H, then R4 is not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative.
295. The method of claim 294 wherein R2 is methyl, ethyl, npropyl, or isopropyl.
296. The method of claim 294 wherein R ? is methyl.
297. The method of claim 294 wherein R4 is cl, Br, haloalkyl, CF3, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, or imidazolyl.
298. The method of claim 294 wherein R4 is cl.
299. The method of claim 294 wherein Rs is methoxy, ethoxy, npropoxy, isopropoxy, allyloxy, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, or phenyl, wherein said imidazolyl is optionally substituted by one or more halo or methyl and said phenyl is optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, halo, and alkoxy.
300. The method of claim 294 wherein R5 is H.
301. The method of claim 290 wherein: R2 is C1C4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), C1C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C4 alkyl, C1C4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or NOz ; and Rla, R7b, R8a, and Ruz are each H ; provided that : (H) when R2 is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), or CHzOH, then R3 and R6 are not both H; and (I) when R2 is CH3, then R3, R4, and R6 are each H and R5 is not H or isopropyl.
302. The method of claim 290 wherein lea, R7b, Roba, and R8b are each H.
303. The method of claim 290 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
304. The method of claim 290 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
305. The method of claim 290 wherein R4is halo.
306. The method of claim 290 wherein R4 is Cl.
307. The method of claim 290 wherein RZ is ClC4 alkyl.
308. The method of claim 290 wherein R2 is methyl.
309. The method of claim 290 wherein R'is H.
310. The method of claim 290 wherein R'is H or ClC4 alkyl, R2 is C1C4 alkyl, R3 is H, R4 is halo, RS is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
311. The method of claim 290 wherein R'is H, W is Me, R3 is H, R4 is Cl, R5 is H, R6 is H, Ra is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
312. The method of claim 290 wherein said contacting is carried out in a solvent comprising tbutanol.
313. The method of claim 290 wherein said contacting is carried out in a solvent comprising acetone.
314. A compound of Formula II or IIIa : II IIIa or salt form thereof, wherein: Rl is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R2 is C1C8 allcyl,CH20 (CIC8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), OH, Ci C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 alkyl, CaC$ alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from C1C8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and RS together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6 member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a and R7b are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloallcyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and R7b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R3a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R3a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; Rl° and R"are each, independently, H, C1C8 alkyl, CC8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; and L is halo, hydroxy, ClC8 alkoxy, C1C8 thioalkoxy, C1C8 acyloxy,OS02R, or OSi (R') 3; R is ClC8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, ClC4 allcyl, ClC4 haloalkyl, ClC4 alkoxy, or C1C4 haloalkoxy ; and R'is ClC8 alkyl.
315. The compound of claim 314 wherein: R2 is ClC8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), OH, or CHzOH ; R3 and R6 are each H; W and Rare each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, NHR10, NoR", aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and C1C8 alkyl ; or Ri and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; Ruz is H; R7b is H or Clces alkyl ; R and R8b are each H; and R'° and R"are each, independently, C1C8 allyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; provided that: (A) if R2 is methyl and R4 is H, then R'is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative; (B) if R7a is H and R7b is other than H, then neither R4 nor R5 can be H; (C) if R1 and R2 are methyl, and W is H then R4is not NHR10 or NR10R11 ; and (D) if R1 and R2 are methyl and R'is H, then R4 is not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative.
316. The compound of claim 315 wherein W is methyl, ethyl, npropyl, or isopropyl.
317. The compound of claim 315 wherein W is methyl.
318. The compound of claim 315 wherein R4 is cl, Br, haloalkyl, CF3, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, or imidazolyl.
319. The compound of claim 315 wherein R4 is Cl.
320. The compound of claim 315 wherein W is methoxy, ethoxy, npropoxy, isopropoxy, allyloxy, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, or phenyl, wherein said imidazolyl is optionally substituted by one or more halo or methyl and said phenyl is optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, halo, and alkoxy.
321. The compound of claim 315 wherein W is H.
322. The compound of claim 314 wherein: R2 is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), C1C4 haloalkyl, or CH20H ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C4 alkyl, C1C4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or NO2 ; and R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H; provided that: (H) when R is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), or CH2OH, then R3 and R6 are not both H; and (I) when R is CH3, then R3, R4, and R6 are each H and Rs is not H or isopropyl.
323. The compound of claim 322 wherein R7a, R7b, R8a, and Ruz are each H.
324. The compound of claim 322 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
325. The compound of claim 322 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
326. The compound of claim 322 wherein R4 is halo.
327. The compound of claim 322 wherein R4 is Cl.
328. The compound of claim 322 wherein W is ClC4 alkyl.
329. The compound of claim 322 wherein R2 is methyl.
330. The compound of claim 322 wherein RI is H.
331. The compound of claim 314 wherein R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H.
332. The compound of claim 314 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
333. The compound of claim 314 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
334. The compound of claim 314 wherein Ri is halo.
335. The compound of claim 314 wherein R4 is Cl.
336. The compound of claim 314 wherein R2is ClC4 alkyl.
337. The compound of claim 314 wherein Ra is methyl.
338. The compound of claim 314 wherein R'is H.
339. The compound of claim 314 wherein R'is H or ClC4 alkyl, R2 is C1C4 alkyl, is H, R4 is halo, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
340. The compound of claim 314 wherein R'is H, R2 is Me, R3 is H, R4 is Cl, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7bisH, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
341. A chiral resolving acid salt of a compound of Formula la or Ib : la Ib wherein: Rl is H or ClC8 alkyl ; W is ClC8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), OH, Cl C4 haloalkyl, or CH20H ; R3, R4, R, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, CIC$ alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, CC8 haloallyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6 member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a and R7b are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or Ruz and R'b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R8a and Ruz are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; and Rl° and R"are each, independently, H, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, ClC8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or R'° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring.
342. The salt of claim 341 wherein said salt is a tartaric acid salt.
343. The salt of claim 342 wherein said tartaric acid is L (+)tartaric acid.
344. The salt of claim 342 wherein said salt is a tartaric acid salt of a compound of Formula Ia or a compound of Formula Ib.
345. The salt of claim 341 wherein: R2 is C1C8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O (CIC8 allcyl),C (O) NH (CIC8 alkyl), OH, or CH2OH ; R3 and R6 are each H; R4 and Rare each, independently, H, halo, ClCs haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, Wo, NR10R11, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from C,C8 alkyl, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and C1C8 alkyl ; or R4 and RS together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a is H; R7b is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R8a and R8b are each H; and Rl° and R"are each, independently, ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; provided that: (A) if R2 is methyl and R4 is H, then R5 is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative; (B) if R7a is H and R7b is other than H, then neither R4 nor RS can be H; (C) if R1 and R2 are methyl, and R5 is H then R4 is not NHR10 or NR'°R" ; and (D) if R1 and R2 are methyl and R5 is H, then Rois not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative.
346. 345 The salt of claim 341 wherein: R2 is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), C1C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C4 allcyl, ClC4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or NO2 ; and R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H; provided that: (H) when R2 is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), or CH2OH, then R3 and R6 are not both H ; and (I) when R2 is CH3, then R3, R4, and R6 are each H and R5 is not H or isopropyl.
347. The salt of claim 341 wherein R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H.
348. The salt of claim 341 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
349. The salt of claim 341 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
350. The salt of claim 341 wherein is halo.
351. The salt of claim 341 wherein is Cl.
352. The salt of claim 341 wherein R2 is C1C4 alkyl.
353. The salt of claim 341 wherein is methyl.
354. The salt of claim 341 wherein R'is H.
355. The salt of claim 341 wherein R'is H or C1C4 alkyl, R2 is C1C4 alkyl, R3 is H, R4 is halo, W is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
356. The salt of claim 341 wherein R'is H, W is Me, R ? is H, R4is Cl, R'is H, R6 is H, Ra is H, Rb is H, R8a is H, and Ruz is H.
357. A composition comprising at least one salt of claim 341.
358. The composition of claim 356 wherein said composition comprises said salt form of a compound of Formula la and said salt form of a compound of Formula Ib, wherein said composition is enriched in one of either said salt form of a compound of Formula la or said salt form of a compound of Formula Ib.
359. A process for preparing a compound of Formula V: or salt thereof, wherein: Rl is H or CC8 allyl ; W is C1C8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), or ClC4 haloalkyl ; R3, R4, R, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHallcyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR"Rll, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from ClC8 allyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy ; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; Rla and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oallyl, C (O) NHallcyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, ClC8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; and Rl° and Rll are each, independently, H, ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and Rll together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising reacting a compound of Formula IX: IX or salt thereof, wherein X2 is halo or SO2R" and R"is ClC8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, ClC4 alkyl, C1C4 haloalkyl, ClC4 alkoxy, or ClC4 haloalkoxy, with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula V.
360. The process of claim 358 wherein said cyclizing reagent is a Lewis acid.
361. The process of claim 358 wherein said cyclizing reagent is Aids.
362. The process of claim 358 wherein said reacting is carried out in the presence of a nonpolar solvent.
363. The process of claim 358 wherein said reacting is carried out in the presence of 1,2 dichlorobenzene.
364. The process of claim 358 wherein said reacting is carried out at an elevated temperature.
365. The process of claim 358 wherein said reacting is carried out at a temperature between about 100 and about 150 °C.
366. The process of claim 358 wherein X2 is Br.
367. The process of claim 358 wherein: R2 is ClC8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl) ; R3 and R6 are each H; R4 and RS are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, NHR10, NR10R11, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and ClC8 alkyl ; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a is H; R7b is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R8a and R8b are each H; and Rl° and R"are each, independently, ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; provided that: (A) if R2 is methyl and R4 is H, then R'is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative; (B) if R7a is H and R7b is other than H, then neither R4 nor R5 can be H; (C) if R1 and R2 are methyl, and R5 is H then Rois not NHRI° or NR'°R" ; and (D) if Rl and R2 are methyl and R'is H, then W is not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative.
368. The process of claim 366 wherein R'is H.
369. The process of claim 366 wherein R1 is C1C8 alkyl.
370. The process of claim 366 wherein R2 is methyl, ethyl, npropyl, or isopropyl.
371. The process of claim 366 wherein R2 is methyl.
372. The process of claim 366 wherein is Cl, Br, haloalkyl, CF3, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, or imidazolyl.
373. 369 The process of claim 366 wherein R4 is Cl.
374. The process of claim 366 wherein is methoxy, ethoxy, npropoxy, isopropoxy, allyloxy, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, or phenyl, wherein said imidazolyl is optionally substituted by one or more halo or methyl and said phenyl is optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, halo, and alkoxy.
375. The process of claim 366 wherein Rs is H.
376. The process of claim 355 wherein: RZ is C1C4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), or C1C4 haloalkyl ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, ClC4 alkyl, ClC4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or N02 ; and R7a R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H; provided that: (H) when R2 is ClC4 alkyl or CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), then R3 and R6 are not both H; and (1) when R2 is CH3, then R3, R4, and R6 are each H and Rs is not H or isopropyl.
377. The process of claim 375 wherein R'is H.
378. The process of claim 375 wherein R1 is C1C8 alkyl.
379. The process of claim 375 wherein R2 is C1C4 alkyl or ClC4 haloalkyl.
380. The process of claim 375 wherein is metliyl, ethyl, isopropyl, nbutyl, or CF3.
381. The process of claim 375 wherein and R6 are each, independently, H, methyl, NHz, CN, halo, CF3, N02, or OH.
382. The process of claim 358 wherein R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H.
383. The process of claim 358 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
384. The process of claim 358 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
385. The process of claim 358 wherein is halo.
386. The process of claim 358 wherein is Cl.
387. The process of claim 358 wherein R2 is C1C4 alkyl.
388. The process of claim 358 wherein R2 is methyl.
389. The process of claim 358 wherein Rl is H.
390. The process of claim 358 wherein RI is H or ClC4 alkyl, R2 is ClC4 alkyl, R3 is H, R4 is halo, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
391. The process of claim 358 wherein R'is H, R2 is Me, R3 is H, Ri is Cl, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R"is H.
392. A process for preparing a compound of Formula IX: IX or salt thereof, wherein: R'is H or ClC8 alkyl ; W is ClC8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), or C1C4 haloalkyl ; R3, R4, Rs, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from C1C8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy ; or R4 and Rs together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 allyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (0) Oalkyl, C (O) NHallcyl, or hydroxyallyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, ClC8 alkyl, ClC8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylallyl, or allyl ; R'° and Rll are each, independently, H, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 allcenyl, ClC8 allcynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloallyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and Rll together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; and X2 is halo or SO2R"; and R"is ClC8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, CiC4 alkyl, ClC4 haloalkyl, ClC4 alkoxy, or ClC4 haloalkoxy; comprising reacting a compound of Formula X: x or salt thereof, with a halogenating/sulfonating reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula XI.
393. The process of claim 391 wherein said halogenating/sulfonating reagent is SOBr2 or SOCl2.
394. The process of claim 391 wherein X2 is Br.
395. The process of claim 391 wherein said reacting is carried out in the presence of solvent.
396. The process of claim 394 wherein said solvent comprises dimethylformamide or toluene.
397. The process of claim 394 wherein said solvent comprises dimethylformamide and toluene.
398. The process of claim 391 wherein said reacting is carried out at elevated temperature.
399. The process of claim 391 wherein said elevated temperature is from about40 to about 80 °C.
400. The process of claim 391 wherein said compound of Formula XI is isolated.
401. The process of claim 391 wherein said compound of Formula XI is isolated by recrystallization from a solvent comprising water and alcohol.
402. The process of claim 391 wherein: R2 is ClC8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), orC (O) NH (CiCs alkyi) ; R3 and R6 are each H; R4 and Rs are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, NHR'°, NR10R11, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and ClC8 alkyl ; or Ri and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a is H; R7b is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R8a and R8b are each H; and Rl° and Rll are each, independently, ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; provided that: (A) if R2 is methyl and Ri is H, then Rs is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative; (B) if R7a is H and R7b is other than H, then neither R4 nor R5 can be H; (C) if R'and R2 are methyl, and W is H then R4 is not NHRI° or NR'°R'' ; and (D) if R'and R2 are methyl and R5 is H, then Rois not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative.
403. The process of claim 401 wherein Rl is H.
404. The process of claim 401 wherein R1 is C1C8 alkyl.
405. The process of claim 402 wherein R2 is methyl, ethyl, npropyl, or isopropyl.
406. The process of claim 403 wherein R2 is methyl.
407. The process of claim 404 wherein R4is Cl, Br, haloalkyl, CF3, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, or imidazolyl.
408. The process of claim 401 wherein R4 is Cl.
409. The process of claim 401 wherein R5 is methoxy, ethoxy, npropoxy, isopropoxy, allyloxy, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, or phenyl, wherein said imidazolyl is optionally substituted by one or more halo or methyl and said phenyl is optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, halo, and alkoxy.
410. The process of claim 401 wherein W is H.
411. The process of claim 391 wherein: R2 is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), or ClC4 haloalkyl, R3, R4 R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C4 alkyl, C1C4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or NO2 ; and R7a R7b, R8a, and Wb are each H; provided that: (H) when R2 is ClC4 alkyl or CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), then R3 and R6 are not both H; and (I) when W is CH3, then R3, R4, and R6 are each H and W is not H or isopropyl.
412. The process of claim 410 wherein R'is H.
413. The process of claim 410 wherein R1 is C1C8 alkyl.
414. The process of claim 410 wherein R2 is C1C4 alkyl or ClC4 haloalkyl.
415. The process of claim 410 wherein R2 is methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, nbutyl, or CF3.
416. The process of claim 410 wherein R3 R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, methyl, NH2, CN, halo, CF3, NO2, or OH.
417. The process of claim 391 wherein R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H.
418. The process of claim 391 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
419. The process of claim 391 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
420. The process of claim 391 wherein Rois halo.
421. The process of claim 391 wherein R4 is Cl.
422. The process of claim 391 wherein R2 is ClC4 alkyl.
423. The process of claim 391 wherein R2 is methyl.
424. The process of claim 391 wherein RI is H.
425. The process of claim 391 wherein Rl is H or ClC4 alkyl, RZ is ClC4 allyl, R3 is H, R4 is halo, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
426. The process of claim 391 wherein R'is H, R2 is Me, R3 is H, R4 is Cl, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, Rla is H, and R8b is H.
427. A process for preparing a compound of Formula X: x or salt thereof, wherein: Rl is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R2 is ClC8 alkyl,CH2O (CIC8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), or C1C4 haloalkyl ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 allyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloallyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR'°R", CN, NO2, heterocycloallcyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from ClC8 allyl, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one 0 atom; and, are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloallcyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)allyl, C (O) Oallyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, arallyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylallyl, or allyl; and' Rl° and R"are each, independently, H, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloallcyl, arallcyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylallcyl, or allyl, or Rl° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring ; comprising reacting a compound of Formula XI: wherein Xl is a leaving group, with a compound of Formula: for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula X.
428. The process of claim 426 wherein said reacting is carried out at elevated temperature.
429. The process of claim 427 wherein said temperature is from about 80 to about 110 °C.
430. The process of claim 427 wherein said reacting is carried out in the absence of solvent.
431. The process of claim 426 wherein: R2 is C1C8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), orC (O) NH (CIC8 alkyl) ; R3 and R6 are each H ; Ri and RS are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, NHR10, NR10R11, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and ClC8 alkyl ; or Ri and RS together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a is H; R7b is H or ClC8 allyl, R8a and R8b are each H; and Rl° and R"are each, independently, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; provided that: (A) if R2 is methyl and R4 is H, then W is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative ; (B) if Rla is H and R7b is other than H, then neither R4 nor R5 can be H; (C) if Rl and R2 are methyl, and is H then is not NHR10 or NR10R11 ; and (D) if R'and W are methyl and is H, then is not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative.
432. The process of claim 430 wherein R'is H.
433. The process of claim 430 wherein R1 is C1C8 alkyl.
434. The process of claim 430 wherein is methyl, ethyl, npropyl, or isopropyl.
435. The process of claim 430 wherein is methyl.
436. The process of claim 430 wherein R4 is Cl, Br, haloalkyl, CF3, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, or imidazolyl.
437. The process of claim 430 wherein R4 is Cl.
438. The process of claim 430 wherein is methoxy, ethoxy, npropoxy, isopropoxy, allyloxy, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, or phenyl, wherein said imidazolyl is optionally substituted by one or more halo or methyl and said phenyl is optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, halo, and alkoxy.
439. The process of claim 430 wherein Rs is H.
440. The process of claim 426 wherein: RZ is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), or ClC4 haloalkyl ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C4 alkyl, ClC4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or NO2 ; and R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H; provided that: (H) when R2 is ClC4 alkyl or CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), then R3 and R6 are not both H ; and (I) when R2 is CH3, then R3, R4, and R6 are each H and R5 is not H or isopropyl.
441. The process of claim 439 wherein RI is H.
442. The process of claim 439 wherein R1 is C1C8 alkyl.
443. The process of claim 439 wherein R2 is ClC4 allyl or ClC4 haloalkyl.
444. The process of claim 439 wherein R is methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, nbutyl, or CF3.
445. The process of claim 439 wherein R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, methyl, NH2, CN, halo, CF3, NO2, or OH.
446. The process of claim 426 wherein R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H.
447. The process of claim 426 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
448. The process of claim 426 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
449. The process of claim 426 wherein R4 is halo.
450. The process of claim 426 wherein R4 is Cl.
451. The process of claim 426 wherein R2 is ClC4 alkyl.
452. The process of claim 426 wherein R2 is methyl.
453. The process of claim 426 wherein R'is H.
454. The process of claim 426 wherein Rl is H or ClC4 alkyl, R2 is ClC4 alkyl, is H, is halo, RS is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
455. The process of claim 426 wherein R'is H, R2 is Me, R3 is H, R4 is Cl, RS is H, R6 is H, Ruz is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
456. A process for preparing a compound of Formula V: or salt thereof, wherein: R'is H or ClC8 allyl ; R2 is C1C8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), or C1C4 haloalkyl ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and RS together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1C8 allyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloallyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; and Rl° and R"are each, independently, H, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 allcynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or R10 and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising: a) reacting a compound of Formula X: or salt thereof; with a halogenating/sulfonating reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula IX : or salt thereof; wherein X2 is halo or SO2R"and R"is ClC8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, ClC4 alkyl, ClC4 haloalkyl, ClC4 alkoxy, or ClC4 haloalkoxy; and b) reacting said compound of Formula IX with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula V.
457. The process of claim 455 wherein said cyclizing reagent is a Lewis acid.
458. The process of claim 455 wherein said cyclizing reagent is Aids.
459. The process of claim 455 wherein said reacting of step (b) is carried out in the presence of a non polar solvent.
460. The process of claim 455 wherein said reacting of step (b) is carried out in the presence of 1,2 dichlorobenzene.
461. The process of claim 455 wherein said reacting of step (b) is carried out at an elevated temperature.
462. The process of claim 455 wherein said halogenating/sulfonating reagent is SOBER2 or SOCIz.
463. The process of claim 455 wherein X2 is Br.
464. The process of claim 455 wherein said reacting of step (a) is carried out in the presence of solvent.
465. The process of claim 463 wherein said solvent comprises dimethylformamide or toluene.
466. The process of claim 463 wherein said solvent comprises dimethylformamide and toluene.
467. The process of claim 455 wherein said compound of Formula XI is isolated.
468. The process of claim 466 wherein said compound of Formula XI is isolated by recrystallization from a solvent comprising water and alcohol.
469. The process of claim 455 wherein: R2 is ClC8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), orC (O) NH (CIC8 alkyl) ; R3 and R6 are each H; R4 and RS are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, NHR10, NR10R11, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and ClC8 alkyl ; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a is H; R7b is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R8a and R8b are each H; and Rl° and Rll are each, independently, ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; provided that: (A) if R2 is methyl and W is H, then R'is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative; (B) if R7a is H and R7b is other than H, then neither R4 nor R5 can be H; (C) if R'and are methyl, and R'is H then is not NHRI° or NR'°R" ; and (D) if R'and are methyl and W is H, then is not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative.
470. The process of claim 468 wherein R'is H.
471. The process of claim 468 wherein R1 is C1C8 alkyl.
472. The process of claim 468 wherein is methyl, ethyl, npropyl, or isopropyl.
473. The process of claim 468 wherein is methyl.
474. The process of claim 468 wherein is Cl, Br, haloalkyl, CF3, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, or imidazolyl.
475. The process of claim 468 wherein is Cl.
476. The process of claim 468 wherein R5 is methoxy, ethoxy, npropoxy, isopropoxy, allyloxy, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, or phenyl, wherein said imidazolyl is optionally substituted by one or more halo or methyl and said phenyl is optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, halo, and alkoxy.
477. The process of claim 468 wherein R5 is H.
478. The process of claim 455 wherein: R2 is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), or C1C4 haloalkyl ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C4 alkyl, ClC4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or NO2, and R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H; provided that: (H) when R2 is ClC4 alkyl or CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), then R3 and R6 are not both H; and (I) when R2 is CH3, then R3, R4, and R6 are each H and R5 is not H or isopropyl.
479. The process of claim 477 wherein RI is H.
480. The process of claim 477 wherein R1 is C1C8 alkyl.
481. The process of claim 477 wherein R2 is ClC4 allyl or ClC4 haloalkyl.
482. The process of claim 477 wherein is methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, nbutyl, or CF3.
483. The process of claim 477 wherein R3, 5, and and R6 are each, independently, H, methyl, NH2, CN, halo, CF3, NO2, or OH.
484. The process of claim 455 wherein R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H.
485. The process of claim 455 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
486. The process of claim 455 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
487. The process of claim 455 wherein R4 is halo.
488. The process of claim 455 wherein R4 is Cl.
489. The process of claim 455 wherein R2 is ClC4 alkyl.
490. The process of claim 455 wherein R2 is methyl.
491. The process of claim 455 wherein Rl is H.
492. The process of claim 455 wherein Rl is H or ClC4 alkyl, R2 is ClC4 alkyl, R3 is H, R4 is halo, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
493. The process of claim 455 wherein Rl is H, R2 is Me, R3 is H, R4 is Cl, RS is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
494. A process for preparing a compound of Formula V: v or salt thereof, wherein: R'is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R2 is ClC8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), or C1C4 haloalkyl ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy ; or R and RS together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom ; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, CC8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R"together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, ClCs alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 allcynyl, C3C7 cycloallcyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, arallryl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylallcyl, or allyl ; and Rl° and R"are each, independently, H, ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, Clces alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising: a) reacting a compound of Formula XI: XI wherein Xl is a leaving group, with a compound of Formula: or salt thereof, for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula X: x or salt thereof ; b) reacting said compound of Formula X with a halogenating/sulfonating reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula IX: or salt thereof; wherein X2 is halo or SO2R"and R"is CC8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, ClC4 alkyl, ClC4 haloalkyl, ClC4 alkoxy, or ClC4 haloalkoxy; and c) reacting said compound of Formula IX with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula V.
495. The process of claim 493 wherein said cyclizing reagent is a Lewis acid.
496. The process of claim 493 wherein said cyclizing reagent is AlCl3.
497. The process of claim 493 wherein said halogenating/sulfonating reagent is SOBr2 or SOCl2.
498. The process of claim 493 wherein X2 is Br.
499. The process of claim 493 wherein: R2 is ClC8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) 0 (CIC8 alkyl), orC (O) NH (CIC8 alkyl) ; R3 and R6 are each H; R4 and R5 are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, NHR10, NR10R11, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and ClC8 alkyl ; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a is H; R7b is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R8a and R8b are each H; and Rl° and R"are each, independently, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; provided that: (A) if R2 is methyl and R4 is H, then R5 is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative; (B) if R7a is H and Rlb is other than H, then neither R4 nor R5 can be H; (C) if R1 and R2 are methyl, and R5 is H then is not NHR10 or NR10R11; and (D) if Rl and R2 are methyl and W is H, then is not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative.
500. The process of claim 498 wherein R'is H.
501. The process of claim 498 wherein R1 is C1C8 alkyl.
502. The process of claim 498 wherein R2 is methyl, ethyl, npropyl, or isopropyl.
503. The process of claim 498 wherein R2 is methyl.
504. The process of claim 498 wherein is Cl, Br, haloalkyl, CF3, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, or imidazolyl.
505. The process of claim 498 wherein R4 is Cl.
506. The process of claim 498 wherein R5 is methoxy, ethoxy, npropoxy, isopropoxy, allyloxy, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, or phenyl, wherein said imidazolyl is optionally substituted by one or more halo or methyl and said phenyl is optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, halo, and alkoxy.
507. The process of claim 498 wherein R5 is H.
508. The process of claim 493 wherein: R2 is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), or ClC4 haloalkyl ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, ClC4 alkyl, ClC4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or NO2 ; and ic', R76, R8a, and Wb are each H; provided that : (H) when R2 is C1C4 alkyl or CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), then R3 and R6 are not both H; and (I) when RZ is CH3, then R3, R4, and R6 are each H and W is not H or isopropyl.
509. The process of claim 507 wherein Rl is H.
510. The process of claim 507 wherein Rl is ClC8 alkyl.
511. The process of claim 507 wherein R2 is ClC4 alkyl or C1C4 haloalkyl.
512. The process of claim 507 wherein R2 is methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, nbutyl, or CF3.
513. The process of claim 507 wherein R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, methyl, NH2, CN, halo, CF3, NO2, or OH.
514. The process of claim 493 wherein R7a, R7b, R8a, and Ruz are each H.
515. The process of claim 493 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
516. The process of claim 493 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
517. The process of claim 498 wherein is halo.
518. The process of claim 493 wherein R4 is Cl.
519. The process of claim 493 wherein R2 is ClC4 alkyl.
520. The process of claim 493 wherein W is methyl.
521. The process of claim 493 wherein Rl is H.
522. The process of claim 493 wherein Rl is H or ClC4 alkyl, RZ is ClC4 alkyl, is H, is halo, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
523. The process of claim 493 wherein Rl is H, R2 is Me, R3 is H, R4 is Cl, Rus ils H, R6 is H, Rua ils H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
524. A process for preparing a compound of Formula V: or salt thereof, wherein: Rl is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R2 is ClC8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), or ClC4 haloalkyl ; R3, W, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 allcynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and RS together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2Cs alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, ClC8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; and Rl° and R11 are each, independently, H, C1C8 allyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or R'° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising: a) reacting a compound of Formula XII: XII with a halogenating/sulfonating reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula XI: XI wherein X'is a leaving group; b) reacting said compound of Formula XI with a compound of Formula: or salt thereof, for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula X: x or salt thereof ; c) reacting said compound of Formula X with a further halogenating/sulfonating reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula IX: IX or salt thereof; wherein X2 is halo or SQ2R"and R"is ClC8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, ClC4 alkyl, ClC4 haloalkyl, ClC4 alkoxy, or ClC4 haloalkoxy; and d) reacting said compound of Formula IX with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula V.
525. The process of claim 523 wherein said cyclizing reagent is a Lewis acid.
526. The process of claim 524 wherein said cyclizing reagent is AICI3.
527. The process of claim 523 wherein said halogenating/sulfonating reagent is PBr3 or PC13.
528. The process of claim 523 wherein said further halogenating/sulfonating reagent is SOBr2 or SOCl2.
529. The process of claim 523 wherein X2 is Br.
530. The process of claim 523 wherein Xl is Br.
531. The process of claim 523 wherein: R2 is C1C8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (0) O(C1C8 alkyl), orC (O) NH(C1C8 alkyl) ; R3 and R6 are each H; and R5 are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, NHR10, NR10R11, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from C1C8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and ClC8 allcyl ; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a is H; R7b is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R8a and R8b are each H; and Rl° and Rll are each, independently, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; provided that: (A) if R2 is methyl and R4 is H, then W is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative; (B) if R7a is H and R7b is other than H, then neither R4 nor R5 can be H; (C) if R'and are methyl, and is H then is not NHR10 or NR10R11 ; and (D) if R1 and R2 are methyl and is H, then is not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative.
532. The process of claim 530 wherein Rlis H.
533. The process of claim 530 wherein R1 is C1C8 alkyl.
534. The process of claim 530 wherein R2 is methyl, ethyl, npropyl, or isopropyl.
535. The process of claim 530 wherein R is methyl.
536. The process of claim 530 wherein W is Cl, Br, haloalkyl, CF3, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, or imidazolyl.
537. The process of claim 530 wherein R4 is Cl.
538. The process of claim 530 wherein R5is methoxy, ethoxy, npropoxy, isopropoxy, allyloxy, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, or phenyl, wherein said imidazolyl is optionally substituted by one or more halo or methyl and said phenyl is optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, halo, and alkoxy.
539. The process of claim 530 wherein W is H.
540. The process of claim 523 wherein: W is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), or C1C4 haloalkyl ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C4 alkyl, ClC4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or NO2, ; and R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H ; provided that: (H) when R2 is ClC4 alkyl or CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), then R3 and R6 are not both H; and (I) when R2 is CH3, then R3, R4, and R6 are each H and R5 is not H or isopropyl.
541. The process of claim 539 wherein Rl is H.
542. The process of claim 539 wherein R1 is C1C8 alkyl.
543. The process of claim 539 wherein R2 is ClC4 alkyl or ClC4 haloalkyl.
544. The process of claim 539 wherein is methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, nbutyl, or CF3.
545. The process of claim 539 wherein R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, methyl, NH2, CN, halo, CF3, N02, or OH.
546. The process of claim 523 wherein Rla, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H.
547. The process of claim 523 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
548. The process of claim 523 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
549. The process of claim 523 wherein R4 is halo.
550. The process of claim 523 wherein R4 is Cl.
551. 560 The process of claim 523 wherein R2 is ClC4 alkyl.
552. 561 The process of claim 523 wherein R2 is methyl.
553. 562 The process of claim 523 wherein RI is H.
554. 563 The process of claim 523 wherein RI is H or C1C4 alkyl, W is ClC4 alkyl, R3 is H, R4 is halo, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
555. 564 The process of claim 523 wherein Rl is H, RZ is Me, R3 is H, R4 is Cl, RS is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
556. 565 A compound of Formula IX or X: IX X or salt form thereof, wherein: Rl is H or ClC8 allyl ; W is ClC8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), or ClC4 haloalkyl ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 allcyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloallcyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHallcyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from C1C8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O)NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, Clces alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, ClC8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloallcyl, ClCs haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; Rl° and R"are each, independently, H, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, ClC8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; X2 is halo or SO2R"; and R"is Clces alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, C1C4 alkyl, ClC4 haloalkyl, ClC4 alkoxy, or ClC4 haloalkoxy.
557. 566 The compound of claim 565 wherein X2 is Br.
558. 567 The compound of claim 565 wherein: Ra is ClC8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), orC (O) NH (CIC8 alkyl) ; R3 and R6 are each H; R4 and R5 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, NHRIO, NR10R11, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and ClC8 alkyl ; or R4 and RS together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a is H ; R7b is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R8a and R8b are each H; and Rl° and Rll are each, independently, ClC8 alkyl, ClC8 alkenyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; provided that: (A) if R2 is methyl and R4is H, then W is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative; (B) if R7a is H and R7b is other than H, then neither R4 nor R5 can be H; (C) if R1 and R2 are methyl, and R5 is H then R4 is not NHR10 or NR10R11 ; and (D) if R'and R2 are methyl and is H, then is not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative.
559. 568 The compound of claim 567 wherein R1 is H.
560. 569 The compound of claim 567 wherein R1 is C1C8 alkyl.
561. 570 The compound of claim 567 wherein Ra is methyl, ethyl, npropyl, or isopropyl.
562. 571 The compound of claim 567 wherein is methyl.
563. 572 The compound of claim 567 wherein is Cl, Br, haloalkyl, CF3, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, or imidazolyl.
564. 573 The compound of claim 567 wherein is Cl.
565. 574 The compound of claim 567 wherein R5 is methoxy, ethoxy, npropoxy, isopropoxy, allyloxy, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, or phenyl, wherein said imidazolyl is optionally substituted by one or more halo or methyl and said phenyl is optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, halo, and alkoxy.
566. 575 The compound of claim 567 wherein W is H.
567. 576 The compound of claim 567 wherein: R2 is C1C4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), or ClC4 haloalkyl ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, ClC4 alkyl, C1C4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2 CN, or NO2 ; and R7a, R7b, R8a, and Ruz are each H; provided that : (H) when R2 is ClC4 alkyl or CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), then R3 and R6 are not both H; and (1) when R2 is CH3, then R3, R4, and R6 are each H and R5 is not H or isopropyl.
568. 577 The compound of claim 576 wherein Rl is H.
569. 578 The compound of claim 576 wherein R1 is C1C8 alkyl.
570. 579 The compound of claim 576 wherein R2 is ClC4 alkyl or ClC4 haloalkyl.
571. 580 The compound of claim 576 wherein R2 is methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, nbutyl, or CF3.
572. 581 The compound of claim 576 wherein R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, methyl, NH2, CN, halo, CF3, NO2, or OH.
573. 582 The compound of claim 567 wherein lea, Rlb, R8a, and Ruz are each H.
574. 583 The compound of claim 567 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
575. 584 The compound of claim 567 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
576. 585 The compound of claim 567 wherein is halo.
577. 586 The compound of claim 567 wherein R4 is Cl.
578. 587 The compound of claim 567 wherein ruz is ClC4 alkyl.
579. 588 The compound of claim 567 wherein R2 is methyl.
580. 589 The compound of claim 567 wherein RI is H.
581. 590 The compound of claim 567 wherein Rl is H or ClC4 alkyl, R2 is ClC4 alkyl, R3 is H, Ri is halo, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
582. 591 The compound of claim 567 wherein Rl is H, W is Me, R3 is H, W is Cl, W is H, Rois H, R7ais H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
583. 592 A method of resolving a mixture of compounds of Formula Va and Vb: Va Vb wherein: R'is H or C1C8 alkyl ; R2 is ClC8 alkyl,CH2O(CIC8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), OH, Cl C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy ; or R4 and RS together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1C8 alkyl, ClC8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylallcyl, or allyl; and Rl° and R"are each, independently, H, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, ClC8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or R'° and Rll together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising : contacting said mixture of compounds with a chiral resolving acid to form chiral resolving acid salts of said compounds, wherein said chiral resolving acid comprises substantially one stereoisomer; and precipitating said chiral resolving acid salts of said compounds, wherein the resulting precipitate is enriched in the chiral resolving acid salt of one of said compounds of Formula Va or Vb.
584. 593 The method of claim 592 wherein said chiral resolving acid is tartaric acid.
585. 594 The method of claim 592 wherein said chiral resolving acid is L (+)tartaric acid.
586. 595 The method of claim 592 wherein said precipitate is enriched in the chiral resolving acid salt of said compound of Formula Va.
587. 596 The method of claim 592 wherein: W is ClC8 allcyl,CH2O (ClC8 alkyl), C (O) O (CICs allcyl),C (O) NH (CIC8 alkyl), OH, or CH2OH ; R3 and R6 are each H; R4 and R5 are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, NHR10, NR10R11, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, ClC8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and ClC8 alkyl ; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a is H; lb is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R8a and R8b are each H ; and Rl° and Rll are each, independently, ClC8 alkyl, ClC8 alkenyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; provided that: (A) if R2 is methyl and R4 is H, then W is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative; (B) if R7a is H and R7b is other than H, then neither R4 nor RS can be H; (C) if R1 and R2 are methyl, and R5 is H then is not NHRI° or NR10R11 ; and (D) if R1 and R2 are methyl and W is H, then is not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative.
588. 597 The method of claim 596 wherein Rl is H.
589. 598 The method of claim 596 wherein Rl is ClC8 alkyl.
590. 599 The method of claim 596 wherein R2 is methyl, ethyl, npropyl, or isopropyl.
591. 600 The method of claim 596 wherein R2 is methyl.
592. 601 The method of claim 596 wherein Ri is Cl, Br, haloalkyl, CF3, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, or imidazolyl.
593. 602 The method of claim 596 wherein R4 is Cl.
594. 603 The method of claim 596 wherein R5 is methoxy, ethoxy, npropoxy, isopropoxy, allyloxy, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, or phenyl, wherein said imidazolyl is optionally substituted by one or more halo or methyl and said phenyl is optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, halo, and alkoxy.
595. 604 The method of claim 596 wherein R5 is H.
596. 605 The method of claim 592 wherein: R2 is C1C4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), C1C4 haloalkyl, or CH20H ; R3, R4, R, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C4 alkyl, ClC4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NHz, CN, or NO2 ; and Rla, Rlb, R8a, and R8b are each H; provided that: (H) when R2 is ClC4 alkyl or CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), then R3 and R6 are not both H; and (I) when R2 is CH3, then R3, W, and R6 are each H and R5 is not H or isopropyl.
597. 606 The method of claim 605 wherein R'is H.
598. 607 The method of claim 605 wherein R1 is C1C4 alkyl.
599. 608 The method of claim 605 wherein R2 is ClC4 allcyl or ClC4 haloalkyl.
600. 609 The method of claim 605 wherein R2 is methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, nbutyl, or CF3.
601. 610 The method of claim 605 wherein R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, methyl, NH2, CN, halo, CF3, NO2, or OH.
602. 611 The method of claim 592 wherein R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H.
603. 612 The method of claim 592 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
604. 613 The method of claim 592 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
605. 614 The method of claim 592 wherein is halo.
606. 615 The method of claim 592 wherein is Cl.
607. 616 The method of claim 592 wherein R2 is C1C4 alkyl.
608. 617 The method of claim 592 wherein is methyl.
609. 618 The method of claim 592 wherein R is H.
610. 619 The method of claim 592 wherein Rl is H or ClC4 alkyl, R2 is ClC4 alkyl, is H, is halo, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
611. 620 The method of claim 592 wherein RI is H, R2 is Me, R3 is H, R4 is Cl, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
612. 621 A chiral resolving acid salt of a compound of Formula Va or Vb: Va Vb wherein: RI is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R2 is ClC8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), OH, Cl C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and RS together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, alkoxyallcyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1C8 alkyl, ClC8 alkenyl, C1C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylallcyl, or allyl; and Rl° and R"are each, independently, H, C1C8 alkyl, C1C8 alkenyl, ClC8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and Rll together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring.
613. 622 The salt of claim 621 wherein said salt is a tartaric acid salt.
614. 623 The salt of claim 621 wherein said tartaric acid is L (+)tartaric acid.
615. 624 The salt of claim 621 wherein said salt is a tartaric acid salt of a compound of Formula Va or a compound of Formula Vb.
616. 625 The salt of claim 621 wherein: R2 is C1C8 alkyl, CH2O(C1C8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), OH, or CH20H ; R3 and R6 are each H; R and Rare each, independently, H, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, NHRI°, NR10R11, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from ClC8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and C1C8 alkyl ; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom ; R7a is H; R7b is H or ClC8 alkyl ; R8a and R8b are each H; and R'° and R"are each, independently, C1C8 alkyl, ClC8 alkenyl, C1C8 haloallcyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl ; provided that: (A) if R2 is methyl and R4 is H, then R5 is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative; (B) if R7a is H and R7b is other than H, then neither R4 nor RS can be H ; (C) if R'and R2 are methyl, and R5 is H then R4 is not NHRI° or NRI°Rl ; and (D) if R'and R2 are methyl and R5 is H, then R5 is not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative.
617. 626 The salt of claim 621 wherein: R2 is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), C1C4 haloalkyl, or CH20H ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, ClC4 alkyl, CIQ4 haloallcyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or NO2 ; and R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H ; provided that: (H) when R2 is C1C4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), or CH2OH, then R3 and R6 are not both H; and (I) when R2 is CH3, then R3, R4, and R6 are each H and RS is not H or isopropyl.
618. 627 The salt of claim 621 wherein R8a and R8b are each H.
619. The salt of claim 621 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
620. 629 The salt of claim 621 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
621. 630 The salt of claim 621 wherein R4 is halo.
622. 631 The salt of claim 621 wherein is Cl.
623. 632 The salt of claim 621 wherein is ClC4 alkyl.
624. 633 The salt of claim 621 wherein is methyl.
625. 634 The salt of claim 621 wherein Rl is H.
626. 635 The salt of claim 621 wherein Rl is H or ClC4 alkyl, W is ClC4 alkyl, R3 is H, R4 is halo, Rs is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
627. 636 The salt of claim 621 wherein Rl is H, W is Me, R3 is H, R4 is Cl, RS is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, Ruz is H, Rla is H, and R8b is H.
628. 637 A composition comprising at least one chiral resolving acid salt of claim 621.
629. 638 The composition of claim 637 wherein said composition comprises said tartaric acid salt form of a compound of Formula Va and said tartaric acid salt form of a compound of Formula Vb, wherein said composition is enriched in one of either of said tartaric acid salt form of a compound of Formula Va or said tartaric acid salt form of a compound of Formula Vb.
630. 639 A hydrochloric acid salt of a compound of Formula Va or Vb: wherein: Rois H or ClC8 alkyl ; R2 is ClC8 alkyl,CH20 (CIC8 alkyl), C (O) O(C1C8 alkyl), C(O)NH(C1C8 alkyl), OH, Cl C4 haloalkyl, or CHzOH ; R3, R4 R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)allyl, C (O) Oallyl, C (O) NHalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloallyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from C1C8 alkyl, halo, C1C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy ; or R4 and RS together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5or 6member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R8a and Ruz are each, independently, H, halo, ClC8 alkyl, C2C8 alkenyl, C2C8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyallyl, hydroxy, C (O)alkyl, C (O) Oalkyl, C (O) NHalkyl, or hydroxyallcyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1C8 alkyl, ClC8 alkenyl, ClC8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, ClC8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; and Rl° and R11 are each, independently, H, C1C8 allyl, ClC8 alkenyl, ClC8 alkynyl, C3C7 cycloalkyl, C1C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or R'° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring.
631. 640 The salt of claim 639 wherein: R2 is C1C4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), C1C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1C4 alkyl, C1C4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or NO2 ; and R7a, R7a, R8a, and R8b are each H ; provided that: (H) when R2 is ClC4 alkyl, CH2O(C1C4 alkyl), or CH2OH, then R3 and R6 are not both H; and (I) when RZ is CH3, then R3, R4, and R6 are each H and R5 is not H or isopropyl.
632. 641 The salt of claim 639 wherein R8a and R8b are each H.
633. The salt of claim 639 wherein R3 and R6 are each H.
634. 643 The salt of claim 639 wherein R3, R5, and R6 are each H.
635. 644 The salt of claim 639 wherein Ri is halo.
636. 645 The salt of claim 639 wherein R4 is Cl.
637. 646 The salt of claim 639 wherein R is ClC4 alkyl.
638. 647 The salt of claim 639 wherein R2 is methyl.
639. 648 The salt of claim 639 wherein Rl is H.
640. 649 The salt of claim 639 wherein Rl is H or ClC4 alkyl, RZ is ClC4 alkyl, R3 is H, R4 is halo, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
641. 650 The salt of claim 639 wherein Rl is H, R2 is Me, R3 is H, R4 is Cl, Rus ils H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.
642. 651 A composition comprising at least one hydrochloric acid salt of claim 639.
Description:
PROCESSES FOR PREPARING 3-BENZAZEPINES FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention generally relates to processes and intermediates for the preparation of 3- benzazepines and salts thereof which can be useful as serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonists for the treatment of, for example, central nervous system disorders such as obesity.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission plays an important role in numerous physiological processes both in health and in psychiatric disorders. For example, 5-HT has been implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior. 5-HT is believed to work by inducing a feeling of fullness or satiety so eating stops earlier and fewer calories are consumed. It has been shown that a stimulatory action of 5-HT on the 5HT2C receptor plays an important role in the control of eating and in the anti-obesity effect of d- fenfluramine. As the 5-HT2C receptor is expressed in high density in the brain (notably in the limbic structures, extrapyramidal pathways, thalamus and hypothalamus i. e. PVN and DMH, and predominantly in the choroid plexus) and is expressed in low density or is absent in peripheral tissues, a selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist can be a more effective and safe anti-obesity agent. Also, 5-HT2C knockout mice are overweight with cognitive impairment and susceptibility to seizure. Thus, the 5HT2C receptor is recognized as a well-accepted receptor target for the treatment of obesity, psychiatric, and other disorders.

3-Benzazepines have been found to be agonists of the 5HT2C receptor and show effectiveness at reducing obesity in animal models (see, e. g. , U. S. Ser. No. 60/479,280 and U. S. Ser. No. 10/410,991, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). Numerous synthetic routes to 3- benzazepines have been reported and typically involve a phenyl-containing starting material upon which is built an amine-or amide-containing chain that is capable of cyclizing to form the fused 7-member ring of the benzazepine core. Syntheses of 3-benzazepines and intermediates thereof are reported in U. S. Ser. No. 60/479,280 and U. S. Ser. No. 10/410,991 as well as Nair et al., Indian J. Chem., 1967, 5, 169; Orito et al., Tetrahedron, 1980, 36, 1017; Wu et al., Organic Process Research and Development, 1997, 1, 359; Draper et al., Organic Process Research and Development, 1998,2, 175; Draper et al., Organic Process Research and Development, 1998,2, 186; Kuenburg et al., Organic Process Research and Development, 1999,3, 425; Baindur et al., J. Med. Chez., 1992, 35 (1), 67; Neumeyer et al., J. Med Chenz., 1990,33, 521; Clark et al., J. Med. Chem., 1990,33, 633; Pfeiffer et al., J. Med. Chem., 1982, 25, 352; Weinstock et al., J. Med, Chem., 1980,23 (9), 973; Weinstock et al., J. Med. Chenu., 1980,23 (9), 975; Chumpradit et al., J. Med. Chem., 1989,32, 1431 ; Heys et al., J. Org. Chem., 1989, 54, 4702; Bremner et al., Progress in Heterocyclic Chemistfy, 2001, 13, 340; Hasan et al., Indian J. Chem., 1971, 9 (9), 1022; Nagle et al.,

Tetrahedron Letters, 2000, 41, 3011 ; Robert, et al., J Org. Chem., 1987, 52, 5594) ; and Deady et al., J.

Chem Soc., Perkin Trans. I, 1973,782.

Other routes to 3-benzazepines and related compounds are reported in Ladd et al., J. Med. Chem., 1986, 29, 1904; EP 204349; EP 285 919; CH 500194; Tetrahedron Letters, 1986,27, 2023; Ger. Offen., 3418270,21 Nov. 1985; J. Org. Chem., 1985, 50, 743; U. S. Pat. Nos. 4,957, 914 and 5,015, 639 ; Synthetic Commun., 1988, 18, 671; Tetrahedron, 1985, 41, 2557; Hokkaido Daigaku Kogakubu Kenkyu Hokoku, 1979, 96, 41-4; Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 1975, 23, 2584; J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1970, 92, 5686; J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1968, 90, 6522; J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1968, 90, 776; J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1967, 89, 1039; and Chang et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Letters, 1992,2, 399 In view of the growing demand for compounds for the treatment of disorders related to the 5- HTzc receptor, new and more efficient routes to 3-benzazepines are needed. The processes and compounds described herein help meet these and other needs.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The processes and intermediates of the present invention are useful in the preparation of therapeutic agents for the treatment or prophylaxis of 5-HT mediated disorders such as obesity and other central nervous system diseases.

The present invention provides, inter alia, a process for preparing a compound of Formula I: I or salt form thereof, wherein: R'is H ; W is Cl-C8 alkyl,-CTI2-O-(CI-C8 alkyl), C (O) O-(Cz-C8 alkyl),-C (O) NH-(Cs-C8 alkyl), C,-C4 haloalkyl, or CH20H ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C-Cs haloalkyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NRl°R", CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, halo, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy ; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6- member heterocyclic ring having one O atom ;

R7a and R7b are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C,-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and R7b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R3a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, Cl-C8 alkyl, Cl-C8 alkenyl, Cl-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; R° and R"are each, independently, H, Cl-Cs alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, Cl-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or R° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising reacting a compound of Formula II : II with a reducing agent optionally in the presence of a Lewis acid for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula I or salt form thereof.

The present invention further provides a process for preparing a compound of Formula II or salt form thereof, wherein: R1 is H or C1-C8 alkyl; R2 is Cl-Cs alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C8 alkyl), C (O) O-(C1-C8 alkyl), -C(O)NH-(C1-C8 alkyl), OH, Cl- C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, halo, C1-C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or Ri and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6- member heterocyclic ring having one O atom;

R7a and R7b are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or Ruz and R7b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R8a and Rlb are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and Wb together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl ; Rl° and R"are each, independently, H, Cl-C8 alkyl, Cl-C8 alkenyl, Cl-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or R° and Together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising reacting a compound of Formula III: III or salt form thereof, wherein: L is halo, hydroxy, C1-C8 alkoxy, Cl-C8 thioalkoxy, C1-C8 acyloxy, -OSO2R, or -OSi (R') 3; R is Cl-C8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 haloalkyl, C1-C4 alkoxy, or Cl-C4 haloalkoxy ; R'is Cl-C8 alkyl ; with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula II or salt form thereof.

The present invention further provides a process for preparing a compound of Formula I or salt form thereof, wherein: Rl is H or Cl-C8 alkyl ; R2 is C1-C8 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C8 alkyl), C (O) O-(C1-C8 alkyl), -C(O)NH-(C1-C8 alkyl), OH, C1- C4 haloalkyl, or CHzOH ;

R3, R4, R5, and and are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-ces haloalkyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, halo, C1-C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and RS together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6- member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a and R7b are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and Ruz together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, Cl-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; and R° and Rll are each, independently, H, C1-C8 alkyl, C-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and Rll together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising: (a) reacting a compound of Formula III: III or salt form thereof, wherein: L is halo, hydroxy, C1-C8 alkoxy, Cl-C8 thioalkoxy, C1-C8 acyloxy,-OSO2R, or -OSi (R') 3; R is Cl-C8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, Cl-C4 alkyl, Cl-C4 haloalkyl, C1-C4 alkoxy, or Cl-C4 haloalkoxy; and R'is Ci-Cg alkyl ; with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula II or salt form thereof; and

(b) reacting said compound of Formula II or salt form thereof with a reducing agent optionally in the presence of a Lewis acid for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula I or salt form thereof.

The present invention further provides a process for preparing a compound of Formula I or salt form thereof, wherein: Rl is H or C1-C8 alkyl ; W is C1-C8 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C8 alkyl), C (O) O-(C1-C8 alkyl), -C(O)NH-(C1-C8 alkyl), OH, Cl- C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-ces alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR"Rll, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from CI-C8 alkyl, halo, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and RS together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6- member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a and R7b are each, independently, H, halo, C,-C8 alkyl, C2-Cs alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and R7b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl ; and Rio and R"are each, independently, H, C1-C8 alkyl, C-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or R° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising : (a) reacting a compound of Formula IV: or salt form thereof, with a compound of Formula:

wherein: L is halo, hydroxy, Cl-ces alkoxy, Cl-C8 thioalkoxy, C1-C8 acyloxy, -OSO2R, or -OSi (R') 3; R is C1-C8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, C1-C4 alkyl, Cl-C4 haloalkyl, C1-C4 alkoxy, or Cl-C4 haloalkoxy; R'is Cl-C8 alkyl ; and Q is a leaving group, for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula III or salt form thereof ; (b) reacting said compound of Formula III or salt form thereof, with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula II or salt form thereof; and (c) reacting said compound of Formula II with a reducing agent optionally in the presence of a Lewis acid for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula I or salt form thereof.

The present invention further provides a process for preparing a compound of Formula I or salt form thereof, wherein: Rl is H or Cl-Cs alkyl ; R is Cl-C8 alkyl,-CH2-O- (Cl-C8 alkyl), C (O) O-(C1-C8 alkyl), -C(O)NH-(C1-C8 alkyl), OH, C1- C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, halo, C1-C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and RS together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6- member heterocyclic ring having one O atom ; R7a and R7b are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-Cs alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and R7b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group ; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or

hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, Cl-C8 alkyl, Cl-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; and Rl° and Rll are each, independently, H, C1-C8 alkyl, Cl-Cs alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or R10 and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising reacting a compound of Formula IIIa : IIIa wherein: L is halo, hydroxy, C1-C8 alkoxy, Cl-C8 thioalkoxy, C1-C8 acyloxy,-OSO2R, or -OSi (R') 3; R is Cl-C8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, C1-C4 alkyl, Cl-C4 haloalkyl, C1-C4 alkoxy, or Cl-C4 haloalkoxy; and R'is C,-C8 alkyl ; with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula I.

The present invention further provides a process for preparing a compound of Formula IIIa or salt form thereof, wherein: R'is H or Cl-C8 alkyl ; R2 is C1-C8 alkyl,-CH2-O- (CI-C8 alkyl), C (0) 0- (C1-Cs alkyl),-C (O) NH- (CI-C8 alkyl), OH, Cl- C4 haloalkyl, or CH20H ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR'°R", CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, halo, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and RS together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6- member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a and R7b are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-ces alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or

hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and R7b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R8a and Wb are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-Cs alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1-C8 alkyl, C-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; Rio and R"are each, independently, H, C1-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or R10 and R11 together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; L is halo, hydroxy, C1-C8 alkoxy, Cl-C8 thioalkoxy, C1-C8 acyloxy,-OSO2R, or -OSi (R') 3; R is Cl-C8 allcyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, C1-C4 alkyl, Cl-C4 haloalkyl, C1-C4 alkoxy, or Cl-C4 haloalkoxy ; and R'is Cl-C8 alkyl ; comprising reacting a compound of Formula III: III with a reducing agent optionally in the presence of a Lewis acid for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula IIIa.

The present invention further provides a process for preparing a compound of Formula I or salt form thereof, wherein: RI is H or Cl-C8 alkyl ; W is Cl-C8 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C8 alkyl), C (O) O-(C1-C8 alkyl), -C(O)NH-(C1-C8 alkyl), OH, C- C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, halo, C1-C8

haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6- member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a and R7b are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and R7b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R8a and Ruz are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, Cl-C8 alkyl, Cl-C8 alkenyl, Cl-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; Rl° and R"are each, independently, H, Cl-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or R'° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising a) reacting a compound of Formula III wherein: L is halo, hydroxy, Cl-C8 alkoxy, C1-C8 thioalkoxy, C1-C8 acyloxy,-OS02R, or -OSi (R') 3; R is Cl-C8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, Cl-C4 alkyl, Cl-C4 haloalkyl, C1-C4 alkoxy, or Cl-C4 haloalkoxy; and R'is Cl-C8 alkyl ; with a reducing agent optionally in the presence of a Lewis acid for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula IIIa ; and b) reacting said compound of Formula IIIa with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula I.

The present invention further provides a process for preparing a compound of Formula I or salt form thereof, wherein: Rl is H or Cl-Cs alkyl ; W is Cl-C8 alkyl,-CH2-O-(C,-C8 alkyl), C (O) O-(C1-C8 alkyl), -C(O)NH-(C1-C8 alkyl), OH, Cl- C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, hydroxyallcyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, halo, Cl-C8

haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6- member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a and R7b are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and R7b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, Cl-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; Rl° and R"are each, independently, H, Cl-C8 alkyl, Cl-C8 alkenyl, Cl-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or R° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising: (a) reacting a compound of Formula IV or salt form thereof, with a compound of Formula: wherein: L is halo, hydroxy, Cl-C8 alkoxy, C1-C8 thioalkoxy, Cl-C8 acyloxy,-OSO2R, or -OSi (R') 3; R is Cl-C8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 haloalkyl, Cl-C4 alkoxy, or Cl-C4 haloalkoxy; R'is Cl-C8 alkyl ; and Q is a leaving group, for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula III or salt form thereof ; (b) reacting said compound of Formula III with a reducing agent optionally in the presence of a Lewis acid for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula IIIa ; and (c) reacting said compound of Formula IIIa with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula I.

The present invention further provides a method of resolving a mixture of compounds of Formulas la and Ib :

wherein : Rl is H or Cl-C8 allcyl ; R2 is Cl-C8 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C8 alkyl), C (O) O-(C1-C8 alkyl), -C(O)NH-(C1-C8 alkyl), OH, C1- C4 haloalkyl, or CH20H ; R3, Ri, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR"Rll, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, halo, C1-C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy ; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6- member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a and R7b are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and R7b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (0) 0-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, Cl-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylallcyl, or allyl; R10 and R11 are each, independently, H, C1-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and R11 together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising: contacting said mixture of compounds with a chiral resolving acid to form chiral resolving acid salts of said compounds, wherein said chiral resolving acid comprises substantially one stereoisomer ; and precipitating said chiral resolving acid salts of said compounds, wherein the resulting precipitate is enriched in the chiral resolving acid salt of one of said compounds of Formula Ia or Ib.

The present invention further provides a compound of Formula II or IIIa or salt form thereof,

wherein: RI is H or Cl-C8 alkyl ; p2- (Ci-Cs alkyl),-C (O) NH- (CI-C8 alkyl), OH, Cl- C4 haloalkyl, or CH20H ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-Cs alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloallcyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) 0-allyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from Cl-C8 allyl, halo, C1-C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6- member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a and R7b are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 allcyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and R7b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 allcynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyallcyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-allcyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; le is H, Cl-C8 alkyl, Cl-ces alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, arallcyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylallcyl, or allyl; R10 and R11 are each, independently, H, C1-C8 alkyl, Cl-ces alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; L is halo, hydroxy, C1-C8 alkoxy, C1-C8 thioalkoxy, Cl-C8 acyloxy, -OSO2R, or -OSi (R') 3; R is Cl-C8 allcyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, Cl-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 haloalkyl, Cl-C4 alkoxy, or Cl-C4 haloalkoxy ; and R'is Ci-C8 alkyl.

The present invention further provides a chiral resolving acid salt of a compound of Formula la or Ib wherein: R'is H or Cl-C8 alkyl ; R2 is Cl-C8 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C8 alkyl), C (O) 0- (CI-C8 alkyl),-C (O) NH- (CI-C8 alkyl), OH, Cl- C4 haloalkyl, or CH20H ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) 0-alkyl, C (O) NH-allcyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, halo, C1-C8

haloalkyl, and alkoxy ; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6- member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a and R7b are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-Cs allcyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloallcyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and R7b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 allcynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-Cs haloalkyl, arallcyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylallcyl, or allyl; and Rl° and R"are each, independently, H, Cl-Cs allcyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, Cl-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloallcyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and RI1 together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring.

The present invention further provides a process for preparing a compound of Formula V: v or salt thereof, wherein: R'is H or Cl-C8 alkyl ; W is Cl-C8 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C8 alkyl), C (O) O-(C1-C8 alkyl), -C(O)NH-(C1-C8 alkyl), or C1-C4 haloalkyl ; R3, R4, R, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyallcyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, halo, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and Rs together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6-member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or

liydroxyallcyl, or R and R together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1-C8 allcyl, Cl-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 allcynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; and Rl° and R"are each, independently, H, C1-C8 alkyl, Cl-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rio and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising reacting a compound of Formula IX:

EX or salt thereof, wherein X2 is halo or SO2R"and R"is Cl-C8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, C1-C4 alkyl, Cl-C4 haloalkyl, Cl-C4 alkoxy, or Cl-C4 haloalkoxy, with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula V.

The present invention further provides a process for preparing a compound of Formula X:

x or salt thereof, wherein : R'is H or Cl-C8 allcyl ; R2 is Cl-C8 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C8 alkyl), C (O) O-(C1-C8 alkyl), -C(O)NH-(C1-C8 alkyl), or Cl-C4 haloalkyl ; R3, R4, R, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) 0-allyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, halo, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and RS together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6-member heterocyclic ring having one O atom;

R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group ; R9 is H, C1-C8 alkyl, Cl-C8 alkenyl, Cl-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl ; and Rl° and R"are each, independently, H, CI-C$ alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, Cl-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or R10 and R11 together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising reacting a compound of Formula XI: XI wherein Xl is a leaving group, with a compound of Formula: for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula X.

The present invention further provides a process for preparing a compound of Formula V or salt thereof, wherein: R'is H or Cl-C8 alkyl ; R2 is C1-C8 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C8 alkyl), C (O) O-(C1-C8 alkyl), -C(O)NH-(C1-C8 alkyl), or C1-C4 haloalkyl ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR'°R", CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, halo, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy ; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6-member heterocyclic ring having one O atom;

R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1-C8 alkyl, Cl-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl ; and Rl° and R"are each, independently, H, Cl-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, Cl-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, arallcyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising: a) reacting a compound of Formula X or salt thereof; with a halogenating/sulfonating reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula IX or salt thereof ; wherein X2 is halo or SO2R"and R"is Cl-C8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 haloalkyl, Cl-C4 alkoxy, or Cl-C4 haloalkoxy; and b) reacting said compound of Formula IX with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula V.

The present invention further provides a process for preparing a compound of Formula V or salt thereof, wherein: Rl is H or Cl-C8 alkyl ; R2 is Cl-C8 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C8 alkyl), C (O) O-(C1-C8 alkyl), -C(O)NH-(C1-C8 alkyl), or C1-C4 haloalkyl ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, halo, C1-C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and RS together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6-member heterocyclic ring having one 0 atom; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, Cl-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; and R10 and Rll are each, independently, H, C1-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloallcyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising: a) reacting a compound of Formula XI: R3 R5 X1 R6 R8b R8a XI wherein Xl is a leaving group, with a compound of Formula: or salt thereof, for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula X or salt thereof ; b) reacting said compound of Formula X with a halogenating/sulfonating reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula IX or salt thereof; wherein X2 is halo or SO2R"and R"is Cl-C8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, C1-C4 alkyl, Cl-C4 haloalkyl, Cl-C4 alkoxy, or Cl-C4 haloalkoxy; and c) reacting said compound of Formula IX with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula V.

The present invention further provides a process for preparing a compound of Formula V or salt thereof, wherein: R'is H or Cl-ces allcyl ; W is Cl-C8 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C8 alkyl), C (O) O-(CI-C8 alkyl),-C (O) NH-(CI-C8 alkyl), or Cl-C4 haloalkyl ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from Cl-Ce alkyl, halo, C1-C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy ; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6-member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R 8a and Wb are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Ci-Cs haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) 0-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or

hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, Cl-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, Cl-Cs alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylallyl, or allyl; and Rl° and R"are each, independently, H, Cl-C8 alkyl, Cl-C8 alkenyl, Cl-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, arallcyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising: a) reacting a compound of Formula XII: XII with a halogenating/sulfonating reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula XI wherein Xl is a leaving group; b) reacting said compound of Formula XI with a compound of Formula: or salt thereof, for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula X or salt thereof ; c) reacting said compound of Formula X with a further halogenating/sulfonating reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming a compound of Formula IX or salt thereof; wherein X2 is halo or SO2R" and R"is Cl-C8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 haloalkyl, Cl-C4 alkoxy, or Cl-C4 haloalkoxy; and d) reacting said compound of Formula IX with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula V.

The present invention further providves a compound of Formula IX or X or salt form thereof, wherein: RI is H or Cl-C8 alkyl ; W is Cl-C8 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C8 alkyl), C (0) O-(C1-C8 alkyl), -C(O)NH-(C1-C8 alkyl), or C1-C4 haloalkyl;

R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR'°R", CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, halo, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or Ri and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6-member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-Cs alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; R10 and Rll are each, independently, H, C1-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and Rll together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; and X2 is halo or SO2R"; and R"is Cl-C8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, Cl-C4 alkyl, Cl-C4 haloalkyl, Cl-C4 alkoxy, or Cl-C4 haloalkoxy.

The present invention further provides a method of resolving a mixture of compounds of Formula Va and Vb: Va Vb wherein: Rl is H or Cl-C8 alkyl ; R2 is C1-C8 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C8 alkyl), C (O) O-(C1-C8 alkyl), -C(O)NH-(C1-C8 alkyl), OH, Cl- C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NOz, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, halo, C1-C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and RS together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6-member heterocyclic ring having one O atom;

R"and R"are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) 0-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1-C8 alkyl, Cl-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-ces haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl ; and Rl° and Rll are each, independently, H, Cl-ces allcyl, Cl-ces alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, arallcyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; comprising: contacting said mixture of compounds with a chiral resolving acid to form chiral resolving acid salts of said compounds, wherein said chiral resolving acid comprises substantially one stereoisomer; and precipitating said chiral resolving acid salts of said compounds, wherein the resulting precipitate is enriched in the chiral resolving acid salt of one of said compounds of Formula Va or Vb.

The present invention further provides a chiral resolving acid salt of a compound of Formula Va or Vb wherein: Rl is H or Cl-C8 alkyl ; R2 is Cl-C8 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C8 alkyl), C (O) O-(C1-C8 alkyl), -C(O)NH-(C1-C8 alkyl), OH, C1- C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyallcyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) 0-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from C1-C8 alkyl, halo, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and Rs together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6-member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R8a and Ruz are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, Cl-Cs alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; and Rl° and R"are each, independently, H, C1-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or R'° and R"together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION The processes and intermediates of the present invention are useful in the preparation of therapeutic agents for the treatment or prophylaxis of 5-HT mediated disorders such as obesity and other central nervous system diseases.

Example processes and intermediates of the present invention are provided below in Scheme I, wherein constituent members for the compounds depicted therein are defined hereinbelow. The symbol" *"designates optionally chiral centers that can be substantially retained or inverted over the course of the depicted reactions.

Scheme I R3 3 R4 \ *R7b R R R Coupllllg I Rb Ra R5 NHR' IV R2 m L R6 Reb Rea Q * R R IV RZ III cyclization reduction R3 R3 R20 Ruz R O R4 \ N R7a R * 68b Ba . 8b. 7 Rs R7b Rs Réa R6 R8b Rsa R7a Ixia in Ici \ ruz cyclization Ra reduction R \ * NEZ Rs R7b R6 Reb Rea R7a I

In a first aspect of the invention are provided processes, such as are exemplified by Scheme I, that involve compounds of Formulas I, Ia, Ib, II, III, IIIa, and IV, or salt forms thereof, wherein: R'is H or Cl-Cs alkyl ; R2 is Cl-C8 alkyl,-CH2-O-(Cl-C8 alkyl), C (O) O-(C1-C8 alkyl), -C(O)NH-(C1-C8 alkyl), OH, C1- C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, mercapto, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl,

C (O) NH-alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloallcyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, halo, C1-C8 haloallcyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6- member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; Ruz and R7b are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-allcyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R7a and R7b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-allcyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, C1-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, Cl-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl ; R10 and Rll are each, independently, H, C1-C8 alkyl, Cl-C8 alkenyl, Cl-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or R10 and R11 together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; L is halo, hydroxy, Cl-C8 alkoxy, Cl-C8 thioalkoxy, Cl-C8 acyloxy, -OSO2R, or -OSi (R') 3; R is Cl-C8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, C1-C4 alkyl, Cl-C4 haloalkyl, C1-C4 alkoxy, or Cl-C4 haloalkoxy ; and R'is C1-C8 alkyl.

In some embodiments: R2 is Cl-C8 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C8 alkyl), C (O) O-(C1-C8 alkyl), -C(O)NH-(C1-C8 alkyl), OH, or CHzOH ; R3 and R6 are each H; R4 and R5 are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, SR9, alkoxyallcyl, NHR'°, NR'°R", aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, halo, C1-C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and Cl-C8 alkyl ; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6-member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; Ruz is H; R7b is H or Cl-C8 alkyl ; R8a and R8b are each H; and R10 and R"are each, independently, C1-C8 alkyl, Cl-C8 alkenyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl.

In some embodiments, (A) if R2 is methyl and R4 is H, then R5 is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative; In some embodiments, (B) if R7a is H and R7b is other than H, then neither R4 nor R5 can be H; In some embodiments, (C) if R1 and R2 are methyl, and Rus ils H then R4 is not NHRI° or NR10R11 ; In some embodiments, (D) if R'and R2 are methyl and Rs is H, then R4 is not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative; In some embodiments, (E) if R'is H or CH3, and R2 is CH3 or OH, then R3, Ri, R5, and R6 cannot all be H.

In some embodiments, (F) if Rl is H and R2 is isopropyl or OH, then R4 and RS cannot both be OCH3 or OH.

In some embodiments, (G) if Rl is CH3 and R2 is n-propyl, then R4 cannot be OH, R5 cannot Cl, and R3 and R6 cannot both be H.

In further embodiments, Rl is H.

In further embodiments, R1 is C1-C8 alkyl.

In further embodiments, R2 is methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, or isopropyl.

In further embodiments, W is methyl.

In further embodiments, R4 is Cl, Br, haloalkyl, CF3, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, or imidazolyl.

, In further embodiments, R4 is Cl.

In further embodiments, is methoxy, ethoxy, n-propoxy, isopropoxy, allyloxy, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, or phenyl, wherein said imidazolyl is optionally substituted by one or more halo or methyl and said phenyl is optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, halo, and alkoxy.

In further embodiments, RS is H.

In some embodiments: R2 is C1-C4 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C4 alkyl), Cl-C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C4 alkyl, Cl-C4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or NO2, ; and R'., R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H.

In some embodiments, (H) when RZ is Cl-C4 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C4 alkyl), or CH2OH, then R3 and are not both H; and In some embodiments, (I) when R2 is CH3, then and R4, and R6 are each H and R5 is not H or isopropyl.

In further embodiments, Rl is H.

In further embodiments, R1 is C1-C8 alkyl.

In further embodiments, R2 is C1-C4 alkyl or Cl-C4 haloalkyl.

In further embodiments, is methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, or CF3.

In further embodiments, and R6 are each, independently, H, methyl, NH2, CN, halo, CF3, NO2, or OH.

In further embodiments of the invention, R, R7b, R and R8b are each H.

In further embodiments of the invention, R3 and R6 are each H.

In further embodiments of the invention, R3, R5, and R6 are each H.

In further embodiments of the invention, is halo.

In further embodiments of the invention, is Cl.

In further embodiments of the invention, R2 is C1-C4 alkyl.

In further embodiments of the invention, is methyl.

In further embodiments of the invention, Rl is H.

In further embodiments of the invention, R'is H or Cl-C4 alkyl, R2 is Cl-C4 allcyl, is H, is halo, R is H, R6 is H, Ruais H, R7bis H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.

In further embodiments of the invention, Rl is H, W is Me, R3 is H, R4 is Cl, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.

In further embodiments of the invention, L is halo.

In further embodiments of the invention, L is hydroxy.

In further embodiments of the invention, L is Cl.

In further embodiments of the invention, L is Br.

In further embodiments of the invention, L is-OSO2R such as sulfonates (e. g. , mesylate, triflate, methyl sulfonate).

In further embodiments of the invention, L is-OSi (R') 3 such as trimethylsilyloxy.

In further embodiments of the invention, the compound of Formula I has an S configuration at the carbon bearing R2.

In further embodiments of the invention, the compound of Formula I has an R configuration at the carbon bearing R2.

The present invention provides a process for preparing a compound of Formula I : or salt form thereof, comprising reacting a compound of Formula II:

with a reducing agent optionally in the presence of a Lewis acid for a time and under conditions suitable for forming the compound of Formula I or salt form thereof.

In some embodiments, the reducing agent comprises a borane such as BH3. In further embodiments, the reducing agent comprises a metal hydride such as a borohydride or aluminum hydride.

In some embodiments, the reducing agent is BH3 : THF. Other reducing agents are suitable and can be selected by one skilled in the art. Example suitable reducing agents are compounds that selectively reduce the amide moiety of the compound of Formula II.

In further embodiments, a Lewis acid can be present in the reaction in an amount sufficient to increase reaction rate. Suitable Lewis acids include boron-containing Lewis acids such as BF3 and adducts thereof including BF3: TBME (t-butyl methyl ether); BF3: OEt2 ; BF3: 0 (CH2CH2CH2CH3) 2 ; BF3: THF ; and the like. Suitable amounts include from about 0.01 eq to about 1 eq relative to amount of compound of Formula II.

Due to potential sensitivity of the reducing agent to air, the reaction can be conducted under an inert atmosphere.

Reacting can be carried out in any inert solvent such as a dialkylether or cyclic ether (e. g. , THF) at any suitable temperature, such as room temperature. The duration of the reduction can be carried out for any amount of time determined by one skilled in the art. In some embodiments, the reaction duration is sufficient to allow the reaction to go substantially to completion. For example, reaction durations can range from about 10 minutes to about 48 hours. In some embodiments, the reaction duration is about 8- 12 hours. Reaction completion can be monitored, for example, by LC/MS.

The amount of reducing agent provided is typically sufficient to provide at least enough reducing equivalents to reduce the compound of Formula II to the desired product. For example, an excess of reducing agent can be provided such as about lOx, about 5x, about 3x, or about 2x reducing equivalent excess. For boranes and related reducing agents, the molar ratio of reducing agent to the compound of Formula II can be, for example, about 2: 1, about 3: 1, about 5: 1, or about 10: 1. In some embodiments, the molar ratio is about 3: 1.

In some embodiments, the yield for the reduction reaction (based on amount of compound of Formula II), is greater than about 50%, about 60%, about 70%, about 80%, or about 90%.

The present invention further provides a process for preparing a compound of Formula II, or salt form thereof, comprising reacting a compound of Formula III:

or salt form thereof, with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming the compound of Formula II or salt form thereof.

In some embodiments, L of the compound of Formula III is halo. In further embodiments, L of the compound of Formula III is Cl.

In some embodiments, the cyclizing reagent includes a Lewis acid, such as, for example, a C-C8 alkyl aluminum halide (e. g. , methyl aluminum chloride, ethyl aluminum chloride, etc. ), a C2-Cl6 dialkyl aluminum halide (e. g. , dimethyl aluminum chloride, diethyl aluminum chloride, etc. ), trialkylaluminum, Aids, or AlBr3. In some embodiments, the cyclizing reagent is AICI3. Other suitable cyclizing reagents include acids such as sulfuric acid.

Cyclization can be carried out in the absence of solvent or in the presence of solvent. Suitable solvents include non-polar or weakly polar solvents such as decahydronaphthalene or 1,2- dichlorobenzene. Other suitable solvents include haloalkanes and other halogenated aromatics such as 1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

The cyclizing reagent can be provided in an amount suitable for maximizing the yield of the cyclized product. In some embodiments, the cyclizing reagent can be provided in molar excess relative to the amount of compound of Formula III. Example molar ratios of cyclizing reagent to compound of Formula III include about 2: 1, about 3: 1, about 5: 1, or about 10: 1. In some embodiments, the molar ratio is about 3: 1.

In further embodiments, cyclization is carried out at elevated temperature such as at about 80 to about 160 °C. In some embodiments, cyclization is carried out at about 150 °C. The cyclization reaction can be monitored by LC/MS. Duration to substantial completion can be about 10 minutes to about 24 hours. In some embodiments, reaction duration is from about 3 hours to about 15 hours.

In some embodiments, the yield for the cyclization reaction (based on amount of compound of Formula III), is greater than about 40%, about 50%, about 60%, about 70%, about 80%, or about 90%.

The present invention further provides preparing a compound of Formula III comprising reacting a compound of Formula IV: or salt form thereof, with a compound of Formula:

wherein Q is a leaving group, for a time and under conditions suitable for forming the compound of Formula III or salt form thereof.

According to some embodiments, Q is hydroxy, alkoxy, halo, or O (CO) RQ, wherein RQ is CI-C8 alkyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, or heterocycloalkyl. In some embodiments, Q is halo such as Cl.

In other embodiments, Q is hydroxy. In yet other embodiments, Q is alkoxy, such as methoxy, ethoxy, or t-butoxy.

Amide formation can be optionally carried out in the presence of base such as an amine (e. g., NMe3, NEt3, morpholine, pyridine, diisopropylethylamine, piperidine, N, N-dimethylaminopiperidine, and the like). Other suitable bases include inorganic bases such as NaOH, KOH, CsOH, and the like.

Relative amounts of reagents suitable for carrying out the reaction include about molar equivalents of each. For example, the amide formation reaction can be carried out with a molar ratio of compound of Formula IV to compound of Formula: of about 1: 1. In further embodiments, an equivalent amount of base can also be included (e. g. , molar ratio of about 1: 1: 1). In yet further embodiments, base can be added in excess relative to the amount of compound of Formula IV.

In further embodiments, the amide formation reaction can be carried out in solvent, such a polar solvent. An example of a polar solvent is acetonitrile. Reaction temperature can vary from about-10 to about 30 °C. In some embodiments, the reaction can start at a temperature below room temperature such as about 0 °C, and for the reaction duration, rise to about room temperature. Reaction progress can be monitored, for example, by TLC, and time to completion can be from about 10 minutes to about 5 hours, depending on, for example, scale of the reaction.

In some embodiments, the yield for the amide formation reaction (based on amount of compound of Formula IV), is greater than about 40%, about 50%, about 60%, about 70%, about 80%, or about 90%.

In an alternate route to compounds of Formula I, the present invention provides a process for preparing a compound of Formula I: or salt form thereof, comprising reacting a compound of Formula IIIa : with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming the compound of Formula I.

In some embodiments, L of the compound of Formula IIIa is halo. In further embodiments, L of the compound of Formula IIIa is Br or Cl.

In some embodiments, the cyclizing reagent includes a Lewis acid, such as, for example, a Cl-C8 allyl aluminum halide (e. g. , methyl aluminum chloride, ethyl aluminum chloride, etc. ), a C2-Cl6 dialkyl aluminum halide (e. g. , dimethyl aluminum chloride, diethyl aluminum chloride, etc. ), trialkylaluminum, Aids, or AlBr3. Other suitable cyclizing reagents include acids such as sulfuric acid.

Cyclization can be carried out in the absence of solvent or in the presence of solvent. Suitable solvents include non-polar or weakly polar solvents such as decahydronaphthalene or 1,2- dichlorobenzene. Other suitable solvents include haloalkanes and other halogenated aromatics such as 1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1, 4-dichlorobenzene.

The cyclizing reagent can be provided in an amount suitable for maximizing the yield of the cyclized product. In some embodiments, the cyclizing reagent can be provided in molar excess relative to the amount of compound of Formula IIIa. Example molar ratios of cyclizing reagent to compound of Formula IIIa include about 2: 1, about 3: 1, about 5: 1, or about 10: 1. In some embodiments, the molar ratio is about 3: 1.

In further embodiments, cyclization is carried out at elevated temperature such as at about 80 to about 160 °C. In some embodiments, cyclization is carried out at about 140 °C. The cyclization reaction can be monitored by LC/MS. Duration to completion can be about 10 minutes to about 24 hours. In some embodiments, reaction duration is from about 3 hours to about 15 hours.

In some embodiments, the yield for the cyclization reaction (based on amount of compound of Formula IIIa), is greater than about 40%, about 50%, about 60%, about 70%, about 80%, or about 90%.

The present invention further provides a process for preparing a compound of Formula IIIa, or salt form thereof, comprising reacting a compound of Formula III: III with a reducing agent optionally in the presence of a Lewis acid for a time and under conditions suitable for forming said compound of Formula IIIa.

In some embodiments, the reduction of III can be carried out so that the stereochemistry of one or more chiral centers present in the compound of Formula III is substantially retained in the reduced product (Formula IIIa). In further embodiments, the reduction of IIIa can be carried out using a substantially pure stereoisomer of IIIa. In yet further embodiments, the reduction of IIIa can be carried out using a substantially pure stereoisomer of IIIa and result in a substantially pure stereoisomer of III.

For example, a compound of Formula III having ee of greater than about 80, about 90, or about 95 % can reduced to form a compound of Formula IIIa having a similar ee.

In some embodiments, the reducing agent comprises a borane such as BH3. In further embodiments, the reducing agent comprises a metal hydride such as a borohydride or aluminum hydride.

In some embodiments, the reducing agent is BH3: THF. Other reducing agents are suitable and can be selected by one skilled in the art. Example suitable reducing agents are compounds that selectively reduce the amide moiety of the compound of Formula II.

In further embodiments, a Lewis acid can be present in the reaction in an amount sufficient to increase reaction rate. Suitable Lewis acids include boron-containing Lewis acids such as BF3 and adducts thereof including BF3: TBME (t-butyl methyl ether); BF3: OEt2 ; BF3 : 0 (CH2CH2CH2CH3) 2 ; BF3 : THF ; and the like. Suitable amounts include from about 0.01 eq to about 1 eq relative to amount of compound of Formula III.

Due to potential sensitivity of the reducing agent to air, the reaction can be conducted under an inert atmosphere.

The reduction reaction can be carried out in inert solvent such as a dialkylether or cyclic ether (e. g. , THF) at any sutiable temperature, such as room temperature. The duration of the reduction can be carried out for any amount of time. In some embodiments, the reaction duration is sufficient to allow the reaction to go substantially to completion. For example, reaction durations can range from about 10 minutes to about 72 hours. In some embodiments, the reaction duration is about 8-12 hours. Reaction completion can be monitored, for example, by LC/MS.

The amount of reducing agent provided is typically sufficient to provide at least enough reducing equivalents to reduce the compound of Formula II to the desired product. For example, an excess of reducing agent can be provided such as about 1 Ox, 5x, 3x, or 2x reducing equivalent excess. For boranes and related reducing agents, the molar ratio of reducing agent to the compound of Formula II can be, for example, 2: 1,3 : 1,5 : 1, or 10: 1. In some embodiments, the molar ratio is 3: 1.

In some embodiments, the yield for the reduction reaction (based on amount of compound of Formula III), is greater than about 50%, about 60%, about 70%, about 80%, or about 90%.

The present invention further provides processes provided below in Schemes la, Ib and Ic, wherein constituent members of the structures depicted therein are defined above.

Scheme la R3 R2 2 R3 R Rsa , Rb Ra NHR R4 nu cooling Rus 0 L R5 0 Ru R6 Q Rea , eb R6 cyclization /reduction R2 R3 R Rea Reb R3 \/4 Ra \ NR\\V N n NR Rs R Rs Reb Rsa O Rs RB 6 R6 8b R8a 0 cyclization Rs reduction NEZ R R5 R6 R6b 8a Scheme Ib R3 R2 2 R3 R R3 R2 R8a R8b 1 Ra \ NR L coupling R7b O R7a R7b R5/R7a R L R6 1 0 R83 Rée cyclization reduction ruz p2 R3 R2 Rsa R8b R3 R2 R4+ R7a R7b /\ R R6 R6 R R8a Ru \ a2 cyclization R3 \/reduction Nu \ INR' R5 R7a R6 R8b R8a R7b Scheme Ic R3 Ruz ! R3 ? R RS" R4 NR R reductive L lamination Rs 0 R5 0 R6 H R8a R8b/ 2) reducing agent, (e. g., NaBH4) cyclization o2 Ruz NR R5 R6 R8b 8 32

In further embodiments, the present invention provides a method of resolving a mixture of compounds of Formulas la and Ib :

la Ib by contacting the mixture of compounds with a chiral resolving acid enriched in one stereoisomer (e. g. , ee greater than about 50%, about 75%, about 90% or about 95%) to form chiral resolving acid salts of the compounds of the mixture, and then precipitating the chiral resolving acid salts. The resulting precipitate is typically enriched in the chiral resolving acid salt of one of the compounds of Formulas la or Ib (e. g., ee > 50%). In some embodiments, the precipitate is enriched in the chiral resolving acid salt form of the compound of Formula Ia. In some embodiments, the precipitate is enriched in the chiral resolving acid salt form of the compound of Formula Ib. In further embodiments, the chiral resolving acid is a stereoisomer of toluoyl tartaric acid, camphoric acid, ketogulonic acid, or tartaric acid. In further embodiments, the chiral resolving acid is a stereoisomer of tartaric acid such as L- (+)-tartaric acid.

Contacting of compounds with a chiral resolving acid can be carried out in solution. Suitable solvents support dissolution of both the chiral resolving acid and the compounds of Formulas Ia and Ib.

Some example solvents include polar solvents or water-miscible solvents such as alcohols (e. g. , methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, t-butanol, and the like), isopropylacetate, water, and mixtures thereof. In further embodiments, the solvent contains a mixture of t-butanol and water. Some example mixtures include about 5-25 % water and about 75-95% t-butanol. In some embodiments, the solvent contains about 8- 12% water and about 88-92% of t-butanol.

Precipitate containing the chiral resolving acid salt forms can be formed by precipitation from any suitable solvent which dissolves the salts such as the solvent in which contacting was carried out.

Precipitation can be induced by any method known in the art such as by heating a solution containing the mixture of salts followed by cooling. Precipitate can be separated from the solvent by, for example, filtration. Enrichment of the precipitate in one chiral salt over the other can be characterized by an enantiomeric excess (ee) of greater than about 50%, about 60%, about 70%, about 80%, about 90%, about 95%, about 98%, or about 99%. In some embodiments, ee is greater than about 80%. Precipitation can be repeated one or more times to increase the proportion of a chiral salt in the precipitate by re-dissolving and re-precipitating previously obtained precipitate.

The present invention further provides a chiral resolving acid salt of a compound of Formula Ia or Ib :

la Ib wherein constituent members are defined hereinabove. Compositions of the present invention can contain one or or both the salt form of a compound of Formula la and the salt form of a compound of Formula Ib.

In some embodiments, the salt form of the compound of Formula la is present in the composition in an amount greater than the salt form of a compound of Formula Ib. In other embodiments, the salt form of the compound of Formula Ib is present in the composition in an amount greater than the salt form of a compound of Formula Ia.

Further example processes and intermediates of the present invention are provided below in Scheme II, where constituent members of compounds depicted therein are defined hereinbelow. The symbol"*"designates optionally chiral centers that can be substantially retained or inverted over the course of the depicted reactions.

Scheme II

R3 ! ruz R4 \ R4 \ halogenation 5 R R /\ Xi ut OH OH R2 NHR'coupling Roi Rs R2 Ra R2 R4 halogenation R4 x2 or sulfonation R NR1 NR R5/ 5 6 Rab ga 'g R8b\ R R IX 2 X R3 cyclization\ R4 NR Rs, R6 Reb R8a V

In a second aspect of the present invention are provided processes, such as are exemplified by Scheme II, that involve compounds of Formulas V, Va, Vb, IX, X, XI, and XII, or salt forms thereof, wherein: R'is H or Cl-C8 alkyl ; R2 is C1-C8 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C8 alkyl), C (O) O- (CI-C8 alkyl),-C (O) NH- (CI-C8 allcyl), OH, Cl- C4 haloalkyl, or CH2OH ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-ces alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, hydroxy, OR9, alkoxyalkyl, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-allcyl, hydroxyalkyl, NR10R11, CN, NO2, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl and heteroaryl can be substituted with one or more substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, halo, C1-C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy; or R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6-member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R8a and R8b are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, C2-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxy, C (O)-alkyl, C (O) O-alkyl, C (O) NH-alkyl, or hydroxyalkyl, or R8a and R8b together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a C3-C7 cycloalkyl group; R9 is H, Cl-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, C1-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl; and Rl° and R11 are each, independently, H, C1-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, Cl-C8 alkynyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 haloalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, or allyl, or Rl° and Rll together with the N atom to which they are attached form a heterocyclic ring; Xl is a leaving group; X2 is halo or SO2R"; and R"is Cl-C8 alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl each optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, Cl-C4 alkyl, Cl-C4 haloallcyl, Cl-C4 alkoxy, or Cl-C4 haloalkoxy.

In some embodiments of the invention: R2 is C1-C8 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C8 alkyl), C (0) O-(C1-C8 alkyl), -C(O)NH-(C1-C8 alkyl), OH, or CH20H ; R3 and R6 are each H; R4 and R5 are each, independently, H, halo, C1-C8 haloallcyl, hydroxy, OR9, SR9, alkoxyalkyl, NHR'°, NR'°R", aryl, or heteroaryl, wherein said aryl can be substituted with up to two substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, halo, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, and alkoxy, and said heteroaryl can be optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from halogen and Cl-C8 alkyl ; or W and RS together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-or 6-member heterocyclic ring having one O atom; R7a is H; R7b is H or C1-C8 alkyl ; R8a and R8b are each H; and

R10 and R11 are each, independently, C1-C8 alkyl, C1-C8 alkenyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroarylallcyl, or allyl.

In some embodiments, (A) if R2 is methyl and R4 is H, then R5 is not thiazole, substituted thiazole or a thiazole derivative.

In some embodiments, (B) if R7a is H and R7b is other than H, then neither Ri nor RS can be H.

In some embodiments, (C) if Rl and R2 are methyl, and R5is H then W is not NHRI° or NR10R11.

In some embodiments, (D) if R1 and R2 are methyl and R5 is H, then R4 is not imidazolyl, substituted imidazolyl, or an imidazole derivative.

In some embodiments, (E) if R'is H or CH3, and W is CH3 or OH, then R3, R4, R5, and R6 cannot all be H.

In some embodiments, (F) if R1 is H and R2 is isopropyl or OH, then R4 and R5 cannot both be OCH3 or OH.

In some embodiments, (G) if Rl is CH3 and R2 is n-propyl, then R4 cannot be OH, R5 cannot Cl, and R3 and R6 cannot both be H.

In further embodiments, Rl is H.

In further embodiments, RI is Cl-C8 alkyl.

In further embodiments, R2 is methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, or isopropyl.

In further embodiments, is methyl.

In further embodiments, R4 is Cl, Br, haloalkyl, CF3, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, or imidazolyl.

In further embodiments, R4 is Cl.

In further embodiments, is methoxy, ethoxy, n-propoxy, isopropoxy, allyloxy, thiophenyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, or phenyl, wherein said imidazolyl is optionally substituted by one or more halo or methyl and said phenyl is optionally substituted with up to two substituents selected from Cl-C8 alkyl, Cl-C8 haloalkyl, halo, and alkoxy.

In further embodiments, Rs is H.

In some embodiments: R2 is C1-C4 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C4 alkyl), C1-C4 haloalkyl, or CH20H ; R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, halo, Cl-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 haloalkyl, hydroxy, NH2, CN, or NO2 ; and R7a, R7b, R8a, and R8b are each H.

In some embodiments, (H) when R2 is Cl-C4 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C4 alkyl), or CH2OH, then R3 and R6 are not both H.

In some embodiments, (I) when R2 is CH3, then and R4, and R6 are each H and Rs is not H or isopropyl.

In further embodiments, Rl is H.

In further embodiments, R1 is C1-C8 alkyl.

In further embodiments, R ? is Cl-C8 alkyl, -CH2-O-(C1-C8 alkyl), C (O) 0- (Ci-C8 allcyl),- C (O) NH- (CI-C8 alkyl), or Cl-C4 haloallcyl ; In further embodiments, R2 is Cl-C4 alkyl or Cl-C4 haloalkyl.

In further embodiments, R2 is methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, or CF3.

In further embodiments, R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each, independently, H, methyl, NH2, CN, halo, CF3, NO2, or OH.

In further embodiments of the invention, R7a, R7b, R8a, and Wb are each H.

In further embodiments of the invention, R3 and R6 are each H.

In further embodiments of the invention, R3, R5, and R6 are each H.

In further embodiments of the invention, R4 is halo.

In further embodiments of the invention, Ri is Cl.

In further embodiments of the invention, R2 is Cl-C4 allcyl.

In further embodiments of the invention, R2 is methyl.

In further embodiments of the invention, Rl is H.

In further embodiments, Xl is halo.

In further embodiments, Xl is Br.

In further embodiments, X1 is Cl.

In further embodiments, X2 is halo.

In further embodiments, X2 is Br.

In further embodiments, X2 is Cl.

In further embodiments of the invention, Rl is H or Cl-C4 alkyl, R2 is Cl-C4 allcyl, R3 is H, R4 is halo, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and R8b is H.

In further embodiments of the invention, R1 is H, R2 is Me, R3 is H, R4 is Cl, R5 is H, R6 is H, R7a is H, R7b is H, R8a is H, and Rlb is H.

In further embodiments of the invention, the compound of Formula V has an S configuration at the carbon bearing R2.

In further embodiments of the invention, the compound of Formula V has an R configuration at the carbon bearing R2.

The present invention provides a process for preparing a compound of Formula V: or salt thereof, by reacting a compound of Formula IX:

IX or salt thereof, with a cyclizing reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming the compound of Formula V.

In some embodiments, the cyclizing reagent includes a Lewis acid, such as, for example, a Cl-C8 allcyl aluminum halide (e. g. , methyl aluminum chloride, ethyl aluminum chloride, etc. ), a C2-C16 dialkyl aluminum halide (e. g. , dimethyl aluminum chloride, diethyl aluminum chloride, etc.), trialkylaluminum, AIC13, or AlBr3. Other suitable cyclizing reagents include acids such) as sulfuric acid.

The cyclizing reagent can be provided in an amount suitable for maximizing the yield of the cyclized product. In some embodiments, the cyclizing reagent can be provided in molar excess relative to the amount of compound of Formula IX. Example molar ratios of cyclizing reagent to compound of Formula IX include about 1.5 : 1, about 2: 1, about 3: 1, about 5: 1, or about 10: 1. In some embodiments, the molar ratio is about 1.5 : 1.

Reacting can be carried out in the presence of any suitable solvent (or in the absence of solvent) such as a non-polar or weakly-polar solvent or a high boiling solvent (boiling point greater than for water). In some embodiments, reacting can be carried out in the presence of 1,2-dichlorobenzene. In further embodiments, reacting can be carried out in the presence of decalin.

Reaction temperature can be any suitable temperature such as temperatures that do not readily degrade the reactants yet maximize reaction efficiency and/or minimize reaction time. In some embodiments, reacting is carried out at an elevated temperature such as, for example, between about 80 and about 170 °C. In some embodiments, elevated temperature is from about 100 to about 150, about 120 to about 150, or about 140 °C.

The cyclization reaction can be monitored by LC/MS. Duration to completion can be about 10 minutes to about 24 hours. In some embodiments, reaction duration is from about 3 hours to about 15 hours. In further embodiments, reaction duration is about 2 to 5 hours.

In some embodiments, the yield for the cyclization reaction (based on amount of compound of Formula IX), is greater than about 40%, about 50%, about 60%, about 70%, about 80%, or about 90%.

The present invention further provides a process for preparing a compound of Formula IX:

IX or salt thereof, by reacting a compound of Formula X:

x or salt thereof, with a halogenating/sulfonating reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming the compound of Formula XI.

Suitable halogenating/sulfonating reagents are capable of replacing the OH moiety in the compound of Formula X with a halogen atom or sulfonate moiety. In some embodiments, the halogenating/sulfonating reagent is SOBrz or SOC12.

The halogenating/sulfonating reagent can be provided in an amount sufficient to theoretically produce maximum yield. Suitable molar ratios of halogenating/sulfonating reagent to compound of Formula X include the ratios of about 10: 1, about 5: 1, about 3: 1, about 2: 1, or about 1.5 : 1. In some embodiments, the molar ratio is about 1.06 : 1 to about 1.4 : 1.

Reacting can be carried out in any suitable solvent or in the absence of solvent, such as solvents capable of dissolving at least one of the compound of Formula X or the halogenating/sulfonating reactant.

In some embodiments, the solvent contains DMF (dimethylformamide). In further embodiments, the solvent contains toluene. In yet further embodiments, the solvent contains dichloromethane. In some embodiments, the solvent contains dimethylformamide and toluene, and in further embodiments, the solvent contains dimethylformamide and dichloromethane.

Any reaction temperature that does not substantially decompose the starting materials, solvent, or products is suitable. In some embodiments, reacting is carried out at temperatures such as from about-40 to about 80 °C, about-10 to about 30 °C, or about 0 °C to about room temperature.

In some embodiments, the compound of Formula XI is isolated, such as by recrystallization from a suitable solvent. Yield can be greater than about 20%, greater than about 30%, greater than about 40%, or greater than about 50%. In some embodiments, yield is greater than about 50%.

The present invention also provides a process for preparing a compound of Formula X:

x or salt thereof, comprising reacting a compound of Formula XI:

XI with a compound of Formula:

for a time and under conditions suitable for forming the compound of Formula X.

The reacting can be carried out, for example, at elevated temperature such as from about 80 to about 110 °C or 90 to about 100 °C. In some embodiments, reacting is carried out at about 95 °C.

Any suitable inert solvent can be used, and in some embodiments, reacting is carried out in the absence of solvent.

A sufficient amount of compound of Formula:

can be provided in the reaction to obtain a theoretical or empirical maximum yield. Example amounts can range from at least about 1 molar equivalent to any amount that would be in molar excess (e. g. , about lOx or 15x) relative to the amount of compound of Formula XI.

An example reaction duration can be from about 3 to about 5 hours.

The present invention further provides a process of preparing a compound of Formula XI by reacting a compound of Formula XII: XII with a halogenating/sulfonating reagent for a time and under conditions suitable for forming the compound of Formula XI.

The halogenating/sulfonating reagent can be any suitable reagent capable of replacing the hydroxy moiety of the compound of Formula XII with a sutiable leaving group such as a halogen atom or sulfonate moiety. In some embodiments, the halogenating/sulfonating reagent is, for example, PBr3 or PCl3.

Any suitable solvent can be used or the reacting can be carried out in the absence of solvent.

Reaction temperature can be readily selected by the art skilled. In some embodiments, reacting is carried out at lowered temperatures such as from about-20 to about 15 °C, about-10 to about 10 °C, or about 0 °C. In some embodiments, the reaction temperature is below about 10 °C.

Halogenating/sulfonating reagent can be provided in an amount sufficient to produce maximum theoretical yield. For example, the molar ratio of halogenating/sulfonating reagent to compound of Formula XII can range from about 20: 1 to about 0.2 : 1. In some embodiments, halogenating/sulfonating reagent is provided in slight excess, such as in a ratio of about 1: 1 or about 0.5 : 1.

Reaction yield can be greater than about 75%, greater than about 85%, greater than about 90%, greater than about 95, or greater than about 98%. In some embodiments, yield is from about 95% to about 100%.

In further embodiments, the present invention provides a method of resolving a mixture of compounds of Formulas Va and Vb:

Va Vb by contacting the mixture of compounds with a chiral resolving acid enriched in one stereoisomer (e. g. , ee greater than about 50%, about 75%, about 90% or about 95%) to form chiral resolving acid salts of the compounds of the mixture, and then precipitating the chiral resolving acid salts. The resulting precipitate is typically enriched in the chiral resolving acid salt of one of the compounds of Formulas Va or Vb (e. g., ee > 50%). In some embodiments, the precipitate is enriched in the chiral resolving acid salt form of the compound of Formula Va. In some embodiments, the precipitate is enriched in the chiral resolving acid salt form of the compound of Formula Vb. In further embodiments, the chiral resolving acid is a stereoisomer of toluoyl tartaric acid, camphoric acid, ketogulonic acid, or tartaric acid. In further embodiments, the chiral resolving acid is tartaric acid such as L- (+)-tartaric acid.

Contacting of compounds of Formulas Va and Vb with a chiral resolving acid can be carried out in solution. Suitable solvents support dissolution of both the chiral resolving acid and the compounds of Formulas Va and Vb. Some example solvents include polar solvents or water-miscible solvents such as alcohols (e. g. , methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, t-butanol, 1-butanol and the like), isopropylacetate, tetrahydrofuran, acetone, methyl isobutyl ketone, water, and mixtures thereof. In some embodiments, the solvent contains a mixture of alcohol and water. In further embodiments, the solvent contains a mixture of t-butanol and water. Some example mixtures include about 5-25 % water and about 75-95% t-butanol.

In some embodiments, the solvent contains about 8-12% water and about 88-92% of t-butanol. In some embodiments, the solvent contains a mixture of acetone and water.

Precipitate containing the chiral resolving acid salt forms can be formed by precipitation from any suitable solvent which dissolves the salts such as the solvent in which contacting was carried out.

Precipitation can be induced by any method known in the art such as by heating a solution containing the mixture of salts followed by cooling. Precipitate can be separated from the solvent by, for example, filtration. Enrichment of the precipitate in one chiral salt over the other can be characterized by an enantiomeric excess (ee) of greater than about 50%, about 60%, about 70%, about 80%, about 90%, about 95%, about 98%, or about 99%. In some embodiments, ee is greater than about 80%. Precipitation can be repeated one or more times to increase the proportion of a chiral salt in the precipitate by re-dissolving and re-precipitating previously obtained precipitate.

The present invention further provides a chiral resolving acid salt of a compound of Formula Va or Vb :

Va Vb wherein constituent members are defined hereinabove. Compositions of the present invention can contain one or or both the salt form of a compound of Formula Va and the salt form of a compound of Formula Vb. In some embodiments, the salt form of the compound of Formula Va is present in the composition in an amount greater than the salt form of a compound of Formula Vb. In other embodiments, the salt form of the compound of Formula Vb is present in the composition in an amount greater than the salt form of a compound of Formula Va.

The present invention further provides a hydrochloric acid salt of a compound of Formula Va or Vb and compositions thereof.

It is appreciated that certain features of the invention, which are, for clarity, described in the context of separate embodiments, may also be provided in combination in a single embodiment.

Conversely, various features of the invention which are, for brevity, described in the context of a single embodiment, may also be provided separately or in any suitable subcombination.

As used herein, the term"alkyl"is meant to refer to a saturated hydrocarbon group which is straight-chained or branched. Example alkyl groups include methyl (Me), ethyl (Et), propyl (e. g. , n- propyl and isopropyl), butyl (e. g. , n-butyl, isobutyl, t-butyl), pentyl (e. g. , n-pentyl, isopentyl, neopentyl), and the like. An alkyl group can contain from 1 to about 20, from 2 to about 20, from 1 to about 10, from 1 to about 8, from 1 to about 6, from 1 to about 4, or from 1 to about 3 carbon atoms.

As used herein, "alkenyl"refers to an alkyl group having one or more double carbon-carbon bonds. Example alkenyl groups include ethenyl, propenyl, cyclohexenyl, and the like.

As used herein,"allynyl"refers to an allyl group having one or more triple carbon-carbon bonds.

Example allcynyl groups include ethynyl, propynyl, and the like.

As used herein,"haloalkyl"refers to an alkyl group having one or more halogen substituents.

Example haloalkyl groups include CF3, C2Fs, CHF2, CCI3, CHCI2, C2Cls, and the like. An alkyl group in which all of the hydrogen atoms are replaced with halogen atoms can be referred to as"perhaloallyl." As used herein, "aryl"refers to monocyclic or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as, for example, phenyl, naphthyl, anthracenyl, phenanthrenyl, indanyl, indenyl, and the like. In some embodiments, aryl groups have from 6 to about 20 carbon atoms.

As used herein,"cycloalkyl"refers to non-aromatic hydrocarbons including cyclized alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl groups. Cycloalkyl groups can include mono-, bi-or poly-cyclic ring systems as well as double and triple bonds. Example cycloalkyl groups include cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, cyclopentenyl, cyclohexenyl, cyclohexadienyl, cycloheptatrienyl, norbornyl, norpinyl, norcarnyl, adamantyl, and the like. Also included in the definition of cycloalkyl are moieties that have one or more aromatic rings fused (i. e. , having a bond in common with) to the cycloalkyl ring, for example, benzo derivatives of pentane, hexane, and the like.

As used herein, "heteroaryl"groups are monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that have at least one heteroatom ring member such as sulfur, oxygen, or nitrogen. Heteroaryl groups include, without limitation, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, pyridazinyl, triazinyl, furyl, quinolyl, isoquinolyl, thienyl, imidazolyl, thiazolyl, indolyl, pyrryl, oxazolyl, benzofuryl, benzothienyl, benzthiazolyl, isoxazolyl, pyrazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, indazolyl, 1,2, 4-thiadiazolyl, isothiazolyl, benzothienyl, purinyl, carbazolyl, benzimidazolyl, 2, 3-dihydrobenzofuranyl, 2,3-dihydrobenzothienyl, 2,3-dihydrobenzothienyl-S-oxide, 2, 3-dihydrobenzothienyl-S-dioxide, benzoxazolin-2-on-yl, indolinyl, benzodioxolanyl, benzodioxane, and the like. In some embodiments, heteroaryl groups can have from 1 to about 20 carbon atoms, and in further embodiments from about 3 to about 20 carbon atoms. In some embodiments, heteroaryl groups have 1 to about 4,1 to about 3, or 1 to 2 heteroatoms.

As used herein,"heterocycloalkyl"refers to a cycloalkyl group wherein one or more of the ring- forming carbon atoms is replaced by a heteroatom such as an O, S, N, or P atom. Also included in the definition of heterocycloalkyl are moieties that have one or more aromatic rings fused (i. e. , having a bond in common with) to the nonaromatic heterocyclic ring, for example phthalimidyl, naphthalimidyl pyromellitic diimidyl, phthalanyl, and benzo derivatives of saturated heterocycles such as indolene and isoindolene groups.

As used herein, "halo"or"halogen"includes fluoro, chloro, bromo, and iodo.

As used herein, "alkoxy"refers to an-O-alkyl group. Example alkoxy groups include methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy (e. g. , n-propoxy and isopropoxy), t-butoxy, and the like.

As used herein,"thioalkoxy"refers to an alkoxy group in which the O atom is replaced by an S atom.

As used herein, "aryloxy"refers to an-O-aryl group. An example aryloxy group is phenoxy.

As used herein, "thioaryloxy"refers to an aryloxy group in which the O atom is replaced by an S atom.

As used herein,"aralkyl"refers to an alkyl moiety substituted by an aryl group. Example aralkyl groups include benzyl, phenethyl, and naphthylmethyl groups. In some embodiments, arylalkyl groups have from 7 to 20 or 7 to 11 carbon atoms.

As used herein,"hydroxyalkyl"refers to an alkyl group substituted by hydroxy.

As used herein,"alkoxyalkyl"refers to an allcyl group substituted by an alkoxy group.

As used herein, the term"reacting"is used as known in the art and generally refers to the bringing together of chemical reagents in such a manner so as to allow their interaction at the molecular level to achieve a chemical or physical transformation.

As used herein, the term"substituted"refers to the replacement of a hydrogen moiety with a non- hydrogen moiety in a molecule or group.

As used herein, the term"thiazole derivative"refers to a moiety containing a thiazolyl group.

As used herein, the term"imidazole derivative"refers to a moiety containing a imidazolyl group.

As used herein, the term"contacting"refers to the bringing together of substances so that they can interact at the molecular level.

As used herein, the term"reducing agent"is used as known in the art and refers to any chemical reagent that carries out the reduction of another chemical reagent. In some embodiments, a reduction carried out by a reducing agent involves lowering the number of bonds of an atom (e. g. , a C atom) to oxygen or sulfur. For example, a reducing agent can convert (or reduce) a ketone to an alcohol. In some embodiments, the reducing agent converts an amide to an amine. Numerous reducing agents are known in the art and can be identified by comparing redox potentials of the reducing agent and the substance to be reduced. Typically, a reducing agent has a lower reducing potential than the substance to be reduced.

Methods for measuring redox potentials are well known in the art. In other embodiments, the reducing agent can be an oxo acceptor. Example reducing agents include metal hydrides such as borohydrides (e. g., NaBH4, LiBH4, NaBH3CN) and aluminum hydrides (e. g., LiAIH4) including, for example, C,-C8 alkyl aluminum hydrides, C2-Cl6 dialkyl aluminum hydrides, alkoxy aluminum hydrides (e. g. , mono-, di-, and trialkoxy aluminum hydrides). Other suitable reducing agents include boranes such as BH3 or B2H6 and adducts thereof. Example borane adducts include, for example, dialkylsulfide boranes (e. g., BH3 : CH3SCH3), amine boranes (e. g. , BH3: triethylamine), dialkyl ether boranes (e. g. , BH3: diethyl ether), cyclic ether boranes (e. g., BH3: tetrahydrofuran), C-C8 allcyl boranes, C2-CI6 dialkyl boranes, C3-C24 triallcyl boranes (e. g. , 9-borabicyclo [3.3. 1] nonane), cyclic boranes (e. g. , borolanes), and the like. Further example reducing agents include Red-Al and H2 optionally in the presence of catalyst such as Pd/C.

As used herein, the term"cyclizing reagent"refers to any chemical reagent that can be used in a reaction to cyclize a linear or branched molecule or portion of a molecule. In some embodiments according to the present invention, cyclization of a linear or branched moiety attached to an aryl compound can be carried out using, for example, a Lewis acid. As is known in the art, a Lewis acid includes a molecule that can accept a lone pair of electrons. Example Lewis acids include hydrogen ion (a proton), boron derivatives such as BH3 and BF3, and aluminum derivatives such as AIC13. Some example Lewis acids include C-C8 alkyl aluminum halide (e. g. , methyl aluminum chloride, ethyl aluminum chloride, etc. ), a C2-Cl6 dialkyl aluminum halide (e. g. , dimethyl aluminum chloride, diethyl aluminum chloride, etc. ), and trialkylaluminum.

In some embodiments, cyclizing can be carried out according to Friedel-Crafts allcylation chemistry which is known to follow the general transformation: ArH + RCH2CI- ArCH2R (Ar is aryl

and R is, for example, any alkyl, amino, or other group) in the presence of a reagent such as a Lewis acid.

Friedel-Crafts reactions are typically carried out in the presence of Aids and optionally at elevated temperatures. Suitable Lewis acids include boron-containing reagents and aluminum containing reagents.

Example boron-containing reagents include BH3, BF3 and adducts thereof (e. g. , BF3: TBME and BF3: OEt2). Example aluminum-containing reagents include alkyl aluminum halides, diallcyl aluminum halides, trialkyl aluminum, and aluminum halides (e. g., AICI3 and AlBr3). Other suitable cyclizing reagents include, for example, acids such as sulfuric acid, sulfonic acids (e. g., CF3SO3H, CH3S03H, pTSA), phosphoric acids, polyphosphoric acids (e. g., H3P04/P205), and the like. Additional suitable Friedel-Crafts alkylation catalysts include FeCI3, TiC14, ZrCl4, and ZnCl4.

As used herein, the term"halogenating/sulfonating reagent"refers to any chemical reagent that can be used to replace hydrogen or a chemical substituent on a molecule with a leaving group such as a halogen moiety or sulfonate moiety (e. g., alkyl sulfonate, mesylate, tosylate, etc. ). In some embodiments, the halogenating/sulfonating reagent replaces a hydroxyl with a halogen moiety or sulfonate moiety.

Example halogenating/sulfonating reagents include phosphorous trihalides (e. g. , PBr3), phosphorous pentahalides, phosphorous oxyhalides, thionyl halides (e. g., SOBr2), and the like. Other halogenating/sulfonating reagents include N-bromosuccinimide (NBS), 1, 3-dibromo-5,5- dimethylhydantoin, pyridinium tribromide (pyrHBr3), diethylaminosulfur trifluoride (DAST), N- fluorobenzenesulfonimide, and the like. Further halogenating/sulfonating reagents include sulfonyl halides such as mesyl chloride, tosyl chloride, and the like.

As used herein, the term"leaving group"refers to a moiety that can be displaced by another moiety, such as by nucleophilic attack, during a chemical reaction. Leaving groups are well known in the art and include, for example, halogen, hydroxy, alkoxy,-O (CO) Ra, -OS02-R', and-OSi (R) 3 wherein Ra can be Cl-C8 alkyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, or heterocycloalkyl, wherein Rb can be Cl-C8 alkyl, aryl (optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, C-C4 alkyl, C-C4 haloalkyl, C-C4 alkoxy, or Cl-Cd haloalkoxy), or heteroaryl (optionally substituted by one or more halo, cyano, nitro, Cl-C4 alkyl, CI-C4 haloalkyl, Cl-C4 alkoxy, or CI-C4 haloalkoxy), and wherein Rc can be C-C8 alkyl. Example leaving groups include chloro, bromo, iodo, mesylate, tosylate, trimethylsilyl, and the like.

As used herein, the terms"resolving"and"resolution"are used as known in the art and generally refer to the separation of a mixture of isomers such as stereoisomers (e. g. , optical isomers such as enantiomers or diastereomers). Resolving can include processes that can increase the proportion of one stereoisomer over another in a mixture of stereoisomers. A mixture of stereoisomers having a greater proportion of a first steroisomer over a further stereoisomer can be said to be"enriched"in the first stereoisomer.

As used herein, the term"precipitating"is used as known in the art and generally refers to the formation of solid (e. g. , precipitate) from a solution in which the solid is dissolved. The solid can be amorphous, crystalline, or a mixture thereof. Methods of precipitation are well known in the art and include, for example, increasing the proportion of solvent in which a solute is insoluble, decreasing

temperature, chemically transforming the solute such that it becomes no longer soluble in its solvent, and the like. Precipitation can be used to increase the proportion of a stereoisomer in a mixture of stereoisomers.

The processes described herein can be monitored according to any suitable method known in the art. For example, product formation can be monitored by spectroscopic means, such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (e. g.,'H or"C) infrared spectroscopy, spectrophotometry (e. g., UV-visible), or mass spectrometry, or by chromatography such as high performance liquid chromatograpy (HPLC) or thin layer chromatography.

In some embodiments, preparation of compounds can involve the protection and deprotection of various chemical groups. The need for protection and deprotection, and the selection of appropriate protecting groups can be readily determined by one skilled in the art. The chemistry of protecting groups can be found, for example, in Green and Wuts, et al., Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, 3rd. Ed., Wiley & Sons, 1999, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

The reactions of the processes described herein can be carried out in suitable solvents which can be readily selected by one of skill in the art of organic synthesis. Suitable solvents can be substantially nonreactive with the starting materials (reactants), the intermediates, or products at the temperatures at which the reactions are carried out, e. g. , temperatures which can range from the solvent's freezing temperature to the solvent's boiling temperature. A given reaction can be carried out in one solvent or a mixture of more than one solvent. Depending on the particular reaction step, suitable solvents for a particular reaction step can be selected. In some embodiments, reactions can be carried out in the absence of solvent, such as when at least one of the reagents is a liquid or gas.

Suitable solvents can include halogenated solvents such as carbon tetrachloride, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, bromoform, chloroform, bromochloromethane, dibromomethane, butyl chloride, dichloromethane, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, 1,1, 1- trichloroethane, 1,1, 2-trichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, 2-chloropropane, a, a, a-trifluorotoluene, 1,2- dichloroethane, 1,2-dibromoethane, hexafluorobenzene, 1,2, 4-trichlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, chlorobenzene, fluorobenzene, fluorotrichloromethane, chlorotrifluoromethane, bromotrifluoromethane, carbon tetrafluoride, dichlorofluoromethane, chlorodifluoromethane, trifluoromethane, 1,2- dichlorotetrafluorethane and hexafluoroethane.

Suitable ether solvents include: dimethoxymethane, tetrahydrofuran, 1,3-dioxane, 1,4-dioxane, furan, diethyl ether, ethylene glycol dimethyl ether, ethylene glycol diethyl ether, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether, diethylene glycol diethyl ether, triethylene glycol dimethyl ether, anisole, or t-butyl methyl ether.

Suitable protic solvents can include, by way of example and without limitation, water, methanol, ethanol, 2-nitroethanol, 2-fluoroethanol, 2,2, 2-trifluoroethanol, ethylene glycol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 2-methoxyethanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, i-butyl alcohol, t-butyl alcohol, 2-ethoxyethanol, diethylene glycol, 1-, 2-, or 3-pentanol, neo-pentyl alcohol, t-pentyl alcohol, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, cyclohexanol, benzyl alcohol, phenol, or glycerol.

Suitable aprotic solvents can include, by way of example and without limitation, tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethylacetamide (DMAC), 1, 3-dimethyl-3, 4,5, 6-tetrahydro-2 (lH)- pyrimidinone (DMPU), 1, 3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI), N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP), formamide, N-methylacetamide, N-methylformamide, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide, propionitrile, ethyl formate, methyl acetate, hexachloroacetone, acetone, ethyl methyl ketone, ethyl acetate, sulfolan, N, N- dimethylpropionamide, tetramethylurea, nitromethane, nitrobenzene, or hexamethylphosphoramide.

Suitable hydrocarbon solvents include benzene, cyclohexane, pentane, hexane, toluene, cycloheptane, methylcyclohexane, heptane, ethylbenzene, m-, o-, or p-xylene, octane, indane, nonane, or naphthalene.

Supercritical carbon dioxide can also be used as a solvent.

The reactions of the processes described herein can be carried out at appropriate temperatures which can be readily determined by the skilled artisan. Reaction temperatures will depend on, for example, the melting and boiling points of the reagents and solvent, if present; the thermodynamics of the reaction (e. g. , vigorously exothermic reactions may need to be carried out at reduced temperatures); and the kinetics of the reaction (e. g. , a high activation energy barrier may need elevated temperatures).

"Elevated temperature"refers to temperatures above room temperature (about 20 °C) and"reduced temperature"refers to temperatures below room temperature.

The reactions of the processes described herein can be carried out in air or under an inert atomosphere. Typically, reactions containing reagents or products that are substantially reactive with air can be carried out using air-sensitive synthetic techniques that are well known to the skilled artisan.

In some embodiments, preparation of compounds can involve the addition of acids or bases to effect, for example, catalysis of a desired reaction or formation of salt forms such as acid addition salts.

Example acids can be inorganic or organic acids. Inorganic acids include hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, and nitric acid. Organic acids include formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butanoic acid, methanesulfonic acid, p-toluene sulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, trifluoroacetic acid, propiolic acid, butyric acid, 2-butynoic acid, vinyl acetic acid, pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid, octanoic acid, nonanoic acid and decanoic acid.

Example bases include lithium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, lithium carbonate, sodium carbonate, and potassium carbonate. Some example strong bases include, but are not limited to, hydroxide, alkoxides, metal amides, metal hydrides, metal dialkylamides and arylamines, wherein; alkoxides include lithium, sodium and potassium salts of methyl, ethyl and t-butyl oxides; metal amides include sodium amide, potassium amide and lithium amide; metal hydrides include sodium hydride, potassium hydride and lithium hydride; and metal dialkylamides include sodium and potassium salts of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl, n-butyl, t-butyl, trimethylsilyl and cyclohexyl substituted amides.

The compounds described herein can be asymmetric (e. g. , having one or more stereocenters). All stereoisomers, such as enantiomers and diastereomers, are intended unless otherwise indicated.

Compounds of the present invention that contain asymmetrically substituted carbon atoms can be isolated

in optically active or racemic forms. Methods on how to prepare optically active forms from optically active starting materials are known in the art, such as by resolution of racemic mixtures or by stereoselective synthesis.

The processes described herein can be stereoselective such that any given reaction starting with one or more chiral reagents enriched in one stereoisomer forms a product that is also enriched in one stereoisomer. The reaction can be conducted such that the product of the reaction substantially retains one or more chiral centers present in the starting materials. The reaction can also be conducted such that the product of the reaction contains a chiral center that is substantially inverted relative to a corresponding chiral center present in the starting materials.

Resolution of racemic mixtures of compounds can be carried out by any of numerous methods known in the art. An example method includes fractional recrystallizaion using a"chiral resolving acid" which is an optically active, salt-forming organic acid. Suitable resolving agents for fractional recrystallization methods are, for example, optically active acids, such as the D and L forms of tartaric acid, diacetyltartaric acid, dibenzoyltartaric acid, mandelic acid, malic acid, lactic acid or the various optically active camphorsulfonic acids such as-camphorsulfonic acid. Other resolving agents suitable for fractional crystallization methods include stereoisomerically pure forms of a-methylbenzylamine (e. g., S and R forms, or diastereomerically pure forms), 2-phenylglycinol, norephedrine, ephedrine, N- methylephedrine, cyclohexylethylamine, 1,2-diaminocyclohexane, camphoric acid, a-methoxy-a- trifluoromethylphenylacetic acid (MTPA or Mosher's acid), pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid, di-O- isopropylene-keto-glutamic acid, di-toluoyl-tartaric acid, and the like.

Resolution of racemic mixtures can also be carried out by elution on a column packed with an optically active resolving agent (e. g. , dinitrobenzoylphenylglycine). Suitable elution solvent composition can be determined by one skilled in the art.

Compounds of the invention can also include all isotopes of atoms occurring in the intermediates or final compounds. Isotopes include those atoms having the same atomic number but different mass numbers. For example, isotopes of hydrogen include tritium and deuterium.

Compounds of the invention can also include tautomeric forms, such as keto-enol tautomers.

Tautomeric forms can be in equilibrium or sterically locked into one form by appropriate substitution.

The present invention also includes salt forms of the compounds described herein. Examples of salts (or salt forms) include, but are not limited to, mineral or organic acid salts of basic residues such as amines, alkali or organic salts of acidic residues such as carboxylic acids, and the like. Generally, the salt forms can be prepared by reacting the free base or acid with stoichiometric amounts or with an excess of the desired salt-forming inorganic or organic acid or base in a suitable solvent or various combinations of solvents. Lists of suitable salts are found in Remington's Pharmaceutical Scierces, 17th ed. , Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pa. , 1985, p. 1418, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Upon carrying out preparation of compounds according to the processes described herein, the usual isolation and purification operations such as concentration, filtration, extraction, solid-phase extraction, recrystallization, chromatography, and the like may be used, to isolate the desired products.

The invention will be described in greater detail by way of specific examples. The following examples are offered for illustrative purposes, and are not intended to limit the invention in any manner.

Those of skill in the art will readily recognize a variety of noncritical parameters which can be changed or modified to yield essentially the same results.

EXAMPLES Example 1 Preparation of 2- (4-chlorophenyl) ethyl-N-2-chloropropionamide To a 1-liter, 3-necked round bottom flask under argon balloon equipped with reflux condenser and addition funnel, were added sequentially 2- (4-chlorophenyl) ethylamine (30 g, 193 mmol), 400 mL acetonitrile, triethylamine (19.5 g, 193 mmol) and 80 mL acetonitrile. The clear colorless solution was stirred and cooled to 0 °C. 2-Chloropropionyl chloride (24.5 g, 193 mmol, distilled) in 5 mL acetonitrile was slowly added over 20 minutes to evolution of white gas, formation of white precipitate, and color change of reaction mixture to slight yellow. An additional 10 mL of acetonitrile was used to rinse the addition funnel. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 30 minutes and then warmed to room temperature and stirred vigorously for an additional one hour. The yellow reaction mixture was concentrated on the rotary evaporator to a solid containing triethylamine hydrochloride (76. 36 grams). This material was taken up in 100 mL ethylacetate and 200 mL water, and stirred vigorously. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with an additional 100 mL ethylacetate. The combined organic layers were washed twice with 25 mL of saturated brine, dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated to a light tan solid (41.6 grams, 88 %). TLC in ethylacetate-hexane, 8: 2 showed a major spot two-thirds of the way up the plate and a small spot at the baseline. Baseline spot was removed as follows: This material was taken up in 40 mL of ethylacetate and hexane was added until the solution became cloudy. Cooling to 0 °C produced a white crystalline solid (40.2 grams, 85 % yield). The product is a known compound (Hasan et al., Indian J. Chem., 1971, 9 (9), 1022) with CAS Registry No. 34164-14- 2.

LC/MS gave product 2.45 minute; 246.1 M++H+.

'H NMR (CDCI3) : 8 7.2 (dd, 4H, Ar), 6.7 (br S, 1H, NH), 4.38 (q, 1H, CHCH3), 3.5 (q, 2H, ArCH2CH2NH), 2.8 (t, 2H, ArCH2), 1.7 (d, 3H, CH3).

13C NMR (CDC13) : 169 (1C, C=O), 136 (1C, Ar-Cl), 132 (1C, Ar), 130 (2C, Ar), 128 (2C, Ar), 56 (1C, CHCI), 40 (1C, CHN), 34 (1C, CHAr), 22 (1C, CH3).

Example 2 Preparation of 8-chloro-l-methyl-2, 3,4, 5-tetrahydro-lH-3-benzazepin-2-one 2-(4gChlorophenyl) ethyl-N-2-cllloropropionamide (10 g, 40.6 mmol) of Example 1 and aluminum chloride (16 g, 119.9 mmol) were added to a clean dry 100 mL round bottom flask equipped with an argon balloon, stirring apparatus, and heating apparatus. The white solid melted to a tan oil with bubbling at 91 °C. (Note: if impure starting materials are used, a black tar can result but clean product can still be isolated). The mixture was heated and stirred at 150 °C for 12 hours. (Note: The time is dependent on the reaction scale and can easily be followed by LC/MS; higher temperatures can be used for shorter time periods. E. g. , a 1 gram sample was complete in 5 hours. ) The reaction can be followed by LC/MS with the starting material at 2.45 minutes (246.1 M++H+), the product at 2.24 minutes (209.6 M++H+) on a 5 minute reaction time from 5-95% w/0.01 % TFA in water/MeCN (50: 50).

After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was quenched with slow addition of 10 mL of MeOH followed by 5 mL of 5 % HCl in water and 5 mL of ethyl acetate. After separation of the resulting layers, the aqueous layer was extracted a second time with 10 mL of ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated to a tan solid (6.78 grams, 80 % yield). LC/MS showed one peak, at 2.2 min and 209.6 MI. This material was taken up in ethyl acetate, filtered through celite and Kieselgel 60 (0.5 inch plug on a 60 mL Buchner funnel) and the filtrate was recrystallized from hexane/ethyl acetate to give final product (4.61 grams, 54 % yield).

'H NMR (CDC13) : 7.3-7. 1 (m, 3H, Ar), 5.6 (br S, 1H, NH), 4.23 (q, 1H, CHCH3), 3.8 (m, 1H, ArCH2CH2NH), 3.49 (m, 1H, ArCH2CHzNH), 3. 48 (m, 1H, ArCH2CH2NH), 3.05 (m, 1H, ArCH2CH2NH), 1.6 (d, 3H, CH2).

3C NMR (CDCl3) : 178 (1C, C=O), 139 (1C, Ar), 135 (1C, Ar), 130,129 (2C, Ar), 126 (2C, Ar), 42 (1C, C), 40 (1C, CHN), 33 (1C, CHAr), 14 (1C, CH3).

Example 3 Preparation of 8-chloro-l-methyl-2, 3,4, 5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine

Procedure 4 HPLC purified 8-chloro-l-methyl-2, 3,4, 5-tetrahydro-lH-3-benzazapin-2-one (150 mg, 0.716 mmol) of Example 2 was added to a 50 mL round bottom flask with 2M borane-tetrahydrofuran solution (2 mL, 2.15 mmol). The mixture was stirred 10 hours at room temperature under an argon balloon.

LC/MS showed the desired product as the major peak with approximately 5 % of starting material still present. The reaction mixture was quenched with 5 mL methanol and the solvents were removed on the rotary evaporator. This procedure was repeated with methanol addition and evaporation. The mixture was evaporated on the rotary evaporator followed by 2 hours in vacuo to give the product as a white solid (117 mg, 70 % yield).

NMR, LC/MS and other analytical data are provided below.

Procedure B Recrystallized 8-chloro-l-methyl-2, 3,4, 5-tetrahydro-lH-3-benzazapin-2-one (137 mg, 0.653 mmol) was added to a 50 mL round bottom flask with stirring under nitrogen gas. To the flask was slowly added borane-tetrahydrofuran solution (1M, 10 mL) followed by boron trifluoride TBME solution (1 mL, 8.85 mmol) with vigorous gas evolution. The mixture was stirred 6 hours at room temperature under nitrogen gas. LC/MS showed the desired product. The reaction mixture was quenched with 5 mL methanol and 3 mL conc. HC1 and the solvents were removed on the rotary evaporator. This procedure was repeated with methanol and HCI addition and evaporation. The mixture was evaporated on the rotary evaporator followed by 2 hours on the pump to dryness to give 8-chloro-1-methyl-2, 3,4, 5-tetrahydro-lH-3- benzazapine hydrochloride (106 mg, 70 % yield).

'H NMR (CDC13) : 10.2 (br s, 1H), 9.8 (br s, 1H), 7.14 (dd, 1H, J = 2,8 Hz), 7.11 (d, 1H, J = 2 Hz), 7.03 (d, 1H, J = 8 Hz), 3.6 (m, 2H), 3.5 (m, 2H), 2.8-3. 0 (m, 3 H), 1. 5 (d, 3H, J = 7 Hz).

LC/MS: 1.41 minute, 196.1 M + H+ and 139 major fragment. No impurities were observed.

Example 4 Preparation of L- (+)-tartaric acid salt of (R)-8-chloro-1-methyl-2, 3,4, 5-tetrahydro-lH-3- benzazepine H3C ci (L- (+)-tartaric acid) NU 2

To a clean, dry 50 mL round bottom flask were added 11.5 g (0.06 mol) of 8-chloro-l-methyl- 2,3, 4, 5-tetrahydro-lH-3-benzazepine from Example 3 to 2.23 g (0.015 mol) of L- (+)-tartaric acid. The suspension was diluted with 56 g of tert-butanol and 6.5 mL of H2O. The mixture was heated to reflux (75-78 °C) and stirred for 10 min to obtain a colorless solution. The solution was slowly cooled down to room temperature (during lh) and stirred for 3h at room temperature. The suspension was filtered and the residue was washed twice with acetone (10 mL). The product was dried under reduced pressure (50 mbar) at 60 °C to yield 6.3 g of the tartrate salt (ee = 80). This tartrate salt was added to 56 g of tert- butanol and 6.5 mL of H2O. The resulting suspension was heated to reflux and 1 to 2g of H2O was added to obtain a colorless solution. The solution was slowly cooled down to room temperature (over the course of lh) and stirred for 3h at room temperature. The suspension was filtered and the residue was washed twice with acetone (10 mL). The product was dried under reduced pressure (50 mbar) at 60°C to produce 4.9 g (48 % yield) of product (ee >98.9).

If the ee value of the product obtained is not satisfactory, an additional recrystallization can be carried out as described. Either enantiomer can be synthesized in high ee utilizing this method.

Example 5 Conversion of Salt Form to Free Amine The L-tartaric acid salt of 8-chloro-l-methyl-2, 3,4, 5-tetrahydro-lH-3-benzazepine (300 mg, 0.87 mmol) from Example 4 was added to a 25 mL round bottom flask with 50% sodium hydroxide solution (114, uL, 2.17 mmol) with an added 2 mL of water. The mixture was stirred 3 minutes at room temperature. The solution was extracted with methylene chloride (5 mL) twice. The combined organic extracts were washed with water (5 mL) and evaporated to dryness on the pump to get free amine (220 mg crude weight). LC/MS 196 (M + H).

Example 6 Preparation of 2- (4-Chlorophenyl)-N-ethyl-N-2-propylchloride To a dry 100-milliliter, round bottom flask under nitrogen with stirring was added 2- (4- chlorophenyl) ethyl-N-2-chloropropionylamide (8.8 g, 35.8 mmol) followed by borane in THF (1.8 M,

70 mL, 140 mmol) over 10 minutes (gas evolution and solid becomes solubilized). After the addition was complete, boron trifluoride in tert-butyl methyl ether (8 mL, 70.8 mmol) was added over 10 minutes with more gas evolution. After 4 hours, LC/MS showed complete reaction. The reaction mixture was quenched with 20 mL of conc. HCL (37 %) with additional of gas evolution. The reaction mixture was stirred at 40 °C for 2 hours, cooled to room temperature and evaporated. Then, the white slurry was taken up in 40 mL ethyl acetate and 20 mL of 2.5 M NaOH to make a yellow solution over a white slurry. The yellow organic layer was washed with brine, dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and evaporated to give 12.2 grams of white to yellow solid. This solid was recrystallized from ethyl acetate/hexane in two crops to give 6. 7 grams of white solid product (80 % yield).

'H NMR (DMSO-d6): 9.0 (br s, 2 H, NH, HCI), 7. 2 (d, 2H, J = 8 Hz), 7.05 (d, 2H, J = 8 Hz), 4.5 (m, 1H), 3.2 (m, 2H), 3. 1 (m, 2H), 3.0 (m, 2H), 1.5 (d, 3H, J = 7 Hz).

LC/MS : 1.71 minute, 232.1 M + Hp and 139 major fragment. Minor impurity observed at 2.46 min with 321 and 139 peaks.

Example 7 Preparation of 8-chloro-l-methyl-2, 3,4, 5-tetrahydro-lH-3-benzazepine Small Scale 2- (4-Chlorophenyl)-N-ethyl-N-2-propylchloride (1 g, 4.3 mmol) of Example 6 was reacted with aluminum chloride (3 g, 22 mmol) in a dry 50 mL round bottom flask under nitrogen gas in an oil bath at 120 °C with stirring. Analysis by LC/MS showed complete reaction in two hours. After cooling the resulting black oil to room temperature, 20 mL ethyl acetate and 20 mL of pH 6 water were added. After 30 min of vigorous stirring the mixture was solubilized to a clear colorless upper organic layer and a brown clear lower aqueous layer. After separation of the layers, the aqueous layer was extracted two additional times with 20 mL ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and evaporated to give 0.55 grams (55 % yield) of a white to slightly yellow solid containing the HCI salt. This material was found to be very hygroscopic. The remaining aqueous layer (pH 6) was brought to pH 15 by addition of 5 grams of NaOH pellets. The aqueous layer became a thick white emulsion. Three times 40 mL of ethyl acetate were added to the thick white emulsion and decanted off. The combined organic layers were dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and evaporated to give 0.3 g (36 %) of a brown oil containing free amine. The combined yield was 91 %.

IHNMR (CDC13) : 7. 2 (d, 1H, J = 2.5 Hz), 7.15 (dd, 1H, J = 2.5, 8 Hz), 7.05 (d, 1 H, J = 8 Hz), 3.6 (m, 2 H), 3.5 (m, 2H), 3.1 (m, 2 H), 2.9 (m, 2 H), 1.5 (d, 3H, J = 7 Hz).

13C NMR (CDC13) : 144,136, 133,131, 127 (2), 51,45, 32,30, 17.

LC/MS: 1.41 minute, 196.1 M + H and 139 major fragment. No impurities observed.

Large Scale 2- (4-Chlorophenyl)-N-ethyl-N-2-propylchloride (49.24 g, 179.92 mmol) and aluminum trichloride (34.79 g, 260.89 mmol) were added to a flask under a nitrogen atmosphere. To this solid mixture, 1,2- dichlorobenzene (139.31 g) was added resulting in a suspension which was then heated to 120 °C which was associated with evolution of hydrogen chloride gas, which was neutralized in a sodium hydroxide filled gas scrubber. The reaction mixture became a yellow to brown solution which was heated at 120°C for a total of 12 hours. At the end of this time HPLC analysis indicated that the ratio of product to starting material was greater than 99: 1 The reaction solution was cooled to 20 to 30°C and added drop- wise to a mixture of sodium hydroxide solution (176.0 g, 1320 mmol) approx. 30 %, water (79.5 g), and cyclohexane (176 g), so that the internal temperature did not exceed 50°C. The layers were separated and the lower aqueous layer was extracted with cyclohexane (74 g). The combined organic layers were extracted with a solution of aq. hydrochloric acid (22.76 g, 231 mmol) 36/38 % and water (68.23 g). The organic layer was extracted with water (45.47 g). The combined aqueous layers were washed with cyclohexane (37 g). To the aqueous layer was added sodium hydroxide (40.08 g, 301 mmol) solution approx. 30 % and cyclohexane (100 g). The aqueous layer was extracted with cyclohexane (100 g). The combined organic layers were concentrated at 40°C to 60°C and a final vacuum of 30 mbar to give 36.79 g, of a yellow oil. HPLC analysis indicated that the product had a purity of 85. 45 %, thus giving a corrected yield of 89.29%.

Example 8 Preparation of 2- (4-chtorophenyt) ethytbromide 2- (4-Chlorophenyl) ethylbromide was prepared according to Robert, et al., J. Org Chem., 1987, 52, 5594).

Small Scale To a 100-mililiter, round bottom flask under nitrogen containing 2- (4-chlorophenyl) ethanol (10 g, 193 mmol) was added phosphorous tribromide (19g, 193 mmol) via syringe while cooling 0 °C. After the addition was complete, the ice bath was removed and the mixture was heated to 95 °C for two hours. The reaction mixture was quenched with slow addition of water in an ice bath. The material was taken up in

30 mL of methylene chloride, the layers were separated, and the organic layer was dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered, and evaporated to dryness to obtain 13.8 grams of clear oil (98 % yield). LC/MS and proton NMR were as expected.'H-NMR : 3. 10 t, 3. 51 t, 7.11 d, 7.26 d.

Large Scale To 171.05 g (1.092 mol) of 2- (4-chlorophenyl) ethanol was added dropwise 147.82 g (0.546 mol) of phosphorous tribromide over 3 hours and at a temperature of 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 15 min, at room temperature for 2h, and then at 100 °C for 2h, cooled to 0 °C, hydrolized by dropwise addition of 400.0 g of water and diluted with 400.0 g of tert-butyl methyl ether. The organic layer was separated and washed with 100.0 g of water. The solvent was distilled off under reduced pressure to yield a colorless liquid. Yield: 95 % (based on purity). Purity: 96 %. Volume yield (reaction): 100. 0%.

Volume yield (extraction): 18.0 %.'H-NMR : 3. 10 t, 3. 51 t, 7.11 d, 7.26 d.

Example 9 Preparation of 2- (4-chlorophenyl)-N-ethyl-N-2-propanol Small Scale To 2- (4-chlorophenyl) ethylbromide (0.5 g, 2.28 mmol, from Example 8) in a 25 mL round bottom flask were added 1-amino-2-propanol (1.7 g, 22.8 mmol) dropwise via syringe at 95 °C. The addition was carried out over one hour and the reaction mixture was stirred at 95 °C for an additional two hours. Then, the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and 3 mL of water were added, 10 mL of ethylacetate were added, and the organic layer was separated, dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to obtain 0.453 g of yellow solid (93 % yield). LC/MS and proton NMR were as expected.

Large Scale To 821.25 g (10.93 mol) of 1-amino-2-propanol was added dropwise 240.01 g (1.093 mol) of 2- (4-chlorophenyl) ethylbromide during 3 hours and a temperature of 90-100 °C. The mixture is stirred at 90-100 °C for further 1 h, cooled to room temperature, and diluted with 859. 6 g of water. The water layer was extracted three times with 150.0 g of tert-butyl methyl ether. The combined organic phases were washed with 100.0 g of water, the solvent was distilled off at a temperature of 60 °C and reduced pressure to yield a colorless solid with a melting point of 68-70 °C. Yield: 87 % (based on purity). Purity: 99 %.

Volume yield (reaction): 21 %. Volume yield (extraction): 12 %. 1H-NMR: 1.12 d, 2.42 dd, 2.5-2. 9 m, 2. 62 d, 2. 82t, 3. 75 m, 7.11 d, 7. 23 d.

Example 10 Preparation of 2- (4-chlorophenyl)-N-ethyl-N-2-propylbromide This preparation was based on Nagle et al., Tetrahedron Letters, 2000, 41, 3011.

Small Scale 2- (4-Chlorophenyl)-N-ethyl-N-2-propanol (453 mg, 2.12 mmol, see Example 9) was dissolved in 1.5 mL methylene chloride and dimethyl formamide (0.77 mL) was added to the solution. The reaction mixture was cooled to at 0 °C and thionyl bromide (0.23 mL, 3.0 mmol) was added dropwise. The reaction was then stirred at room temperature for two hours. The product precipitated. The mixture was cooled to 0 °C and the precipitate was filtered and washed with cold methylene chloride to obtain 350 mg of white solid. A second crop was obtained by concentrating, retaking up in methylene chloride, and cooling to obtain an additional 72 mg of product (56 % yield).

'H NMR (DMSO-d6): 8.7 (br s, 1H), 8. 6 (br s, 1H), 7.2 (d, 2H, J = 8 Hz), 7.1 (d, 2 H, J = 8 Hz), 4.32 (m, 1H), 3.51 (br m, 1H), 3.28 (br m, 1H), 3.03 (m, 2H), 2.82 (m, 2H), 1.5 (d, 3H, J = 7 Hz).

3C NMR (DMSO-d6): 136,131, 130 (2), 128 (2), 53,47, 44,30, 23.

LC/MS: 1.56 min, 278 M + HF (-HBr) and 139 major fragment.

Large Scale 194.0 g (0.91 mol) of 2- (4-chlorophenyl)-N-ethyl-N-2-propanol were dissolved in 1000.0 g of CH2Cl2. Then 31.17 g (0.46 mol) of N,N-Dimethylformamide were added and the clear solution was cooled down to 0 °C. At this temperature, 264.3 g (1.4 mol) of thionyl bromide were added within 1 h.

After complete addition, the reaction mixture was allowed to warm up to room temperature and stirred for further 12 h, while precipitation of the product occurred. The reaction mixture was cooled to 0 °C and the precipitate was filtered off and washed with 500.0 g of ice-cold CH2CI2, dried at 80 °C under reduced pressure to obtain an off-white powder with a melting point of 194-197 °C. Yield: 63 % (based on purity). Purity: 97 %. Volume yield (reaction): 14 %. IH-NMR : 1.80 d, 3.05 m, 3.15 m, 3.45 m, 4.59 m, 7. 15 d, 7. 40 d, 8. 95s.

Example 11 Preparation of 2- (4-chlorophenyl)-N-ethyl-N-2-propylchloride

267 g (125 mmol) of 2- (4-chlorophenyl)-N-ethyl-N-2-propanol was diluted with 364 g of toluene and warmed to 40°C. 19. 30 g, 222 mmol dimethylacetamide were added and following this 111.83 g 940 mmol thionyl chloride was added dropwise so that the internal temperature was kept between 40 and 60°C. The resulting thick suspension was stirred for 2 to 3 hours at 60 to 65°C. The suspension was filtered and washed with 335 g of toluene via the reactor. The resulting 397.1 g of a brown crude product was suspended in 326 g of isopropanol and 35.2 g of water, and heated to approx. 80 to 85°C to reflux forming a clear brown solution. The solution was then cooled over 3 to 12 h to 0 to 5°C and stirred for at least 1 hour at 0 to 5°C, before being centrifuged. The wet product was washed with 146 g of isopropanol in several parts via the reactor and with 100 g of isopropanol directly over the filter cake (when the material is still colored, the amount of isopropanol can be increased until colourless material is obtaind).

About 790 g of mother liquid with pH = 0 was also formed. 157.93 g of a white to lightly beige wet product was yielded, which was dried at 70°C in vacuum at 30 mbar. Yield: 113.42 g (99.53 percent by weight).

Example 12 Preparation of 8-chloro-l-methyl-2, 3,4, 5-tetrahydro-lH-3-benzazepine Small scale To 2- (4-chlorophenyl)-N-ethyl-N-2-propylbromide (0.343 g, 0.959 mmol, see Example 10) in a 50 mL round bottom flask was added aluminum chloride (0.192 g, 1.44 mmol). The two solids were heated at 140 °C for 4 hours and then cooled to 90 °C. Toluene (350 microliters) was added and the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature. Water (350 microliters) was added as well as 1 gram of ice. The mixture was stirred for 15 minutes then sodium hydroxide solution (350 microliters of a solution made up of 2 g of NaOH in 6 g water) was added. The reaction mixture was extracted three times with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated to give 218 mg of a dark yellow oil product (90% yield).

Attempted distillation of the oil product at 115-180 °C and 0.1 torr caused decomposition and dimerization.

LC/MS and proton NMR are as expected.

Large Scale A 750 mL reaction vessel was charged with 2- (4-chlorophenyl)-N-ethyl-N-2-propylbromide (240 g, 0.67 mol) to which aluminum chloride (134 g, 1.01 mol) and 1,2-dichlorobenzene (480 g) were added.

The resulting suspension was heated to 138-142 °C (yellow solution) and HBr-gas evolved (neutralized with sodium hydroxide solution). The reaaction was stirred for 8-12 hours (monitored by HPLC). The reaction was cooled to 20-30 °C and transferred to a dropping funnel. Extraction mixture containing water (300 g), 30% sodium hydroxide solution (670 g), and cyclohexane (670 g) was added to the reaction vessel. The reaction solution was added portionwise to the extraction mixture while cooling keeping the temperature below 50 °C. The resulting layers were separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with cyclohexane (144 g). The organic layers were combined and extracted with a solution of HCI (pH of the water layer was <2). The organic layer was extracted once more with water. The combined water layers were washed with cyclohexane. A 30% sodium hydroxide solution (100 g) was then added (pH of the water layer was >13). The water layer was first extracted with cyclohexane (720 g) and then with further cyclohexane (144 g). The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate.

The sodium sulfate was filtered out and the filtrate was evaporated under reduced pressure at a temperature of 45-50 °C. Crude product was obtained as a glutinous oil (134.42 g).

Example 13 Large Scale Preparation of L- (+)-tartaric acid salt of (R)-8-chloro-1-methyl-2, 3,4, 5-tetrahydro-lH- 3-benzazepine Crude product (134.32 g) of the large scale synthesis of Example 12 was dissolved in tert-butanol (480 g). An aqueous solution of L- (+)-tartaric acid (21 g of acid in 30 g of water) and seed crystals were added. The solution was stirred at 15-25 °C overnight until crystals formed. The resulting suspension was filtered and the precipitate washed with acetone. EE was 68. 1% (HPLC). The precipitate was then refluxed in additional tert-butanol (480 g) and water (10 g). Water (80 g) was added until the precipitate dissolved completely and then the solution was cooled to 15-25 °C and stirred overnight. The resulting precipitate was filtered out and washed with acetone. EE was 96.8% (HPLC). The precipiate was again refluxed in additional tert-butanol (480 g) and stirred for 1 hour at reflux. The resulting suspension was cooled to 15-25 °C and stirred overnight. The resulting precipitate was filtered out and washed with acetone. EE was 98.7% (HPLC) and the product was dried under vacuum at 60 °C. Yield was 34.96 g.

Example 14 Preparation of Hydrochloric Acid Salt of (R)-8-chloro-1-methyl-2, 3,4, 5-tetrahydro-lH-3- benzazepine

To a clean, dry 25 mL round bottom flask were added (R)-8-chloro-1-methyl-2, 3,4, 5-tetrahydro- lH-3-benzazepine free amine (220 mg), 3 mL methylene chloride, and 1.74 mL of 1M HCI in ether. The mixture was stirred for 5 minutes at room temperature. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give a white solid, the HCI salt. The salt was re-dissolved in methylene chloride (3 mL) and an additional 1.74 mL of 1 M HCI was added and the solution was again stirred at room temperature for 5 minutes. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give the desired HCI salt of 8-chloro-1- methyl-2, 3,4, 5-tetrahydro-lH-3-benzazapine (190 mg crude weight, 95 % yield). NMR data was consistent with the desired product.

IHNMR (CDCI3) : 10.2 (br s, 1H), 9.8 (br s, 1H), 7.14 (dd, 1H, J = 2,8 Hz), 7.11 (d, 1H, J = 2 Hz), 7.03 (d, 1H, J = 8 Hz), 3.6 (m, 2H), 3.5 (m, 2H), 2.8-3. 0 (m, 3 H), 1.5 (d, 3H, J = 7 Hz).

Various modifications of the invention, in addition to those described herein, will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the foregoing description. Such modifications are also intended to fall within the scope of the appended claims. Each reference cited in the present application is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.