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Title:
BICYCLIC INHIBITORS OF NICOTINAMIDE N-METHYLTRANSFERASE, COMPOSITIONS AND USES THEREOF
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2023/129512
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Disclosed are compounds and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, which are useful as inhibitors nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT). Also disclosed are pharmaceutical compositions comprising a compound disclosed herein. Related methods of treating cancer in a subject and methods of inhibiting tumor growth in subject are also disclosed.

Inventors:
SHAIR MATTHEW (US)
BARROWS ROBERT (US)
JEFFRIES DANIEL (US)
VISHE MAHESH (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2022/053976
Publication Date:
July 06, 2023
Filing Date:
December 23, 2022
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
HARVARD COLLEGE (US)
International Classes:
A61K31/33; A61K31/395; A61K31/40; A61K31/407
Foreign References:
US11078197B22021-08-03
US20210147406A12021-05-20
Other References:
DATABASE PUBCHEM COMPOUND ANONYMOUS : "2,3-Dihydrofuro[2,3-b]pyridine-5carboxamide", XP093078347, retrieved from PUBCHEM
DATABASE PUBCHEM COMPOUND ANONYMOUS : "[1,3]Dioxolo[4,5-b]pyridine-6-carboxamide", XP093078348, retrieved from PUBCHEM
DATABASE PUBCHEM COMPOUND ANONYMOUS : "2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrido[2,3-b] [1,4]oxazine-7-carboxamide", XP093078350, retrieved from PUBCHEM
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
TARDIBONO, Lawrence P. et al. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WE CLAIM:

1. A compound having the structure of Formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

Formula I; wherein

Z1 is O, NR4 or CHR2;

Z2 is O or CHR3;

Z3 is O or NH;

R1 is H, halo, cyano, unsubstituted or substituted alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted cycloalkyl, or unsubstituted or substituted alkynyl;

R2 and R3 are each, independently, H, cyano, unsubstituted or substituted alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted alkynyl, alkyl-OR5, or alkyl-SR6; or if x is 0, then R2 and R3, taken together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached, may form a fused 3-, 4-, 5- or 6-membered carbocyclic ring;

R4 is H, alkyl, or acyl;

R5 and R6 are each, independently, H, CHF2, CF3, unsubstituted or substituted alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted alkynyl, or unsubstituted or substituted cycloalkyl; and x is an integer selected from 0 and 1; provided that Z2 and Z3 are not both O; and if x is 0, then Z1 and Z2 are not both O and Z1 and Z3 are not both O.

2. The compound of claim 1, wherein

Z1 is O, NR4 or CHR2;

Z2 is O or CHR3;

Z3 is O or NH;

R1 is H, halo, cyano, unsubstituted or substituted alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted cycloalkyl, or unsubstituted or substituted alkynyl;

R2 and R3 are each, independently, H, cyano, alkyl, or alkynyl; or if x is 0, then R2 and R3, taken together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached, may form a fused 3-, 4-, 5- or 6-membered carbocyclic ring;

R4 is H, alkyl, or acyl; and x is an integer selected from 0 and 1; provided that Z2 and Z3 are not both O; and if x is 0, then Z1 and Z2 are not both O and Z1 and Z3 are not both O.

3. The compound of claim 1 or 2, wherein Z1 and Z2 are not both O.

4. The compound of any one of claims 1-3, wherein Z1 is CHR2.

5. The compound of any one of claims 1-4, wherein R2 is H.

6. The compound of any one of claims 1-5, wherein x is 0.

7. The compound of any one of claims 1-5, wherein x is 1.

8. The compound of any one of claims 1-7, wherein Z2 is CHR3.

9. The compound of any one of claims 1-8, wherein R3 is H.

10. The compound of any one of claims 1-8, wherein R3 is alkyl.

11. The compound of any one of claims 1-8, wherein R3 is lower alkyl.

12. The compound of any one of claims 1-8, wherein R3 is methyl.

13. The compound of any one of claims 1-8, wherein R3 is alkynyl.

14. The compound of any one of claims 1-8, wherein R3 is lower alkynyl.

15. The compound of any one of claims 1-8, wherein R3 is ethynyl.

16. The compound of any one of claims 1-8, wherein R3 is cyano.

17. The compound of any one of claims 1-7, wherein Z2 is O.

18. The compound of any one of claims 1-8, wherein R2 and R3, taken together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached, form a fused 3 -membered carbocyclic ring.

19. The compound of any one of claims 1-18, wherein Z3 is NH.

20. The compound of any one of claims 1-18, wherein Z3 is O.

21. The compound of any one of claims 1-20, wherein R1 is alkyl.

22. The compound of any one of claims 1-20, wherein R1 is lower alkyl.

23. The compound of any one of claims 1-20, wherein R1 is methyl. The compound of any one of claims 1-20, wherein R1 is halo. The compound of any one of claims 1-20, wherein R1 is chloro. The compound of claim 1 or 2 having the structure: The compound of 26, wherein R1 is H or CH3. The compound of 26 or 27, wherein R3 is unsubsituted C1-C6 alkyl, or CH3. The compound of 26 or 27, wherein R3 is unsubsituted C2-C6 alkynyl. The compound of 26 or 27, wherein R3 is substituted C2-C6 alkynyl. The compound of 30, wherein the C2-C6 alkynyl is substituted with CF3. The compound of 26 or 27, wherein R3 is alkyl-OR5 or alkyl-SR6. The compound of 30, wherein R5 and R6 are each, independently, CHF2, CF3, CH3, CH(CH3)2, or CH(CH2)2. The compound of claim 1 or 2 having the structure: The compound of claim 34 having the structure: The compound of claim 34 having the structure:

37. The compound of any one of claims 34-36, wherein R1 is H or CH3.

38. The compound of any one of claims 34-37, wherein R2 is unsubsituted C1-C6 alkyl.

39. The compound of any one of claims 34-38, wherein R3 is unsubsituted C1-C6 alkyl, or

CH3.

40. A compound or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof selected from:

41. A compound or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof selected from:

42. A compound or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof having the structure:

43. A pharmaceutical composition, comprising a compound of any one of claims 1-42; and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient or carrier.

44. A method of treating or preventing a cancer, comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of any one of claims 1-42 or a pharmaceutical composition of claim 43, thereby treating or preventing the cancer.

45. The method of claim 44, wherein the cancer is ovarian cancer, colon cancer, or breast cancer.

46. The method of claim 44, wherein the cancer is breast cancer.

47. The method of claim 44, wherein the cancer is colon cancer.

48. The method of claim 44, wherein the cancer is ovarian cancer.

49. The method of claim 46, wherein the cancer is high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC).

50. The method of claim 44, wherein the cancer is a solid tumor.

51. The method of any one of claims 44-50, further comprising conjointly administering to the subject an effective amount of one or more additional chemotherapeutic agents.

52. A method of inhibiting tumor growth, comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of any one of claims 1-42 or a pharmaceutical composition of claim 43.

53. The method of claim 53, wherein the tumor is a high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC).

54. The method of claim 53 or 53, further comprising conjointly administering to the subject an effective amount of one or more additional chemotherapeutic agents.

55. The method of any one of claims 44-54, wherein the subject is a mammal.

56. The method of claim 55, wherein the mammal is a human.

57. The method of claim 55, wherein the mammal is a canine or a feline.

58. An in vitro method of inhibiting NNMT, comprising contacting a cell expressing NNMT with an effective amount of a compound of any one of claims 1-42.

Description:
BICYCLIC INHIBITORS OF NICOTINAMIDE N-

ME THI L TRANSFERASE, COMPOSITIONSAND USES _ THEREOF _

RELATED APPLICATION

This application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application serial number 63/295,657, filed December 31, 2021.

BACKGROUND

Tumors are heterogeneous, comprising cancer cells and an elaborate microenvironment. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are myofibroblasts (fibroblasts with smooth muscle cell characteristics) present in the tumor microenvironment that support the tumor through paracrine signaling and the production of an extracellular matrix. CAFs play crucial roles in almost all aspects of tumor biology including survival, resistance, metastasis and immune cell evasion. CAFs have now been identified in solid tumors of almost all tissues types, sometimes outnumbering any other cell type in a tumor and associated with a poor prognosis in patients. CAF-driven build-up of extracellular matrix has been shown to prevent the infiltration of effector immune cells and activated T cells. Thus, reducing the presence of CAFs in tumors may improve responses and resistance to immunotherapies. Given their intimate role in cancer maintenance, progression and resistance to targeted therapies and immunotherapies, therapeutics specifically targeting CAFs hold enormous promise as a new approach in cancer treatment. However, few targets that are specific to CAFs (versus normal fibroblasts) have been identified. The most advanced effort in targeting CAFs has been with fibroblast activating protein (FAP)-recognizing CAR T cells. Although this therapy has shown promise, FAP is expressed by other cells in the body, including ones regulating bone marrow and muscle tissue, sometimes resulting in lethal toxicity.

To identify targets that are specific to CAFs, proteins that are differentially expressed in human CAFs but not tumor cells or normal stroma have been identified. Specifically, biopsy samples from patients with high-grade serous carcinoma metastases (HGSC-the most common form of ovarian cancer) underwent laser microdissection to separate tumor cells from stroma followed by mass spectrometry. It was found that expression of nicotinamide N- methyltransferase (NNMT) was increased in stroma of HGSC metastases compared to tumor cells or normal stroma. NNMT was also highly expressed in breast and colon cancer stroma. Importantly, NNMT was required to maintain the CAF phenotype. Furthermore, tumor burden in animal models was reduced when NNMT was knocked down or inhibited with a small molecule inhibitor. These studies indicate that NNMT is a CAF-selective therapeutic target and its inhibition with small molecules reverses the CAF phenotype and reduces tumor burden.

Therefore, there is a continuing need to discover and develop new compounds to target nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT).

SUMMARY

In certain embodiments, the present application discloses compounds of Formula I:

I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R 1 , Z 1 , Z 2 , Z 3 and x are as defined herein.

Further, provided are pharmaceutical compositions comprising a compound disclosed herein. The disclosure also relates to methods of treating or preventing cancer in a subject and methods of inhibiting tumor growth in subject.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a plot showing data from an in vitro NNMT enzyme inhibition assay for Compound 1 (IC 50 = 105 nM).

FIG. 2 is a plot showing data from an in vitro NNMT enzyme inhibition assay for Compound 11 (IC 50 = 35 nM).

FIG. 3 is a plot showing data from a cellular potency assay for Compound 11 (IC 50 = 38 nM).

FIG. 4A is a plot showing data from an in vitro NNMT enzyme inhibition assay for Compound 18 (IC 50 = 848 nM).

FIG. 4B is a plot showing data from an in vitro NNMT enzyme inhibition assay for each enantiomer of Compound 18, i.e., for Compound 19A (IC 50 = 28 nM) and Compound 19B (IC 50 = 5.1 μM). FIG. 4C is a plot showing data from a cellular potency assay for Compound 19A (IC 50 = 12 nM).

FIG. 5 is a plot showing data from an in vitro NNMT enzyme inhibition assay for Compound (A)-34 (IC 50 = 48 nM).

FIG. 6 is a plot showing the pH dependent solubility of 11.

FIG. 7 is a plot showing the human and mouse liver microsomal stability of 11.

FIG. 8 is a plot showing the hERG safety evaluation by manual Patch-Clamp system (hERG IC 50 = >30 μM; 14.96% inhibition at 30 μM).

FIG. 9 is a pair of plots showing CYP3 A4 inhibition by 11 and a table displaying inhibition of other CYP isoforms by 11.

FIG. 10 is an off-target activity panel for 11.

FIG. 11 is a plot showing the results of a Mini Ames assay with 11. The F value is less than 2 at all tested concentrations in every strain with and without an S9 Fraction.

FIG. 12 is a plot showing plasma concentration of 11 after 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg PO dosing in Female C57B16/N mice.

FIG. 13A is a plot showing plasma Concentration of 1-MNA from 0-8 hours after 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg PO dosing of 11 in Female C57B16/N Mice

FIG. 13B is a plot showing plasma Concentration of 1-MNA from 0-24 hours after 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg PO dosing of 11 in Female C57B16/N Mice

FIG. 14 is a dosage and data collection schedule of 11 PK/PD studies in Female c57bl6/n mice.

FIG. 15A is a plot showing plasma concentration of 11 after 14 days of QD dosing of 11 in Female C57B16/N mice.

FIG. 15B is a plot showing plasma concentration of 1-MNA after 14 days of QD dosing of 11 in Female C57B16/N mice.

FIG. 16A is a plot showing plasma concentration of 11 after 50 mg/kg dosing (by different methods) of 11 in Female C57B16/N mice.

FIG. 16B is a plot showing plasma concentration of 1-MNA after 50 mg/kg dosing (by different methods) of 11 in Female C57B16/N mice.

FIG. 17A is a plot showing plasma concentration of 11 after 100 mg/kg dosing (by different methods) of 11 in Female C57B16/N mice.

FIG. 17B is a plot showing plasma concentration of 1-MNA after 100 mg/kg dosing (by different methods) of 11 in Female C57B16/N mice.

FIG. 18 is a table displaying the activity profile of 11. FIG. 19 is a table summarizing PK/PD data for compounds 1 to 3 and 11.

FIG. 20 is a table summarizing mean PK parameters of various compound 11 samples after different PO dosages in female C57B16/N mice.

FIG. 21 is a plot showing plasma concentration of 1-MNA versus time after PO dosing of compound 11 or 19A in female C57B16/N mice.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

In certain aspects, the present application discloses substituted multicyclic compounds and pharmaceutical compositions thereof. In particular, such compounds disclosed herein are useful as inhibitors of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT).

NNMT catalyzes the methylation of nicotinamide using S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as a cofactor, which generates 1 -methyl nicotinamide (1-MNA). Not wishing to be bound by theory, high expression of NNMT may maintain the CAF phenotype by reducing SAM levels, which would lead to DNA and histone hypomethylation and epigenetic/transcriptional alterations that maintain the CAF cell state. This theory is supported by three observations: 1) NNMT is a ‘methyl sink’ that reduces SAM levels and histone methylation 2) NNMT knockdown in CAFs increases trimethylation of histone 3 lysines 4 and 27 and 3) inhibition of histone methyltransferase EZH2 rescues NNMT knockdown and restores the CAF phenotype (a-SMA and collagen contractility).

Thus, the compounds disclosed herein can be used as inhibitors of NNMT, which is particularly useful with respect to treating cancer, such as cancerous tumors associated with CAFs having an increased expression of NNMT.

I, COMPOUNDS

In certain embodiments, the present application discloses compounds of Formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

Formula I wherein

Z 1 is O, NR 4 or CHR 2 ;

Z 2 is O or CHR 3 ;

Z 3 is O or NH;

R 1 is H, halo, cyano, unsubstituted or substituted alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted cycloalkyl, or unsubstituted or substituted alkynyl;

R 2 and R 3 are each, independently, H, cyano, unsubstituted or substituted alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted alkynyl, alkyl-OR 5 , or alkyl-SR 6 ; or if x is 0, then R 2 and R 3 , taken together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached, may form a fused 3-, 4-, 5- or 6-membered carbocyclic ring;

R 4 is H, alkyl, or acyl;

R 5 and R 6 are each, independently, H, CHF 2 , CF 3 , unsubstituted or substituted alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted alkynyl, or unsubstituted or substituted cycloalkyl; and x is an integer selected from 0 and 1; provided that Z 2 and Z 3 are not both O; and if x is 0, then Z 1 and Z 2 are not both O and Z 1 and Z 3 are not both O.

In certain embodiments, the present application discloses compounds of Formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

Formula I wherein

Z 1 is O, NR 4 or CHR 2 ;

Z 2 is O or CHR 3 ;

Z 3 is O or NH;

R 1 is H, halo, cyano, unsubstituted or substituted alkyl (e.g., fluoroalkyl), unsubstituted or substituted cycloalkyl, or unsubstituted or substituted alkynyl;

R 2 and R 3 are each, independently, H, cyano, alkyl, or alkynyl; or if x is 0, then R 2 and R 3 , taken together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached, may form a fused 3-, 4-, 5- or 6-membered carbocyclic ring;

R 4 is H, alkyl, or acyl; and x is an integer selected from 0 and 1; provided that Z 2 and Z 3 are not both O; and if x is 0, then Z 1 and Z 2 are not both O and Z 1 and

Z 3 are not both O.

In some embodiments, Z 1 and Z 2 are not both O.

In some embodiments, x is 0. In some embodiments, x is 1.

In some embodiments, Z 1 is CHR 2 . In some embodiments, R 2 is H. In some embodiments, Z 1 is O. In some embodiments, Z 1 is NR 4 .

In some embodiments, Z 2 is CHR 3 . In some embodiments, R 3 is H. In some embodiments, R 3 is cyano. In some embodiments, R 3 is alkyl, preferably lower alkyl, more preferably methyl. In some embodiments, R 3 is alkynyl, preferably lower alkynyl, more preferably ethynyl. In some embodiments, Z 2 is O.

In some embodiments, R 2 and R 3 , taken together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached, form a fused 3 -membered carbocyclic ring.

In some embodiments, Z 3 is NH. In some embodiments, Z 3 is O.

In some embodiments, R 1 is alkyl, preferably lower alkyl, more preferably methyl. In some embodiments, R 1 is halo, preferably chloro. In some embodiments, R 1 is substituted alkyl, preferably substituted lower alkyl, more preferably fluorine-substituted lower alkyl.

In some embodiments, R 4 is is alkyl, preferably lower alkyl, more preferably methyl.

In some embodiments, the compound of Formula I has the structure:

In some embodiments, R 1 is H or CH 3 .

In some embodiments, R 1 is halo.

In some embodiments, R 1 is Cl.

In some embodiments, R 3 is unsubsituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl.

In some embodiments, R 3 is CH 3 .

In some embodiments, R 3 is unsubsituted C 2 -C 6 alkynyl. In other embodiments, R 3 is substituted C 2 -C 6 alkynyl. In some embodiments, when substituted, the C 2 -C 6 alkynyl is substituted with CF 3 .

In some embodiments, R 3 is alkyl-OR 5 or alkyl-SR 6 . In some embodiments, R 5 and R 6 are each, independently, CHF 2 , CF 3 , CH 3 , CH(CH 3 ) 2 , or CH(CH2) 2 . In some embodiments, the compound of Formula I has the structure:

In some embodiments, the compound of Formula I has the structure:

In some embodiments, the compound of Formula I has the structure:

In some embodiments, the compound of Formula I has the structure:

In some embodiments, R 1 is H or CEE.

In some embodiments, R 1 is halo.

In some embodiments, R 1 is Cl.

In some embodiments, R 2 is unsubsituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl.

In some embodiments, R 3 is unsubsituted C 1 -C 6 alkyl.

In some embodiments, R 1 , R 2 , and R 3 are each CH 3 .

Exemplary compounds of Formula I are depicted in Table 1A. Table 1A. Exemplary Compounds of Formula I

Additional exemplary compounds of Formula I are depicted in Table IB.

Table IB. Exemplary Compounds of Formula I II, METHODS

In certain embodiments, the present application discloses a method of treating or preventing a cancer, comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound disclosed herein (e.g., a compound of Formula I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or a composition disclosed herein to thereby treat or prevent the cancer.

In some embodiments, the cancer is brain cancer, head and neck cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, duodenal cancer, appendix cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, gallbladder cancer, anal cancer, kidney cancer, ureteral cancer, bladder cancer, prostate cancer, testicular cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, or skin cancer. Preferably, the cancer is ovarian cancer, colon cancer, or breast cancer. In some embodiments, the ovarian cancer is high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC).

In certain embodiments, the cancer is a solid tumor. In some embodiments, the subject is generally one who has been diagnosed as having a cancerous tumor or one who has been previously treated for a cancerous tumor (e.g., where the tumor has been previously removed by surgery). The cancerous tumor may be a primary tumor and/or a secondary (e.g., metastatic) tumor.

In certain embodiments, this application discloses methods of inhibiting tumor growth, comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or a pharmaceutical composition disclosed herein.

In some embodiments, the methods disclosed herein further comprise conjointly administering to the subject an effective amount of one or more additional chemotherapeutic agents. In certain embodiments, the methods disclosed herein further comprise conjointly administering to the subject an effective amount of radiation therapy.

Chemotherapeutic agents that may be conjointly administered with compounds of the invention include: ABT-263, aminoglutethimide, amsacrine, anastrozole, asparaginase, AZD5363, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine (beg), bicalutamide, bleomycin, bortezomib, buserelin, busulfan, campothecin, capecitabine, carboplatin, carfilzomib, carmustine, chlorambucil, chloroquine, cisplatin, cladribine, clodronate, cobimetinib, colchicine, cyclophosphamide, cyproterone, cytarabine, dacarbazine, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, demethoxyviridin, dexamethasone, di chloroacetate, dienestrol, diethylstilbestrol, docetaxel, doxorubicin, epirubicin, estradiol, estramustine, etoposide, everolimus, exemestane, filgrastim, fludarabine, fludrocortisone, fluorouracil and 5-fluorouracil, fluoxymesterone, flutamide, gemcitabine, genistein, goserelin, hydroxyurea, idarubicin, ifosfamide, imatinib, interferon, irinotecan, lenalidomide, letrozole, leucovorin, leuprolide, levamisole, lomustine, lonidamine, LY2603618, mechlorethamine, medroxyprogesterone, megestrol, melphalan, mercaptopurine, mesna, metformin, methotrexate, miltefosine, mitomycin, mitotane, mitoxantrone, MK2206, nilutamide, nocodazole, octreotide, oxaliplatin, paclitaxel, pamidronate, pentostatin, pazopanib, perifosine, PF-04691502, PF477736, plicamycin, pomalidomide, porfimer, procarbazine, raltitrexed, rituximab, romidepsin, selumetinib, sorafenib, streptozocin, sunitinib, suramin, tamoxifen, temozolomide, temsirolimus, teniposide, testosterone, thalidomide, thioguanine, thiotepa, titanocene dichloride, topotecan, trametinib, trastuzumab, tretinoin, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, vinorelbine, and vorinostat (SAHA). For example, chemotherapeutic agents that may be conjointly administered with compounds of the invention include: aminoglutethimide, amsacrine, anastrozole, asparaginase, beg, bicalutamide, bleomycin, bortezomib, buserelin, busulfan, campothecin, capecitabine, carboplatin, carfilzomib, carmustine, chlorambucil, chloroquine, cisplatin, cladribine, clodronate, colchicine, cyclophosphamide, cyproterone, cytarabine, dacarbazine, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, demethoxyviridin, di chloroacetate, dienestrol, diethylstilbestrol, docetaxel, doxorubicin, epirubicin, estradiol, estramustine, etoposide, everolimus, exemestane, filgrastim, fludarabine, fludrocortisone, fluorouracil, fluoxymesterone, flutamide, gemcitabine, genistein, goserelin, hydroxyurea, idarubicin, ifosfamide, imatinib, interferon, irinotecan, lenalidomide, letrozole, leucovorin, leuprolide, levamisole, lomustine, lonidamine, mechlorethamine, medroxyprogesterone, megestrol, melphalan, mercaptopurine, mesna, metformin, methotrexate, mitomycin, mitotane, mitoxantrone, nilutamide, nocodazole, octreotide, oxaliplatin, paclitaxel, pamidronate, pentostatin, perifosine, plicamycin, pomalidomide, porfimer, procarbazine, raltitrexed, rituximab, sorafenib, streptozocin, sunitinib, suramin, tamoxifen, temozolomide, temsirolimus, teniposide, testosterone, thalidomide, thioguanine, thiotepa, titanocene dichloride, topotecan, trastuzumab, tretinoin, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, and vinorelbine. In certain embodiments, the chemotherapeutic agent is cisplatin. In certain embodiments, the additional chemotherapeutic agent is an CHK1 inhibitor.

Many combination therapies have been developed for the treatment of cancer. In certain embodiments, compounds of the invention may be conjointly administered with a combination therapy. Examples of combination therapies with which compounds of the invention may be conjointly administered are included in Table 2.

Table 2: Exemplary combinatorial therapies for the treatment of cancer.

In some embodiments, the conjointly administered chemotherapeutic agent is an immune-oncology therapeutic, such as an inhibitor of CTLA-4, indoleamine 2,3- dioxygenase, and/or PD-1/PD-L1.

In certain embodiments, a compound disclosed herein or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and the one or more additional chemotherapeutic agents are administered simultaneously. In alternative embodiments, the one or more additional chemotherapeutic agents are administered within about 5 minutes to within about 168 hours prior to or after administration of the compound.

In certain embodiments, the subject is a mammal, e.g., a human.

In certain embodiments, disclosed herein are methods of inhibiting NNMT comprising contacting a cell expressing NNMT with a compound of Formula I. In certain embodiments, the cell is a cancer cell. Such methods may be performed in vivo or in vitro.

Ill, PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS

In certain embodiments, the present invention provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising a compound of Formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

The compositions and methods of the present invention may be utilized to treat an individual in need thereof. In certain embodiments, the individual is a mammal such as a human, or a non-human mammal. When administered to an animal, such as a human, the composition or the compound is preferably administered as a pharmaceutical composition comprising, for example, a compound of the invention and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers are well known in the art and include, for example, aqueous solutions such as water or physiologically buffered saline or other solvents or vehicles such as glycols, glycerol, oils such as olive oil, or injectable organic esters. In a preferred embodiment, when such pharmaceutical compositions are for human administration, particularly for invasive routes of administration (i.e., routes, such as injection or implantation, that circumvent transport or diffusion through an epithelial barrier), the aqueous solution is pyrogen-free, or substantially pyrogen-free. The excipients can be chosen, for example, to effect delayed release of an agent or to selectively target one or more cells, tissues or organs. The pharmaceutical composition can be in dosage unit form such as tablet, capsule (including sprinkle capsule and gelatin capsule), granule, lyophile for reconstitution, powder, solution, syrup, suppository, injection or the like. The composition can also be present in a transdermal delivery system, e.g., a skin patch. The composition can also be present in a solution suitable for topical administration, such as an eye drop.

A pharmaceutically acceptable carrier can contain physiologically acceptable agents that act, for example, to stabilize, increase solubility or to increase the absorption of a compound such as a compound of the invention. Such physiologically acceptable agents include, for example, carbohydrates, such as glucose, sucrose or dextrans, antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid or glutathione, chelating agents, low molecular weight proteins or other stabilizers or excipients. The choice of a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, including a physiologically acceptable agent, depends, for example, on the route of administration of the composition. The preparation or pharmaceutical composition can be a self-emulsifying drug delivery system or a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system. The pharmaceutical composition (preparation) also can be a liposome or other polymer matrix, which can have incorporated therein, for example, a compound of the invention. Liposomes, for example, which comprise phospholipids or other lipids, are nontoxic, physiologically acceptable and metabolizable carriers that are relatively simple to make and administer.

A pharmaceutical composition (preparation) can be administered to a subject by any of a number of routes of administration including, for example, orally (for example, drenches as in aqueous or non-aqueous solutions or suspensions, tablets, capsules (including sprinkle capsules and gelatin capsules), boluses, powders, granules, pastes for application to the tongue); absorption through the oral mucosa (e.g., sublingually); anally, rectally or vaginally (for example, as a pessary, cream or foam); parenterally (including intramuscularly, intravenously, subcutaneously or intrathecally as, for example, a sterile solution or suspension); nasally; intraperitoneally; subcutaneously; transdermally (for example as a patch applied to the skin); and topically (for example, as a cream, ointment or spray applied to the skin, or as an eye drop). The compound may also be formulated for inhalation. In certain embodiments, a compound may be simply dissolved or suspended in sterile water. Details of appropriate routes of administration and compositions suitable for same can be found in, for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,110,973, 5,731,000, 5,541,231, 5,427,798, 5,358,970 and 4,172,896, as well as in patents cited therein.

The formulations may conveniently be presented in unit dosage form and may be prepared by any methods well known in the art of pharmacy. The amount of active ingredient which can be combined with a carrier material to produce a single dosage form will vary depending upon the host being treated, the particular mode of administration. The amount of active ingredient that can be combined with a carrier material to produce a single dosage form will generally be that amount of the compound which produces a therapeutic effect. Generally, out of one hundred percent, this amount will range from about 1 percent to about ninety-nine percent of active ingredient, preferably from about 5 percent to about 70 percent, most preferably from about 10 percent to about 30 percent.

Methods of preparing these formulations or compositions include the step of bringing into association an active compound, such as a compound of the invention, with the carrier and, optionally, one or more accessory ingredients. In general, the formulations are prepared by uniformly and intimately bringing into association a compound of the present invention with liquid carriers, or finely divided solid carriers, or both, and then, if necessary, shaping the product.

Formulations of the invention suitable for oral administration may be in the form of capsules (including sprinkle capsules and gelatin capsules), cachets, pills, tablets, lozenges (using a flavored basis, usually sucrose and acacia or tragacanth), lyophile, powders, granules, or as a solution or a suspension in an aqueous or non-aqueous liquid, or as an oil-in- water or water-in-oil liquid emulsion, or as an elixir or syrup, or as pastilles (using an inert base, such as gelatin and glycerin, or sucrose and acacia) and/or as mouth washes and the like, each containing a predetermined amount of a compound of the present invention as an active ingredient. Compositions or compounds may also be administered as a bolus, electuary or paste. To prepare solid dosage forms for oral administration (capsules (including sprinkle capsules and gelatin capsules), tablets, pills, dragees, powders, granules and the like), the active ingredient is mixed with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, such as sodium citrate or dicalcium phosphate, and/or any of the following: (1) fillers or extenders, such as starches, lactose, sucrose, glucose, mannitol, and/or silicic acid; (2) binders, such as, for example, carboxymethylcellulose, alginates, gelatin, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, sucrose and/or acacia; (3) humectants, such as glycerol; (4) disintegrating agents, such as agar-agar, calcium carbonate, potato or tapioca starch, alginic acid, certain silicates, and sodium carbonate; (5) solution retarding agents, such as paraffin; (6) absorption accelerators, such as quaternary ammonium compounds; (7) wetting agents, such as, for example, cetyl alcohol and glycerol monostearate; (8) absorbents, such as kaolin and bentonite clay; (9) lubricants, such a talc, calcium stearate, magnesium stearate, solid polyethylene glycols, sodium lauryl sulfate, and mixtures thereof; (10) complexing agents, such as, modified and unmodified cyclodextrins; and (11) coloring agents. In the case of capsules (including sprinkle capsules and gelatin capsules), tablets and pills, the pharmaceutical compositions may also comprise buffering agents. Solid compositions of a similar type may also be employed as fillers in soft and hard-filled gelatin capsules using such excipients as lactose or milk sugars, as well as high molecular weight polyethylene glycols and the like.

A tablet may be made by compression or molding, optionally with one or more accessory ingredients. Compressed tablets may be prepared using binder (for example, gelatin or hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose), lubricant, inert diluent, preservative, disintegrant (for example, sodium starch glycolate or cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose), surface-active or dispersing agent. Molded tablets may be made by molding in a suitable machine a mixture of the powdered compound moistened with an inert liquid diluent.

The tablets, and other solid dosage forms of the pharmaceutical compositions, such as dragees, capsules (including sprinkle capsules and gelatin capsules), pills and granules, may optionally be scored or prepared with coatings and shells, such as enteric coatings and other coatings well known in the pharmaceutical-formulating art. They may also be formulated so as to provide slow or controlled release of the active ingredient therein using, for example, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose in varying proportions to provide the desired release profile, other polymer matrices, liposomes and/or microspheres. They may be sterilized by, for example, filtration through a bacteria-retaining filter, or by incorporating sterilizing agents in the form of sterile solid compositions that can be dissolved in sterile water, or some other sterile injectable medium immediately before use. These compositions may also optionally contain opacifying agents and may be of a composition that they release the active ingredient(s) only, or preferentially, in a certain portion of the gastrointestinal tract, optionally, in a delayed manner. Examples of embedding compositions that can be used include polymeric substances and waxes. The active ingredient can also be in micro- encapsulated form, if appropriate, with one or more of the above-described excipients.

Liquid dosage forms useful for oral administration include pharmaceutically acceptable emulsions, lyophiles for reconstitution, microemulsions, solutions, suspensions, syrups and elixirs. In addition to the active ingredient, the liquid dosage forms may contain inert diluents commonly used in the art, such as, for example, water or other solvents, cyclodextrins and derivatives thereof, solubilizing agents and emulsifiers, such as ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl carbonate, ethyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, propylene glycol, 1,3-butylene glycol, oils (in particular, cottonseed, groundnut, corn, germ, olive, castor and sesame oils), glycerol, tetrahydrofuryl alcohol, polyethylene glycols and fatty acid esters of sorbitan, and mixtures thereof.

Besides inert diluents, the oral compositions can also include adjuvants such as wetting agents, emulsifying and suspending agents, sweetening, flavoring, coloring, perfuming and preservative agents.

Suspensions, in addition to the active compounds, may contain suspending agents as, for example, ethoxylated isostearyl alcohols, polyoxyethylene sorbitol and sorbitan esters, microcrystalline cellulose, aluminum metahydroxide, bentonite, agar-agar and tragacanth, and mixtures thereof.

Formulations of the pharmaceutical compositions for rectal, vaginal, or urethral administration may be presented as a suppository, which may be prepared by mixing one or more active compounds with one or more suitable nonirritating excipients or carriers comprising, for example, cocoa butter, polyethylene glycol, a suppository wax or a salicylate, and which is solid at room temperature, but liquid at body temperature and, therefore, will melt in the rectum or vaginal cavity and release the active compound.

Formulations of the pharmaceutical compositions for administration to the mouth may be presented as a mouthwash, or an oral spray, or an oral ointment.

Alternatively or additionally, compositions can be formulated for delivery via a catheter, stent, wire, or other intraluminal device. Delivery via such devices may be especially useful for delivery to the bladder, urethra, ureter, rectum, or intestine. Formulations which are suitable for vaginal administration also include pessaries, tampons, creams, gels, pastes, foams or spray formulations containing such carriers as are known in the art to be appropriate.

Dosage forms for the topical or transdermal administration include powders, sprays, ointments, pastes, creams, lotions, gels, solutions, patches and inhalants. The active compound may be mixed under sterile conditions with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and with any preservatives, buffers, or propellants that may be required.

The ointments, pastes, creams and gels may contain, in addition to an active compound, excipients, such as animal and vegetable fats, oils, waxes, paraffins, starch, tragacanth, cellulose derivatives, polyethylene glycols, silicones, bentonites, silicic acid, talc and zinc oxide, or mixtures thereof.

Powders and sprays can contain, in addition to an active compound, excipients such as lactose, talc, silicic acid, aluminum hydroxide, calcium silicates and polyamide powder, or mixtures of these substances. Sprays can additionally contain customary propellants, such as chlorofluorohydrocarbons and volatile unsubstituted hydrocarbons, such as butane and propane.

Transdermal patches have the added advantage of providing controlled delivery of a compound of the present invention to the body. Such dosage forms can be made by dissolving or dispersing the active compound in the proper medium. Absorption enhancers can also be used to increase the flux of the compound across the skin. The rate of such flux can be controlled by either providing a rate controlling membrane or dispersing the compound in a polymer matrix or gel.

Ophthalmic formulations, eye ointments, powders, solutions and the like, are also contemplated as being within the scope of this invention. Exemplary ophthalmic formulations are described in U.S. Publication Nos. 2005/0080056, 2005/0059744, 2005/0031697 and 2005/004074 and U.S. Patent No. 6,583,124, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference. If desired, liquid ophthalmic formulations have properties similar to that of lacrimal fluids, aqueous humor or vitreous humor or are compatible with such fluids. A preferred route of administration is local administration (e.g., topical administration, such as eye drops, or administration via an implant).

The phrases "parenteral administration" and "administered parenterally" as used herein means modes of administration other than enteral and topical administration, usually by injection, and includes, without limitation, intravenous, intramuscular, intraarterial, intrathecal, intracapsular, intraorbital, intracardiac, intradermal, intraperitoneal, transtracheal, subcutaneous, subcuticular, intraarticular, subcapsular, subarachnoid, intraspinal and intrasternal injection and infusion. Pharmaceutical compositions suitable for parenteral administration comprise one or more active compounds in combination with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable sterile isotonic aqueous or nonaqueous solutions, dispersions, suspensions or emulsions, or sterile powders which may be reconstituted into sterile injectable solutions or dispersions just prior to use, which may contain antioxidants, buffers, bacteriostats, solutes which render the formulation isotonic with the blood of the intended recipient or suspending or thickening agents.

Examples of suitable aqueous and nonaqueous carriers that may be employed in the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention include water, ethanol, polyols (such as glycerol, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, and the like), and suitable mixtures thereof, vegetable oils, such as olive oil, and injectable organic esters, such as ethyl oleate. Proper fluidity can be maintained, for example, by the use of coating materials, such as lecithin, by the maintenance of the required particle size in the case of dispersions, and by the use of surfactants.

These compositions may also contain adjuvants such as preservatives, wetting agents, emulsifying agents and dispersing agents. Prevention of the action of microorganisms may be ensured by the inclusion of various antibacterial and antifungal agents, for example, paraben, chlorobutanol, phenol sorbic acid, and the like. It may also be desirable to include isotonic agents, such as sugars, sodium chloride, and the like into the compositions. In addition, prolonged absorption of the injectable pharmaceutical form may be brought about by the inclusion of agents that delay absorption such as aluminum monostearate and gelatin.

In some cases, in order to prolong the effect of a drug, it is desirable to slow the absorption of the drug from subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. This may be accomplished by the use of a liquid suspension of crystalline or amorphous material having poor water solubility. The rate of absorption of the drug then depends upon its rate of dissolution, which, in turn, may depend upon crystal size and crystalline form. Alternatively, delayed absorption of a parenterally administered drug form is accomplished by dissolving or suspending the drug in an oil vehicle.

Injectable depot forms are made by forming microencapsulated matrices of the subject compounds in biodegradable polymers such as polylactide-polyglycolide. Depending on the ratio of drug to polymer, and the nature of the particular polymer employed, the rate of drug release can be controlled. Examples of other biodegradable polymers include poly(orthoesters) and poly (anhydrides). Depot injectable formulations are also prepared by entrapping the drug in liposomes or microemulsions that are compatible with body tissue.

For use in the methods of this invention, active compounds can be given per se or as a pharmaceutical composition containing, for example, 0.1 to 99.5% (more preferably, 0.5 to 90%) of active ingredient in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

Methods of introduction may also be provided by rechargeable or biodegradable devices. Various slow release polymeric devices have been developed and tested in vivo in recent years for the controlled delivery of drugs, including proteinacious biopharmaceuticals. A variety of biocompatible polymers (including hydrogels), including both biodegradable and non-degradable polymers, can be used to form an implant for the sustained release of a compound at a particular target site.

Actual dosage levels of the active ingredients in the pharmaceutical compositions may be varied so as to obtain an amount of the active ingredient that is effective to achieve the desired therapeutic response for a particular patient, composition, and mode of administration, without being toxic to the patient.

The selected dosage level will depend upon a variety of factors including the activity of the particular compound or combination of compounds employed, or the ester, salt or amide thereof, the route of administration, the time of administration, the rate of excretion of the particular compound(s) being employed, the duration of the treatment, other drugs, compounds and/or materials used in combination with the particular compound(s) employed, the age, sex, weight, condition, general health and prior medical history of the patient being treated, and like factors well known in the medical arts.

A physician or veterinarian having ordinary skill in the art can readily determine and prescribe the therapeutically effective amount of the pharmaceutical composition required. For example, the physician or veterinarian could start doses of the pharmaceutical composition or compound at levels lower than that required in order to achieve the desired therapeutic effect and gradually increase the dosage until the desired effect is achieved. By “therapeutically effective amount” is meant the concentration of a compound that is sufficient to elicit the desired therapeutic effect. It is generally understood that the effective amount of the compound will vary according to the weight, sex, age, and medical history of the subject. Other factors which influence the effective amount may include, but are not limited to, the severity of the patient's condition, the disorder being treated, the stability of the compound, and, if desired, another type of therapeutic agent being administered with the compound of the invention. A larger total dose can be delivered by multiple administrations of the agent. Methods to determine efficacy and dosage are known to those skilled in the art (Isselbacher et al. (1996) Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine 13 ed., 1814-1882, herein incorporated by reference).

In general, a suitable daily dose of an active compound used in the compositions and methods of the invention will be that amount of the compound that is the lowest dose effective to produce a therapeutic effect. Such an effective dose will generally depend upon the factors described above.

If desired, the effective daily dose of the active compound may be administered as one, two, three, four, five, six or more sub-doses administered separately at appropriate intervals throughout the day, optionally, in unit dosage forms. In certain embodiments of the present invention, the active compound may be administered two or three times daily. In preferred embodiments, the active compound will be administered once daily.

The patient receiving this treatment is any animal in need, including primates, in particular humans, and other mammals such as equines, cattle, swine and sheep; and poultry and pets in general.

In certain embodiments, compounds of the invention may be used alone or conjointly administered with another type of therapeutic agent. As used herein, the phrase “conjoint administration” refers to any form of administration of two or more different therapeutic compounds such that the second compound is administered while the previously administered therapeutic compound is still effective in the body (e.g., the two compounds are simultaneously effective in the patient, which may include synergistic effects of the two compounds). For example, the different therapeutic compounds can be administered either in the same formulation or in a separate formulation, either concomitantly or sequentially. In certain embodiments, the different therapeutic compounds can be administered within one hour, 12 hours, 24 hours, 36 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, or a week of one another. Thus, an individual who receives such treatment can benefit from a combined effect of different therapeutic compounds.

In certain embodiments, conjoint administration of compounds of the invention with one or more additional therapeutic agent(s) (e.g., one or more additional chemotherapeutic agent(s)) provides improved efficacy relative to each individual administration of the compound of the invention (e.g., compounds of Table 1A or IB) or the one or more additional therapeutic agent(s). In certain such embodiments, the conjoint administration provides an additive effect, wherein an additive effect refers to the sum of each of the effects of individual administration of the compound of the invention and the one or more additional therapeutic agent(s).

This invention includes the use of pharmaceutically acceptable salts of compounds of the invention in the compositions and methods of the present invention. The term “pharmaceutically acceptable salt” as used herein includes salts derived from inorganic or organic acids including, for example, hydrochloric, hydrobromic, sulfuric, nitric, perchloric, phosphoric, formic, acetic, lactic, maleic, fumaric, succinic, tartaric, glycolic, salicylic, citric, methanesulfonic, benzenesulfonic, benzoic, malonic, trifluoroacetic, trichloroacetic, naphthalene-2-sulfonic, and other acids. Pharmaceutically acceptable salt forms can include forms wherein the ratio of molecules comprising the salt is not 1 :1. For example, the salt may comprise more than one inorganic or organic acid molecule per molecule of base, such as two hydrochloric acid molecules per molecule of compounds of Tables 1A, IB, and 2. As another example, the salt may comprise less than one inorganic or organic acid molecule per molecule of base, such as two molecules of compounds of Tables 1A, IB, and 2 per molecule of tartaric acid.

In further embodiments, contemplated salts of the invention include, but are not limited to, alkyl, dialkyl, trialkyl or tetra-alkyl ammonium salts. In certain embodiments, contemplated salts of the invention include, but are not limited to, L-arginine, benenthamine, benzathine, betaine, calcium hydroxide, choline, deanol, diethanolamine, diethylamine, 2- (diethylamino)ethanol, ethanolamine, ethylenediamine, N-methylglucamine, hydrabamine, IH-imidazole, lithium, L-lysine, magnesium, 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)morpholine, piperazine, potassium, l-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidine, sodium, triethanolamine, tromethamine, and zinc salts. In certain embodiments, contemplated salts of the invention include, but are not limited to, Na, Ca, K, Mg, Zn or other metal salts.

The pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts can also exist as various solvates, such as with water, methanol, ethanol, dimethylformamide, and the like. Mixtures of such solvates can also be prepared. The source of such solvate can be from the solvent of crystallization, inherent in the solvent of preparation or crystallization, or adventitious to such solvent.

Wetting agents, emulsifiers and lubricants, such as sodium lauryl sulfate and magnesium stearate, as well as coloring agents, release agents, coating agents, sweetening, flavoring and perfuming agents, preservatives and antioxidants can also be present in the compositions. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable antioxidants include: (1) water-soluble antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, cysteine hydrochloride, sodium bisulfate, sodium metabisulfite, sodium sulfite and the like; (2) oil-soluble antioxidants, such as ascorbyl palmitate, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), lecithin, propyl gallate, alpha-tocopherol, and the like; and (3) metal-chelating agents, such as citric acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), sorbitol, tartaric acid, phosphoric acid, and the like.

IV, DEFINITIONS

For purposes of the present invention, the following definitions will be used (unless expressly stated otherwise):

As used herein, the term “acyl” is art-recognized and refers to a group represented by the general formula hydrocarbylC(O)-, preferably alkylC(O)-.

As used herein, the term “alkoxy” refers to an alkyl group, preferably a lower alkyl group, having an oxygen attached thereto. Representative alkoxy groups include methoxy, - OCF 3 , ethoxy, propoxy, tert-butoxy and the like.

As used herein, the term “alkenyl”, as used herein, refers to an aliphatic group containing at least one double bond and is intended to include both "unsubstituted alkenyls" and "substituted alkenyls", the latter of which refers to alkenyl moieties having substituents replacing a hydrogen on one or more carbons of the alkenyl group. Such substituents may occur on one or more carbons that are included or not included in one or more double bonds. Moreover, such substituents include all those contemplated for alkyl groups, as discussed below, except where stability is prohibitive. For example, substitution of alkenyl groups by one or more alkyl, carbocyclyl, aryl, heterocyclyl, or heteroaryl groups is contemplated.

As used herein, an “alkyl” group or “alkane” is a straight chained or branched non- aromatic hydrocarbon which is completely saturated. Typically, a straight chained or branched alkyl group has from 1 to about 20 carbon atoms, preferably from 1 to about 10 unless otherwise defined. Examples of straight chained and branched alkyl groups include methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, iso-propyl, n-butyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, hexyl, pentyl and octyl. A Ci-Ce straight chained or branched alkyl group is also referred to as a "lower alkyl" group.

Moreover, the term "alkyl" (or "lower alkyl") as used throughout the specification, examples, and claims is intended to include both "unsubstituted alkyls" and "substituted alkyls", the latter of which refers to alkyl moieties having substituents replacing a hydrogen on one or more carbons of the hydrocarbon backbone. Such substituents, if not otherwise specified, can include, for example, a halogen, a hydroxyl, a carbonyl (such as a carboxyl, an alkoxycarbonyl, a formyl, or an acyl), a thiocarbonyl (such as a thioester, a thioacetate, or a thioformate), an alkoxyl, a phosphoryl, a phosphate, a phosphonate, a phosphinate, an amino, an amido, an amidine, an imine, a cyano, a nitro, an azido, a sulfhydryl, an alkylthio, a sulfate, a sulfonate, a sulfamoyl, a sulfonamido, a sulfonyl, a heterocyclyl, an aralkyl, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic moiety. It will be understood by those skilled in the art that the moieties substituted on the hydrocarbon chain can themselves be substituted, if appropriate. For instance, the substituents of a substituted alkyl may include substituted and unsubstituted forms of amino, azido, imino, amido, phosphoryl (including phosphonate and phosphinate), sulfonyl (including sulfate, sulfonamido, sulfamoyl and sulfonate), and silyl groups, as well as ethers, alkylthios, carbonyls (including ketones, aldehydes, carboxylates, and esters), -CF 3 , -CN and the like. Exemplary substituted alkyls are described below. Cycloalkyls can be further substituted with alkyls, alkenyls, alkoxys, alkylthios, aminoalkyls, carbonyl- substituted alkyls, -CF 3 , -CN, and the like.

As used herein, the term “C x-y ” when used in conjunction with a chemical moiety, such as, acyl, acyloxy, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, or alkoxy is meant to include groups that contain from x to y carbons in the chain. For example, the term “C x-y alkyl” refers to substituted or unsubstituted saturated hydrocarbon groups, including straight-chain alkyl and branched-chain alkyl groups that contain from x to y carbons in the chain, including haloalkyl groups such as trifluoromethyl and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl, etc. Co alkyl indicates a hydrogen where the group is in a terminal position, a bond if internal. The terms “C 2-y alkenyl” and “C 2- y alkynyl” refer to substituted or unsubstituted unsaturated aliphatic groups analogous in length and possible substitution to the alkyls described above, but that contain at least one double or triple bond respectively.

As used herein, the term “alkynyl”, as used herein, refers to an aliphatic group containing at least one triple bond and is intended to include both "unsubstituted alkynyls" and "substituted alkynyls", the latter of which refers to alkynyl moieties having substituents replacing a hydrogen on one or more carbons of the alkynyl group. Such substituents may occur on one or more carbons that are included or not included in one or more triple bonds. Moreover, such substituents include all those contemplated for alkyl groups, as discussed above, except where stability is prohibitive. For example, substitution of alkynyl groups by one or more alkyl, carbocyclyl, aryl, heterocyclyl, or heteroaryl groups is contemplated.

As used herein, the term “amide”, as used herein, refers to a group wherein each R 10 independently represent a hydrogen or hydrocarbyl group, or two R 10 are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached complete a heterocycle having from 4 to 8 atoms in the ring structure.

As used herein, the terms “amine” and “amino” are art-recognized and refer to both unsubstituted and substituted amines and salts thereof, e.g., a moiety that can be represented by 1 1 0 0 wherein each R 10 independently represents a hydrogen or a hydrocarbyl group, or two R 10 are taken together with the N atom to which they are attached complete a heterocycle having from 4 to 8 atoms in the ring structure.

As used herein, the term “aryl” as used herein include substituted or unsubstituted single-ring aromatic groups in which each atom of the ring is carbon. Preferably the ring is a 5- to 7-membered ring, more preferably a 6-membered ring. The term “aryl” also includes polycyclic ring systems having two or more cyclic rings in which two or more carbons are common to two adjoining rings wherein at least one of the rings is aromatic, e.g., the other cyclic rings can be cycloalkyls, cycloalkenyls, cycloalkynyls, aryls, heteroaryls, and/or heterocyclyls. Aryl groups include benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, phenol, aniline, and the like.

As used herein, the terms “carbocycle”, and “carbocyclic”, as used herein, refers to a saturated or unsaturated ring in which each atom of the ring is carbon. The term carbocycle includes both aromatic carbocycles and non-aromatic carbocycles. Non-aromatic carbocycles include both cycloalkane rings, in which all carbon atoms are saturated, and cycloalkene rings, which contain at least one double bond. “Carbocycle” includes 3-7 membered monocyclic and 8-12 membered bicyclic rings. Each ring of a bicyclic carbocycle may be selected from saturated, unsaturated and aromatic rings. Carbocycle includes bicyclic molecules in which one, two or three or more atoms are shared between the two rings. The term “fused carbocycle” refers to a bicyclic carbocycle in which each of the rings shares two adjacent atoms with the other ring. Each ring of a fused carbocycle may be selected from saturated, unsaturated and aromatic rings. In an exemplary embodiment, an aromatic ring, e.g., phenyl, may be fused to a saturated or unsaturated ring, e.g., cyclohexane, cyclopentane, or cyclohexene. Any combination of saturated, unsaturated and aromatic bicyclic rings, as valence permits, is included in the definition of carbocyclic. Exemplary “carbocycles” include cyclopentane, cyclohexane, bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane, 1,5-cyclooctadiene, 1, 2,3,4- tetrahydronaphthalene, bicyclo[4.2.0]oct-3-ene, naphthalene and adamantane. Exemplary fused carbocycles include decalin, naphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, bicyclo[4.2.0]octane, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-lH-indene and bicyclo[4.1.0]hept-3-ene. “Carbocycles” may be susbstituted at any one or more positions capable of bearing a hydrogen atom.

As used herein, a “cycloalkyl” group is a cyclic hydrocarbon which is completely saturated. “Cycloalkyl” includes monocyclic and bicyclic rings. Typically, a monocyclic cycloalkyl group has from 3 to about 10 carbon atoms, more typically 3 to 8 carbon atoms unless otherwise defined. The second ring of a bicyclic cycloalkyl may be selected from saturated, unsaturated and aromatic rings. Cycloalkyl includes bicyclic molecules in which one, two or three or more atoms are shared between the two rings. The term “fused cycloalkyl” refers to a bicyclic cycloalkyl in which each of the rings shares two adjacent atoms with the other ring. The second ring of a fused bicyclic cycloalkyl may be selected from saturated, unsaturated and aromatic rings. A “cycloalkenyl” group is a cyclic hydrocarbon containing one or more double bonds.

As used herein, the terms “halo” and “halogen” as used herein means halogen and includes chloro, fluoro, bromo, and iodo.

As used herein, the terms “hetaralkyl” and “heteroaralkyl”, as used herein, refers to an alkyl group substituted with a hetaryl group.

As used herein, the term "heteroalkyl", as used herein, refers to a saturated or unsaturated chain of carbon atoms and at least one heteroatom, wherein no two heteroatoms are adjacent.

As used herein, the terms “heteroaryl” and “hetaryl” include substituted or unsubstituted aromatic single ring structures, preferably 5- to 7-membered rings, more preferably 5- to 6-membered rings, whose ring structures include at least one heteroatom, preferably one to four heteroatoms, more preferably one or two heteroatoms. The terms “heteroaryl” and “hetaryl” also include polycyclic ring systems having two or more cyclic rings in which two or more carbons are common to two adjoining rings wherein at least one of the rings is heteroaromatic, e.g., the other cyclic rings can be cycloalkyls, cycloalkenyls, cycloalkynyls, aryls, heteroaryls, and/or heterocyclyls. Heteroaryl groups include, for example, pyrrole, furan, thiophene, imidazole, oxazole, thiazole, pyrazole, pyridine, pyrazine, pyridazine, and pyrimidine, and the like.

As used herein, the term “heteroatom” as used herein means an atom of any element other than carbon or hydrogen. Preferred heteroatoms are nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur.

As used herein, the terms “heterocyclyl”, “heterocycle”, and “heterocyclic” refer to substituted or unsubstituted non-aromatic ring structures, preferably 3- to 10-membered rings, more preferably 3- to 7-membered rings, whose ring structures include at least one heteroatom, preferably one to four heteroatoms, more preferably one or two heteroatoms. The terms “heterocyclyl” and “heterocyclic” also include polycyclic ring systems having two or more cyclic rings in which two or more carbons are common to two adjoining rings wherein at least one of the rings is heterocyclic, e.g., the other cyclic rings can be cycloalkyls, cycloalkenyls, cycloalkynyls, aryls, heteroaryls, and/or heterocyclyls. Heterocyclyl groups include, for example, piperidine, piperazine, pyrrolidine, morpholine, lactones, lactams, and the like. Heterocyclyl groups can also be substituted by oxo groups. For example, “heterocyclyl” encompasses both pyrrolidine and pyrrolidinone.

As used herein, the term “hydrocarbyl”, as used herein, refers to a group that is bonded through a carbon atom that does not have a =0 or =S substituent, and typically has at least one carbon-hydrogen bond and a primarily carbon backbone, but may optionally include heteroatoms. Thus, groups like methyl, ethoxyethyl, 2-pyridyl, and trifluoromethyl are considered to be hydrocarbyl for the purposes of this application, but substituents such as acetyl (which has a =0 substituent on the linking carbon) and ethoxy (which is linked through oxygen, not carbon) are not. Hydrocarbyl groups include, but are not limited to aryl, heteroaryl, carbocycle, heterocyclyl, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, and combinations thereof.

As used herein, the term “hydroxyalkyl”, as used herein, refers to an alkyl group substituted with a hydroxy group.

As used herein, the term “lower” when used in conjunction with a chemical moiety, such as, acyl, acyloxy, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, or alkoxy is meant to include groups where there are ten or fewer non-hydrogen atoms in the substituent, preferably six or fewer. A “lower alkyl”, for example, refers to an alkyl group that contains ten or fewer carbon atoms, preferably six or fewer. In certain embodiments, acyl, acyloxy, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, or alkoxy substituents defined herein are respectively lower acyl, lower acyloxy, lower alkyl, lower alkenyl, lower alkynyl, or lower alkoxy, whether they appear alone or in combination with other substituents, such as in the recitations hydroxyalkyl and aralkyl (in which case, for example, the atoms within the aryl group are not counted when counting the carbon atoms in the alkyl substituent). As used herein, the term “oxo” refers to a carbonyl group. When an oxo substituent occurs on an otherwise saturated group, such as with an oxo-substituted cycloalkyl group (e.g., 3-oxo-cyclobutyl), the substituted group is still intended to be a saturated group. When a group is referred to as being substituted by an “oxo” group, this can mean that a carbonyl moiety (i.e., -C(=O)-) replaces a methylene unit (i.e., -CH2-). As used herein, the terms “polycyclyl”, “polycycle”, and “polycyclic” refer to two or more rings (e.g., cycloalkyls, cycloalkenyls, cycloalkynyls, aryls, heteroaryls, and/or heterocyclyls) in which two or more atoms are common to two adj oining rings, e.g., the rings are “fused rings”. Each of the rings of the polycycle can be substituted or unsubstituted. In certain embodiments, each ring of the poly cycle contains from 3 to 10 atoms in the ring, preferably from 5 to 7. As used herein, the term “substituted” refers to moieties having substituents replacing a hydrogen on one or more carbons of the backbone. It will be understood that “substitution” or “substituted with” includes the implicit proviso that such substitution is in accordance with permitted valence of the substituted atom and the substituent, and that the substitution results in a stable compound, e.g., which does not spontaneously undergo transformation such as by rearrangement, cyclization, elimination, etc. As used herein, the term “substituted” is contemplated to include all permissible substituents of organic compounds. In a broad aspect, the permissible substituents include acyclic and cyclic, branched and unbranched, carbocyclic and heterocyclic, aromatic and non-aromatic substituents of organic compounds. The permissible substituents can be one or more and the same or different for appropriate organic compounds. For purposes of this invention, the heteroatoms such as nitrogen may have hydrogen substituents and/or any permissible substituents of organic compounds described herein which satisfy the valences of the heteroatoms. Substituents can include any substituents described herein, for example, a halogen, a hydroxyl, a carbonyl (such as a carboxyl, an alkoxycarbonyl, a formyl, or an acyl), a thiocarbonyl (such as a thioester, a thioacetate, or a thioformate), an alkoxyl, a phosphoryl, a phosphate, a phosphonate, a phosphinate, an amino, an amido, an amidine, an imine, a cyano, a nitro, an azido, a sulfhydryl, an alkylthio, a sulfate, a sulfonate, a sulfamoyl, a sulfonamido, a sulfonyl, a heterocyclyl, an aralkyl, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic moiety. It will be understood by those skilled in the art that substituents can themselves be substituted, if appropriate. Unless specifically stated as “unsubstituted,” references to chemical moieties herein are understood to include substituted variants. For example, reference to an “aryl” group or moiety implicitly includes both substituted and unsubstituted variants.

As used herein, the term "administering" means the actual physical introduction of a composition into or onto (as appropriate) a subject. Any and all methods of introducing the composition into subject are contemplated according to the invention; the method is not dependent on any particular means of introduction and is not to be so construed. Means of introduction are well-known to those skilled in the art, and also are exemplified herein.

As used herein, the terms "effective amount", "effective dose", "sufficient amount", "amount effective to", "therapeutically effective amount" or grammatical equivalents thereof mean a dosage sufficient to produce a desired result, to ameliorate, or in some manner, reduce a symptom or stop or reverse progression of a condition and provide either a subjective relief of a symptom(s) or an objectively identifiable improvement as noted by a clinician or other qualified observer. Amelioration of a symptom of a particular condition by administration of a pharmaceutical composition described herein refers to any lessening, whether permanent or temporary, lasting, or transitory, that can be associated with the administration of the pharmaceutical composition.

As used herein, the term "prodrug" is intended to encompass compounds which, under physiologic conditions, are converted into the therapeutically active agents of the present invention. A common method for making a prodrug is to include one or more selected moieties which are hydrolyzed under physiologic conditions to reveal the desired molecule. In other embodiments, the prodrug is converted by an enzymatic activity of the host animal. For example, esters or carbonates (e.g., esters or carbonates of alcohols or carboxylic acids) are preferred prodrugs of the present invention. In certain embodiments, some or all of the compounds in a formulation represented above can be replaced with the corresponding suitable prodrug, e.g., wherein a hydroxyl in the parent compound is presented as an ester or a carbonate or carboxylic acid present in the parent compound is presented as an ester.

As used herein, the term "pharmaceutically acceptable" refers to compositions that are physiologically tolerable and do not typically produce an allergic or similar untoward reaction when administered to a subject, preferably a human subject. Preferably, as used herein, the term "pharmaceutically acceptable" means approved by a regulatory agency of a federal or state government or listed in the U.S. Pharmacopeia or other generally recognized pharmacopeia for use in animals, and more particularly in humans. As used herein, the phrase "pharmaceutically acceptable carrier" means a pharmaceutically acceptable material, composition or vehicle, such as a liquid or solid filler, diluent, excipient, solvent or encapsulating material. Each carrier must be "acceptable" in the sense of being compatible with the other ingredients of the formulation and not injurious to the patient. Some examples of materials which can serve as pharmaceutically acceptable carriers include: (1) sugars, such as lactose, glucose and sucrose; (2) starches, such as corn starch and potato starch; (3) cellulose, and its derivatives, such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, ethyl cellulose and cellulose acetate; (4) powdered tragacanth; (5) malt; (6) gelatin; (7) talc; (8) excipients, such as cocoa butter and suppository waxes; (9) oils, such as peanut oil, cottonseed oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, olive oil, corn oil and soybean oil; (10) glycols, such as propylene glycol; (11) polyols, such as glycerin, sorbitol, mannitol and polyethylene glycol; (12) esters, such as ethyl oleate and ethyl laurate; (13) agar; (14) buffering agents, such as magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide; (15) alginic acid; (16) pyrogen-free water; (17) isotonic saline; (18) Ringer's solution; (19) ethyl alcohol; (20) phosphate buffer solutions; and (21) other non-toxic compatible substances employed in pharmaceutical formulations.

As used herein, a therapeutic that “prevents” a disorder or condition refers to a compound that, in a statistical sample, reduces the occurrence of the disorder or condition in the treated sample relative to an untreated control sample, or delays the onset or reduces the severity of one or more symptoms of the disorder or condition relative to the untreated control sample.

As used herein, a “subject” means a human or animal (in the case of an animal, more typically a mammal). In one aspect, the subject is a human.

As used herein, the term “treating” is art-recognized and includes administration to the host of one or more of the subject compositions, e.g., to diminish, ameliorate, or stabilize the existing unwanted condition or side effects thereof. All definitions, as defined and used herein, should be understood to control over dictionary definitions, definitions in documents incorporated by reference, and/or ordinary meanings of the defined terms.

EXAMPLES

Example 1 : Synthesis of Compound 1. Scheme 1

CO

As depicted in FIG. 1, Compound 1 has an IC 50 = 105 nM in an in vitro NNMT enzyme inhibition assay.

Example 2: Synthesis of Compound 11.

Scheme 2

Compound 2

To a stirred mixture of 4-chloro-2-fluoro-pyridine (5.0 g, 38.17 mmol, 1.00 equiv) in THF (20.0 mL) at -78 °C was added dropwise a solution of n-butyllithium (2.5 M in hexane, 18.3 mL, 45.80 mmol, 1.20 equiv) under N2 atmosphere. The resulting mixture was stirred at this temperature for 0.5 h. To this at -78 °C was added Cui (290.0 mg, 1.53 mmol, 0.04 equiv) and a solution of tert-butyl 2,2-dioxooxathiazolidine-3-carboxylate (8.1 g, 34.4 mmol, 0.90 equiv) in THF (20.0 mL) and the mixture was stirred at this temperature for 0.5 h. The resulting mixture was quenched with citric acid solution and extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was dried over Na 2 SO 4 and concentrated under vacuum. The residue was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (0-60% EtOAc in petroleum ether) to afford tert-butyl N-[rac-(lR)-2-(4-chloro-6-fluoro-3,4-dihydropyridin-5-yl)-l- methyl- ethyl] carbamate (4.8 g, 17.5%) as a white solid. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.05 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.45 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H), 6.86 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 1H), 3.97-3.71 (m, 1H), 2.79 (d, J= 7.2 Hz, 2H), 1.34-1.13 (m, 9H), 1.09 (d, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H). MS (ESI, m/z): 289, 291 (M + H) + .

Compound 2 has an IC 50 = 53-150 nM in an in vitro NNMT enzyme inhibition assay.

Compound 3

A mixture of tert-butyl N-[rac-(lR)-2-(4-chloro-6-fluoro-3,4-dihydropyridin-5-yl)-l- methyl-ethyl]carbamate (4.8 g, 16.70 mmol, 1.00 equiv) and TFA (10.0 mL, 134.77 mmol, 8.07 equiv) in DCM (10.0 mL) was stirred at ambient temperature for 2 h and the concentrated under vacuum to afford (R)-l-(4-chloro-2-fluoropyridin-3-yl)propan-2-amine 2,2,2-trifluoroacetate (crude, 4.2 g) as a light yellow oil, which was used for the next step without further purification. MS (ESI, m/z). 189, 191 (M + H) + .

Compound 4

A mixture of (R)-l-(4-chloro-2-fluoropyri din-3 -yl)propan-2-amine 2,2,2- trifluoroacetate (4.2 g, 13.91 mmol, 1.00 equiv) and TEA (7.0 g, 13.91 mmol, 5.00 equiv) in DMF (50.0 mL) was stirred at 80 °C for 16 h and then concentrated under vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography on C18 gel (0-60% acetonitrile in water (contained 0.05% NH 4 HCO 3 )) to afford (R)-4-chloro-2-methyl-2,3-dihydro-lH- pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (1.3 g, 55.8%) as a light yellow solid. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.63 (d, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H), 7.01 (brs, 1H), 6.44 (d, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.03-3.89 (m, 1H), 3.23- 3.09 (m, 1H), 2.58-2.51 (m, 1H), 1.19 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H). MS (ESI, m/z). 169, 171 (M + H) +

Compound 5

A mixture of (R)-4-chloro-2-methyl-2,3-dihydro-lH-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (1.0 g, 5.95 mmol, 1.00 equiv) and NIS (1.61 g, 7.14 mmol, 1.20 equiv) in acetonitrile (10.0 mL) was stirred at ambient temperature for 4 h. The resulting mixture was diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc 3 times. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over Na 2 SO 4 and concentrated under vacuum. The residue was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (0-30% EtOAc in petroleum ether) to afford (R)-4-chloro-5- iodo-2-methyl-2,3-dihydro-lH-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (860.0 mg, 49.1%) as a yellow solid. 1 H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.99 (s, 1H), 7.15 (brs, 1H), 4.06-3.89 (m, 1H), 3.30-3.12 (m, 1H), 2.70-2.54 (m, 1H), 1.19 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H). MS (ESI, m/z). 295, 297 (M + H) + . Compound 6

A mixture of (R)-4-chloro-5-iodo-2-methyl-2,3-dihydro-lH-pyrrolo[2,3-b]py ridine (700.0 mg, 2.38 mmol, 1.00 equiv), Zn(CN) 2 (473.6 mg, 4.05 mmol, 1.70 equiv), and Pd(PPh3)4 (277.2 mg, 0.24 mmol, 0.10 equiv) in NMP (7.0 mL) was stirred at 120 °C for 8 h under N2 atmosphere. The resulting mixture was diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc 3 times. The organic layers were combined, washed with brine and concentrated under vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography on C18 gel (0-80% acetonitrile in water (contained 0.05% NH 4 HCO 3 )) to afford (R)-4-chloro-2-methyl-2,3- dihydro-lH-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine-5-carbonitrile (350.0 mg, 76.1%) as a white solid. T H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.24 (brs, 1H), 8.19 (s, 1H), 4.17-4.04 (m, 1H), 3.31-3.16 (m, 1H), 2.71-2.56 (m, 1H), 1.22 (d, J= 6.2 Hz, 3H). MS (ESI, m/z). 194, 196 (M + H) + .

Compound 7

A mixture of (2R)-4-chloro-2-methyl-2,3-dihydro-lH-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine -5- carbonitrile (100.0 mg, 0.52 mmol, 1.00 equiv) and concentrated sulfuric acid (1.0 ml) was stirred at 60 °C for 3 h. The resulting mixture was diluted with water and basified with NaOH (IM) at 0 °C to pH 10 and extracted with DCM. The organic layer was dried over Na 2 SO 4 and concentrated under vacuum to afford (2R)-4-chloro-2-methyl-2,3-dihydro-lH- pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine-5-carboxamide (crude, 100.0 mg) as a white solid, which was used for the next step without further purification. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.88 (s, 1H), 7.58 (brs, 1H), 7.31 (brs, 1H), 7.25 (brs, 1H), 4.08-3.90 (m, 1H), 3.28-3.10 (m, 1H), 2.63-2.50 (m, 1H), 1.19 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H). MS (ESI, m/z). 212, 214 (M + H) + .

Compound 11

To a stirred solution of (2R)-4-chloro-2-methyl-2,3-dihydro-lH-pyrrolo[2,3- b]pyridine-5-carboxamide (80.0 mg, 0.38 mmol, 1.00 equiv) and Pd/C (wet, 10%, 40.0 mg) in EtOH (6.0 mL) at ambient temperature was added ammonium formate (71.8 mg, 1.14 mmol, 3.00 equiv) in portions. The resulting mixture was stirred at 70 °C for 3 h and then filtered through a pad of celite. The filtrate was concentrated under vacuum. The residue was purified by Prep-HPLC to afford (2R)- 2-methyl-2,3-dihydro-lH-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine-5-carboxamide (18.4 mg) as a white solid. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.27 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.67-7.49 (m, 2H), 7.12 (s, 1H), 6.97 (brs, 1H), 4.04-3.89 (m, 1H), 3.20-3.07 (m, 1H), 2.58-2.51 (m, 1H), 1.18 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H). MS (ESI, m/z). 178 (M + H) + . Example 3: Synthesis of Additional Compounds.

Compound 2 is prepared by the synthetic route outlined in Scheme 3:

Scheme 3

Compound 2

Compound 3 is prepared by the synthetic route outlined in Scheme 4:

Scheme 4

Compound 5 is prepared by the synthetic route outlined in Scheme 5:

Scheme 5 co

Pd(AcO) 2

Compound 6 is prepared by the synthetic route outlined in Scheme 6:

Scheme 6 co

Pd(AcO) 2

XantPhos

Compound 6

Compound 7 is prepared by the synthetic route outlined in Scheme 7:

Scheme 7

Compound 8 is prepared by the synthetic route outlined in Scheme 8:

Scheme 8 co Pd(AcO) 2 XantPhos

Compound 8

Compound 15 is prepared by the synthetic route outlined in Scheme 9:

Scheme 9

Compound 15

Compound 16 is prepared by the synthetic route outlined in Scheme 10:

Scheme 10

Compound 16

Compound 18 is prepared by the synthetic route outlined in Scheme 11 :

Scheme 11

Chiral chromatography was employed to separate the enantiomers of compound 18, i.e. compounds 19A and 19B. Chiral separation of 24 mg of compound 18 by HPLC under basic conditions provided 5.9 mg of the first enantiomer identified by a first peak (Peak-1 : rt= 2.134 min, ee=100%, chemical purity=99.62%) and 4.8 mg of the second enantiomer identified by a second peak (Peak-2: 2.933 min, ee=99.65%, chemical purity=99.60%). The prep-HPLC conditions are provided below.

Compound 21 is prepared by the synthetic route outlined in Scheme 12:

Scheme 12 Compound 24 is prepared by the synthetic route outlined in Scheme 13:

Scheme 13

Compound 28 is prepared by the synthetic route outlined in Scheme 14:

Scheme 14

Compound 26B was prepared by the synthetic route outlined in Scheme 15:

Scheme 15 Example 4: Biological Data

NNMT biochemical activity for was evaluated using the Promega Mtase-Glo Methyltransferase Assay kit. Assays were performed in a white, flat-bottomed 96 well plate. Each reaction well had a final volume of 20 μL and contained 40 nM recombinant human NNMT, 8 μM nicotinamide, and 6.7 μM SAM in 1 X Reaction Buffer ( 20 mM Tris buffer pH 8.0, 0.50 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, 3 mM MgCh, 0.1 mg/mL BSA, ImM DTT). Reactions were performed for 20 minutes at room temperature. MTase-Glo reagent and MTase-Glo detection solution were added according to manufacturer’s instructions and luminescence signal measured with a SpectraMax i3 plate reader and data analyzed with GraphPad Prism version 9. Scheme 16 depicts a visual summary of the Promega MTase-Glo Methyltransferase assay used to assess biochemical activity of novel inhibitors.

NNMT biochemical activity for was also evaluated for Compounds 11 (IC 50 = 35-42 nM), 18 (IC 50 = 848 nM), 19A (IC 50 = 28-43 nM), and 19B (IC 50 = 5.1 μM). NNMT biochemical activity was also evaluated for Compound 26A (IC 50 = 20 nM).

Scheme 16

Cellular potency was measured in K562 (ATCC) cells via measuring (1 -methyl nicotinamide) 1-MNA levels after compound incubation at varying concentrations overnight. Cells were plated at 1 million per well and were incubated for 24h with compounds at indicated concentrations. Cells were collected by pipetting and extracted with 200ul acetonitrile containing internal deuterated standard 10 ng/ml d4- 1-MNA. Samples were analyzed on an Agilent 64-60 Triple Quad LC/MS with Agilent 1290 Infinity HPLC using a Restek Allure 5 um PPFP column 150 mm x 2.1. The mobile phase A was 2.5 mM ammonium formate in water, and mobile phase B was methanol with 0.1% formic acid, delivered at 0.25 mL/min. The capillary voltage was set to 2400V and the nozzle at 300V. The drying gas temperature was 240°C, the drying gas flow rate was 4 L/min, and the nebulizer pressure was 40 psi. The mass spectrometer was run in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Mass transitions were m/z 137.1 a 94.1 for 1-MNA and m/z 141.1 a 98.1 for t4-MNA.

A cellular potency assay was performed for Compound 11 (IC 50 = 38 nM), 19A (IC 50 = 12 nM). A cellular potency assay was also performed for Compound 26A (IC 50 = 114 nM).

Example 5: Microsomal Stability

Table 3 summarized the results of a metabolic stability assays perfomed with (R)-11 in pooled human and male mouse liver microsomes.

Table 3

A master solution was prepared according to the following table.

40 μL of 10 mM NADPH solution was added to each well. The final concentrations of NADPH was 1 mM. The mixture was pre-warmed at 37°C for 5 minutes. The negative control samples were prepared by replacing NADPH solutions with 40 μL of ultra-pure H2O. The negative control was used to exclude the misleading factor that resulted from instability of chemical itself. Samples with NADPH were prepared in duplicate. Negative controls were prepared in singlet. The reaction was started with the addition of 4 μL of 200 μM control compound or test compound solutions. Verapamil was used as positive control in this study. The final concentration of test compound or control compound was 2 μM. Aliquots of 50 μL were taken from the reaction solution at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. The reaction was stopped by the addition of 4 volumes of cold acetonitrile with IS (100 nM alprazolam, 200 nM imipramine, 200 nM labetalol and 2 μM ketoprofen). Samples were centrifuged at 3, 220 g for 40 minutes. Aliquot of 90 μL of the supernatant was mixed with 90 μL of ultra-pure H2O and then used for LC-MS/MS analysis.

For metabolite standard samples: 1 μL of 400 μM working solution was added to 89 μL master solution following by adding 400 μL of cold acetonitrile with internal standard (IS) (100 nM alprazolam, 200 nM Imipramine, 200 nM labetalol and 2 μM ketoprofen). Then 10 μL of 10 mM NADPH solution or ultra-pure H2O was added to the mixture. Samples were centrifuged at 3,220 g for 40 minutes to precipitate protein. Aliquots of 90 μL supernatant diluted by 90 μL of water was used for LC-MS/MS analysis.

Example 6: Permeability

Table 4 summarizes the results of a permeability assay performed with 11 in Caco-2 cells. Table 5 summarizes the results of a bidirectional assay performed with 11 in Caco-2 cells.

Table 4

Table 5

Preparation of Caco-2 Cells'. 50 μL and 25 mL of cell culture medium were added to each well of the Transwell insert and reservoir, respectively. And then the HTS transwell plates were incubated at 37 °C, 5% CO2 for 1 hour before cell seeding. Caco-2 cells were diluted to 6.86x105 cells/mL with culture medium and 50 μL of cell suspension were dispensed into the filter well of the 96-well HTS Transwell plate. Cells were cultivated for 14-18 days in a cell culture incubator at 37 °C, 5% CO2, 95% relative humidity. Cell culture medium was replaced every other day, beginning no later than 24 hours after initial plating.

Preparation of Stock Solutions'. The stock solutions of control and test compounds were prepared in DMSO at the concentration of 10 mM. Digoxin, Prazosin and propranolol were used as control compounds in this assay.

Assessment of Cell Monolayer Integrity. Medium was removed from the reservoir and each Transwell insert and replaced with prewarmed fresh culture medium. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) across the monolayer was measured using Millicell Epithelial Volt-Ohm measuring system (Millipore, USA). The Plate was returned to the incubator once the measurement was done.

Assay Procedures'. The Caco-2 plate was removed from the incubator and washed twice with pre-warmed HBSS (10 mM HEPES, pH 7.4), and then incubated at 37 °C for 30 minutes. The stock solutions of controls and Test compounds were diluted in DMSO to get 1 mM solutions and then diluted with HBSS (10 mM HEPES, pH 7.4) to get 5μM working solutions. The final concentration of DMSO in the incubation system was 0.5%. To determine the rate of drug transport in the apical to basolateral direction. Add 125 μL of the test compounds to the Transwell insert (apical compartment), and transfer 50 μL sample (DO sample) immediately from the apical compartment to a new 96-well plate. Fill the wells in the receiver plate (basolateral compartment) with 235 μL of HBSS (10 mM HEPES, pH 7.4). To determine the rate of drug transport in the basolateral to apical direction. Add 285 μL of the test compounds to the receiver plate wells (basolateral compartment), and transfer 50 μL sample (DO sample) immediately from the basolateral compartment to a new 96-well plate. Fill the Transwell insert (apical compartment) with 75 μL of HBSS (10 mM HEPES, pH 7.4). Time 0 samples were prepared by transferring 50 μL of 5 μM working solution to wells of the 96-deepwell plate, followed by the addition of 200 μL cold acetonitrile containing appropriate internal standards (100 nM alprazolam, 200 nM labetalol, 200nM caffeine and 200 nM diclofenac). The plates were incuabted at 37 °C for 2 hours. At the end of the incubation, 50 μL samples from donor sides (apical compartment for Ap— >B1 flux, and basolateral compartment for Bl— >Ap) and receiver sides (basolateral compartment for Ap— >B1 flux, and apical compartment for Bl— >Ap) were transferred to wells of a new 96-well plate, followed by the addition of 4 volume of cold methanol containing appropriate internal standards (100 nM alprazolam, 200 nM labetalol, 200nM caffeine and 200 nM diclofenac). Samples were vortexed for 5 minutes and then centrifuged at 3,220 g for 40 minutes. An aliquot of 100 μL of the supernatant was mixed with 100 μL of ultra-pure water to use for LC-MS/MS analysis. To determine the Lucifer Yellow leakage after 2 hour transport period, stock solution of Lucifer yellow was prepared in water and diluted with HBSS (10 mM HEPES, pH 7.4) to reach the final concentration of 100 μM. 100 μL of the Lucifer yellow solution was added to each Transwell insert (apical compartment), followed by filling the wells in the receiver plate (basolateral compartment) with 300 μL of HBSS (10 mM HEPES, pH 7.4). The plates were incubated at 37 °C for 30 minutes. 80 μL samples were removed directly from the apical and basolateral wells (using the basolateral access holes) and transferred to wells of new 96 wells plates. The Lucifer Yellow fluorescence (to monitor monolayer integrity) signal was measured in a fluorescence plate reader at 485 nM excitation and 530 nM emission.

Example 7: Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamics Studies

Table 6A summarizes the results of mouse PK studies perfomed with 11.

Table 6A aFormulation is 0.2% Tween 80, 10% PEG300, b Formulation is 0.2% Tween 80, 20% PEG300

Table 6B summarizes the results of additional mouse PK studies perfomed with 11. Table 6B aFormulation is 0.2% Tween 80, 10% PEG300, b Formulation is 0.2% Tween 80, 20% PEG300

Table 7 summarizes the results of additional mouse PK studies perfomed with 11.

Table 7.

Table 8 summarizes the PK parameters of 1-MNA in mice after dosing with with 11.

Table 8 a Formulation is 0.2% Tween 80, 10% PEG300, b Formulation is 0.2% Tween 80, 20% PEG300

Doses were freshly prepared on the day of dosing. Vehicle compositions of each dose are listed below. For IV, an appropriate amount of the test article was dissolved in the vehicle with vortexing and/or sonication to achieve a solution with the intended concentration level. For PO, an appropriate amount of the test article was dissolved in the appropriate vehicle; vortex and/or sonication can be used to achieve a solution formulation with the intended concentration level.

• IV (Compound): 0.5% Tween 80 in saline

• PO: (a) 0.2% Tween 80 / 10% PEG-300 in water. Adjust pH with 1 N hydrochloric acid to obtain a clear solution or (b) 0.2% Tween 80 / 20% PEG-300 in water. Adjust pH with 1 N hydrochloric acid to obtain a clear solution

The study group and the dosing information are shown in the following table.

Dosing and Route of Administration

After dosing, 0.03 mL blood samples were collected from the dorsal metatarsal vein (0.2 mL at final time point via heart puncture) at the following time points:

IV: pre-dose, 0.0833, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24 hours post dose

PO: pre-dose, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24 hours post dose

Blood from each sample was transferred into plastic micro centrifuge tubes with EDTAK2 as an anticoagulant. The blood samples were centrifuged at 4,000 g for 5 minutes at 4°C to obtain plasma. Samples were immediately frozen in the upright position and stored at -75±15°C prior to analysis.

Samples were analyzed on a AB Sciex Triple Quad 5500 LC/MS/MS instrument using a Gemini 5pm C18 110A 150x3mm column (XBridge BEH C18 2.5pm 4.6x75mm in the case of JBSNF-000265) with the following equipment installed.

Prominence Degasser DGU-20A5R(C), Serial NO. L20705414138 IX; Liquid Chromatograph LC-30AD, Serial NO. L20555408197 AE and L20555408195 AE; Communications Bus Module CBM-20A, Serial NO. L20235429486 CD; Auto Sampler SIL- 30AC, Serial NO.L20565403814 AE; Rack changer II: L20585400900 SS The mobile phase A was 0.1% formic acid in water, and the mobile phase B was 95% acetonitrile in water (0.1% formic acid), delivered at 0.4 mL/min.

Sample Preparation: The desired serial concentrations of working solutions were achieved by diluting stock solution of analyte with 50% acetonitrile in water solution. 5 μL of working solutions (1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 ng/mL) were added to 5 μL of the blank C57B16/N mouse plasma to achieve calibration standards of 1-1000 ng/mL (1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 ng/mL) in a total volume of 10 μL. Four quality control samples at 3 ng/mL, 5 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL, and 800 ng/mL for plasma were prepared independently of those used for the calibration curves. These QC samples were prepared on the day of analysis in the same way as calibration standards.

10 μL of standards, 10 μL of QC samples and 10 μL of unknown samples (5 μL of plasma with 5 μL of blank solution) were added to 100 μL of acetonitrile (containing D4-1- MNA 50 ng/mL) for precipitating protein respectively. Then the samples were vortexed for 30 s. After centrifugation at 4 degree Celsius, 4,000 rpm for 15 min, the supernatant was diluted 3 times with water. 10 μL of diluted supernatant (20 μL in the case of JBSNF- 000265) was injected into the LC/MS/MS system for quantitative analysis.

Sample Preparation: 1 -Methylnicotinamide (1-MNA): The desired serial concentrations of working solutions were achieved by diluting stock solution of analyte with 50% acetonitrile in water solution. 5 μL of working solutions (1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 ng/mL) were added to 5 μL of water to achieve calibration standards of 1-1000 ng/mL (1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 ng/mL) in a total volume of 10 μL. Four quality control samples at 3 ng/mL, 5 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL, and 800 ng/mL for water were prepared independently of those used for the calibration curves. These QC samples were prepared on the day of analysis in the same way as calibration standards.

10 μL of standards, 10 μL of QC samples and 10 μL of unknown samples (5 μL of plasma with 5 μL of blank solution) were added to 100 μL of acetonitrile (containing D4-1- MNA 100 ng/mL) for precipitating protein respectively. Then the samples were vortexed for 30 s. After centrifugation at 4 degree Celsius, 4000 rpm for 15 min, the supernatant was diluted 3 times with water. 5 μL of diluted supernatant was injected into the LC/MS/MS system for quantitative analysis.

Recovery: 5 μL of working solutions (10, 100, 800 ng/mL) were added to 5 μL of the blank C57B16/N Mouse plasma to achieve three samples at 10 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL, and 800 ng/mL, 30 μL of samples were added to 100 μL of acetonitrile containing IS mixture for precipitating protein respectively. Then the samples were vortexed for 30 s. After centrifugation at 4 degrees Celsius, 4000 rpm for 15 min, the supernatant was diluted 3 times with water. 5 μL of diluted supernatant was injected into the LC/MS/MS system for quantitative analysis.

Example 8: pH Dependent Solubility

The pH dependent solubility of 11 (FIG. 6) was analyzed according to the following procedure:

Preparation of Stock Solution: The stock solution of test compounds and control compound was prepared in DMSO at the concentration of 30 mM (50 mM: R-NA47). 50 mM DMSO compound stock solution was diluted with DMSO to 30 mM. The stock solution of control compound was prepared in DMSO at the concentration of 30 mM. Diclofenac was used as positive control in the assay.

Procedures for Solubility Determination: 10 μL stock solution of each compound was placed in order into their proper 96-well rack, followed by adding 990 μL of PBS at pH 1.5, pH 3.0, pH 4.5, pH 6.8, pH 7.4 and pH 9.0 into each vial of the cap-less Solubility Sample plate. This study was performed in duplicate. One stir stick was added to each vial and then vials were sealed using a molded PTDE/SIL 96-Well Plate Cover. The Solubility Sample plate was transferred to the Thermomixer Comfort plate shaker and incubated at RT for 2 hours with shaking at 1100 rpm. After 2 hours incubation, stir sticks were removed using a big magnet and all samples from the Solubility Sample plate were transferred into the filter plate. All the samples were filtered by using the Vacuum Manifold. The filtered samples were diluted with methanol. The dilution factor might be changed according to the solubility value and the LC/MS signal response.

Preparation of 0.3 pM Standards (STD): 30 mM DMSO compounds stock solution was diluted with DMSO to 300 μM and then diluted with methanol to obtain 0.3 μM STDs.

Sample Analysis and Data Analysis: Samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. All calculations were carried out using Microsoft Excel. The solution filtered was analyzed and quantified against a standard of known concentration in DMSO using LC coupled with Mass spectral peak identification and quantitation. The solubility values of the test compounds were calculated as follows:

DF = dilution factor Example 9: hERG Safety Evaluation

A hERG safety evaluation was conducted for compound 11 accoridng to the following protocol (FIG. 8).

Cell lines and cell culture '. hERG stably expressed HEK 293 cell line (Cat# KI 236) was purchased from Invitrogen. The cells are cultured in 85% DMEM, 10% dialyzed FBS, 0.1 mM NEAA, 25 mM HEPES, 100 U/mL Penicillin-Streptomycin, 5 pg/mL Blasticidin and 400 pg/mL Geneticin. Cells are split using TryμLE™ Express about three times a week, and maintained between -40% to -80% confluence. Before the assay, the cells were onto the coverslips at 5 * 105 cells /per 6 cm cell culture dish and induced with doxycycline at 1 pg/mL for 48 hours.

Solution preparations: 1) Extracellular solution (in mM): 132 NaCl, 4 KC1, 3 CaC12, 0.5 MgC12, 11.1 glucose, and 10 HEPES (pH adjusted to 7.35 with NaOH); 2) Intracellular solution (in mM): 140 KC1, 2 MgC12, 10 EGTA, 10 HEPES and 5 MgATP (pH adjusted to 7.35 with KOH).

Working solution preparation for test compounds: 1) Test compounds were initially prepared in DMSO with final concentration of 10 mM as stock solution; 2) Then stock solution of each compound was serial-diluted by ratio of 1 :3 with DMSO to prepare additional 3 intermediate solutions including 3.33, 1.11, 0.37 mM; 3) Before hERG assay, the working solutions were prepared by dilution of 10, 3.33, 1.11 and 0.37 mM intermediate solutions in 1000 folds using extracellular solution, so that the final concentration of working solution was 30, 10, 3.33, 1.11 and 0.37 mM, while 30 μM working solution was prepared by 333.333-folds dilution of 10 mM DMSO stock. The final DMSO concentration was in range of 0.1-0.3%; 4) hERG current in presence of 5 doses including 30, 10, 3.33, 1.11 and 0.37 μM, was measured for IC50 determination.

Experimental procedure: 1) Remove the coverslip from the cell culture dish and place it on the microscope stage in bath chamber; 2) Locate a desirable cell using the x 10 objective. Locate the tip of the electrode under the microscope using the x 10 objective by focusing above the plane of the cells. Once the tip is in focus, advance the electrode downwards towards the cell using the coarse controls of the manipulator, while simultaneously moving the objective to keep the tip in focus; 3) When directly over the cell, switch to the x40 objective and use the fine controls of the manipulator to approach the surface of the cell in small steps; 4) Apply gentle suction through the side-port of the electrode holder to form a gigaohm seal; 5) Use the Cfast to remove the capacity current that is in coincidence with the voltage step. Obtain the whole cell configuration by applying repetitive, brief, strong suction until the membrane patch has ruptured; 6) Set membrane potential to -60 mV at this point to ensure that hERG channels are not open. The spikes of capacity current should then be cancelled using the Cslow on the amplifier; 7) Set holding potential to -90 mV for 500 ms; record current at 20 kHz and filter at 10 kHz. Leaking current was tested at -80 mV for 500 ms; 8) The hERG current was elicited by depolarizing at +30 mV for 4.8 seconds and then the voltage was taken back to -50 mV for 5.2 seconds to remove the inactivation and observe the deactivating tail current. The maximum amount of tail current size was used to determine hERG current amplitude; 9) Record current for 120 seconds to assess the current stability. Only stable cells with recording parameters above threshold were applied for the drug administrations; 10) Firstly vehicle control was applied to the cells to establish the baseline. Once the hERG current was found to be stabilized for 5 minutes, working solution was applied. hERG current in the presence of test compound were recorded for approximately 5 minutes to reach steady state and then 5 sweeps were captured. For dose response testing, 5 doses of test compound was applied to the cells cumulatively from low to high concentrations. The positive control article, dofetilide at concentration of 150 nM was also applied to each cell post hERG current measurement at highest concentration of test compound as the internal low control for normalization of percentage inhibition. In order to ensure the good performance of cultured cells and operations, Dofetilide with 5 doses was also used to test the same batch of cells.

Data acceptance criteria: The following criteria were used to determine data acceptability: 1) Initial seal resistance > 1 GΩ; 2) Leak currents < 50% of the control peak tail currents at any time; 3) The peak tail amplitude >250 pA; 4) Membrane resistance Rm > 500 MΩ; 5) Access resistance (Ra) < 10 MΩ; 6) Apparent run-down of peak current < 2.5% per min.

Data analysis: Data that met the above criteria for hERG current quality were further analyzed as the following steps: 1) Percent hERG current inhibition was calculated using the following equation; 2) The dose response curve of test compounds was plotted with percentage of hERG current inhibition against the concentration of test compounds using Graphpad Prism 8.0, and fit to a sigmoid dose-response curve with a variable slope. Example 10: CYP Inhibition Studies

Inhibition studies of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E and CYP3A4 were conducted (FIG. 9) according to following procotol. Compound 11 did not inhibit any of the tested CYP isoforms.

Inhibition by 11 in Human Liver Microsomes

1. 1 μL of multiple concentrations of test compound or positive control compound (CYP1A2: furafylline, CYP2A6: tranylcypromine, CYP2B6: ketoconazole, CYP2C8: quercetin, CYP2C9: sulfaphenazole, CYP2C19: N-3-benzylnirvanol, CYP2D6: quinidine, CYP2E1 : disulfiram and CYP3A4: ketoconazole) was transferred to the “Compound Plate”. The concentrations of of test compounds were 0, 0.6, 2, 6, 20, 60, 2000, 6000 and 20000 μM. The concentrations of of positive control compounds were 0, 0.2, 1, 2, 10, 50, 200, 2000 and 10000 μM.

2. The master solution was prepared according to the Table 9A and 9B, and pre- warmed in the water bath at 37 °C for 5 minutes. 179 μL of master solutions were transferred to “Incubation Plate”. In the mixed system, the final concentrations of test compound were 0, 0.003, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 10, 30 & 100 μM, and the final concentrations of positive control compound were 0, 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.25, 1, 10 & 50 μM. All experiments were performed in duplicate.

3. The reaction was started with the addition of 20 μL of 10 mM NADPH solution at the final concentration of 1 mM and carried out at 37 °C.

4. The reaction was stopped by the addition of 1.5 volumes of cold methanol with IS (100 nM alprazolam, 200 nM imipramine, 200 nM labetalol and 2 μM ketoprofen) to the “Incubation Plate” at the designated time points listed in Table 9B. The “Incubation Plate” was centrifuged at 3,220 g for 40 minutes to precipitate protein. Aliquot of 100 μL of the supernatant was diluted by 100 μL ultra-pure H2O, and the mixture was used for LC-MS/MS analysis.

5. Data Analysis - All calculations were carried out using Microsoft Excel. The formation of metabolites was analyzed by using LC-MS/MS. A decrease in the formation of the metabolites in peak area to vehicle control was used to calculate an IC 50 value (test compound concentration which produces 50% inhibition) by using Excel XLfit.

Evaluation of Direct and Time-dependent Inhibition of CYP3A4 by 11

1. The Master Solution was prepared according to the Table 10A. Substrates solutions were prepared in acetonitrile and ultra-pure H 2 O mixture (1 : 9 in v : v) just before use listed in Table 10 A.

2. The "Master Solution" was pre-warmed at 37°C for 5 minutes. 169 μL of "Pre- Incubation solution" and 1 μL of multiple concentrations (0, 0.6, 2, 6, 20, 60, 2000, 6000 and 20000 μM) of test compounds or 1 μL (0, 0.2, 1, 2, 10, 50, 200, 2000 and 10000 μM) of positive control compounds was transferred from “Compound Plate” to the “Incubation Plate”.

3. For the 0 min pre-incubation, 10 μL of substrate was added to the Incubation Plate, and then 20 μL of 10 mM NADPH solution was added to start the reaction at the final concentration of 1 mM, and then incubated for the appointed time listed in Table 10B.

4. For the 30 min pre-incubation without NADPH, the Incubation Plate was pre- incubated in the 37°C water bath for 30 minutes. After 30 minutes incubation, 10 μL of substrate were addde to the Incubation Plate, 20 μL of 10 mM NADPH solution was added to start the reaction at the final concentration of 1 mM. And then incubated for the appointed time listed in Table 10B.

6. Data Analysis - All calculations were carried out using Microsoft Excel. The formation of metabolites were analyzed by using LC-MS/MS. A decrease in the formation of the metabolites in peak area ratios to vehicle control was used to calculate three IC 50 valves (0 min pre-incubation, 30 min pre-incubation with NADPH and 30 min pre-incubation without NADPH) by using Prism 5.0 software (Graphpad). The IC 50 shift was calculated for evaluating the mechanism of the inhibition.

Table 1C-A. Preparation of Master Solution

Table 10B. Substrate information

Example 11 : Off Target Studies

An off-target safety panel screening for 11 was conducted. The class of target teste included Ion Channels, GPCR, Transporter, Kinases, Enzyme and Nuclear Hormone Receptor. Compound 11 did not show significant off-target activity at 10 μM (FIG. 10).

Example 12: Ames Test

A Mini-Ames test for ompound 11 was conducted with various bacteria strains. Compound 11 was not mutagenic based on these results. (FIG. 11).

1. The study evaluated the mutagenic potential of the test article, (or its metabolites) by measuring its ability to induce reverse mutations at selected loci of bacteria Salmonella typhimurium (TA98, TA1535, TA1537) and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA (pKM101) in both the presence and absence of microsomal enzymes.

2. A standard six-well culture plate had an approximate well diameter of 33 mm. Top agar containing 0.6% (w/v) agar and 0.5% (w/v) sodium chloride were supplemented with 0.5mM D-biotin and 0.5mM L-histidine for Salmonella typhimurium strains used or 0.5 mM D-biotin and 0.5 mM L- tryptophan for Escherichia coli WP2uvrA (pKM101) used.

3. In the Mini-Ames test, 4 strains were selected for testing: Salmonella typhimurium (TA98, TA1535.TA1537) and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA (pKM101). The test strains were prepared from frozen working stocks. 10 μL frozen working stock adding in 5 mL nutrient broth were incubated with 220 rpm shaking at 37±2°C for 10 hours until an optical density (at 650 nm) of 0.6-0.8 were reached. The overnight culture were used for the mutagenicity test.

4. The test article was supplied as the powder and maintained at -20°C until use. Stock solutions were prepared at 50 mg/mL in DMSO (Table 11 A). Sub-doses were prepared by dilution in DMSO from the stock immediately prior to use. If the test article was not soluble at 50 mg/mL, the highest concentration was decrease to the lowest insoluble concentration.

5. Human liver S9 mix was prepared by mixing the following in reverse order and kept on ice: S9 (110 μL); 1.65 M KC1+0.4 M MgCl 2 (20 μL); sterile water (380 μL); 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer (500 μL); NADP (4 pmol); and G-6-P (5 pmol).

6. Controls - Negative (DMSO); Postive (Table 11B)

7. Six concentrations are required for each test article with triplicates for each strain. The maximum dose level we recommended is 1000 micrograms (pg)/well (or 1 microliters (μL)/well for liquid test substance) when not limited by solubility or cytotoxicity. If there is a solubility problem of the test article, the precipitates would be recorded according to the below assessment: P0: no precipitations in solutions or growth of crystals on plates; Pl : 0-20% growth of crystals; P2: 20%~60% growth of crystals; and P3: 60%~100% growth of crystals. Precipitating doses are scored, provided precipitate does not interfere with scoring (count the number of the revertants). If the precipitation dose interfere with the scoring (count the number of the revertants), the lowest precipitating dose should be used as the top dose scored.

8. Mini Ames Assay - Melted top agar with a microwave and kept >47°C in a water bath. Conducted assay using a heat block set to 45 °C± 2 °C. Set up 12 x 75 mm test tubes in duplicate. Conducted assay using a heat block set to 45 °C± 2 °C. Set up 12 x 75 mm test tubes in duplicate. The followings were added in order into a test tube for each concentration: a. 1600 μL of Top Agar; b. 80 μL of drug or controls; c. 400 μL of S9 mix or PBS buffer; d. 80 μL of overnight culture. Vortexed and dispensed 540 μL/well using a disposable pipette. Incubated plates at 37±2°C for approximately 48-72 hr. 9. Scoring and Positive Criteria - If F>2 for strains TA98, WP2uvrA (pKM101) and F>3 for TA1535, TA1537, and a dose-related increase in the mean revertants, the compound is considered to be mutagenic. Background lawn assessment: 0 represents no background lawn growth or complete cytotoxicity; 1 represents -25% growth; 2 represents -50% growth; 3 represents -75% growth; and 4 represents full ‘ 100%’ growth.

Average number of reverWits fur each dose group

F — t —

Average number of revertants for DMSO negative group

Background lawns are measured microscopically using a stereoscope. All the background lawn assessments are made in comparison to the vehicle control. In a full background lawn, lawn colonies are very small and cannot be visualized. However, in a plate with toxicity, lawn colonies grow into microcolonies (diameter is small) or colonies (diameter is similar to revertant colony) which can be visualized without the aid of magnification.

Table 11A

Table 11B

Incorporation by Reference

All publications and patents mentioned herein are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety as if each individual publication or patent was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference. In case of conflict, the present application, including any definitions herein, will control.

Equivalents

While specific embodiments of the subject invention have been discussed, the above specification is illustrative and not restrictive. Many variations of the invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon review of this specification and the claims below. The full scope of the invention should be determined by reference to the claims, along with their full scope of equivalents, and the specification, along with such variations.