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Title:
CENTRALIZED POWER AND COOLING PLANT WITH INTEGRATED CABLE LANDING STATION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/071433
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
This invention relates to a centralized power and cooling plant for powering and cooling a floating data centre park. The centralized power and cooling plant comprises: a vessel comprising a power plant module and a cooling plant module; a modular power supply pier for berthing the vessel connectable with a modular data centre pier to supply power generated by the power plant module and chilled water from the cooling plant module to at least one floating data centre module; a retractable assembly for conveying chilled water from the vessel to the modular power supply pier; and a Cable Landing Station adapted to convey submarine cables from seabed to land-based network.

Inventors:
WEE TECK HENG (SG)
KUMAR SREEKALA (SG)
POH TIONG KENG (SG)
ZAW KHIN (SG)
Application Number:
PCT/SG2020/050577
Publication Date:
April 15, 2021
Filing Date:
October 09, 2020
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
KEPPEL DATA CENTRES HOLDING PTE LTD (SG)
International Classes:
H05K7/00; B63B35/44; F16L27/08; F16L27/12
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ALLEN & GLEDHILL LLP (SG)
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Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A centralized power and cooling plant for powering and cooling a floating data centre park comprising: a vessel comprising a power plant module and a cooling plant module; a modular power supply pier for berthing the vessel connectable with a modular data centre pier to supply power generated by the power plant module and chilled water from the cooling plant module to at least one floating data centre module; a retractable assembly for conveying chilled water from the vessel to the modular power supply pier; and a Cable Landing Station adapted to convey submarine cables from seabed to land- based network.

2. The centralized power and cooling plant according to claim 1 wherein the modular power supply pier comprises: a power line for receiving power supply from the power plant module and supplying the received power supply to the at least one floating data centre module; a supply fluid line for receiving chilled fluid from the cooling plant module and supplying the chilled fluid to the at least one floating data centre module; and a return fluid line for receiving less chilled fluid from the at least one floating data centre module and returning the less chilled fluid to the cooling plant module.

3. The centralized power and cooling plant according to claim 2, wherein the retractable assembly comprises: a main body, a first pipe and a second pipe arranged such that the main body is between the first and second pipes and adapted to allow continuous fluid connection between the first and second pipes.

4. The centralized power and cooling plant according to claim 3, wherein the main body is movably connecting the first pipe to the second pipe, the first pipe connects to one of the supply fluid line and the return fluid line and the second pipe connects to one of a fluid inlet and fluid outlet of the cooling plant module.

5. The centralized power and cooling plant according to claim 4, wherein the retractable assembly further comprises: a sensor configured to determine a set point, the set point being the chilled fluid supply point of the vessel; and a processing unit comprising a processor, a memory and instructions stored on the memory and executable by the processor to:

7. determine an original set point by receiving a distance measured by the sensor

8. determine a subsequent set point by receiving a subsequent distance measure by the sensor

9. determine difference between the original set point and subsequent set point

10. in response to the difference being negative, move the main body downwards by a first pre-determined length to retract the retractable assembly;

11 . in response to the difference being positive, move the main body upwards by a second pre-determ ined length to extend the retractable assembly; and

12. repeat from step 2.

6. The centralized power and cooling plant according to claim 5, wherein the memory further comprises instructions to: repeat from step 1 after a period of time.

7. The centralized power and cooling plant according to claim 3, wherein a first end of the first pipe is fixedly connected to the main body 1510 and a second end of the first pipe is connected to one of the supply fluid line and the return fluid line, a first end of the main body is fixedly connected to a surface of the first pipe and a second end is movably connected to the second pipe, and a first end of the second pipe is connected to one of a fluid inlet and fluid outlet of the cooling plant module and a second end of the second pipe extends through the second end of the main body.

8. The centralized power and cooling plant according to claim 7, wherein the main body, first pipe and second pipe are arranged such that a first distance between the second end of the first pipe and the second end of the second pipe is a maximum allowable downward movement of the vessel and a second distance between the second end of the second pipe and the second end of the main body is a maximum allowable upward movement of the vessel.

9. The centralized power and cooling plant according to claim 8, wherein the maximum allowable downward movement of the vessel corresponds to a highest tide recorded on a particular site and the minimum allowable downward movement of the vessel corresponds to a lowest tide recorded on the particular site.

10. The centralized power and cooling plant according to claim 9, wherein the retractable assembly further comprises: a first sensor provided at the second end of the first pipe; a second sensor provided at the second end of the second pipe; a processing unit comprising a processor, a memory and instructions stored on the memory and executable by the processor to: monitor the distance between the second end of the first pipe and the second end of the second pipe based on measurements from the first and second sensors; in response to the distance being more than maximum allowable upward movement or more than maximum allowable downward movement, close a valve connecting the second pipe and the cooling plant module.

11. The centralized power and cooling plant according to claim 1 , wherein the Cable Landing Station comprises: a cable station on the vessel; a first manhole configured to receive submarine cables from a seabed, a second manhole provided on the cable station, a fixed trucking configured to provide a channel to convey the submarine cables from the first manhole to the second manhole, and a cable entry chute on the modular supply pier configured to receive the submarine cables from the cable station.

12. The centralized power and cooling plant according to claim 11 , wherein the fixed trucking extends upwards from the first manhole towards the water surface and through a moonpool of the vessel.

13. The centralized power and cooling plant according to claim 11 , wherein the fixed trucking extends upwards from the first manhole towards the water surface and further extends upwards to a height that is above the second manhole.

14. The centralized power and cooling plant according to any one of claims 12-13, wherein the Cable Landing Station further comprises: a corrugated pipe casing adapted to connect an end of the fixed trucking to the second manhole.

15. The centralized power and cooling plant according to claim 14, wherein the corrugated pipe casing is made of high density poly ethylene.

16. The centralized power and cooling plant according to any one of claims 11-15, wherein the fixed trucking is a concrete slab trucking.

17. The centralized power and cooling plant according to any one of claims 1-16, further comprising: an optimization processing unit comprising a processor, memory and instructions stored on the memory and executable by the processor to: predict demand requirement, at intervals of 30 minutes, for next n hours for cooling, heating, steam and electricity based on the weather data and historical data of actual cooling and heating load, actual steam load, actual electric load and daily operating pattern; determine, at intervals of 30 minutes, an optimal operation schedule for the next n hours based on the predicted demand and the current statuses and limits of facilities; and provide instructions to the facilities regarding the next n hours of predicted demand and optimal operation schedule.

18. The centralized power and cooling plant according to claim 17 wherein the instruction to predict demand requirement for next n hours interval for cooling, heating, steam and electricity uses a regression model that looks back on historical data and real time weather conditions to predict the demand requirement.

19. The centralized power and cooling plant according to claim 17 wherein the instruction to determine the optimal operation schedule is based on mixed Integer Linear Programming.

Description:
CENTRALIZED POWER AND COOLING PLANT WITH INTEGRATED CABLE

LANDING STATION

FIELD OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a method and system for the establishment of a Floating

Data Centre Park (FDCP). Particularly, this invention relates to a centralized power and cooling plant for powering and cooling multiple Floating Data Centre Modules berthing in spatial relationship to a fixed pier and/or similar offshore structure to form the FDCP. More particularly, this invention relates to a modular platform for the centralized power and cooling plant with integrated cable landing station.

BACKGROUND

Singapore is the leading data centre hub of Southeast Asia. This strong base will continue to grow as people with access to high speed internet is growing steadily in developing countries. In addition, there are various other technologies that require huge amount of data such as internet of things (IOT), cloud computing, high quality media contents (4K resolution), big data, digital twins, social media, etc. Growing internet usage and new technologies that rely on internet would require massive data centres to store and access large amount of data in near future. Data centres have immense footprints - sizes of 3ha or 4ha are common. They need to be scalable, which means they need land banks for future expansion. With land scarcity issue in Singapore, building data centres out in the sea could be another possibility to explore as a space solution which also opens up the possibility of tapping on the abundant seawater resource for cooling. Thus, those skilled in the art are constantly striving to design an improved system and method of designing data centres that aims to reduce the Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) and Water Usage Effectiveness (WUE) from the conventional land-based data centre. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The above and other problems are solved and an advance in the state of art is made by a method and system for a modular platform with a centralized power and cooling plant in accordance with this invention. A first advantage of this method and system in accordance with this invention is that the modular platform with a centralized power and cooling plant reduces the energy footprint and carbon emissions. A second advantage of this method and system in accordance with this invention is that the modular platform with a centralized power and cooling plant reduces the Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) and Water Usage Effectiveness (WUE) from the conventional land-based data centre. Therefore, besides being a green and sustainable solution to data centre expansion, operating expenditure of a data centre will be reduced significantly. A third advantage of this method and system in accordance with this invention is that the modular platform with a centralized power and cooling plant also includes an integrated cable landing station. This allows direct connectivity of the data centre to consumers.

A first aspect of the invention relates to a centralized power and cooling plant for powering and cooling a floating data centre park. The centralized power and cooling plant comprises a vessel comprising a power plant module and a cooling plant module; a modular power supply pier for berthing the vessel connectable with a modular data centre pier to supply power generated by the power plant module and chilled water from the cooling plant module to at least one floating data centre module; a retractable assembly for conveying chilled water from the vessel to the modular power supply pier; and a Cable Landing Station adapted to convey submarine cables from seabed to land-based network.

In an embodiment according to the first aspect, the modular power supply pier comprises a power line for receiving power supply from the power plant module and supplying the received power supply to the at least one floating data centre module; a supply fluid line for receiving chilled fluid from the cooling plant module and supplying the chilled fluid to the at least one floating data centre module; and a return fluid line for receiving less chilled fluid from the at least one floating data centre module and returning the less chilled fluid to the cooling plant module.

In an embodiment according to the first aspect, the retractable assembly comprises: a main body, a first pipe and a second pipe arranged such that the main body is between the first and second pipes and adapted to allow continuous fluid connection between the first and second pipes.

In an embodiment according to the first aspect, the main body is movably connecting the first pipe to the second pipe, the first pipe connects to one of the supply fluid line and the return fluid line and the second pipe connects to one of a fluid inlet and fluid outlet of the cooling plant module.

In an embodiment according to the first aspect, the retractable assembly further comprises: a sensor configured to determine a set point, the set point being the chilled fluid supply point of the vessel; and a processing unit comprising a processor, a memory and instructions stored on the memory and executable by the processor to:

1 . determine an original set point by receiving a distance measured by the sensor

2. determine a subsequent set point by receiving a subsequent distance measure by the sensor

3. determine difference between the original set point and subsequent set point

4. in response to the difference being negative, move the main body downwards by a first pre-determined length to retract the retractable assembly;

5. in response to the difference being positive, move the main body upwards by a second pre-determined length to extend the retractable assembly; and

6. repeat from step 2.

Further to this embodiment, the memory further comprises instructions to repeat from step 1 after a period of time.

In an embodiment according to the first aspect, a first end of the first pipe is fixedly connected to the main body and a second end of the first pipe is connected to one of the supply fluid line and the return fluid line, a first end of the main body is fixedly connected to a surface of the first pipe and a second end is movably connected to the second pipe, and a first end of the second pipe is connected to one of a fluid inlet and fluid outlet of the cooling plant module and a second end of the second pipe extends through the second end of the main body.

In an embodiment according to the first aspect, the main body, first pipe and second pipe are arranged such that a first distance between the second end of the first pipe and the second end of the second pipe is a maximum allowable downward movement of the vessel and a second distance between the second end of the second pipe and the second end of the main body is a maximum allowable upward movement of the vessel.

In an embodiment according to the first aspect, the maximum allowable downward movement of the vessel corresponds to a highest tide recorded on a particular site and the minimum allowable downward movement of the vessel corresponds to a lowest tide recorded on the particular site.

In an embodiment according to the first aspect, the retractable assembly further comprises: a first sensor provided at the second end of the first pipe; a second sensor provided at the second end of the second pipe; a processing unit comprising a processor, a memory and instructions stored on the memory and executable by the processor to: monitor the distance between the second end of the first pipe and the second end of the second pipe based on measurements from the first and second sensors; in response to the distance being more than maximum allowable upward movement or more than maximum allowable downward movement, close a valve connecting the second pipe and the cooling plant module.

In an embodiment according to the first aspect, the Cable Landing Station comprises: a cable station on the vessel; a first manhole configured to receive submarine cables from a seabed, a second manhole provided on the cable station, a fixed trucking configured to provide a channel to convey the submarine cables from the first manhole to the second manhole, and a cable entry chute on the modular supply pier configured to receive the submarine cables from the cable station.

In an embodiment according to the first aspect, the fixed trucking extends upwards from the first manhole towards the water surface and through a moonpool of the vessel.

In an embodiment according to the first aspect, the fixed trucking extends upwards from the first manhole towards the water surface and further extends upwards to a height that is above the second manhole.

In an embodiment according to the first aspect, the Cable Landing Station further comprises: a corrugated pipe casing adapted to connect an end of the fixed trucking to the second manhole.

In an embodiment according to the first aspect, the corrugated pipe casing is made of high density poly ethylene.

In an embodiment according to the first aspect, the fixed trucking is a concrete slab trucking.

In an embodiment according to the first aspect, the centralized power and cooling plant further comprises: an optimization processing unit comprising a processor, memory and instructions stored on the memory and executable by the processor to: predict demand requirement, at intervals of 30 minutes, for next n hours for cooling, heating, steam and electricity based on the weather data and historical data of actual cooling and heating load, actual steam load, actual electric load and daily operating pattern; determine, at intervals of 30 minutes, an optimal operation schedule for the next n hours based on the predicted demand and the current statuses and limits of facilities; and provide instructions to the facilities regarding the next n hours of predicted demand and optimal operation schedule.

In an embodiment according to the first aspect, the instruction to predict demand requirement for next n hours interval for cooling, heating, steam and electricity uses a regression model that looks back on historical data and real-time weather conditions to predict the demand requirement. In an embodiment according to the first aspect, the instruction to determine the optimal operation schedule is based on mixed Integer Linear Programming.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The above and other features and advantages in accordance with this invention are described in the following detailed description and are shown in the following drawings:

Figure 1 illustrating a centralized power and cooling plant coupled to a Floating Data Centre Park (FDCP) that is fixed to a shore in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure;

Figure 2 illustrating an expanded configuration of a centralized power and cooling plant in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure;

Figure 3 illustrating a first configuration of the centralized power and cooling plant in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure;

Figure 4 illustrating a modified first configuration of the centralized power and cooling plant in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure;

Figure 5 illustrating a cross sectional view of the first configuration of the centralized power and cooling plant in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure;

Figure 6 illustrating a view below the deck of one of the hull of the first configuration of the centralized power and cooling plant in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure;

Figure 7 illustrating a number of the first configuration of the centralized power and cooling plant being coupled together to form a chain in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure;

Figure 8 illustrating a second configuration of the centralized power and cooling plant in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure;

Figure 9 illustrating a modified second configuration of the centralized power and cooling plant in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure;

Figure 10 illustrating a cross sectional view of the second configuration of the centralized power and cooling plant in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure;

Figure 11 illustrating a view below the deck of the hull of the second configuration of the centralized power and cooling plant in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure;

Figure 12 illustrating a number of the second configuration of the centralized power and cooling plant being coupled together to form a chain in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure;

Figure 13 illustrating a retractable assembly for supplying power and chilled water from the first and second configurations of the centralized power and cooling plant to the modular pier in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure;

Figure 14A illustrating a response of the retractable assembly to vessel motions in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure;

Figure 14B illustrating a response of the retractable assembly to tidal variations in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure;

Figure 15 illustrating another embodiment of the retractable assembly in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure;

Figure 16 illustrating a first confirmation of an integrated cable landing station on the vessel in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure; Figure 17 illustrating a second confirmation of an integrated cable landing station on the vessel in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure;

Figure 18 illustrating a cable path from the vessel to the modular pier in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure;

Figure 19 illustrating an overall schematic for the combined power and cooling plant in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure;

Figure 20 illustrating a magnified view of box A as shown in figure 19;

Figure 21 illustrating a magnified view of box B as shown in figure 19;

Figure 22 illustrating an optimization process in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure;

Figure 23 illustrating an overview of a prediction module in the optimization process in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure; and

Figure 24 illustrating adjusted prediction from the prediction module as shown in figure 23 in accordance with an embodiment of this disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

This invention relates to a method and system for the establishment of a Floating Data Centre Park (FDCP). Particularly, this invention relates to a centralized power and cooling plant for powering and cooling multiple Floating Data Centre Modules berthing in spatial relationship to a fixed pier and/or similar offshore structure to form the FDCP. More particularly, this invention relates to a modular platform for the centralized power and cooling plant with integrated cable landing station.

Figure 1 illustrates a FDCP 10 that is fixed to a shore. The FDCP 10 comprises a centralized power and cooling plant 100, modular floating data centre 910, Floating Data Centre (FDC) modules 920, and.

The modular floating data centre 910 is essentially a pier that may be a steel-based platform, mixture of concrete and steel or any other suitable metal platform. The modular floating data centre 910 are supported and anchored to the seabed with pile support. The modular floating data centre 910 has a number of berths along two sides for berthing the individual FDC modules 920 as shown in figure 1. The modular supply pier 110 is connected to the modular floating data centre 910 to form the FDCP 10. The modular supply pier 110 has at least one berth for berthing the cooling plant module 120 and power plant module 130 as shown in figure 1 .

The modular floating data centre 910 and modular supply pier 110 are standardized block for easy and efficient construction. Further, the modular floating data centre 910 and modular supply pier 110 comprise standardized connectors so that the modular floating data centre 910 and modular supply pier 110 can be connected together easily to form the FDCP 10 for FDC modules 920 and cooling and power plant modules 120 and 130 to berth and couple to the FDCP 10. With majority of the designs pre-determined, shorter lead time is required for construction and this allows demand for data centres to be fulfilled more efficiently. Specifically, the standardized blocks can be fabricated on land and transported to the designated location, from land and/or sea, before being anchored to the seabed with pile support. The modular floating data centre 910 is not part of the invention and hence only briefly described in this disclosure. More importantly, modular floating data centre 910 comprises a power line for receiving power supply from the modular supply pier 110; a supply fluid line for receiving chilled fluid from the modular supply pier 110; a return fluid line for receiving less chilled fluid from the floating data centre modules 920 and returning the less chilled fluid to the modular supply pier 110; and network connectivity cables for connecting the data centre to external servers. We now turn to the centralized power and cooling plant 100.

The centralized power and cooling plant 100 comprises a modular supply pier 110, a cooling plant module 120 and a power plant module 130.

Figure 2 illustrates an embodiment where a number of the centralized power and cooling plants 100 are connected to form a U shape. One skilled in the art will recognise that the centralized power and cooling plants 100 may be connected to form other shapes without departing from the invention.

Figures 3-7 illustrate a first embodiment where the cooling plant 120 and power plant module 130 are provided on separate hulls. Figures 8-12 illustrate a second embodiment where the cooling plant 120 and power plant module 130 are provided on a single vessel.

First configuration

The first configuration comprises a catamaran shaped vessel. The catamaran shaped vessel comprises steel or concrete hulls which are pile or dolphin moored allowing only the vertical heave motions. Below the two hulls comprise compartments which can be used for fuel storage & Regasification as shown in figures 5 and 6. These compartments are typical fuel carriers with bunkering facility on the deck facilitating fuel bunker vessels to berth near the facility for fuel bunkering. The power plant module 130 and the cooling plant module 120 are built on the deck connecting the two hulls. This enables flat top construction for power plant and cooling plant (with or without Thermal energy storage (TES)). Retractable water pipes are provided for chilled water transport from the cooling plant module 120 to the modular supply pier 110 and flexible power cables from the power plant module 130 to the modular supply pier 110. More details regarding the retractable water pipes will be described below.

The top connection deck 350 connecting the power plant module 130 and the cooling plant module 120 comprises a hot water / steam corridor 351 and a chilled water corridor 352. The hot water / steam corridor 351 and chilled water corridor 352 are spaced apart from each other with a walkway there between. Essentially, two separate corridors are provided on the top connection deck 350, namely the hot water corridor 351 and the chilled water corridor 352 and both corridors are spaced apart from each other defining a walkway. The separation of the hot water corridor 351 and the chilled water corridor 352 enable proper pipeline routing between various platforms in a safe and efficient manner.

The hot water corridor 351 is configured to fluidly communicate hot/steam water between the power plant module 130 and the cooling plant module 120. This is a horizontal connection where transfer of hot/steam water is only between power plant module 130 and cooling plant module 120.

The chilled water corridor 352 is configured to export power and supply chilled water to the modular supply pier 110 and comprises vertical connections namely, chilled water feed A 353A, chilled water feed B 353B, power feed A 354A and power feed B 354B. Figure 5 illustrates a configuration where the chilled water corridor 352 comprises two separate decks, one for the chilled water feed and the other for the power feed. However, one skilled in the art will recognise that the chilled water feeds and the power feeds may be provided on one single deck as shown in figures 3-4 without departing from the invention. The top connection deck 350 is above the modular supply pier 110 and the height between the bottom surface of the top connection deck 350 and the modular supply pier 110 can be configured for people and forklift movement along the pier.

An integrated Cable Landing Station (CLS) along with the beach manhole (BMH) 310, 410 can either be from outside, which is located at an edge of the hull as shown in figure 3 or extending from the moonpool of the barge as shown in figure 4. As shown in figure 3, the CLS comprises a BMH 310 located at an edge of the hull, a cable station 320 for receiving the submarine cables and transiting to terrestrial network cables from the BMH 310 and a cable entry chute 330 located on the modular supply pier 110 to receive the terrestrial network cables from the cable station 320. As shown in figure 4, the CLS comprises a BMH 410 located in the moonpool of the barge, a cable station 420 for receiving the submarine cables and transiting to terrestrial network cables from the BMH 410 and a cable entry chute 430 located on the modular supply pier 110 to receive the terrestrial network cables from the cable station 420. One skilled in the art will recognise that while the BMH as shown in figures 3 and 4 are provided on the power plant module 130, it is also possible that the BMH can be provided on the cooling plant module 120 without departing form the invention. However, it would be advantageous for the BMH to be provided on the power plant module 130 since power is required to operate the BMH and cable station 420. Further details on the CLS will be described below.

The bow and stern of each hull of the catamaran shaped vessel has connecting element 710 to connect multiple catamaran shaped vessels in series as shown in figure 7 if additional power is required to operate the FDCP 10. Alternatively, excess power generated by the power plant module 130 may be exported to the grid.

Second configuration

The second configuration comprises a flat top barge. The flat top barge comprises steel or concrete hulls which are pile or dolphin moored allowing only the vertical heave motions. Below the hulls comprise compartments that can be used for the cooling plant module 120. Power plant module 130, fuel storage & Regasification are built on the deck. Similar to the first configuration, retractable water pipes are provided for chilled water transport from the cooling plant module 120 to the modular supply pier 110. Flexible power cables are also provided from the power plant module 130 to the modular supply pier 110.

The top connection deck 850 is used as chilled water and power feeds. The top connection deck 850 comprises chilled water feeds 851 and power feeds 852 and arranged such that a pair of chilled water feed A 851 A and power feed A 852A is spaced apart from another pair of chilled water feed B 851 B and power feed B 852B. The height between the chilled water feeds and the modular supply pier 110 can be configured for people and forklift movement over the pier. The chilled water feeds 851 are configured to supply chilled water to the modular supply pier 110 and comprises vertical connections namely, chilled water feed A 851 A and chilled water feed B 851 B. The power feeds 852 are configured to export power to the modular supply pier 110 and comprises vertical connections namely, power feed A 852A and power feed B 852B. Figure 10 illustrates a configuration where the top connection deck 850 comprises two separate decks, one for the chilled water feeds and the other for the power feeds. However, one skilled in the art will recognise that the chilled water feeds and the power feeds may be provided on one single deck as shown in figures 8-9 without departing from the invention. An integrated Cable Landing Station (CLS) along with the beach manhole (BMH) 810, 910 can either be from outside, which is located at an edge of the hull as shown in figure 4 or extending from the moonpool of the barge as shown in figure 9. As shown in figure 8, the CLS comprises a BMH 810 located at an edge of the hull, a cable station 820 for receiving the submarine cables and transiting to terrestrial network cables from the BMH 810 and a cable entry chute 830 located on the modular supply pier 110 to receive the terrestrial network cable from the cable station 820. As shown in figure 9, the CLS comprises a BMH 910 located in the moonpool of the barge, a cable station 920 for receiving the submarine cables and transiting to terrestrial network cables from the BMH 910 and a cable entry chute 930 located on the modular supply pier 110 to receive the terrestrial network cable from the cable station 920. Further details on the CLS will be described below.

Similar to the first configuration, the bow and stern of flat top barge has connecting element 1210 to connect multiple catamaran shaped vessels in series as shown in figure 12 if additional power is required to operate the FDCP 10. Alternatively, excess power generated by the power plant module 130 may be exported to the grid.

Retractable assembly

Figures 13-15 illustrate the retractable water pipe. Figure 13 illustrates set points 1310 being measured at lower water level (i.e. low tide) as shown on the left of figure 13 and at high water level (i.e. high tide) as shown on the right of figure 13. Figure 14A illustrates a first scenario where the vessel heaves due to motions and / or vessel draft varies due to loading condition change while the mean water level remains the same. Figure 14B illustrates a second scenario where tidal variations which will increase or decrease the mean water level. Figure 15 illustrates an embodiment on the length of the parts of the retractable assembly.

The retractable assembly comprises a processing unit, a sensor, a main body 1310, a first pipe 1320 and a second pipe 1330. The main body 1310 is movably connecting the first pipe 1320 to the second pipe 1330. The first pipe 1320 connects to the fluid inlet or fluid outlet 1340 of the modular supply pier 110 while the second pipe 1320 connects to the fluid inlet or fluid outlet 1350 of chilled water feeds. The main body 1310 is movable between the first pipe 1320 to the second pipe 1330 to ensure continuous connection between the first and second pipes 1320 and 1330. The main body 1310 and sensor are communicatively connected to the processing unit.

As shown in figure 13, the relative height V 1320 between the surface of the modular supply pier 110 and the set point 1310 is used as the parameter to monitor the heave in either of the cases as shown in figures 14A and 14B. V at the design loading condition at zero vessel motion is the set point value of V0 1410. Sensors are provided to measure the relative distance between the set point and the surface of the pier as value Vi 1420. The sensor is located at the chilled water feed pointing downwards to the surface of the pier to measure the distance between the chilled water feed and the surface of the pier and is connected to the processing unit. The sensor is a distance sensor. The heave (H) 1430 or the Tidal Variations (T) 1430 are calculated as the difference between V0 and Vi. Upon determining the difference between V0 and Vi, the pipes are activated to retract or extend by the value L which is equal to the calculated H or T. A process is provided of a memory of the processing unit and executable by a processor of the processing unit to control the movement of the main body 1310. The process performs the following steps:

1 . Determine original set point by receiving a distance measured by the sensor

2. Determine new set point by receiving a subsequent distance measure by the sensor

3. Determine difference between the original set point and new set point

4. If the difference is negative, move the main body downwards by a first pre determined length to retract the retractable assembly and if the difference is positive, move the main body upwards by a second pre-determined length to extend the retractable assembly. The first pre-determined length may be the same as the second pre-determined length.

5. Repeat from step 2.

In step 5, instead of repeating from step 2, the process may start from step 1 after a period of time. Essentially, the main body 1310, first pipe 1320 and second pipe 1330 are configured to ensure continuous fluid connection between the first and second pipes 1320 and 1330. The connections among the main body 1310, first pipe 1320 and second pipe 1330 are tightly sealed and thermally insulated to prevent leakage and heat loss.

In another embodiment shown in figure 15, instead of main body being movable between the first and second pipes, the second pipe would be allowed the flexibility to move. Specifically, the retractable assembly in figure 15 comprises a main body 1510, a first pipe 1520 and a second pipe 1530. A first end of the first pipe 1520 is fixedly connected to the main body 1510 and a second end of the first pipe 1520 is connected to the fluid inlet or fluid outlet 1340 of the modular supply pier 110. A first end of the main body 1510 is fixedly connected to the surface of the first pipe 1520 and a second end is movably connected to the second pipe 1530. A first end of the second pipe 1530 is connected to the fluid inlet or fluid outlet 1350 of chilled water feeds and a second end of the second pipe 1530 extends through the second end of the main body 1510. As the modular supply pier 110 is near the beach, it is possible to determine the maximum upward and downward movement of the vessel due to tide and/or heave. Hence, the length of the main body 1510, first pipe 1520 and second pipe 1530 can be manufactured according to the characteristic of the site in which the modular supply pier 110 is installed. Essentially, when the retractable assembly is installed, a first distance 1570 between the second end of the first pipe 1520 and the second end of the second pipe 1530 is the maximum allowable downward movement of the vessel and a second distance 1580 between the second end of the second pipe 1530 and the second end of the main body 1510 is the maximum allowable upward movement of the vessel. As the vessel is anchored to the modular supply pier 110, heave motion can be minimized and one skilled in the art would only need to determine the characteristics of the site such as tide historical data to determine the tidal range in order to determine the length of the main body 1510, first pipe 1520 and second pipe 1530 to be manufactured and arrangement of the main body 1510, first pipe 1520 and second pipe 1530 based on the determined first and second distances. This also means that the maximum allowable downward movement of the vessel corresponds to a highest tide recorded on a particular site and the minimum allowable downward movement of the vessel corresponds to a lowest tide recorded on the particular site. A processing unit may be provided to monitor the distance between the second end of the first pipe 1520 and the second end of the second pipe 1530. Particularly, sensors may be provided at the second end 1521 of the first pipe 1520 and at the second end 1531 of the second pipe 1530 to obtain the distance between the second end 1521 of the first pipe 1520 and the second end 1531 of the second pipe 1530. The processing unit receives the measured distance in order to make a determination to cut supply if necessary by closing a valve between the first end of the second pipe 1530 and the fluid inlet or fluid outlet 1350 of chilled water feeds. For example, if the distance between the second end of the first pipe 1520 and the second end of the second pipe 1530 is more than maximum allowable upward movement or more than maximum allowable downward movement, the processing unit will trigger the closing of the valve. Alternatively, the processing unit may instead of closing the valve, trigger an alarm to request the vessel to adjust buoyancy of the vessel according to movement of the vessel.

Essentially, the main body 1310, first pipe 1320 and second pipe 1330 are configured to ensure continuous fluid connection between the first and second pipes 1320 and 1330. The connections among the main body 1310, first pipe 1320 and second pipe 1330 are tightly sealed and thermally insulated to prevent leakage and heat loss.

Power cable transmission lines

The power cable transmission lines between the vessels and the power receiver on the modular supply pier 110 can be arranged similar to a modified concept of conventional electrical tower using catenary layout of power cables or using standard high voltage ship to shore connectors so as to avoid straining of the cables. The start point which is the power feed on the vessel is at a higher elevation (when compared to the receiving point) and the receiving point is at a lower elevation (when compared to the start point) on the modular supply pier 110.

Integrated Cable Landing Station (CLS)

Figure 16 illustrates a configuration of an integrated CLS where the BMH is outside the barge or hull of a vessel and figure 17 illustrates a configuration of the integrated CLS where the BMH is within a moonpool of a barge or hull of a vessel. The integrated CLS 1600 comprises a beach manhole (BMH) 1610, a cable station 1620 and a cable entry chute 1640. Figures 16 and 17 are 2 methods of concrete slab trucking connection. One skilled in the art will recognise that other methods may be implemented.

In figure 16, the BMH 1610 comprises a first manhole 1611 located at the seabed configured to receive the burial submarine cables 1650, a second manhole 1613 located at the edge of the hull of a vessel or directly abutting the cable station 1620 as shown in figure 16, and a fixed trucking 1612 configured to provide a channel for the submarine cables 1650 to extend from the seabed to the cable station 1620. The fixed trucking 1612 may be a concrete slab trucking or made from other suitable materials that comply with relevant standards for providing a channel for the submarine cables 1650 to extend from the seabed to the cable station 1620. The vertical fixed trucking 1612a extends upwards from the first manhole 1611 towards the water surface and further extends upwards to a height that is above the second manhole 1613. A horizontal fixed trucking 1612b then extends towards the second manhole 1613. High density poly ethylene (HDPE) corrugated pipe casing 1612c or other similar materials are then provided to connect an end of the horizontal fixed trucking 1612b to the second manhole 1613. The HDPE corrugated pipe casing 1612c are provided to protect and prevent exposure of the submarine cables 1650. The vertical fixed trucking 1612a has to extend above the second manhole 1613 to allow vertical movements of the vessel due to heave or tidal movement. Advantages of the configuration as shown in figure 16 include: ease of construction and installation onsite; and relatively cheaper in construction cost as compared to moonpool option.

In figure 17, the BMH 1610 comprises a first manhole 1611 located at the seabed configured to receive the burial submarine cables 1650, a second manhole 1613 is located at the cable station 1620 as shown in figure 17, and a fixed trucking 1612 configured to provide a channel for the submarine cables 1650 to extend from the seabed to the cable station 1620. The fixed trucking 1612 may be a concrete slab trucking or made from other suitable materials that comply with relevant standards for providing a channel for the submarine cables 1650 to extend from the seabed to the Cable station 1620. The vertical fixed trucking 1612a extends upwards from the first manhole 1611 towards the water surface and through the moonpool 1710 of the vessel and further extends upwards to a height that is above the second manhole 1613. A horizontal fixed trucking 1612b then extends towards the second manhole 1613. High density poly ethylene (HDPE) corrugated pipe casing 1612c or other similar materials are then provided to connect an end of the horizontal fixed trucking 1612b to the second manhole 1613. The HDPE corrugated pipe casing 1612c are provided to protect and prevent exposure of the submarine cables 1650. The vertical fixed trucking 1612a has to extend above the second manhole 1613 to allow vertical movements of the vessel due to heave or tidal movement. Advantages of the configuration as shown in figure 17 include enhance protection, since concrete slab trucking is built in internal coupling within the moonpool. The construction of the concrete slab trucking inside the moonpool provides protection from the ship hull and not exposed to marine traffic and minimise risk of collision directly to the concrete slab trucking.

Figure 18 illustrates cable connection from vessel to the modular supply pier 110. This figure shows the distribution end of the cable landing station, terrestrial network cable distribution to the pier to mainland. A cable path 1640 connects the cable station 1620 to the cable entry chute 1630. In order to factor heave and tidal movement, HDPE corrugated pipe casing 1641 or other similar materials are then provided to connect an end of the cable path 1640 to the cable entry chute 1630.

Essentially, the power plant module or the cooling plant module would be used as a cable landing point for conveying and connecting submarine cables from the seabed to land-based network.

Modular supply pier

The modular supply pier 110 comprises an inlet/outlet module adapted to connect to the power line for drawing power from the power plant module 130, a fluid inlet adapted to connect to the supply fluid line for receiving chilled fluid from the cooling plant module 120 and a fluid outlet adapted to connect to the return fluid line for returning the less chilled fluid to the cooling plant module 120. The modular supply pier 110 further comprises data inlet/outlet ports adapted to connect to the network connectivity cables for connecting the data centres to external servers and the cable connection from the integrated CLS for connecting external servers to the data centres of servers residing on the mainland.

Power plant and cooling plant

Figure 19 illustrates the overall process sketch for a combined power and cooling plant. Figure 20 illustrates a magnified view of box A of figure 19 and figure 21 illustrates a magnified view of box B of figure 19. The power and cooling plants would only be briefly described below for brevity. Specifically, the fluid communications between the CCGT and AB and AD chillers, supply of fuel such as Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Natural Gas (NG), supply of sea water (SW), use of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) are omitted for brevity.

The power plant module 130 is adapted to generate power to operate the FDCP 10. Generally, the power plant module 130 is required to generate power to operate the data centres housed in the FDC module 920. The power plant module 130 may be powered using hydrogen, liquid natural gas (LNG), coal, etc. In accordance with an embodiment of this invention, the power plant module 130 is a gas power plant. Specifically, the power plant module 130 is a liquid natural gas (LNG) power plant. Generally, a liquid natural gas (LNG) power plant includes a gas engine generating heat to spin a gas turbine. The exhaust or waste heat from the gas turbine is captured by a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) generating steam to spin a steam turbine. The spinning of the steam turbine and gas turbine is translated to power supply. Hence, such LNG power plant generates electricity from a dual gas and steam engines, i.e. dual-fuel engine. A dual-fuel engine gives full-flexibility as it can be suitably switched from gas mode to liquid fuel mode in the event of a lack of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) supply. Dual-fuel engine is environmental-friendly with its ability to produce cleaner combustion when running on LNG. A fuel supply vessel such as LNG bunker or feeder vessel can easily supply LNG to the power plant module 130. In short, the power plant module 130 to an embodiment of this disclosure relates to Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) based plant. The CCGT includes gas turbines which will run on natural gas and steam turbines which will run on steam produced from the exhaust heat of the gas turbines.

The cooling plant module 120 according to an embodiment of this disclosure relates to a cooling plant that operates by using the balance waste heat to produce hot water or steam which will run absorption (AB) or adsorption (AD) chillers to generate chilled water for cooling. The cooling plant module 120 is a heat absorption chiller.

As both power plant module 130 and cooling plant module 120 are adjacent to each other (as shown in the first and second configurations), the hot water or steam from the HRSG of the power plant module 130 can be supplied to the heat absorption chiller in the cooling plant module 120 for generating chilled water.

Figures 19-21 illustrate the flow of the fluid between the power plant module 130 and cooling plant module 120 and the supply of chilled water to the data centres (DC). Additionally, figures 19-21 also illustrate the supply of power to the DC where excess power from the CCGT can be exported to the grid or alternatively, if the CCGT is faulty, the DC may draw power from the grid. The fluid communications between the CCGT and AB and AD chillers, supply of fuel such as Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Natural Gas (NG), supply of sea water (SW), use of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) are omitted for brevity.

More importantly, the disclosure discloses a novel method of optimising the power and cooling plant based on historical data, demands and constraints. Specifically, an optimization processing unit comprising an optimization process 2200 is provided to the combined power and cooling plant. The optimization process 2200 includes the following modules, namely, utility demand prediction module for cooling heating, steam and electricity, operational optimization and operation instructions to provide the next 24 hours demand prediction and optimal operations. The optimization process 2200 is also illustrated in figure 22. Demand prediction module 2210 predicts the demand for cooling, heating, steam and electricity at intervals of 30 minutes based on the weather data and historical data of actual cooling and heating load, actual steam load, actual electric load and daily operating pattern. The demand prediction module 2210 predicts the demand requirement for a predetermined interval, for example the next 24 hours. The accuracy of the demand prediction module 2210 can be improved over time as more data is collected with checks integrated to improve the accuracy of the demand prediction.

Operation optimization module 2220 is provided for optimal operation and ultimate utilization of assets. It defines the operation strategy of operations in an energy and cost efficient manner, while meeting the demand and minimized carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. The operation optimization module 2220 determines, at intervals of 30 minutes, the optimal operation schedule for the next 24 hours based on the predicted demands and the current statuses and limits of facilities such as machine operation status, remaining amount of thermal storage, operation mode (manual/auto) and restraints on continuous operation.

Operation instructions 2230 provides instructions to the facilities (such as substation, cogeneration facilities, boiler facilities, chiller, heat exchanger and thermal storage tank) regarding the next 24 hours demand prediction and optimal operations.

In short, the optimization process comprises (1) predicting demand requirement for the next n hours for cooling, heating, steam and electricity at intervals of 30 minutes based on the weather data and historical data of actual cooling and heating load, actual steam load, actual electric load and daily operating pattern; (2) determine, at intervals of 30 minutes, the optimal operation schedule for the next n hours based on the predicted demand and the current statuses and limits of facilities; and (3) provide instructions to the facilities regarding the next n hours of predicted demand and optimal operation schedule.

Demand Prediction Model

The demand prediction 2210 may be based on regression equations or models that looks back on historical data and real-time weather conditions such as temperature, humidity and discomfort index to determine the best variables for the demand prediction 2210 and can be expressed in the following expression: y = a x 1 + a 2 x 2 + — l· a n x n + b

Where x l t x 2 , ..., x n are the variables for the demand prediction, a lt a 2 ,..., a n would be updated by a self-learning algorithm using a Kalman filter to update the demand prediction model for seasonal and demand changes x, y, a are operational variables derived from regression models. Engineering tool such as VISIO can be used to develop the optimization model, objective function and process models.

The regression models would incorporate weekday, Saturday, Sunday and public holiday equations to improve the accuracy of the demand prediction.

The prediction would be updated based on the frequency of weather forecast update every 30 minutes or any other selectable period.

Figure 23 illustrates an overview of the demand prediction module 2210. At every defined period, the deviation between prediction model 2320 and actual 2310 would be calculated to update the prediction model 2320 real-time.

The process of predicting demand is as follows:

1 . Weather Forecast update where the process obtains real time weather data every 30 minutes interval or other selected period. The weather forecast update forms part of the input to the actual and prediction model. 2. Prediction by Kalman Filter 2330 which will be feedback to the prediction model to update the model.

3. Adjustment of prediction value by historical data where output from the actual 2310 would be adjusted by the output from the prediction model 2320.

Figure 24 illustrates the process in the adjustment period of 12:00 to 15:00 where the actual reading 2410 and the predicted reading 2420 at 12:00 is used to adjust the predicted value to form the adjusted prediction reading 2430 from 12:30 to 15:00.

Operation Optimization model

The optimization is based upon mixed Integer Linear Programming to calculate the optimal operation mode.

For optimal operation, numerous conflicting operation parameters need to be taken into consideration such as the operation range of utility equipment, operation setpoints, capacity constraints, contracted power capacity, penalty for uncontracted capacity, efficiency at different loading and temperature conditions.

Optimization allows for 2 selectable Objective Functions which is based on either cost or C0 2 emission.

Objective function

Min Z = å C j X j j = 1. n

Constraints

For optimizing power plant operation, the objective function for cost minimization for next 24 hours can be expressed by the following expression:

Where j = 1 , .. 24; J EN refers to cost for input energy; J PEN refers to penalty total cost; STM PEN refers to penalty cost in case of shortage of Steam/Heat, ELC PEN refers to penalty cost in case of shortage of electricity; and Q PEN refers to penalty cost in case of shortage of heat.

Where COST fuet (k) refers to total fuel cost; COST eiect (k ) refers to total electric purchase cost; E buy (k ) refers to fuel consumption; ELEC buy {k ) refers to electricity consumption imported from the electric retailer; a fuei refers to fuel price; and a eiec refers to power price which may vary depending on time.

Essentially, the PPO model attempts to minimize cost by considering lower penalty costs that may be incurred and lower operating cost.

For the optimizing cooling plant operation, the minimization of objective function can be expressed by the following expression which is applicable for all equipments: Where X refers to input energy, X max refers to X maximum value; X min refers to X minimum value; y refers to output energy and d refers to status where 1 is indicated for running and 0 is indicated for stop.

Coefficient "a" and "fc>" would be calculated from historical data. If a target equipment has non-linear characteristic, "a" would be changed depending on X position.

For example,

Where

QC'TB refers to Cold heat generation from Chiller

E TB refers to Electric consumption by Chiller

ETB, min refers to Minimum power consumption for Chiller

ETB, m a x refers to Maximum power consumption for Chiller kl c TB refers to Chiller Characteristic (Gain) k2 c TB refers to Chiller Characteristic (Bias) d TB refers to Chiller Status (1 if running and 0 if stop)

T C ,R, DESIGN refers to Cold water return Temperature (Design) EG, s, DESIGN refers to Cold water supply Temperature (Design) EC.R CT refers to Cold water return Temperature (Current) T C ,S,ACT refers to Cold water supply Temperature (Current)

EEL C .TB— EIEL C .TB X ETB + E2 ELC TB X 5 TB

Where

EEL C .TB refers to Auxiliary power consumption for Chiller E TB refers to Steam consumption by Chiller klEL C .TB refers to Auxiliary Characteristic (Gain) k2EL C .TB refers to Auxiliary Characteristic (Bias) d TB refers to Chiller Status (1 if running and 0 if stop)

For thermal storage,

Where

R refers to heat in Thermal storage Rm a x refers to maximum capacity for thermal storage R min refers to minimum capacity for thermal storage Q in refers to heat (Charge)

Q out refers to heat (Discharge)

I] refers to loss

The methods and processes in accordance with this invention such as the monitoring of the motion sensors, obtaining all the parameters in order to make a determination to activate the retracting or extending of the retractable water pipe (i.e. controlling the retractable water pipe) and/or the optimization process are driven by computing system such as server, desktop, laptop or similar devices. A typical computing system comprises a processor, memory and instructions stored on the memory and executable by the processor. The processor may be a processor, microprocessor, microcontroller, application specific integrated circuit, digital signal processor (DSP), programmable logic circuit, or other data processing device that executes instructions to perform the processes in accordance with the present invention. The processor has the capability to execute various applications that are stored in the memory. The memory may include read-only memory (ROM), random-access memory (RAM), electrically erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM), flash cards, or any storage medium. Instructions are computing codes, software applications such as an executable application for controlling the retractable water pipe and/or optimizing power and cooling plant that are stored on the memory and executable by the processor to perform the processes in accordance with this invention. Such computing system is well known in the art and hence only briefly described herein.

The above is a description of exemplary embodiments of a centralized power and cooling plant for powering and cooling a floating data centre park in accordance with this invention. It is foreseeable that those skilled in the art can and will design alternative systems and methods based on this disclosure that infringe upon this invention as set forth in the following claims.