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Patent Searching and Data

Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2010/009143
Kind Code:
A system for playing a live game of chance using electronic wagering is disclosed. The system uses a gaming table equipped with a card reading apparatus and multiple dual mode player/dealer displays, each with a player interface. Physical playing cards are electronically read and delivered to the casino table. Electronic information of at least one of rank and count is provided to a game processor. The game processor also sends and receives player information to and from a player display. The player display is divided into two segments, the first segment displaying player information and a second segment displaying dealer information. The player enters wagers and other play decisions through the player interface. The system displays information useful to the player on the first area and information useful to the dealer on the second segment at appropriate intervals.

Application Number:
Publication Date:
January 21, 2010
Filing Date:
July 14, 2009
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
International Classes:
Foreign References:
Other References:
See also references of EP 2300114A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
FARRAR, Jennifer, K. (Inc.1106 Palms Airport Driv, Las Vegas NV, US)
Download PDF:

1. A system for monitoring the play of a casino card game, comprising: a gaming table; a game controller programmed to administer a casino wagering game on the gaming table; a plurality of player displays, each display having a first area for providing a player with game information and a second area for displaying information to the dealer, wherein each player display includes at least one user interface enabling credit wagering; a card reading device for reading at least the rank of a card prior to delivery to a player; and a dealer interface for administering the game.

2. The system of claim 1, wherein the player interface comprises touch screen controls.

3. The system of claim 2, wherein the dealer interface performs functions selected from the group consisting of: player buy in, player cash out, enabling player interface, disabling player interface, transfer credits, dealer log in, dealer log out, notification of a dealer blackjack, and reconciliation of wagers.

4. The system of claim 1, further comprising a card handling device with an integrated card reading device, wherein the card handling device is selected from the group consisting of a shoe and a shuffler.

5. The system of claim 1, wherein at least some of the information displayed in the first area and the second area of the player display is alphanumeric information.

6. The system of claim 2, wherein players input credit wagers using the touch screen controls.

7. The system of claim 1 , further comprising a double-sided display in communication with the game controller.

8. The system of claim 7, wherein the double sided display displays first information to players and second information to pit personnel.

9. The system of claim 8, wherein the second information is displayed on a display with touch screen controls.

10. The system of claim 1, wherein the player displays are flush mounted into a top surface of the gaming table.

11. The system of claim 1 , wherein the gaming table has a fabric covered upper surface, wherein the upper surface lacks game-specific markings.

12. The system of claim 8, wherein the first information to players is selected from the group consisting of: pay table, game name, casino name, game logo, casino logo and casino advertisement.

13. The system of claim 1 , wherein the gaming table comprises a tabletop formed from multiple rigid layers, and at least some of the system components are enclosed within the rigid layers of the tabletop.

14. The system of claim 1 , wherein the information displayed in the second area is presented in a first player viewable orientation and in a second dealer viewable orientation.

15. The system of claim 1 , wherein touch screen controls are provided in the second area for use by the dealer.

16. A dual function programmable player display, comprising: a display screen comprising a first area for displaying player game play information and a second area for displaying player information in a first orientation and dealer information in a second orientation; and touch screen controls in at least the first area enabling players to place wagers and input play decisions, and displaying information in the second area for use by a dealer.

17. The system of claim 1 , wherein the card reading system is selected from the group consisting of an overhead card imaging system, and a table top card reading system.

18. The display of claim 17, wherein the display is programmed to enable a dealer to view player cards and set a player hand.

19. The display of claim 17, further comprising touch screen controls in the second area.

20. The display of claim 19, wherein the touch screen controls are used by the dealer to indicate a function selected from the group consisting of: a hand resolution, the identification of a winner, enabling wagering, disabling wagering and to set a hand.


BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention

The present invention is directed to a chipless gaming table. The present invention relates to the field of gaming tables having player electronic data entry or input, particularly casino table wagering systems in which wagering is done with electronic wagering in the absence of chips, tokens, currency or coins being placed on a table as the wager, and preferably such a casino table wagering system in which physical playing cards are used in the play of a casino wagering card game on the system.

2. Background of the Art The chipless (and cashless) gaming technology of the present invention is so named because there is no necessity (and generally no capability) for using direct addition of chips or coins or currency by the player as wagering elements in the play of games on the table. Rather, credit is established for each player at each player position to enable wagering by player-exercised data entry (user input) at various stages of the game. The user input may also enable input of player selections in addition to wager amounts and wager types (e.g., on an underlying game, side bets, jackpots, raises, withdrawals and the like).

U.S. Patent No. 5,779,546 (Meissner) describes a system for monitoring a card game. The system includes a dealer information screen for indicating player requests. A display 201 d-207d consisting of a row of three light emitting diodes (LEDs) is connected to the back of each player's touch screen so as to be visible by the dealer. These LEDs provide instructions to the dealer to advise him of the player's intentions (hold, deal, split, insurance, etc.). The display may be, for example, an LED display and may be positioned on the dealer's side of each player's touch screen (or elsewhere in a location visible to the dealer). The display is utilized as a quick reference source of instructions for the dealer for certain player choices such as: active, inactive, Hit, Stand, Split, etc.

U.S. Patent No.'s 7,201,655 (Walker et al.) and U.S. Patent No. 6,319,122 (Packes et al.) describe systems that evaluate the rate of play of players on a video gaming system and increases awards or payouts or comps to the player based on the rate of play on a video gaming system.

U.S. Patent No. 7,316,615 (Soltys et al.) describes a system for recording the historical events in casino table card games, providing information on numbers of hands played in a period of time by the dealer, and evaluating win/loss percentages for players and dealers.

U.S. Patent No. 6,676,517 (Beavers) discloses a casino table supervision and analysis system in which potential errors or fraud of the dealers is identified by tracking and analyzing electronically inputted data.


A system for playing a live card game with electronic wagering is disclosed. Live casino card games are typically played on a standard gaming table surface embossed with the indicia specific to the game being played. The present system comprises a chipless table having multiple game software available. Individual game markings in one embodiment are not present, although individual casino or other logos may be printed thereon. A dealer, cards, a card reading device, a game controller, a dealer interface and multiple player credit wagering interfaces are employed to facilitate the game being played. Players interested in playing a live table game sit at a player position at the table, and are required to purchase credit from the dealer to "buy-in" to the play session.

The dealer presides over the game, handles all "buy-ins," "cash-outs," and settles all wagers, as well as deals the cards in the game, resolves each game, and interacts with the players playing the game. Players may buy in with chips, or receive chips upon cashing out, but according to the invention, play exclusively with credit. The dealer is a significant parameter in the speed and rate of play in casino games. The technology disclosed herein eliminates dealer error on payouts and increases efficiency.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES Figure 1 shows a player display and interface with a dealer area that is displaying a player game outcome in the game of blackjack.

Figure 2 shows a player display and a player play decision in the dealer area. Figure 3 shows a player display displaying the available blackjack side bets in the player screen area, and an indication of the base game in the dealer area. Figure 3 a shows a player display displaying the pay-tables for available blackjack side bets in the player display area.

Figure 4 shows a player display in a blackjack game after a player has placed a bet(s) and before the player has executed a game decision.

Figure 5 shows a player display, wherein an executed player decision to "stand" is displayed in the dealer display area.

Figure 6 shows a player display, wherein an executed player decision to "hit" is displayed in the dealer display area.

Figure 7 shows a Three Card Poker® player display, wherein a player's initial wagers prior to the execution of a player game decision are displayed in the player screen area, and the game name and logo are displayed in the dealer area.

Figure 8 shows a Three Card Poker® player display after a player has executed a play decision, wherein the play decision is showing in the dealer area.

Figure 9 shows a Three Card Poker® player display showing a player's game outcome, wherein the player game outcome is also showing in the dealer area. Figure 10 shows a Three Card Poker® player display showing the Three Card

Poker® "Pair Plus" and "Ante Bonus" pay-tables, wherein the pay-table is showing in the player area, and the game name and logo is displayed in the dealer area.

Figure 11 shows an embodiment of a table system layout for the Chipless Gaming Tables described herein. Figure 12 is a flow diagram of an exemplary process of the present invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Game profitability is influenced strongly by the speed at which a game is played. The speed of a game is based on the number of hands dealt per hour and the number of wagers settled per hour. Even where games may have a relatively high advantage and percentage hold by a casino, if the rate of play is low, then faster games with less advantageous house odds may produce more revenues. Considering the amount of dealer responsibility in the play of a game, even the very best dealers in the business are slowed down during a game. The time it takes to accurately deal the card game, resolve the card hands in a game, settle all wagers, facilitate cash-outs, resolve disputes and handle buy-ins can quickly accumulate into a substantial and costly time frame. In the casino business, time spent on gaming is money, and when time is not spent playing the games, money is lost.

In addition to the time element, there are the issues of accuracy. Sometimes players are paid on wagers that should go to the house, and there are times when players should be paid and their wagers are forfeited to the house. There are times players are given more chips than they paid for, and there are times when players and/or dealers cheat the house by capping and/or pinching wagers.

Therefore, it is desirable to provide a system that facilitates the speed and accuracy of a live card game without disturbing the unique environment a live card game offers players.

Chipless table games operate on credit instead of using traditional gaming chips. Therefore, the need for chips is eliminated except optionally for when cashing a customer in or out. The use of the credit based system speeds up game play by eliminating time the dealer would spend exchanging cash for gaming chips, calculating and paying wins, and increasing hands per hour. This also increases revenue for the casino by increasing play and eliminating dealer error in paying out wins to customers.

The use of a chipless gaming table eliminates the cost of purchasing chips. Wager amounts are electronically recorded, eliminating the need for more costly RPID chips and antennas. Figure 12 is a flow diagram for the method of the present invention, generally referred to as numeral 110. A Chipless Table Game System (CTGS) is provided at step 112. CTGS generally has a dealer station with a dealer interface and a plurality of player stations, each including a player interface, such as a touch screen, and operates with purchased credits instead of casino gaming chips. At step 114, a dealer

"cashes-in" a player wishing to join the underlying table game by accepting currency or casino gaming chips and issuing credits for a player to wager with to the corresponding player account accessible to the player via the player interface.

At step 116, the player makes a wager to enter the underlying table game using the credits and also makes any other necessary or optional additional wagers to continue play via the player interface. Then at step 118, the underlying table game proceeds as usual. The dealer dispenses physical cards to the player, preferably from a card handling device equipped with card recognition and/or hand recall technology. Hand recall information is useful when the game requires a fixed number of cards dealt to each player, and the final hand is determined at the point that the hand is dealt.

Upon conclusion of a hand of play in the underlying game, step 120, the CTGS automatically resolves the wagers by adding or subtracting credits to the corresponding player accounts as appropriate. The dealer then cashes-out the player at step 124, by zeroing out or resetting the player account and paying the player for any winnings or balance on the account in currency or casino gaming chips, depending on casino rules and/or gaming regulations.

At step 126, the CTGS calculates the handle or number of hands dealt per shift by the dealer. This information may be downloaded from the CTGS manually or networked with the house computer system to do this automatically.

As defined herein, a Chipless Gaming Table is a traditional live table game experience on a novel gaming platform that includes a casino game played according to predetermined set(s) of rules, at least one dealer, physical playing cards, and at least one player to place at least one electronic wager to participate in the game provided. The Chipless Gaming Table includes a plurality of electronic player displays, and touch screen wagering interfaces, the displays flush mounted into the gaming table surface, wherein players place wagers and execute game decisions electronically on displays equipped with touch screen controls (e.g., liquid crystal diode screens, LCD screens) and/or other touchscreen forms of suitable user interface technology while playing a live table game. In a preferred embodiment, the Chipless Gaming Table includes a dealer

PC/game server, wherein the PC/game server is located where it is easily accessed by the dealer, for example through a dealer I/O system which may be in front of the dealer, to the side of the dealer (on or associated with the table) and/or in a chip tray. Preferably, the PC/game server is operatively associated with an intelligent card handling and/or card reading device located on the table. The device preferably has card reading capabilities. The intelligent card handling device (i.e., a card-reading shoe or shuffler) correlates read card rank and suit information with known stored card values and transmits said correlated card data to the dealer PC/game server for use in administering the game. Although card handling devices that read special card markings on cards can be used as a part of the disclosed systems, it is preferred that the intelligent card reading devices read the standard rank and/or suit markings on conventional playing cards, eliminating the need for the casino to use specially marked cards.

The dealer PC/game server has a main game controller programmed with the rules of the game (and optionally other games) being executed at a table, wherein the dealer PC/game server receives and correlates the card information received from the card handling device with known game outcomes and the dealer PC/game server determines a game outcome(s) based on the actual dealt card values. The dealer PC/game server is in communication with a plurality of electronic wagering interfaces, wherein each electronic wagering interface transmits, and receives, updated game and wagering information as each game progresses and as each game is eventually concluded.

One preferred embodiment of a player display for the Chipless Table features LCD touch screen technology, but plasma and/or other suitable technology may be employed as desired. Preferably, a plurality of displays with touchscreen controls are flush mounted into a gaming table surface at each player position (as shown in Figure 11, and as described in detail elsewhere). The controls in one embodiment are divided into two separate areas and the different areas serve a number of purposes, including functioning as a player wagering interface. It is preferred that each display has it's own processor, wherein each processor controls its own display, and each display processor is in communication with a main game controller/game server. In a preferred form of the invention, the display processor administers graphics functions of the display. All other game events are administered by the central game controller.

One preferred embodiment of the player display, as shown in Figure 1, enables the player to input play decisions as well as wagering decisions. For example, the player portion 17 of the display includes commands that are carried out by the dealer.

In the game of blackjack, "stand" 23 and "hit" 29 instructions can be communicated via the touchscreen controls to the game controller as well as providing a visual instruction to the dealer. When the dealer responds to a "hit" command inputted by the player, (the hit command displayed to the dealer in area 27 as shown in Figure 2) the controller receives a card rank and/or suit signal from the card handling device

(preferably a card reading shoe), and the controller now knows that the dealt card should be associated with the hand dealt to the player position that requested the hit card. Enabling the calling of cards or commands to "split" 30, "double down" 24, "hit" 29, or "stand" 23 similarly enable the game controller to assemble hand information and associate that hand information with a particular player station 10.

The player station can be equipped with a separate or integrated player tracking system (not shown) of known configurations that enable the game processor to associate win/loss information with a particular player.

The player display 10 is advantageously divided into a first player area 17 and a second dealer area 27. The dealer area 27 has multiple inventive functions as will be described in more detail below. In a first mode, the dealer area 27 displays a game outcome 41 in a format that is oriented for view by the dealer. This information is used by the dealer to confirm that the player is entitled to a payout. Payouts are preferably made automatically. However, the information 41 is useful for the dealer to react positively to the player win, and encourage the player to rebet the winnings, maintaining the ambiance of a live table game experience. In a second mode, the dealer area 27 is used to instruct the dealer to take appropriate action.

Referring to Figure 2, one possible dealer action is to deal the player a "hit" card, as shown by instruction 40. Other instructions specific to blackjack might be to "stand", only deal "one more card" when the player doubles down, to "deal more cards" when a player has split a pair, etc. In a third mode, dealer area 27 is used to display game information or advertisements in an orientation viewable by the player. In this mode, the alphanumeric information or graphical information is oriented such that the player can readily read and/or understand the message conveyed. In a fourth mode, the display 27 is touch screen enabled, providing the dealer with a means for inputting play information, such as concluding the play of a hand, activating a player display to request player commands, deactivate the player display, indicating the close of wagering, or other activities such as setting and rearranging hands.

In the game of Pai Gow Poker, for example, it might be necessary to display player cards on the dealer or player areas of the display, although it is not necessary to display virtual cards in administering the game of blackjack. In the game of Pai Gow Poker, the player's 7 cards might be displayed in area 27, and the dealer might be instructed to "SET HANDS". The dealer would either touch the five cards that define the high hand or the two cards that define the low hand. In one embodiment, the dealer can touch and drag cards to group them in the desired manner. In other embodiments, touching the cards defining one hand rearranges the cards on the display into set hands. The player must then arrange the physical cards to match the dealer instructions.

The touch screen is further enabled to allow the dealer to touch and drag cards from hand to hand, in the event that the dealer determines that the dealer's setting of the hand does not comply with the "house way." When the dealer area 27 is being used to instruct the dealer, the text is preferably inverted such that the information can be understood by the dealer. When the dealer area 27 is used to provide information to the player, the information is preferably oriented so that the player can readily understand the information. In one exemplary form of the invention, a separation line

26 is provided to divide the two display areas. An essential feature of the chipless gaming table is a player display 10 with at least one touch screen control panel overlay, or control panel. The overlay preferably extends over the entire surface of the display. The display may be pressure sensitive, heat sensitive, moisture sensitive, conductive or use any other known technologies to input decisions. In other examples of the invention, the touch screen controls cover only a portion of the display. The touch screen controls are configured to provide a first area 20 for the player to make game decisions and to obtain information on how to play the game.

An exemplary first area 20 includes a plurality of electronic buttons, for example, help, odds, paytables, rebet and clear bet buttons. The "help" button activates the display of a separate help screen that provides game rules and could offer strategic advice to the player on wagering and other game play decisions. The "odds" button displays the true odds payout for making a side bet on a particular combination of player and dealer initial cards. The true odds betting methods are disclosed in co- pending U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/075,008 filed March 7, 2008, entitled

Side Bet Odds Wagering System and assigned to Shuffle Master, Inc. The content of this disclosure is herein incorporated by reference. The "paytables" button activates a screen that displays the pay table or tables showing winning combinations and corresponding payout odds for the base game and/or a side bet wager or wagers. The "rebet" button allows a player to make the same size wager as made in the previous hand. The "clear bets" button resets the display so that the player can make a new wager.

The control panel includes a bankroll indicator 31 showing the total number of credits the player has available for play, and a virtual chip area 21 that displays the various denominations of virtual chips that can be wagered in the game.

Various decision options relative to the game rules of blackjack are located above the bankroll area 31 and the virtual chip area 21, such as, but not limited to, a stand button 23, a hit button 29, double down button 24, a split button 30, and a surrender button 32, wherein players execute each desired game decision by using hand motions such as, but not limited to, touching and/or tapping the desired button.

The player area 17 of the display in one embodiment is programmed to display the running count of the player's hand in area 22. In other embodiments, this information is not displayed.

Above the player instruction buttons (i.e. hit, stand, double down, split, surrender, insurance (not shown), a primary wager area 25 is provided to indicate the amount of the wager. The player makes this wager by touching the $20 chip (five times) in the chip area 21. The player can optionally make a number of side bets in one or more areas 28a, 28b and 28c. In one exemplary form of the invention, the player can change his or her bet before the close of betting by depressing the "clear bets" button on player control area 20. At the conclusion of play, payouts may be displayed by showing virtual chips "paid out" next to the betting areas, and the bankroll meter 31 is incremented with the appropriate credits. An alphanumeric "WIN" indication (not shown) may also pop up on the player display.

As noted, a preferred method of practice of the present technology is for the dealer information display segment 27 or the player section 17 of the video display screen 10 or both segments to be provided by picture-in-picture technology, whether in analog or digital format. Circuitry and processing support systems enabling this picture-in-picture format and picture-on-picture format are known in the video monitor and electronic imaging art, such as in Published U.S. Patent Application Nos. 20080037628 (McDonald et al); 20070275762 (Aaltone et al.); 20070256111 (Medford); and 20040003395 (Srinivas et al.).

The dealer area 27 may display a dealer instruction such as a "HIT" 40. The player decision to hit in blackjack is inputted by pressing the "hit" 29 button. The decision was executed after evaluating a dealt two-card blackjack hand (not shown) totaling 6 (six), the total displayed in area 22. Displaying the card count is possible when a chipless table is used in connection with a card-reading shoe or other card reading device such as an overhead camera imaging system as disclosed in U.S. Patent Publication 2005/0272501, the content which is incorporated by reference. The card information is sent to the game processor. The game processor calculates the hand count and transmits the count to the player display. The game processor further instructs the display to display the count in area 22. The card hand total 22 may optionally be presented on the separate upright screen 332 facing the players (and optionally on the screen segment facing the pit 334), illustrated in Figure 11. It is important to note that the player decision/action 40 is displayed in the dealer area 27 and presented in the form of an instruction readable by the dealer (inverted, rather than in an orientation readable by the player). Since the dealer is standing and facing the players, the text 40 is inverted (upside down) with respect to the player's view and is easily read and/or interpreted by the dealer. The inverted text 40 showing in the dealer area 27 provides the dealer with player game information as well as informs the dealer that a player decision "HIT" has been acknowledged by the system. Then the dealer must respond by taking action. The dealer area 27 clearly informs the dealer a player is requesting an additional card/"HIT" in a text and manner readable by the dealer. The dealer in response then removes the next card from the shoe and delivers the card to the player that requested the "HIT". As a game progresses to a conclusion, a player's final game outcome 41

(Figure 1) shows in the dealer screen area 27, wherein the dealer can take appropriate action. Other information that can be shown in the dealer area 27 includes blackjack, bust, jackpot win, etc.

Figure 3 shows an embodiment of a "How to Play" player game information screen design, wherein a player views game information in the player screen area 17 by pressing the "help" button 102 in the first player area 20. In this mode, it should be noted that the split screen line 26 remains displayed, and the dealer screen area 27 is displaying the game title/logo 45 in a text and manner readable by the player. Figure 3 A shows a preferred embodiment of "Sidebet Paytables" screen format wherein the game title/logo 45 is displayed in a text and/or manner readable by a player. It is preferable that the dealer portion 27 of the display be capable of displaying information readable by the player as well as readable by the dealer in different stages of use. The side bet pay-table information is accessed by a player when the pay-table button 104 is touched in the first player area 20 located below bankroll 31 and bet 21 indicators. Figure 4 shows an embodiment of a split screen after a player has placed initial wager base game 25, and side bet wager 28 and before the cards are dealt. Again it should be noted that the dealer area 27 displays the game title/logo 45 in a manner readable by the player at this stage of play.

Figure 5 shows an embodiment of a player display, wherein a player has inputted a "STAND" decision by depressing button 23 based on dealt card information. It should be noted the line 26 continues to separate the player screen area

17 from the dealer screen area 27. The dealer screen area 27 is showing the player decision to stand 40 in substantially inverted text (upside down for the player) and in a manner easily read by the dealer.

Figure 6 shows another embodiment of the display 10, wherein a player has inputted a hit decision 29 based on a dealt card information. The screen display shows the dealer screen area 27 is displaying the player "HIT" decision 40 in text substantially inverted in a manner easily read by the dealer. The displayed information not only indicates the player instruction to the processor, but it provides an instruction for the dealer to take appropriate action. In the case of seeing the "HIT" command, the dealer dispenses the next card to the player.

Figures 7, 8, 9, and 10 show exemplary split screen displays for the Three Card Poker® game, wherein the game display, game options and betting areas differ according to the rules of Three Card Poker® game. The player display 100 includes a player play area 117 as well as a dealer display area 127. As shown in Figure 7, the dealer area 127 is displaying the game logo 129, arranged to be viewed by the player.

As in the previous embodiments, as shown in Figure 8 the instruction text 140 in the dealer screen area 127, when intended to provide the dealer with instructions to facilitate play is displayed in a manner easily interpreted by the dealer. Prior to a player game decision and/or the start of a game, the dealer screen area 127 displays the game logo and/or game name in a manner readable by the player.

The system comprises a gaming table having at least: a. player station having a data entry (e.g., touchscreen) capability and preferably an independent graphics processor; b. a central CPU controlled by the dealer or house; c. a communication link between each player station and the central

CPU; d. a card delivery system (e.g., delivery shoe with card reader card shuffler with card reader or manual shoe with overhead camera imaging) that provides rank/count/suit type information on cards delivered, and e. A dealer input, preferably in the form of a dealer display with touch screen controls.

Although it is not necessary to provide touch screen controls at the player or dealer stations, this type of user input is desirable because it can be reconfigured through reprogramming and no hardware components must be changed out to reprogram the system to administer different games.

After all bets are placed, the dealer may touch a "deal" field on the dealer's screen. This prevents all entered bets from being changed, and locks out all new bets. The dealer may then begin to deal (by either removing the first card from the dealing shoe or pressing a switch on a shuffler for dispensing a hand of cards). In one embodiment, once the first card is dealt, a plurality of new fields appear on each player's touch screen.

Different communication and control relationships can exist between player input systems, game controllers, casino computers, databases, and data storage media within a single casino or multiple casinos. The relationships are known within the Communication-Information Technologies field as master-slave systems, thin client systems, client server systems and blended systems. The blended system is understood to be a system that is not fully master-slave (where a single dominant computer) gives orders/commands to a slave subordinate computer or processor or purely input system (e.g., buttons only, cash input, and information signals only, without substantive commands being sent, and the like), nor is it a completely or substantially coequal system (peer-to-peer) where data processing and commands may be performed by multiple systems (multiple computers) with defined regions of control and authority. These differing relationships are contemplated by the present invention. In one exemplary form, the graphics functions are managed by the player processor, and all other functions are managed by the game CPU. Underlying Architecture for Chipless Gaming Tables

FIG. 11 shows an exemplary chipless gaming table 200 system for playing live card games with physical playing cards (e.g., 206a and 206b) according to technologies enabled and disclosed herein. Gaming table 200 can be of a variety of common constructions or configurations as are typically used as the structural components of gaming tables in the industry. The typical gaming table has a tabletop or playing surface 204 and a perimeter pad or armrest 208 which extends at least about the portion of the table periphery facing players. The relatively straight, back portion of the periphery 210 is used by the dealer (not shown) and can be partly or wholly padded as may vary with the particular table chosen. Seven player display/input systems 212a - 212g are shown. Each of the player input systems 212a

- 212g has a processor 214a - 214g (shown in phantom) and a touch screen entry surface 216a - 216g. There may be an optional dealer chip tray 220. There is also a game controller, CPU or casino computer 228 (shown in phantom) whose location at the table system 200 is relatively unimportant, but which must be in direct (hardwired or wireless or networked) communication with each individual player processor 214a

- 214g and a card reading and/or delivery system 222 from which playing cards are supplied, with at least the rank/count (and preferably also suit) of individual cards known as the cards are removed (for example, one-at-a-time) and delivered to player positions and/or the dealer position. The card delivery system 222 is in communication with controller 228 by wired or wireless communication methods. The individual processors 214a - 214g could also be in communication link with the game controller 228 by wireless or hardwired connections. Communication is not limited to electronic or electrical signals, but may include optical signals, audio signals, magnetic transmission or the like.

The playing surface 204 is provided on the table where participants of the card game(s) play. One or a plurality of players (not shown) sit or stand along the semicircular portion and play a desired card game, such as the popular casino card games of blackjack, baccarat, poker and poker variants. Other card games are alternatively possible, although the system described will be discussed with respect to the play of blackjack. The gaming table 200 also advantageously includes a betting chip rack 220 which allows the dealer to conveniently store betting chips used by the dealer in cashing players in and out of the game. A money drop slot (not shown) is further included to allow the dealer to easily deposit paper money bills thereinto when players purchase credits.

Table 200 can support a system, or form a part of a system for playing live card games which is constructed according to the present invention. The card game system 200 described herein in one example of the invention is a retrofit system which has been added to standard gaming table support frame. Such a retrofit system includes an upright communal player display 330 which displays images which depict game information such as pay tables, hand counts, win/loss information, historical win/loss information by player, and a wide variety of other information considered useful to the players. The display 330 is a two-sided display that will be explained more fully below. The system also preferably includes a dealer control 218 which is preferably provided in the form of a display with touch screen controls positioned within the chip rack 220. In an alternate embodiment, the dealer control resides on the card dispensing device 222 or as a separate keypad (not shown). The individual player position processors are preferably graphics processors 214a-214g and not full content CPUs as a cost saving, space saving, and efficiency benefit. With the reduced capacity in the processor as compared to a CPU, there is actually reduced likelihood of tampering and fraudulent input.

The individual components provided for functionality at each position (e.g., the slave, servant, coequal, or master functionality) are not limited to specific manufacturers of formats, but may be used according to general performance requirements. It is not even necessary that identical computing formats (MAC, PC, Linux, etc.) be used throughout the system, as long as there is an appropriate I/O communication link and language/format conversion between components. Further discussion of the nature of the various components, including definitions therefore, will be helpful. Flash memory (sometimes called "flash RAM") is a type of constantly powered nonvolatile memory that can be erased and reprogrammed in units of memory called blocks. It is a variation of electrically erasable programmable readonly memory (EPROM) that, unlike flash memory, is erased and rewritten at the byte level, which is slower than flash memory updating. Flash memory is often used to hold control code such as the basic input/output system (BIOS) in a personal computer. When BIOS needs to be changed (rewritten), the flash memory can be written to in block (rather than byte) sizes, making it easy to update. On the other hand, flash memory is not useful as random access memory (RAM) because RAM needs to be addressable at the byte (not the block) level. Flash memory gets its name because the microchip is organized so that a section of memory cells are erased in a single action or "flash." The erasure is caused by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling in which electrons pierce through a thin dielectric material to remove an electronic charge from a floating gate associated with each memory cell. Intel offers a form of flash memory that holds two bits (rather than one) in each memory cell, thus doubling the capacity of memory without a corresponding increase in price. Flash memory is non- volatile computer memory that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. It is a technology that is primarily used in memory cards, and USB flash drives (thumb drives, handy drive, memory stick, flash stick, jump drive, currency sensors, optical sensors, credit entry, and other signal generation) for general storage and transfer of data between computers and other digital products. It is often considered a specific type of EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) that is erased and programmed in large blocks; in early flash the entire chip had to be erased at once. Flash memory has also gained popularity in the game console market, where it is often used instead of EEPROMs or battery-powered SRAM for game save data.

The phrase "non-volatile" means that it does not need power to maintain the information stored in the chip. In addition, flash memory offers fast read access times (although not as fast as volatile DRAM memory used for main memory in PCs) and better kinetic shock resistance than hard disks. These characteristics explain the popularity of flash memory in portable devices. Another feature of flash memory is that when packaged in a "memory card", it is enormously durable, being able to withstand intense pressure, extremes of temperature, and immersion in water. Although technically a type of EEPROM, the term "EEPROM" is generally used to refer specifically to non-flash EEPROM which is erasable in small blocks, typically bytes. Because erase cycles are slow, the large block sizes used in flash memory erasing give it a significant speed advantage over old-style EEPROM when writing large amounts of data. Non- volatile memory, nonvolatile memory (NVM), or nonvolatile storage, is computer memory that can retain the stored information even when not powered. Examples of non- volatile memory include read-only memory (ROMP, flash memory, most types of magnetic computer storage devices (e.g. hard disks, floppy disk drives, and magnetic tape), and optical disc drives. Non- volatile memory is typically used for the task of secondary storage, or long-term persistent storage. The most widely used form of primary storage today is a volatile form of random access memory (RAM), meaning that when the computer is shut down, anything contained in RAM is lost. Flash memory may also be provided in chips, field-programmable gated arrays (FPGAs), ASICs and Magnetic RAM (MRAM). The latter would allow for computers that could be turned on and off almost instantly, bypassing the slow startup and shutdown sequence.

The "Chipless Table" format and architecture described herein comprises generic concepts and specific disclosure of components and subcomponents useful in the practice of the present technology. It should be appreciated at all times that equivalents, alternatives and additional components, functions and processes may be used within the system without deviating from the enabled and claimed technology of this invention.

One preferred construction of a Chipless Table has from three-eight players (Shown in Figure 11 as seven player positions) with five, six or seven Player betting positions 212a-212g (with independent monitors 214a-214g) being preferred, a Dealer console 218, a double-sided table sign (shown in Figure 11 as 330, with a front player exposed screen 332 and a casino pit directed screen 334,), a card reading shoe 222 (or card reading shuffler or overhead camera imaging system or table mounted card reader) (not shown), a chip tray 228, cards 206, a generic felt 336 and a table computer 228 using the Aquarius Controller™ protocol (game controller, under the table manufactured by Progressive Games, Inc. of Las Vegas, Nevada), for example.

The game information (which is preferably for multiple games) is configurable and will be set-up during the initial install of the table and may be switched from game to game on-the-fly at each table. It is from this set-up that the Game information is selected so that the graphics on the Player Touch Screen 216a-216g, Dealer Console 218, Pit Display 334 and Table Display 332 provide the correct information regarding the game in play. It is the capability of changing individual types of game events (e.g., from Blackjack to Baccarat) at a table that enables, or even requires that the generic felt 336 is free of any permanent printing that identifies only a specific game at a table. There may be separate monitors (not shown) that enable display of game names, game rules and paytables for individual games, or under table back-lighting that may project such information display on the table. It is important to note that the dealer display area 127 (shown in Fig 7) of each player screen is capable of displaying the game name and logo when the area is not being used to provide game information. By displaying the game name and logo information in dealer area 127, it is not necessary to print the same information on the generic layout 336.

Using the Pit Display 334, the game is selected by casino personnel and communicated to the table controller 228 via a touch screen control on the pit display

334. The table controller (and/or a central pit controller) sends out the appropriate graphics to each of the Player screens and table signs to begin game play. One example for the basic procedure for game play is:

1. A Player buys in with either cash, chips, tickets, electronic access to an account, credit card, marker and the like.

2. The Dealer adds credits to a player position using the Dealer console.

3. Wagers are made electronically using the touch screen controls at each individual player position. Touch screens may be of any convenient size considering ease of view ability by players, space limitations on the table and ergonomics, and for example may be between about 4 inches and 15 inches at each player position (diagonal measurement). 4. All initial wagering (e.g., antes, initial bonus wagers, initial jackpot wagers, initial mandatory wagers) is stopped when the first card or hand is delivered. Delivery may be from the shoe or shuffler. This stopping may be affected by a signal from the shoe or shuffler (to the game processor/table computer) that actual play of a round of the underlying game has been made. Subsequent wagers (such as splitting events, double downs, secondary wagers, play wagers, etc.) may be subsequently made in a controlled manner by the system. Player decisions are inputted by players using the player input areas and instructions are provided in alphanumeric or graphical form to the dealer on the dealer portion 127 of the player display.

5. The underlying game is played as normal, with physical cards being provided and all wagers and resolutions of wagers being made on the electronic wagering system (Note: The touch screen procedures and graphics for each game usually will be different, and table play for each game will be provided, controlled, enabled and directed by the game processor/table computer).

6. Upon hand or game completion, wager reconciliation is initiated either by the Dealer (e.g., specifically inputting a signal or command by button or dealer area of the player display using touchscreen or other input) or automatically by the system (which has determined by card reading events that a round or game has ended) and is reflected as an increase, no change (push) or decrease in the bankroll on the Player's screen. 7. When a Player leaves the table, Credits are removed from the Player position through the Dealer console and the credits are paid out with chips, tickets, cash or credits are transferred to a player account from the dealer console 218. In one embodiment, the table has reporting functionality, such as reports that are specific to the table and recorded by Pit personnel on a regular basis. This data can be accessed on the Pit Display touch screen on a (for example 15 inch) Pit Display 334. The raw data from the 200 table can be packaged and sent to a central Pit or house computer for analysis (Player ratings, Dealer efficiency, Table handle, etc.).

Dealer Console 218 An example of properties that would be available in a Dealer Console Touch

Screen 218 should be able to perform the following actions: Buy-in and cash out of players on the table; Notifies the Dealer if a Player chooses to Cash out; Enables and disables Player touch screens; Move credits if a Player chooses to change seats;

Allows Dealer Log-in/Log-out on the table;

Informs the dealer (initially only is desirable, although the alert may be triggered and waited for until after players further wagering) if the dealer has a Blackjack (i.e. "no peek" function); and Reconciles the wagers when the hand is complete when the Dealer presses the

"Reconcile" button on the touch screen.

The CPU / Game Controller / Table Computer 228

Preferred functions of the game controller 228 are as follows: Stores Game information;

Manages the Player Terminals;

Controls the one-way or two-way (e.g., 10 inch to 20 inch) Table sign with paytables, game information, progressive amount, etc.;

Controls the Pit sign with game setup options, table statistics, etc.; Controls the player Buy-in process through communication with the player input system;

Controls player Cash out process through communication with the player input system;

Records wagers made at start of a game; Prevents betting after the first card is dealt (except as additional wagers are allowed during play of various game, but then only limited wagers and specific wagers);

Receives card and or hand information from the shoe, shuffler, overhead camera imaging system or table-mounted card reader;

Evaluates player bets;

Automatically pays the wins and collects losing bets;

Enables specifically identified betting after the hand for the Player terminal has been resolved; Interfaces to the optional jackpot system; and

Provides touch screen resolution of events and games.

Player Displays 212

The Player Touch Screen (or PTS) is (for example, a 10.5 inch) a Touch Screen with an attached Processor Board. The Player uses the PTS to make wagers and to communicate game actions to the Dealer and to record game play events. The top section of the touch screen (relative to the player) is split and graphics are reversed at certain stages of use for the Dealer to know what action the player is taking, and to receive instructions to take action requested by the player. Certain considerations should be made on the design to include the following:

Placement of the displays in the table should be flush (or very close) and the touch screen bezel should be minimal. This will minimize card edges snagging and getting stuck when dealt and pulled towards the player. It is actually better to have the screen slightly elevated above the plane of the table top (e.g., the felt cover or other surface) as it is easier to slide cards along a raised edge then to lift the cards out of a depression.

Other desirable features are listed below: Easy replacement of player terminals when broken; Graphics must be easy to understand for the patrons; Help screens should be available and accessible on demand;

The functions of the Player Touch Screen include: Provide the Player with their Bankroll amount; Allow the Player to wager, increase or decrease a wager; Allow a Player to repeat the previous wager with a single button press; Notify the Dealer if the Player would like to cash out; Record Player actions during the game (for example - Hit, Stand,

Double Down, etc.);

Report Player actions to the Dealer via the split screen; and Touch screen resolution - All alphanumerics should be easily readable by players and dealers at a distance of 3 meters or more.

Table Display 330 Description:

The Table display 330 is a two part system comprising a Table Display 332 and the Pit Display 334. These parts are combined in one embodiment into a double- sided display, vertically mounted above the surface of the table. That is, two screens are placed back-to-back, one facing the pit and one facing the player. The LCD screen (or other display screen) facing the table is used for Player information. It may or may not be a touchscreen. The Pit Display in one example of the invention is a touch screen that allows for Pit interaction with table to include game selection and pit reports. In other embodiments, the pit can input information via a keyboard that communicates with the game controller or directly with the pit display 334.

Communal Player Display 332

As an example, a fifteen-inch display 332 is mounted facing the Players on the Table in the manner shown in Figure 11. This display is used to provide information that normally would have been printed on the felt (Game, table rules, paytables, game name, casino logo, legal markings, etc.). It also can include information on a Progressive Jackpot, casino advertising, or any information that the Casino may want to provide to a Player. The Table Display functionality shall include, for example: Providing Game name and applicable rules; Display Game Paytables; Provide Progressive Jackpot information; Identify winning players; Allow Casino advertising; and/or LCD (or other display) resolution should be easily readable by players and dealers at a distance of 3 meters or more.

Pit Display 334

Description: The (for example) 15 -inch Pit Touch Screen is mounted facing the Pit. The display is used to provide information to a Pit Supervisor regarding the table. The touch screen allows for initial set-up, game selection and pit reports. Alternatively, data is inputted through a keyboard in the pit and is displayed on the display. The Pit Display functionality includes, for example: Initial game set-up and game options;

Select games; Open and Close the table;

Set table minimum and maximum bet limits; and/or Interface to the optional jackpot system.

Shoe/Shuffler 222 Description:

The shoe/shuffler or card delivery system must be able to provide the function of electronically identifying the cards that are delivered. Examples of suitable card delivery systems are described in U.S. Patent Publication 2006/0279040, published

December 14, 2006 entitled Manual Dealing Shoe With Card Feed Limiter; U.S. Patent Application No. 11/810,864, filed June 6, 2007, entitled Apparatus, System, Method, and Computer-Readable Medium for Casino Card Handling with Multiple Hand Recall Feature and U.S. Patent 7,374,170 issued May 30, 2008 for Playing Card Dealing Shoe With Automated Internal Card Feeding And Card Reading. The disclosures of these publications are incorporated by reference in their entireties. The card delivery device may read cards internally and then deliver cards one at a time or in sets of cards, with the identity of the individual cards (and all cards in sets), or read cards one-by-one as they are removed from the delivery system and forward that information to the table game controller. With card reading technology on the table combined with the wagers and player actions, the game can be re-created for player analysis and game tracking.

The card delivery system selected in some embodiments have a "Chipless" mode in which the unit accepts commands from the Game Controller through an I/O port, such as a USB port or cable entry or pinned connection or preferably a wireless network access.

The card delivery system functionality for the Chipless Table may include:

Communicate to the Game Controller when the first hand or card is pulled for the Game Controller to lock out the bets on the Player Touch Screens;

Accurately recognize the rank and suit for each card; and/or Report the card information to Game controller.

Other systems such as the overhead card imaging systems described above or table- mounted card readers are other exemplary sources of card rank and/or suit information.

Gaming Table Requirements

When installing the product, the system preferably provides a tabletop structure with all electronics embedded within a layered tabletop. This layered tabletop can be built in a factory and installed on a preexisting support surface such as conventional "H" legs or a crescent shaped cabinet. The system preferably includes instructions for mounting the tabletop onto the support structure. There may be instances when the player display is mounted closer to the dealer. In this embodiment, all system components are essentially the same as described above, except for the placement of the player displays on the table. Moving the displays closer to the dealer is desirable when the dealer must input information into the dealer portion of the screen, such as when the dealer sets a pai gow poker hand, or indicates the conclusion of play for a particular player, for example. The tabletop should be covered with plain felt (no printing indicative of only a single game). Printing may be present identifying the casino, sponsors, events, and other information that is not specific to a single game or multiple games. This will allow the Operator to change the game in play quickly without changing the table felt. Allowances should be made for drinks at the table. This should require a high degree of water resistance against spilled drink penetration around the edges of the monitor. This may be done by sealant, and/or tight mounting which does not allow liquid penetration. Grooves receiving the screen and overlapping, tight fitting elements will reduce liquid penetration to enable wiping to prevent rapid significant penetration and damage. It would also be desirable to use player screen/processor units that are liquid tight.

Consideration should be given to how quickly a Player Touch Screen can be replaced in the event that one is damaged. The use of modular screens, with modular processors can assist in effecting this benefit.

Optional Multi-Table Pit Computer Description:

The Pit Computer gathers the data from multiple tables and stores the information in a database for use by the Casino for Player analysis, Table Accounting, etc.

The functionality might include, for example: Hosting the database for the table; and Optionally used to host the Jackpot system.

Player/Dealer ID Card Reading System


The card reader is an add-on that may be used by the Dealer, the Pit and/or players. Dealers and Pit personnel may use cards to authorize play at the table. The card reader can also be used to accept Player tracking cards.

Felt Backlight Display (Optional) Description:

Back lighting under the felt used to define the areas of the table where cards should be placed by the dealer.

User Interface Graphics

Standards may be summarized at least as follows: Game Specific Graphics

The graphics that are specific to a game shall be selected by the game designer.

Dealer Console - Dealer

The general user interface screens for the Dealer console shall include: Player Buy-in using cash, chips or a marker Issue a marker; Player cash out; Player seat change;

Game screens;

Game Controller - Pit Display; Game selection; Pit reports; and Table handle.

Player Touch Screen

Player Terminal inactive; and Wagering screen

Hardware Interface

The hardware interface used in communication linkage of the components may be any architecture used to interconnect two pieces of equipment. It includes the design of the plug and socket, the type, number and purpose of the wires and the electrical signals that are passed across them. USB, Fire Wire, Ethernet, parallel and serial ports as well as CompactFlash™ cards, PCI cards and PC Cards are all examples of hardware interfaces (devices connecting to other devices). As noted, wireless communication between elements is generally preferred.

Software Interfaces Any functional and established software interface may be used, such as selecting those from amongst the ANSI Standard, ISO/IEC Standards, and IEEE Standards. There are well published lists of these standards and include at least: IEEE Standards

IEEE 694-1994: Microprocessor Assembly Language. Defines a common assembly language intended to be used for a variety of microprocessor architectures. IEEE 695-1990: Microprocessor Relocatable Software Formats.

Defines a common format for object files in a small computer environment. The purpose is to enable program construction from modules written in different languages and processed by different compilers.

IEEE 754-1990: Binary Floating Point Arithmetic.

Defines binary formats and basic operations for floating-point arithmetic. This is commonly referred to as "IEEE floating point" and has become widely adopted in new system implementations. IEEE 770-1983 (ANSI X3.97): Pascal Computer Programming Language.

Provides a formal specification for Pascal, the first language standardized by IEEE. IEEE 854-1994: Radix and Format Independent Floating Point Arithmetic.

Specifies alternate floating point arithmetic formats and operations for implementations which do not necessarily use base 2.

IEEE 855-1990: Microprocessor Operating System Interfaces (MOSI).

Defines a standard OS/program interface (API) for small computers, commonly known as MOSI. Compared to the better-known POSIX (1003), MOSI is less detailed but spans a broader range of target systems. Includes language bindings for FORTRAN, C, Ada, Pascal, and others as appendices.

Also ISO DIS 11685.2. IEEE 1003.1-1990: POSIX Part 1: System API (Language Independent).

Definition of a standard OS/program interface, commonly known as POSIX, for UNIX-like systems. Includes language bindings for C, only, and also ISO 9945-1. IEEE 1003.1b-1993: Real-Time and Related System API.

Specifies additions to the POSIX API to support real-time requirements. IEEE 1003.2-1992: Shell and Utility Application Interface.

Defines functionality for a UNIX-like shell (command handler) and associated tools. IEEE 1003.9-1992: Fortran 77 Language Bindings to POSIX.

Specifies the syntax for accessing the functionality of a POSIX interface using the FORTRAN language. IEEE 1224-1993: OSI Abstract Data Manipulation API.

Specifies an API for Abstract Data Manipulation using the OSI (7-layer) Communication Systems model.

IEEE 1224.1 : OSI X-400 Based Electronic Messaging API.

Specifies an API for Electronic Messaging Services using the OSI model. IEEE 1224.2-1993: Information Technology: Directory Services API. Specifies an API for Directory Services using the OSI model. IEEE 1275-1994: Boot Firmware.

Defines elements of program functionality to be used in boot (startup) programs in read-only memory. IEEE 1327-1993: OSI Abstract Data Manipulation C Language Binding.

Specifies a C Language Binding for IEEE 1224. IEEE 1224.1 : Information Technology: X-400 Based Electronic Messaging C

Language Binding.

Specifies a C Language Binding for IEEE 1224.1. IEEE 1224.2-1993: Directory Services C Language Binding.

Specifies a C Language Binding for IEEE 1224.2. IEEE 1596-1992: Scalable Coherent Interface. Specifies a physical interconnection scheme for multiprocessors, including aspects which affect their programming.

Computer-related (Information Processing) standards sponsored by the American National Standards Institute (ANSD are developed primarily by the Accredited

Standards CommitteeX3. These standards are designated X3.nnn.

ANSI Standards

ANSI X3.4-1986: 7-bit American National Standard Code for Information Interchange

Base definition for the widely-used character code known as ASCII. ANSI X3.9-1978(R1989): Programming Language FORTRAN

Third revision of the first and most venerable programming language standard. The 1978 version, called FORTRAN-77, is widely implemented. The 1989 version, called FORTRAN-90, is not yet as popular.

ANSI X3.23-1985: Programming Language COBOL The widely-used business-oriented language.

ANSI X3.23a- 1989, Programming Languages—Intrinsic Function Module for COBOL. Extensions to the COBOL standard.

ANSI X3.28-1976(R1986): Procedures for the Use of the Communications Control Characters of American National Standards Code for Information Interchange in Specified Data Communication Links

Provides interpretations for the ASCII communication control characters. ANSI X3.30-1985(R1991): Representation for Calendar Date and Ordinal Date for

Information Interchange

Specifies how date information should be represented for data exchange. ANSI X3.41 -1990: Code Extension Techniques for Use with the 7-byte Coded Character Set of ASCII Specifies how the ASCII code may be extended. ANSI X3.43-1986: Representations of Local Time of Day for Information Interchange

Specifies how time information should be represented for information interchange. ANSI X3.51-1986: Representations of Universal Time, Local Time Differentials, and

United States Time Zone References for Information Interchange

Specifies additional time-related information representations. ANSI X3.53-1976(R1987): Programming Language PL/I.

Specification for the PL/I language, used primarily on IBM systems. ANSI X3.64-1979(R1990): Additional Controls for Use with the American National

Standard Code for Information Interchange

Specifies a large collection of ASCII extensions to control display and printer functionality. In practice a small set of screen editing and cursor positioning codes have been widely adapted; these are supported by so-called ANSI terminals.

ANSI X3.74-1987: Programming Language PL/I, General Purpose Subset

A stripped-down version of the big language. ANSI X3.113-1987: Programming Language Full BASIC

Specification for the BASIC programming language, which has existed in a vast range of different versions.

ANSI X3.113a-1989: Modules and Individual Character Input for Full Basic

Some extensions to X3.113. ANSI X3.124-1985: Graphical Kernel System (GKS) Functional Description

Specifications for a hardware-independent method for specifying graphic elements.

ANSI X3.124.1-1985: Graphical Kernel System (GKS) FORTRAN Binding

How to use GKS with the FORTRAN language. ANSI X3.124.2- 1988: Graphical Kernel System (GKS) Pascal Binding

How to use GKS with the Pascal language. ANSI X3.124.3-1989: Graphical Kernel System (GKS) Ada Binding

How to use GKS with the Ada language. ANSI X3.159-1989: Programming Language C

Formal Specifications for the C Language (ANSI C).

ISO/IEC Standards These are formation processing standards under the sponsorship of The

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and have generally been developed by the Technical Committee TC97. Standards related to microprocessors under the sponsorship of IEC have been developed by the Technical subcommittee SC47B. Since about 1990 information processing standards for both organizations have been managed by the joint technical committee JTC 1.

ISO 646-1983: ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange

ISO version of the ASCII character set with (alas) minor differences. ISO 1538-1984: Programming Language ALGOL 60

One language that was never standardized in the U.S. ISO 2022-1982: ISO 7-bit and 8-bit coded character sets - Code extension techniques

Techniques for extending the codes of ISO 646 and ISO 4873. ISO 4873-1979: 8-bit coded character set for information interchange

An extended version of ISO 646 which encodes 8 bits to provide an additional 128 codes. ISO 6429- 1983 : ISO 7-bit and 8-bit coded character sets - additional control functions for character-imaging devices

Extended display and printer controls for ISO 646 and ISO 4873. ISO 7498-1984: Open Systems Interconnection—Basic Reference Model

Communication Interfaces

As noted earlier, the communication interfaces may be client-server, master- slave, peer-to-peer and blended systems, with different relationships among the various processors and PCUs as designed into the system.

Any allowable (jurisdictionally, by state, county and/or Federal laws and regulation) may be used as the communication standards, with FTP or HTTP standards being the most common and acceptable, but not exclusive, formats used. In each of the computers and processors used, may include a display and a number of input buttons, or touch screen functions, and combinations of these with wired or wireless communication links to enable the player to initiate actions or make responses as required during the game. In a game where the player is playing against the house, the player's hand is displayed face up on the screen as it is dealt and the house hand may be shown face down on the screen. Touch "buttons" can be provided on the screen in addition to or instead of the physical buttons. In a further non- limiting configuration, one or more of the players can be located in separate locations, and the player terminals or hand-held devices or player screens in rooms can be connected to the controller via communication links (e.g., hardwired or wireless).

Standard protocols, software, hardware and processor languages may be used in these communication links, without any known limitation. There are hundreds of available computer languages that may be used, among the more common being Ada; Algol; APL; awk; Basic; C; C++; Cobol; Delphi; Eiffel; Euphoria; Forth; Fortran; HTML; Icon; Java; Javascript; Lisp; Logo; Mathematica; MatLab; Miranda; Modula-2;

Oberon; Pascal; Perl; PL/I; Prolog; Python; Rexx; SAS; Scheme; sed; Simula; Smalltalk; Snobol; SQL; Visual Basic; Visual C++; and XML.

Any commercial processor may be used either as a single processor, serial or parallel set of processors in the system. Examples of commercial processors include, but are not limited to Merced™, Pentium™, Pentium II™, Xeon™, Celeron™,

Pentium Pro™, Efficeon™, Athlon, AMD and the like.

Display screens may be segment display screens, analog display screens, digital display screens, CRTs, LED screens, Plasma screens, liquid crystal diode screens, and the like. The initial expectation is that the Chipless Table will be considered a Table

Game and regulated as such. However, all of the hardware and software must comply with the regulatory requirements for a Table Game. The table with all of the components must comply with UL and CUL requirements. Compiled computer code when available for display has a statement on the first page that "the code is confidential and is the proprietary property of Shuffle Master, Inc." per NRS 603.010 et seq. and NRS 600A et. seq. a. Creative organization and sequencing should be unnecessary to the lock and key function. b. Arbitrary programming instructions may be used and they may be arranged in a unique sequence to create a purely arbitrary data stream to create a level of security in the system. c. All computer code on the system should be ciphered.

Terminology for on screen display items may include at least some or all of:

• Player Balance • Amount Bet

• Win Amount

• Recall previous bets

• Cash out

• Clear all bets • Bankroll

• Wager - value only near chips

• Value only near chips

• Rebet

Special requirements that may be on the card delivery systems (or other delivery system) include:

• Report button presses to game controller.

• Use Lamps and LCD display for results (Dealer information). Special requirements that may be on the i-Deal™ shuffler system (or other shuffler system):

• Accepting configuration from the game controller.

• Report button presses to game controller.

The game controller in one embodiment is programmed with a rule that a game cannot commence until at least one player has a non zero balance and preferably that no games are allowed to be played when no bets have been placed. The system is configurable to account for varying independent casino rules and various gaming regulations. Embodiments of the system include error recovery procedures. Specifications of popular side bets are incorporated into the coding to allow implementation. Multi-game functionality is provided. Embodiments of the proposed system allow for progressive jackpots.

Exemplary player displays are 15 inch 1024 x 768 pixels or dots. The touchscreen overlay in one example is preferably about 15-inch 1024 x 768 pixels or dots. The size and resolution of a preferred dealer display and touch screen is 6.5 inches and from 512 to 1024 pixels per line (or higher definition). The screen resolution is a matter of cost and image quality resolution.