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Patent Searching and Data

Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2005/112697
Kind Code:
An acoustic impedance matching enclosure is provided having a driver loaded into a chamber buffering the throat/mouth of a closed loop transmission line. Transmission line consists of a termination member, outer and inner enclosure walls, high-density lining and throat/mouth area. Transmission line eliminates internal random standing waves while providing variable-frequency standing waves that through superposition of the waves compensates for mass-acceleration loss of the high-end of the driver output while damping the resonance of the driver. Alternative application of the acoustic impedance matching enclosure is that of compression loading the driver directly into the closed loop transmission line and using an acoustic low pass filter to translate the output into low frequencies only through a port. Both applications of the acoustic impedance matching enclosure are to insure that the drivers' diaphragm is clear of disruptive internal standing waves, properly loaded at all frequencies and not easily affected by room reflections.

Application Number:
Publication Date:
December 01, 2005
Filing Date:
May 12, 2005
Export Citation:
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International Classes:
A47B81/06; H04R1/28; (IPC1-7): A47B81/06
Foreign References:
Other References:
See references of EP 1761141A4
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TECHNOLOGY Technical Field [ 1 ] Sound Reproduction -Loudspeakers Background Art [2] Loudspeakers are a part of everyday life and used for consumer, commercial, military and research applications. The typical loudspeaker is an electro-dynamic transducer and has a diaphragm of some depth and diameter or shape. Electro-dynamic, describes a transducer that moves in a positive and negative direction in response to a alternating voltage source to stimulate adjacent air molecules. At this point in time loudspeakers of this type are considered a commodity and are cheap and plentiful in supply. They are typically always mounted on a baffle as part of an existing product or structure; in some form of housing for practical containment or in some cases a form of specialized enclosure is utilized to enhance the bass performance. [3] One of the greatest problems is the inherent nature of the driver to favor an acoustic impedance over a narrow range of frequencies relative to its ' size. The smaller driver generally has unfavorable acoustical impedance for lower frequencies and vise versa for larger ones. The enclosure also favors a narrow range of frequencies and for others it reacts violently creating a plethora of incoherent internal standing waves that modulate the diaphragm with nonsymmetrical vibration patterns. These random internal modulations disturb the natural dispersion pattern of the driver and cause electrical feedback (reactance) to the amplifying source. Brute force power and heavy gauge wiring are current attempts to minimize this problem for the amplifier and the effects on sound quality. Another problem is the general acoustic impedance dif¬ ferential that exists on either side of the driver diaphragm. The diaphragm must work simultaneously in two different acoustic environments as the enclosure creates standing waves that constantly modify the drivers ' acoustic impedance in most of its ' frequency range. Reflected waves from the room cause additional modifications of the drivers ' acoustic impedance more as the frequencies go lower towards that of the rooms ' dimensions. Smaller enclosures are much worse because of the even higher frequencies that are reflected internally and the lack of low frequency capabilities. Two identical drivers will sound different due to their operating enclosure only. The industry has recognized the problem as one associated more with the mid-range speaker and has produced units with a solid basket behind the diaphragm. This may prevent random standing waves from the other drivers but it creates extreme backpressure for the range of frequencies produced by the midrange driver. This causes the driver to see a distinct acoustic impedance differential for all of its ' operating range and not produce a natural sound. [4] Loudspeaker driver dimensions favor a certain range of frequencies thus making a single size for all frequencies an impossible task if wide axis listening is desired. It is a design goal to produce loudspeakers of the smallest dimensions necessary and maintain the proper loudness level while retaining the sonic presentation of full frequency range, low distortion, wide-constant dispersion and low cost. If one were to examine the situation it would appear to be a paradox requiring a compromise solution and the use of multiple drivers operating for a common acoustic purpose. This is reflected in the current loudspeaker design with theory compromised by art in an effort to produce subjectively accepted loudspeakers when the goal should be objectivity. [5] The requirement to use a single driver places a compromise solution favoring the lower or higher end frequencies while attempting to maintain quality in the middle ranges. The human ear tends to more sensitive to the higher frequencies but the human ear-brain combination prefers to hear all of the frequencies in the spectrum without phase or frequency aberrations to interrupt the flow of energy of the event otherwise it will appear to be artificial. The reproduction of sound is typically for either of two purposes and that is communication and entertainment. The latter requires un¬ encumbered sonic balance and dispersion to balance the energy in the listening en¬ vironment. [6] The continued efforts to perfect sound reproduction with predictable field results depend greatly on a solution to solve the dilemma of the enclosure. Engineers recognize the drivers ' enclosure as a necessary evil or an opportunity to profit from the furniture created however the use of the enclosure as explained in the pending ap¬ plication provides a positive operating environment exposing the true quality of the driver. The result is elimination of the idiosyncratic behavior, objective sonic acceptance, simplified loudspeaker design and predictable results for varying acoustic situations. [7] Disclosure of Invention Technical Problem [8] The loudspeaker driver functions best if all of the electrical energy at its' input terminals is converted to motion without mechanical delays or acoustical phase aberrations. Thie simulateneous motion of the entire radiating surface area is a re¬ quirement for proper dispersion of a loudspeaker drivers' acoustical energy if it covers all or a part of the audio frequency range. There are loudspeaker designs which attempt this using exotic unpractical methods acheiving only marginal success. The readily available dynamic cone driver has always been the choice because of low cost and ease of producing varying sizes and shapes with relative ease. Although it is accepted and generally performs satisfactorily for general applications, the dynamic loudspeaker transducer is greatly limited in its' ability to accurately reproduce a wide range of frequencies without idiosyncratic behavior. It is this behavior that makes all attempts to accelerate the performance of the dynamic loudspeaker a costly effort with di¬ minishing returns. Here is presented a practical method of enhancing the performance of the basic dynamic driver allowing even very small drivers to function in ap¬ plications never thought posssible. Although the performance of the commodity market positioned dynamic driver is the focus of this invention it is mentioned within the embodiment of the description its' benefit to exotic types of loudspeaker designs as well. [9] The existing loudspeaker market is unfocused as to the goals of research and product development efforts for the various areas of industry that use loudspeakers for some purpose. Without focus the inherent idiosyncrasies associated with the existing base loudspeaker technologies cause many technically unsupported product mutations to exist unchallenged. The consumer high-end of the industry presently leverages the technical weaknesses of the current state of the art for unfounded claims of audio quality improvements through expensive unobjective processes or accessories. If these unpractical and generally ineffective approaches were technically successful they would have little use for the myriad of applications for loudspeakers. The proposed invention applies to improvement of basic loudspeaker driver performance and to heretofore uninspected areas of loudspeaker technical requirements which accelerate their performance thus allowing for elimination of many non-productive approaches to technical sound problems. Using the proposed technology, a single minature loudspeaker product using a 3" driver has been developed and marketed, with performance that covers 80% of the loudspeaker requirements across multiple markets when used in single or multiple units while maintaining a very low system and production cost. The market span covers the typically particular high resolution two channel stereo listening to the accomodating multiple unit commercial sound dis¬ tribution application. It is the focus of the immediate invention to allow for an loudspeaker engineering platform that allows for generic improvement and repeatable objective performance of loudspeakers in the field. Technical Solution [10] The proposed invention relates to loudspeakers and in particular methods of improving the quality of reproduction for very low, low, middle and higher frequencies, reducing the relative enclosure dimensions, reducing the system costs and dependency on the rooms ' acoustics for performance. The improvements reflect on a manner of enclosing the driver that frees it from modification by its ' general ambient acoustic environment of its' acoustic impedance and allows small drivers of essentially equal diameter to function as full range units or subwoofer units that operate with full range units primarily to extend the response into the lowest registers of the frequency spectrum. Although this applications ' focus is on smaller speaker units this technique applies to large-scale bass, full range or sub-bass sound reproduction applications to enhance the larger drivers performance as well as midrange and tweeter drivers. Focus on operation in the sub-bass range generally involves using a port or horn to reduce the motion of the diaphragm near the maximum low frequency output range. Larger drivers will produce more low bass with less diaphragm motion but will be less favorable for direct radiating full range operation because of limited high frequency capabilities. Low frequencies can be directly radiated in one embodiment or radiated through a port or horn in an alternative embodiment. The EATL maintains a constant internal enclosure pressure over the desired frequency range with orderly standing waves causing linear air volume displacement internally resulting in more accurate motion of the drivers ' diaphragm. This results when relatively long wavelength signals stimulate the EATL creating beneficial standing waves to load the driver diaphragm by modulating the main enclosure air mass in real time. All wavelengths exist at some finite length within the line as partial or complete as dictated by the variable dynamic air density. Any pressure stimuli from the driver will cause a dynamic molecular disturbance within the EATL that creates desirable standing waves that displace the diaphragm with greater ease and accuracy than the initial electrical stimuli alone. This enhanced physical displacement is the result of the drivers voice coil ' stimulation by the electrical source modulated by the dynamic standing wave pattern it establishes within the EATL. This predictable internal loading pattern takes precedent over all other external driver diaphragm stimuli providing critical damping, optimal acoustic impedance with frequency and resistance to room reflections. Advantageous Effects [11] Furthermore this technology allows a small single driver type and dimension to be optimized for full range and sub-bass operation using small drivers normally efficient only in the higher frequency ranges. The enclosures developed using the pending ap¬ plication determine the acoustic impedance favored by the identical drivers. Description of Drawings [12] FIG. 1 A and FIG. IB is a side and front cross section view of a preferred embodiment of the Indirect Direct Coupled ( IDC), Embedded Acoustic Transmission Line ( EATL ) in accordance with this invention. [13] FIG. 2 is a cross section view of an enclosure of equal exterior dimensions and material as the enclosure of FIG. 1 without the EATL features included. [14] FIG. 3 is a cross section view of the IDC EATL side view of FIG. 1 in accordance with this invention with sides indicated to show an extended portion. [ 15] FIG. 4A and FIG. 4B is a cross section front and side view of the IDC EATL of FIG. 3 in accordance with this invention with a reflex port added to the enclosure. [16] FIG. 5 is a cross section view of a preferred embodiment of the Direct Coupled ( DC ) EATL in accordance with this invention. [17] FIG. 6 is a cross section view of a preferred embodiment of the DC EATL physically combined with a standard non-damped bass reflex enclosure. [18] FIG.7 is a simple drawing highlighting features necessary to illustrate the use of c

the EATL technology with planar speakers. [19] FIG. 8 A is a simple drawing highlighting features necessary to illustrate a multi- way frequency divided EDC EATL system. [20] FIG. 8B is a simple drawing highlighting the features necessary to illustrate a cluster of DRE or IRE EATL enclosures to increase SPL in a single range. [21] FIG. 9 is a simple drawing highlighting features necessary to illustrate the use of the EATL technology with horn coupling devices. [22] FIG. 10 is a simple illustration of side cross-sectional view of a preferred embodiment of the speaker system of FIG. 1 wherein the port has been replaced with a passive radiator mounted on the baffle board with the driver. This drawing shows the references to those parts pertinent to this mode of operation. [23] FIG. 11 is a simple illustration of a band-pass mode of operation of the system of FIG 1 showing an acoustic low pass filter coupled to the front of the driver using a port to radiate the sound. References are made to portions material to this mode of operation. [24] FIG. 12A3 FIG. 12B, FIG. 12C, FIG. 12D are graphical representations of performance claimed in the specification and are indicated by reference designations matching in the text. [25] FIG. 13A, FIG. 13B, FIG. 13C, FIG. 13D are graphical representations of performance claimed in the specification and are indicated by reference designations matching in the text. [26] FIG. 14A, FIG. 14B, FIG. 14C, FIG. 14D, FIG. 14E are graphical representations of performance claimed in the specification and are indicated by reference des¬ ignations matching in the text. Best Mode [27] Throughout this document there will be references to particular items, figures, names, phrases and notable words. The items will appear written once with a bold C apital introductory letter and then abbreviated in the bold letters representing the name in text following. . The capitalized bold first letter and abbreviation may appear sub¬ sequently to refresh the memory. Some important statements may be underscored for recognition purposes. Certain terms that may also have an importance in this document but are not pertaining directly to a feature of the document and will not be highlighted or underscored in this mode. FIG. 1 represents a preferred embodiment of the subject invention. FIG.1A and FIG. IB represent the side and front view of a complete Direct Radiator Enclosure (DRE) 29 speaker assembly constructed according to this invention. Bernoulli ' s theorem for the flow of liquid plainly states that a pressure dif¬ ferential must exist for a fluid to flow from a container through a discharge opening into a pressure region the same as that of the container. This simply means that if a sound (a fluid) wave is to be produced by a loudspeaker that a pressure differential must exists between its ' diaphragm and the atmospheric pressure and it must be consistent for all frequencies and acoustic conditions. All drivers of concern with this invention are bi-directional meaning that they radiate sound from both sides of the diaphragm. One side of the Driver Diaphragm (DD) 3 must be dynamically isolated from the Atmospheric Pressure at all frequencies within its range regardless of AP variations. Dynamic isolation refers to isolation from AP when in motion not static isolation. [28] FIG.l A illustrates a side cross sectional view of the DRE 29 enclosure with the In Direct Coupled (IDC) Embedded Acoustic Transmission Line (EATL 5) structured to receive air pressure through its ' throat/mouth 6 behind the driver 41 mounted on baffleboard 7 but buffered by the air chamber 10 of FIG. IA. The EATL 5 unlike con¬ ventional transmission lines has its throat and mouth at the same point through su¬ perposition. IDC means that the wave that enters the EATL 5 does so through an air chamber 10 of some relative volume so its ' influence on the DD 3 will be indirect yet correcting its' volume in real time. The EATL 5 is constructed of the wave-guide 20 of the outer cabinet 1 and the wave-guide 21 of the Inner enclosure 2 separated by spacers 9 . The EATL 5 can be extended by using the side cabinet walls wave-guide 21 that are inherent in construction of the inner box in conjunction with extensions of wave-guide 20. These extensions of the EATL 5 are 2OA and 21 A and will allow the EATL 5 to operate to a lower frequency than the 20 and 21 alone but are generally relative to driver 41 size. The EATL 5 is sealed by the termination member 13 that contains the wave at one end of the EATL 5 reverses it and creates Dynamic Standing Waves (DSW) at the throat/mouth 6 located in the center (from each corner) as seen in FIG.1B. The term throat/mouth defining 6 results from the reflected wave having its point of exit at the same point as the waves point of entry. The fact that the in/out waves can be superimposed on each other accounts for this unique pressure feedback principle. The air volume within the EATL 5 is always small relative to the operating volume of chamber 10 of FIG. 1 or 19 of FIG. 6 and is not to be confused with any type of closed band-pass box closed. The overall dimensions may be further reduced using miniature construction techniques to enhance the output of smaller drivers in small spaces as well as OEM tweeter construction where the rear wave will be collected and returned as beneficial standing waves. The spacing dimensions can be reduced or increased as needed and the EATL 5 may be repeatedly folded to increase its ' length as needed if 2OA and 21 A are not adequate in length. [29] The EATL 5 is lined with an Alternate Density Transmission Medium (ADTM 4), which in the preferred embodiment is open cell urethane foam that under normal air density and higher frequencies is inert, randomly accepting new air particles, yet at lower frequencies when pressurized allows additional air molecules to expand to within its ' cell structure in search of volume but instead are lost in heat dissipation. This is a lossy process hence the DSW and damping of the Driver Resonance Peak DRP as shown in FIG 12B A vs. FIG. 12D C whereas FIG. 12B is the impedance curve of the preferred embodiment. Damping is a term referring to ability of a vibrating body to cease motion immediately when stimulus is removed. [30] A relatively high frequency wave entering the throat/mouth 6 of the EATL 5 has only to be within inches of the driver diaphragm 3 to reach its wavelength in normal air density. The standard enclosure in FIG 2 example here is only a few inches deep meaning that any wave below 1OkHz would experience enclosure reflections almost immediately. FIG.2 represents an enclosure of air volume 11 with identical dimensions as that of FIG.l but without 2 and 4 of that structure. The waves traveling the stream lines 15 will enter the mouth 6 of the EATL 5 and travel through the EATL 5 barely interacting with the surface cells of the ADTM 4 expanding almost im¬ mediately until it reaches the termination point 13, which then reflects the wave back toward the driver diaphragm 3. The throat/mouth 6 at the entrance of the EATL 5 will experience nodes and anti-nodes (DSW ), which overlap and influence the pressure in chamber 10 behind the driver 41 and are considered a positive pressure relative to the AP. As the frequencies go lower from that first influenced, the EATL 5 will maintain a constant positive pressure on the driver diaphragm 3 due to the DSW condition of the air space 8 and the DSW condition caused by depth migration indicated by streamlines 14. As varying wavelengths/intensities occupy deeper depths of the ADTM 4 cell structure they create individual DSW and therefore dynamically enhance motion of the driver diaphragm 3. The individual DSW produced will integrate their pressures and produce a composite DSW in the presence of multiple frequencies simultaneously (superposition). Wave-guides 20, 21 must remain within a close spacing so as to contain the wave energy while directing it to the termination member 13. In the preferred example here 20, 2OA, 21, 21A are at 12mm and 9mm spacing respectively and will vary somewhat depending on driver diameter and purpose for system. The driver 41 will see these DSW influence its acoustic impedance because the pressure- differential with that of the atmosphere is maintained with frequency. The DSW are the result of changing frequencies, driver compliance and resistance by the ADTM 4 material to the sound energy entering its ' cells. The resulting interaction of the three variables maintains the chamber 10 pressure constant as the frequency changes while the drivers velocity remains linear. Internal pressure at chamber 10 would be a composite DSW resulting from the voice coil 28 signal input and the initial motion of the DD 3, the static pressure of 10 and the positive pressure created in the EATL 5. This resultant composite pressure is constant and is relative to intensity and wavelength in the EATL 5 and determines DD 3 motions. [31] The length of the EATL 5 is directly associated with its ' low frequency limit of influence as is clearly indicated by the curves of FIG. 12B and 13 A. In FIG. 12B the impedance plot of the speaker system of FIG. 1 is indicated. There are two peaks associated with this impedance plot; the large one A is the DRP that occurs at 150Hz and the other peak B that occurs at 500Hz represents the EATL 5 1/4 wave impedance peak of FIG. 1. FIG. 13 A represents the frequency response if the enclosure of FIG.l is lengthened by 2cm to become the enclosure FIG. 3 . The 2cm increase in enclosure depth 26 FIG.3 can be interpreted in FIG. 13A by the new EATL 5 peak E at 400Hz to cause a 100Hz shift downward in 1/4 wave frequency at the EATL 5 throat/mouth for processing into DSW. The main driver resonance frequency of FIG.3 does not change appreciably when chamber 10 is increased as seen in 40 FIG. 13A . It can also be seen in the frequency response plot Q of FIG. 14E of FIG.3 to show the lifting of output to begin at 400Hz instead of the 500Hz of the shallow enclosure of FIG. 1. A large peak C can be seen in FIG. 12D (which is the standard closed type enclosure 29B of FIG. 2 with the same driver) but without a properly damped (controlled) impedance peak A for an EATL 5 peak B as FIG. 1 or FIG. 3. The change in volume 10 did little to affect the drivers ' resonance frequency C of the driver 41, which indicates the effectiveness of the EATL 5 in delaying the wave in such a short distance. The damping of the DD 3 improves acoustic impedance for bass frequencies lessening cut-off slope for deeper bass extension and better overall transient performance. The 500Hz EATL 5 peak B of FIG. 12B represents the lowest frequency that will be lifted by the EATL 5 of FIG.l to correct the sagging output (FIG.12A vs. FIG.12C) of the DD 3 that occurs above the normal driver box resonance frequency C and the point in which the EATL 5 will begin to dampen oscillatory conditions near, at and below the drivers ' resonance frequency A FIG. 12B. [32] The impedance curve FIG. 12D for FIG. 2 shows the same location for the drivers ' resonance frequency C as that of FIG. 12B for FIG. 1 and FIG. 13A for FIG 3. The curve in FIG. 12D, clearly shows this peak C occurring at 150Hz and if followed closely above this point shows no EATL 5 peak B as in FIG. 12B, FIG. 13A and FIG. 13B. If the curve U of FIG. 12A for FIG.l is observed it will show an increase in output beginning at 500Hz or the same point as the EATL 5 impedance peak B of FIG. 12B. All frequencies above this peak will show an increase in output developing a gain to increase and maintain a flat response. The gam in efficiency averages 6db for this particular example when averaging several points from 500Hz and above. The only way for this to occur is for a constant pressure from within the enclosure to maintain the proper DD 3 velocity as the frequency increases. This process does not change the parameters of a driver 41 sound signature only the effects mass and random internal standing waves have on its ' operation. The frequency peak UU, @ 500Hz FIG. 12A for FIG. 1 does not exist in the graph FIG. 12C for FIG. 2 nor does the increase at 10kHz. At point TT @ 500Hz FIG. 12C there is a dip and only a small in¬ significant peak then falling response. [33] A vibrating body will experience its ' greatest motion at resonance with less movement above and below that frequency for the same stimuli. The output (velocity) falls much faster below resonance because of compliance while above it falls at a slower rate due to mass. The loss of output above resonance is directly related to mass (as it is affects the acceleration of the DD 3 as needed at higher frequencies) while the DSW in the EATL 5 are directly related to frequency and increase pressure to counter the loss and maintain pressure constant with frequency increase. The DSW generated internally at the mouth of the EATL 5 provides positive pressure in real time buffered through the air volume of chamber 10 as each frequency may require with a composite wave maintaining maximum signal transfer relative to atmospheric pressure. The random standing waves existing in the enclosure of FIG.2 disturb the dispersion pattern by producing uncorrelated pressures on various parts of the DD 3 to affect its' phase characteristics. Loudspeaker driver engineers in determining parameters for their products cannot predict the enclosures effects in field usage. Specifications developed to predict the vibration characteristics and dispersion of any given driver diameter are not useful if the enclosures chaotic internal standing wave patterns are allowed to modify the DD 3 radiation pattern. This is one of the main reasons that engineers seek various types of suspension 27 and DD 3 construction materials as a solution to resist DD 3 breakup caused by this unpredictable situation. These breakup patterns are caused by random standing waves, which are dynamic and linked to the enclosure 1, source signal and level. The wane energy causing the random standing waves must be correlated not trapped as in existing enclosure designs if the drivers' characteristics are to be maintained or enhanced. The elimination of random internal standing waves and the production of useful coherent ones allow the driver 41 to operate in an environment which maintains a positive dynamic pressure with frequency relative to the static ATM. A result of this acoustically derived internal positive pressure is to reduce diaphragm breakup as the modifying pressure is applied to the entire surface to reduce the effects of solid transfer breakup modes. These are breakup modes that are generated when the voice coil 28 is stimulated. Initial stimulation at 28 results in DD 3 velocity, a flexing of all materials and a physical transfer of mechanical energy towards the edges of the DD 3 as physical waves. At the outer edges of the DD 3 exist some type of flexible material 27 that surrounds and anchors the diaphragm to allow general motion of the entire moving assembly when the voice coil 28 stimulates it. It is desired to have the energy that travels the cones' mechanical path dissipate in the diaphragm material and as kinetic energy into the surround material 27 and that does occur in most cases. The diaphragm and surround material 27 do not absorb all waves and some are reflected back toward the center or point of origin. In doing so waves, coherent and non-coherent, physically collide in the DD 3 material causing regions of positive and negative standing waves to exist on the DD 3 surface that alter the dispersion pattern. These types of patterns can be observed and countered during en¬ gineering design phases and perhaps will result in a better driver 41. The EATL 5 will minimize audibility of these types of breakup modes but not eliminate them. [34] The Drawing of FIG. 4 represents the IRE enclosure 29 of FIG. 1 or FIG. 3 with the inclusion of a port 17 to enhance bass frequencies. The addition of a port 17 does not affect the DSW at the throat/mouth 6 which are maintaining the higher frequencies via the EATL 5 whose primary purpose in this embodiment is to counter the mass that results in signal loss above the resonance frequency of the driver 41. The EATL 5 provides critical damping for the DD 3 to improve stability at lower frequencies as compared in FIG. 12B for FIG 1 and FIG.12D for FIG.2. These impedance plots indicate that the resonance frequency remains near the same for both enclosures however the peak A of FIG. 12B indicates proper damping of the DD 3 as a controlled peak ratio is achieved for a smooth extended bass response and character whereas the impedance plot of FIG. 12D indicates that the driver 41 has a high sharp resonance peak C to indicate a sharp loose resonate sound. This highly damped condition is maintained in FIG. 13B of FIG. 4 with a port 17 included to extend the response of bass. The impedance plot FIG. 13B has three distinguished peaks with the port peak F and saddle G (box resonance frequency) before the driver resonance peak H indicating reflex operation is occurring with a well-damped driver 41 that is simultaneously having its ' upper frequencies lifted beginning at 400Hz. When compared with the driver of FIG.2 having the impedance curve FIG. 12D the driver 41 of FIG.4 has three peaks FIG 13B indicating an increase in output both above and below the driver resonance peak H due to controlled standing waves. In observing the frequency location of the peak I of FIG. 13B caused by the EATL 5 positive internal pressures it can clearly be seen that the graph is that of the ported enclosure of FIG.4 which is 9mm deep and was discussed earlier occupying a 400Hz position on the graph. The driver peak H and EATL 5 peak I of impedance curve FIG. 12 at 400Hz remained in the same position indicating a well loaded speaker system that has enhanced (properly damped and extended) lower frequencies and (velocity maintained) upper frequencies. Shown in FIG. 10 is a simple illustration using a suitable passive radiator 30 substituted for the port to work in conjunction with the driver 41 to extended the bass to lower frequencies. The use of a passive radiator 30 would maintain the sealed condition of the acoustic system however all configurations would not benefit from this type of resonate system. Passive radiators 30 generally require more mounting area and would be suitable for larger systems with more available baffle board 7 area. The passive radiator 30 EATL 5 configuration would maintain the same general char¬ acteristics as the ported system if it is aligned properly and have a curve similar to that of FIG. 13B. Another alignment for the DRE 29 is that of coupling the front of the driver 41 to an acoustic low pass filter as in FIG. 11. A port 17 or passive radiator 30 is capable of acting as an acoustic low pass filter in conjunction witiht air mass 31. Here the EATL 5 provides for constant pressure loading, damping, enhanced upper bass output and control while the port 17 establishes box loading with air volume 31 reducing DD 3 excursion allowing for a sealed air chamber 10 and better damping. The design will have three impedance peaks as that of the other ported EATL 5 designs one ahead and behind the DRF. Again as in the earlier example a passive radiator 30 can exist to resonate the new air mass 31 existing in front of the driver 41 when mounted in at least one wall of the additional enclosure 32 . The IDC EATL 5 acts as an ideal impedance matching device for virtually any conventional type of driver and loading method. It creates two ranges of increased pressure to benefit the frequencies above and below a drivers ' resonance. Frequencies above resonance can be directly radiated as for the full range or the DD 3 can be loaded into an acoustic low pass filter to focus on a range of bass frequencies. [35] Any driver will have an optimum frequency range of operation that it is most suited to reproduce. It would be very difficult if not impossible to obtain perfect operation for one driver 41 over the range of 20Hz to 20,000Hz especially at higher power levels. Individual EATL 5 optimized enclosures DRE 29 can focus their advantages on narrow sound ranges to assist the driver in its optimal range. [36] This may be for the purpose of dividing the sound ranges to use optimal drivers for each range FIG. 8B - 29H, 29M, 29L, 29VL using individually optimized EATL 5 enclosures or it may be for the purpose of increasing the sound level in a single range FIG 8A - 29 A, 29B, 29C, 29D using multiple EATL 5 enclosures operating in the same frequency range or for both applications simultaneously. These types of operation are enhanced because of the positive pressure behind each driver and the resistance therefore from interfering with each other's diaphragms. Conventional close spacing of drivers ' results in many unpredictable effects because the random nature of the individual internal and external standing waves further alters the dispersion pattern. The Coherent output of EATL 5 enclosures will combine in multi-way speakers to make the crossover from one driver to another smoother and more lobe free. The coherent output from grouped reinforcement drivers whether cluster or line arrays will perform according to their intended theory. A special housing 16 can be used to adjust the DRE 29 units properly for the application. [37] The EATL 5 can also be used in conjunction with exotic acoustic transducers as depicted in 29A of FIG. 7 such as electrostatic and dynamic planar type diaphragms. Typically the flat panel loudspeakers radiate unrestricted bi-directionally because of the negative effect an enclosure or close wall placement has to one side of the sensitive diaphragm. The random reflected standing waves are of even greater harm because of the large diaphragm surface area required to generate meaningful sound levels with these types. FIG. 7 is a simple illustration indicating the important reference parts for EATL 5 use with these flat panel type loudspeakers. The EATL 5 would consist of the same basic parts as illustrated as the dynamic driver 41 version only flat panels would be involved and adjustments of certain other parameters involved with EATL 5 con¬ struction. Certain types of exotic drivers qualify and can only benefit from IDC of the EATL 5 and this is the case for the planar speaker DD 3. Illustrated in FIG. 9 is the use of a horn extension apparatus 42 mechanically connected to the IDC EATL 5 enclosure 29 for further transmission benefit. Horns are generally used to increase the level, distance and some times coverage in a specific area while shadowing others. The close coupling of the horn extension to the normally enclosed driver 41 of FIG. 2 DD 3 produces intense reflections back into the DD 3 . Typically a horn coupled driver 41 suffers chronically from breakup because these reflected features are acoustically amplified so the DD 3 suffers from competing horn bell type reflections at its ' surface. A phase plug 25 may be necessary to maximize pressure transfer depending on the diaphragm type. The same driver 41 operating with the positive pressure of the EATL 5 assisted DRE enclosure 29 will offer enhanced immunity to the effects of these re¬ flections producing a much clearer output from a well designed horn coupling. [38] DIRECT COUPLED LOW FREQUENCY ONLY APPLICATIONS- Con¬ ventional loudspeakers need large diaphragm areas and/or high mass to produce low frequencies while attaining high relative efficiency with a low bandwidth in the process. The current processes for bass reproduction are inherently efficient because they operate the driver at and near its ' resonant frequency causing a boomy like sound quality. Resonance is the number one enemy of a finished sound system although this parameter is involved with the execution of any speaker system. The DC EATL 5 mode of operation will match the acoustic impedance of a very small driver to produce low bass frequencies at moderate SPL levels. Matching the acoustic impedance in the desired frequency range is the first consideration in reducing distortion at low frequencies however when the driver is small sound output becomes a consideration as well. EATL technology allows for the first concern to be met with very small drivers that can produce useful amounts of low bass frerquencies for personal (small area ap¬ plications) as well as the larger driver. While larger drivers are developed for lower frequency reproduction, in the current basic enclosure configurations they are not acoustically matched for very low frequencies and have problems with resonance and room reflections. EATL 5 provides for practically dimensioned - acoustically neutral enclosure platforms that inherently insure low static resonance, extended low frequency response and immunity to room reflections. Subwoofers designs based on EATL 5 enclosures blend acoustically with any type of speaker requiring low frequency extension and is immune to the natural room reflections because of the unique aperiodic alignment described below. [39] FIG. 5 represents the application of the EATL 5 in conjunction with a dynamic driver 41 for the purpose of generating very low frequencies only and is called the D irect Coupled (DC) EATL 5. The DC EATL construction is very similar to the IDC with the exception of a larger throat/mouth opening 6 equal to the driver diameter and compression plug 12 located immediately in front of the driver 41. The EATL 5 is DC to the driver 41 with minimum area air volume in chamber 10 between the driver and the throat/mouth 6 of the EATL 5 . The driver is mounted with front facing the EATL 5 mouth 6 so as to create a high compression chamber 10 for driver loading. In this mode the driver 41 is compression loaded so a compression plug 12 is used to help

direct wave motion into the EATL 5 and to minimize air turbulence at the throat/mouth 6 of the EATL 5 and to establish the correct throat/mouth 6 area for the EATL 5. DC coupling places the driver 41 completely under the influence of the EATL 5 and it will follow the frequency pattern it establishes. The ADTM 4 establishes delay of the waves through depth migration thus allowing a wide DSW bandwidth. The higher low frequencies above driver 41 resonance are not effected as readily by the cellular structure and will sustain constant pressure due to the DSW in the EATL 5 before depth migration actually begins. This can be seen in FIG. 13 C and 14D. The frequency response curve FIG. 13C represents the driver 41 output of a DC driver and EATL 5 only and it can be seen that the frequency response shows a 12db/oct falling output from the driver 41 resonance frequency and flattened response above driver resonance to almost 400Hz. This curve represents a constant high positive pressure on the DD 3 relative to frequency and a dynamic pressure much greater than atmospheric pressure for all frequencies in the systems bandwidth. When measured at 100Hz this signal at the DD 3 is 40db greater than that at the mouth of the port 17 when the system is assembled. This output curve represents the actual curve of the driver 41 when measured close to the rear of DD 3 with the positive pressure applied to the front of DD 3 due to DSW loading by the EATL 5 . In free air a similar pattern would be generated except that the 12db/oct slope would begin at the drivers ' free air resonance frequency. Curve S is a reference high-pressure curve with a predictable 12db/oct rate of fall and is easy to shape with an acoustic low pass filter fitted to the other side of the cone. This curve S of FIG. 13C also reflects a predictable falling diaphragm excursion relative to lower frequencies, which is not influenced by the passive lower pressure loading environment of the acoustic low pass filter. The acoustic low pass filter 18 preferrably a reflex enclosure will further reduce DD 3 motion in the bass power frequency range (30Hz-60Hz) and not require a subsonic filter to control distortion in the infrasonic range (< 20 Hz ). An acoustic low pass filter 18 connected to the driver 41 EATL 5 in FIG. 5 would favor the lowest frequencies even though these frequencies are falling in curve S FIG. 13C. The 12db/oct falling output of FIG. 13C is transformed into the curve R of FIG. 13D for FIG. 6 which shows 6db/oct rising output from 70Hz. The curve in FIG. 13C is generated with the driver 41 only in the high-pressure environment that will resonate the box with little effect on the constant high pressure loading of the driver . This controlling positive pressure allows the output at the rear of the driver to resonate a reflex enclosure with acoustic volume 19 at frequencies within the 12db/oct slope. The efficiency in the range of the trans¬ formation is moderate relative to the driver mid-band efficiency yet it allows a small low mass driver to use its ' fast responding diaphragm to produce usable bass at frequencies determined by the EATL 5. Almost any same diameter driver 41 used in same dimensioned IDC will generate the curves of FIG.13 C and FIG. 13D if its compliance is not to stiff . The 1/4 wave positive pressure is a real-time mass component acoustically applied to the DD 3 to produce the enhanced low pass performance from the driver 41 as indicatedby peak R in FIG. 13D for FIG. 6. The drivers ' 41 mass and other parameters will affect distortion, efficiency and to some degree extreme frequency cut-off so optimum performance from a certain EATL / Reflex enclosure 291 FIG. 6 can be had through driver 41 choice. The efficiency of the EATL/Reflex system is still related to actual DD 3 area and it increases with a larger driver 41 as would be normal since more air molecules would be moved. Typically the low frequency output of large drivers 41 increase relative to mid-band output because of diaphragm area as mass deters output at higher frequencies. The DC EATL 5 low frequency system develops output from diaphragm area not geometry. The listening room, typically being an acoustic space with dimensional gain, also favors lower frequencies if they are present. The curve of FIG. 14C represents distant microphone placement when measuring the sub-bass system of FIG. 6. The room acts similar to the reflex enclosure in lifting the output at the lower bass frequencies as is seen in curve O of FIG. 14C by the big increase in gain in the 15Hz octave relative to the adjacent frequencies. FIG. 14A indicates the impedance of FIG. 5 and FIG. 6 . The curves are overlaid to show how little the reflex box alters the resonant frequency and Q of the EATL 5 loaded driver when it is connected. This indicates that the positive pressure within the EATL 5 dominates the drivers ' impedance with little effect on the driver 41/ EATL 5 operating parameters from the addition of the acoustic low pass filter. In FIG. 14A the large peak K represents the impedance of the driver in FIG. 5 . The small peak J trailing the driver peak L in FIG. 14A would be considered the ports peak with a conventional reflex enclosure and the output would fall off rapidly as the frequency approaches this peak. This peak represents the same EATL 5 peak that was observed in the impedance peak of FIG. 12B, FIG. 13 A, FIG.13B except that it has been pushed below the driver resonance due to the close coupling of the EATL 5 . It has been shown that increasing the length of the EATL 5 will lower the EATL S peak, as close coupling will also cause. Depth migration of the ADTM 4 is greater under high pressure causing the 1/4 wave signal to appear at the driver diaphragm below box tuning. It is also observed as shown in FIG. 13D that the output will fall after the main EATL 5 peak but the close coupling will load the driver to the EATL 5 cut-off frequency of near 15Hz. If it is observed carefully the output curve R of FIG. 13D of the sub-bass enclosure FIG. 6 has its ' highest output at the EATL 5 peak of 35Hz which is an extraordinary feature. The reason for this can be seen if the curves of FIG. 14D are observed. FIG. 14D represents the phase curves of the subwoofer in FIG. 6 . The curves are overlaid to show their relationships. Curve M represents the microphone placement very close to the driver diaphragm at its ' surface boundary area 24 where it will show the curve of the EATL 5. Curve N is indicating the output at the port 17 of the same sub-bass speaker of FIG. 6 and it can clearly be seen a large shift in phase beginning at 55Hz which is near the box tuning frequency. The outputs of the DD 3 and the port 17 are remarkably similar until the phase begins to shift at the box frequency G of FIG. 14A producing the initial rise in output as seen in curve R FIG. 13D at G. The phase curve M FIG. 14D of the driver indicates a reverse change beginning at near the same point 55Hz with a small depression indicated throughout the remainder of the phase curve at the driver. This depression represents the high pressure being applied to the DD 3 to produce the phase change at the port and the cor¬ responding increase in output. This pressure is applied at the time when the DD 3 is under box loading for maximum effectiveness. The pressure on the diaphragm remains constant as viewed by the flat phase curve to 55Hz and doesn 't change even when the EATL 5 peak further loads the diaphragm to cause the increased output. The result of the EATL 5 feedback and the box loading establishes an effective acoustic low pass system that will allow any practical driver diameter to produce very low frequencies at efficiencies relative to the drivers' normal low frequency output. This is generally slightly below the mid-band effenciency and is relative to driver size. [40] Horn loading of the driver for low frequency reproduction while in the DC compression mode of operation can be effective if physical space isn 't a real con¬ sideration. The well-loaded driver 41 is a good candidate for horn coupling to the ambient but large surface expansion areas are required to support launching of the long waves. In some cases embedded applications in buildings or large structures will allow portions of the structure to act as horn wave-guides. In some cases folding of the required wave-guides will allow implementation of a low frequency horn even an enclosure version. [41] Of course as with the EATL 5 DRE 29 enclosures multiple units of the IRE 291 may be configured to increase the output as a combined coherent source as in FIG. 8A the sound will more approach the theoretical 6db per doubling of units. This and the excellent immunity to the rooms ' reflections will maintain the integrity of the source. The IRE 291 may also be combined as in FIG. 8B to have the EATL 5 peak to occur in different ranges to maximize the output in each range. This will allow for maximum low frequency output over a wider range. [42] A preferred example of an extreme application of the IDC and DC systems used concurrently for a single sound system is illustrated by the graph of FIG. 14B . The curve in FIG. 14B represents coverage of the audio range from below 35Hz to 2OkHz using 3 identical 3-inch diameter drivers operating in almost identically sized miniature ( <. 06cu. ft.) DRE 29 and IRE 291 enclosures as depicted in FIG. 1 and FIG 6 . They are the left speaker FIG. 1, the right speaker FIG. 1 and the subwoofer FIG 6 that reproduces the lower bass from both channels. The 3-inch driver 41 as in FIG. 1 is the only candidate for a system of this type because it retains the dispersion properties required of a tweeter or high frequency driver but has enough diaphragm area making it capable of having its ' impedance matched by both the DC or IDC coupled EATL 5 to cover the entire frequency range. The free-air resonance of the driver is 100Hz normally much to high for subwoofer operation yet the DC EATL / Reflex enclosure 291 covers the range from below 35Hz to 125Hz where it mates with an IDC EATL enclosure 29 using the same driver type that covers the range from 125Hz to 2OkHz. The DC EATL / Reflex low frequency system 291 has its ' upper frequency range and volume adjusted electronically and is powered by a separate amplifier so that it can be set to properly blend with the IDC EATL enclosure 29 in any field environment. This system achieves near perfect vertical and horizontal off- axis response and requires no additional parts within the enclosures. The system output illustrated in FIG. 14B is capable of achieving in excess of 90db output at the listening position in an average size room for the indicated frequency range. This system including 2 speakers, subwoofer, amplifier, tripod stands and all connecting ac¬ cessories fits neatly in a standard executive sized briefcase and has been produced in prototype form. [43] Most of this document has been involving the validation of the effectiveness of a very simple process. Only a few drawings are needed to express this basic technology that improves the quality of sound so effectively. There will be many ways to use the general principles of this technology because of the generic nature of the im¬ provements involved. For example one may develop a new product with a different shape or discover new ways to couple the EATL 5 to the atmospheric pressure including in some ways the basic principles of the EATL 5. Any use of the principles discussed within this document is an infringement even if these changes or modi¬ fications are not expressed explicitly here. Once a person skilled in the art realizes the immediacy of the problem sees the drawings and experiences the sonic differences it will be very easy to duplicate and enhance the process without understanding the theory to a great degree. Any devices deriving their basic purpose for the same reasons that the EATL 5 derives its ' purpose are in violation of this invention if the same basic elements coupling the driver 41 for the same purpose are physically connected to the enclosure in the same manner. This means that relocating certain features to various locations will not allow a violation to be overcome as all research on the depth of features and implementation has not been investigated and will be a continuing effort of the inventor.

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