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Title:
COMPOSITION AND METHOD TO ALLEVIATE JOINT PAIN USING A MIXTURE OF FISH OIL AND FISH OIL DERIVED, CHOLINE BASED, PHOSPHOLIPID BOUND FATTY ACID MIXTURE INCLUDING POLYUNSATURATED EPA AND DHA
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2012/012372
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Beneficial and synergistic effects for alleviating joint pain and symptoms of osteoarthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis have been found using a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA wither alone or in combination with other active constituents, including astaxanthin and polymeric hyaluronic acid or sodium hyaluronate (hyaluronan) in an oral dosage form.

Application Number:
PCT/US2011/044446
Publication Date:
January 26, 2012
Filing Date:
July 19, 2011
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
US NUTRACEUTICALS LLC DBA VALENSA INT (US)
International Classes:
A61K35/60; A61K31/122; A61K31/728; A61K35/56; A61K36/05; A61K36/185; A61K36/324; A61K36/74; A61K36/9066; A61P19/02
Domestic Patent References:
WO2004080388A22004-09-23
Foreign References:
US20070098808A12007-05-03
US20090170808A12009-07-02
US20040180025A12004-09-16
US7923811A
US84037210A2010-07-21
US20040234587A12004-11-25
US20040241249A12004-12-02
US20070098808A12007-05-03
Other References:
CALDER P C: "Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation: Therapeutic potential in rheumatoid arthritis", CURRENT RHEUMATOLOGY REVIEWS 2009 BENTHAM SCIENCE PUBLISHERS B.V. NLD LNKD- DOI:10.2174/157339709790192558, vol. 5, no. 4, November 2009 (2009-11-01), pages 214 - 225, XP009152173, ISSN: 1573-3971
HURST S ET AL: "Dietary fatty acids and arthritis", PROSTAGLANDINS LEUKOTRIENES AND ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS 2010 CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE GBR LNKD- DOI:10.1016/J.PLEFA.2010.02.008, vol. 82, no. 4-6, April 2010 (2010-04-01), pages 315 - 318, XP002659154, ISSN: 0952-3278
SALES C ET AL: "[Fish oil supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis].", REUMATISMO 2008 JUL-SEP LNKD- PUBMED:18854877, vol. 60, no. 3, July 2008 (2008-07-01), pages 174 - 179, XP002659155, ISSN: 0048-7449
CALDER PHILIP C: "PUFA, inflammatory processes and rheumatoid arthritis", PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY, vol. 67, no. 4, November 2008 (2008-11-01), pages 409 - 418, XP002659156, ISSN: 0029-6651
DEUTSCH LUISA: "Evaluation of the effect of Neptune Krill Oil on chronic inflammation and arthritic symptoms", JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF NUTRITION, AMERICAN COLLEGE OF NUTRION, WILMINGTON, NC, US, vol. 26, no. 1, 1 February 2007 (2007-02-01), pages 39 - 48, XP002644400, ISSN: 0731-5724
KEVIN J RUFF ET AL: "Eggshell membrane in the treatment of pain and stiffness from osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study", CLINICAL RHEUMATOLOGY ; JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL LEAGUE OF ASSOCIATIONS FOR RHEUMATOLOGY, SPRINGER-VERLAG, LO, vol. 28, no. 8, 2 April 2009 (2009-04-02), pages 907 - 914, XP019724858, ISSN: 1434-9949, DOI: DOI:10.1007/S10067-009-1173-4
RUFF KEVIN J ET AL: "Eggshell membrane: a possible new natural therapeutic for joint and connective tissue disorders. Results from two open-label human clinical studies.", CLINICAL INTERVENTIONS IN AGING 2009 LNKD- PUBMED:19554094, vol. 4, May 2009 (2009-05-01), pages 235 - 240, XP002644402, ISSN: 1178-1998
KIKUCHI M ET AL: "Bibliographical investigation of complementary alternative medicines for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis", GERIATRICS AND GERONTOLOGY INTERNATIONAL 2009 AU LNKD- DOI:10.1111/J.1447-0594.2008.00503.X, vol. 9, no. 1, 2009, pages 29 - 40, XP002659157, ISSN: 1444-1586
See also references of EP 2595640A1
LEE ET AL., MOLECULES AND CELLS, vol. 16, no. 1, 2003, pages 97 - 105
OHGAMI ET AL., INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY AND VISUAL SCIENCE, vol. 44, no. 6, 2003, pages 2694 - 2701
SPILLER ET AL., J. OF THE AMER. COLLEGE OF NUTRITION, vol. 21, no. 5, October 2002 (2002-10-01)
MUMMERT, J. OF LMMUNOL., vol. 169, pages 4322 - 4331
TERMEER ET AL., TRENDS IN IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 24, March 2003 (2003-03-01)
YANG ET AL., CANCER RES., vol. 62, pages 2583 - 2591
KCKEE ET AL., J. BIOL. CHEM., vol. 272, pages 8013 - 8018
GHOSH P., GUIDOLIN D., SEMIN ARTHRITIS RHEUM., vol. 32, no. 1, August 2002 (2002-08-01), pages 10 - 37
P. ROONEY, M. WANG, P. KUMAR, S. KUMAR, JOURNAL OF CELL SCIENCE, vol. 105, 1993, pages 213 - 218
RUFF ET AL.: "Eggshell membrane in the treatment of pain and stiffness from Osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study", CLIN. RHEUMATOL, vol. 28, 2009, pages 907 - 914
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
WARTHER, Richard K. et al. (Doppelt Milbrath & Gilchrist, P.A.,255 S. Orange Avenue, Suite 140, Orlando Florida, US)
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Claims:
THAT WHICH IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A composition including a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA either alone or in combination with at least one of low molecular weight polymers of hyaluronic acid or sodium hyaluronate (hyaluronan) and astaxanthin in an oral dosage form for use as a medicament to treat and alleviate symptoms of osteoarthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis in a patient.

2. The composition according to Claim -1 , wherein the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA, comprises Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and

Docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids in the form of triacylgiycerides and phospholipids derived solely from fish oil rich in EPA and DHA fatty acids.

3. The composition according to Claim 1 , wherein the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA, comprises not less than (n.l.t.) 15g/100g of fish oil based phospholipids, n.l.t. 12g/100g of DHA, and n.l.t. 7g/100g EPA.

4. The composition according to Claim 1 , wherein the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA, comprises n.l.t. 22g/100g of Omega-3 and less than 3g/100g of Omega-6.

5. The composition according to Claim 4, wherein the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA includes at least 7% EPA and 12% DHA, of which not less than 15% are in the form of phospholipids.

6. The composition according to Claim 1, and wherein the phospholipid fraction of a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA is enriched from supercritical solvent extraction of triacylglycerides from the phospholipids to decrease fish oil triacylglycerides and increase fish oil derived phospholipids.

7. The composition according to Claim 1 , wherein the composition is formulated to deliver 1-4000 mg of a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA per daily dose.

8. The composition according to Claim 1 , wherein the composition is formulated to deliver 0.1 - 20 mg astaxanthin supplemented to the a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA per daily dose.

9. The composition according to Claim 1 , wherein the astaxanthin is derived from Haematococcus pluvialis algae, Pfaffia, krill, or by synthetic routes, in the free dioi, monoester or diester form.

10. The composition according to Claim , wherein the polymers of hyaluronic acid or sodium hyaluronate (hyaluronan) are derived from microbial fermentation or animal tissue.

11. The composition according to Claim 10, wherein the composition is formulated to deliver 1-500 mg of hyaluronan per daily dose.

12. The composition according to Claim 10, wherein the hyaluronic acid is derived from a biofermenation process and has a molecular weight between 0.5 and 100 kilodaltons (kDa).

13. The composition according to Ciaim "10, wherein the hyaluronic acid has a molecular weight greater than 100 kDa.

14. The composition according to Claim 1 , comprising a natural or synthetic cyclooxygenase-1 or -2 inhibitor comprising at least one of aspirin, acetaminophen, steroids, prednisone, and NSAIDs and/or a natural or synthetic lipoxygenase inhibitor, including Boswellia serrata,

15. The composition according to Claim 1 , comprising a gamma-iinoleic acid rich oil comprising Borage (Borago officinalis L) or Saff!ower (Carthamus tinctorius L).

16. The composition according to Claim 1 , comprising n-3 (omega-3) fatty acid rich oil comprising at least one of fish oil, algae oil, flax seed oil, perilla seed oil and chia seed oil, and the n-3 fatty acid comprises at least one of alpha-linolenic, stearidonic, eicosapentaenoic or docosapentaenoic acid.

17. The composition according to Claims 1 , comprising at least one of un~ hydro!yzed collagen and elastin or a mixture of hydrolyzed or un-hydrolyzed collagen and elastin derived from eggshell membranes.

18. The composition according to Claim 1 , comprising anti-inflammatory and/or joint health promoting compounds comprising at least one of preparations of green lipped mussel {Perna canaliculus), Boswellia serrata, turmeric (Curcuma longa), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), Andrographis, Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa), bromelain, methylsulfonylmethane (MS ), chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine sulfate, s-adenosyl- methionine, proanthocyanidins, or flavonoids, and preparations of hydrolyzed or un- hydrolyzed eggshell membrane.

19. The composition according to Claim 1 , comprising naturally-derived and synthetic antioxidants that are added in an effective amount to retard degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and astaxanthin.

20. The composition according to Claim 1 , wherein the phospholipids comprise 30% less of the composition.

21. A pharmaceutically acceptable composition comprising a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA in combination with astaxanthin and hyaiuronate and including at least one of glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, collagen,

methylsulfonmethane, a gamma-linoleic acid or omega-3 fatty acid rich oil or

cyclooxgenase inhibitor for the treatment of symptoms related to joint pain or joint diseases including but not limited to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

22. A dietary supplement acceptable composition comprising a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA in combination with astaxanthin and hyaiuronate and including at least one of glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sufate, collagen,

methylsulfonmethane, a gamma-linoleic acid or omega-3 fatty acid rich oil and a cyclooxgenase and/or lipoxygenase inhibitor for the treatment of symptoms related to joint pain or joint diseases including but not limited to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

23. A medical food acceptable composition comprising a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA in combination with astaxanthin and hyaiuronate and including at least one of glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sufate, collagen,

methylsulfonmethane, a gamma-linoieic acid or omega-3 fatty acid rich oil and a lipoxygenase or cyclooxgenase inhibitor for the treatment of symptoms related to joint pain or joint diseases including but not limited to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

24. A composition formulated in a therapeutic amount to treat and alleviate symptoms of osteoarthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis, wherein the composition includes a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA in combination with astaxanthin and low molecular weight polymers of hyaiuronic acid or sodium hyaluronate (hyaluronan) in an oral dosage form.

25. The composition according to Claim 24, wherein the omega choline comprises Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids bound in the form of both triacylglycerides and phospholipids and collectively derived from fish oil.

26. The composition according to Claim 24, wherein a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA comprises not less than (n.l.t.) 15g/100g of

phospholipids, n.l.t. 12g/100g of DHA, and n.l.t. 7g/100g EPA.

27. The composition according to Claim 24, wherein the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA comprises n.l.t. 22g/100g of Omega-3 and less than 3g/100g of Omega-6.

28. The composition according to Claim 24, wherein the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA is enriched by the supercritical solvent extraction of the triacylglycerides bound fatty acids from the remaining phospholipids to decrease fish oil diluents and increase fish oil derived phospholipids.

29. The composition according to Claim 24, wherein a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA includes at least 7% EPA and 2% DHA, of which not less than 15% are in the form of phospholipids.

30. The composition according to Claim 24, wherein the astaxanthin is derived from Haematococcus pluvialis algae, Pfaffia, krill, or by synthetic routes, in the free diol, monoester or diester form.

31. The composition according to Claim 24, wherein the phospholipids comprise 30% or less of the total composition.

32. The composition according to Claim 24, wherein the hyaluronic acid is derived from a biofermenation process and has a molecular weight between 0.5 and 100 kilodaltons (kDa).

33. The composition according to Claim 24, wherein the hyaluronic acid has a molecular weight greater than 100 kDa.

34. The composition according to Claim 24, wherein the composition includes a natural or synthetic cyclooxygenase-1 or -2 inhibitor comprising at least one of aspirin, acetaminophen, steroids, prednisone, and NSAIDs and/or a lipoxygenase inhibitor, including Bosweliia serrata.

35. The composition according to Claim 24, wherein the composition includes a gamma-linoleic acid rich oil comprising Borage {Borago officinalis L.) or Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L).

36. The composition according to Claim 24, wherein the composition includes an n-3 (omega-3) fatty acid rich fish oil, algae oil, flax seed oil, perilla seed oil or chia seed oil and the n-3 fatty acid comprises alpha-iinolenic, stearidonic, eicosapentaenoic or docosapentaenoic acid.

37. The composition according to Claim 24, wherein the composition includes naturally-derived and synthetic antioxidants added to retard degradation of

polyunsaturated fatty acids and astaxanthin.

38. A composition including a therapeutic amount of a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA for use as a medicament to treat and alleviate symptoms of osteoarthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis in a patient .

39. The composition according to Claim 38, wherein the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA comprises Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and

Docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids in the form of triacylglyce rides and phospholipids.

40. The composition according to Claim 38, wherein the omega choline comprises not less than (n.i.t.) 15g/100g of marine phospholipids, n.l.t. 12g/100g of DHA, and n.l.t. 7g/1 OOg EPA.

41. The composition according to Claim 38, wherein the omega choline comprises n.l.t. 22g/100g of Omega-3 and less than 3g/100g of Omega-6.

42. The composition according to Claim 38, wherein the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA is enriched by the use of supercriticai solvent extraction of triacylglycerides from phospholipids to decrease the triacylglyceride based fish oil diluents and increase the fish oil derived phospholipids.

43. A composition comprising a therapeutic amount of a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA either alone or in combination with hyaluronic acid of varying molecular weights for use as a medicament to treat and alleviate symptoms of osteoarthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis in a patient.

44. The composition according to Claim 43, wherein the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA comprises Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and

Docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids in the form of their respective triacylglycerides and phospholipids.

45. The composition according to Claim "43, wherein the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA comprises not less than (n.l.t.) 15g/100g of

phospholipids, n.l.t. 12g/100g of DHA, and n.l.t. 7g/100g EPA.

46. The composition according to Claim 43, wherein the omega choline comprises n.l.t. 22g/100g of Omega-3 and less than 3g/100g of Omega-6.

47. The composition according to Claim 38, wherein the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA is enriched by the„use of supercritical solvent extraction of triacylglycerides from phospholipids to decrease the triacylglyceride based fish oil diluents and increase the fish oil derived phospholipids.

48. A composition comprising a therapeutic amount of a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA and further comprising at least one of hyaluronic acid of varying molecular weights and astaxanthin for use as a medicament to treat and alleviate symptoms of osteoarthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis in a patient.

49. The composition according to Claim 48, wherein the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA comprises Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and

Docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids in the form of triacylglycerides and phospholipids.

50. The composition according to Claim '48, wherein the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA comprises not less than (n.l.t.) 15g/100g of

phospholipids, n.l.t. 12g/100g of DHA, and n.l.t. 7g/100g EPA.

51. The composition according to Claim 48, wherein the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA comprises n.l.t. 22g/100g of Omega-3 and less than 3g/100g of Omega-6.

52. The composition according to Claim ,38, wherein the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA is enriched by the use of supercritical solvent extraction of triacylgiycerides from phospholipids to decrease the triacylglyceride based fish oil diluents and increase the fish oil derived phospholipids.

53. A composition formulated in a therapeutic amount to treat and alleviate symptoms of osteoarthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis, wherein the composition includes a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA.

54. The composition according to Claim 53, and further comprising at least one of astaxanthin and low molecular weight polymers of hyaluronic acid or sodium hyaluronate (hyaluronan) in an oral dosage form.

55. The composition according to Claim 53, wherein the omega choline comprises Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids bound in the form of both triacylgiycerides and phospholipids and collectively derived from fish oil.

56. The composition according to Claim 53, wherein a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA comprises not less than (n.l.t.) 15g/100g of

phospholipids, n.l.t. 12g/100g of DHA, and n.i.t. 7g/100g EPA.

57. The composition according to Claim 53, wherein the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA comprises n.l.t. 22g/100g of Omega-3 and less than 3g/100g of Omega-6.

58. The composition according to Claim 53, wherein the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA is enriched by the supercritical solvent extraction of the triacylglycerides bound fatty acids from the remaining phospholipids to decrease fish oil diluents and increase fish oil derived phospholipids.

59. The composition according to Claim 53, wherein the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA includes at least 7% EPA and 12% DHA, of which not less than 15% are in the form of phospholipids.

60. The composition according to Claim 53, wherein the phospholipids comprise 30% or less of the total composition.

61. The composition according to Claim 53, wherein the composition includes a natural or synthetic cyclooxygenase-1 or -2 inhibitor comprising aspirin,

acetaminophen, steroids, prednisone, or NSAIDs and/or a lipoxygenase inhibitor, including Bosweilia serrata.

62. The composition according to Claim 53, wherein the composition includes a gamma-iinoieic acid rich oil comprising Borage (Borago officinalis L) or Safflower {Carthamus tinctorius L).

63. The composition according to Claim 53, wherein the composition includes an n-3 (omega-3) fatty acid rich fish oil, algae oil, flax seed oil, perilla seed oil or chia seed oil and the n-3 fatty acid comprises alpha-linolenic, stearidonic, eicosapentaenoic or docosapentaenoic acid.

64. The composition according to Claim 53, wherein the composition includes naturally-derived and synthetic antioxidants added to retard degradation of

polyunsaturated fatty acids and astaxanthin.

Description:
COMPOSITION AND METHOD TO ALLEVIATE JOINT PAIN

USING A MIXTURE OF FISH OIL AND FISH OIL DERIVED, CHOLINE BASED, PHOSPHOLIPID BOUND FATTY ACID MIXTURE

INCLUDING POLYUNSATURATED EPA AND DHA

Related , A^

[0001]This application is based on prior filed U.S. Patent Application Serial No.

13/079,238 filed April 4, 2011 and prior filed U.S. Patent application Serial No.

12/840,372 filed July 21, 2010.

Field of the Invention

[0002]This invention relates to treating and alleviating symptoms of osteoarthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis using therapeutic compositions and methods derived from a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acids including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA either alone or admixed with synergistic additives.

Background of the Invention

[0003]The '372 parent application identified above is directed to the advantageous use of kri!l oil such as disclosed in U.S. Patent Pubiication Nos. 2004/0234587;

2004/0241249; and 2007/0098808, the disclosures which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. The beneficial and therapeutic advantages of krill oil are discussed in the various research endeavors that are mentioned in the Background of the Invention section of the '372 application. Such an example is a krili oil

manufactured by Neptune Technologies in which a daily dose of about 300 mg reduces arthritic symptoms within a short treatment period of about 7 to 14 days as determined by standard WO AC scoring procedures.

[0004] The '372 application later describes the beneficial and synergistic effects for alleviating joint pain and symptoms of osteoarthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis when krill oil is used in combination with other active constituents. It has now been found advantageous to use other oils containing certain phospholipid bound polyunsaturated fatty acids not derived from krill in combination with fish oil.

Summary of the invention

[0005] In accordance with a non-limiting example, even more beneficial and synergistic effects for alleviating joint pain and symptoms of osteoarthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis have been found when of a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acids including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA is used in combination with other active constituents.

[0006] in accordance with a non-limiting example, the method treats and alleviates symptoms of osteoarthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis in a patient by administering a therapeutic amount of a composition including a mixture of fish oil and a fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acids including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA in combination with astaxanthin and low molecular weight polymers of hyaluronic acid or sodium hyaluronate (hyaluronan) in an oral dosage form.

[0007JThe mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acids including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA in one example comprises

Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids in the form of both triacylglycerides and diacylphospholipids. in one example, the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acids including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA comprises not less than 15g/100g of fish derived phospholipids, not less than 12g/100g of DHA, and not less than 7g/100g of EPA. In another example, the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acids including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA comprises not less than 22g/100g of omega-3 and no less than 3g/100g of omega-6. The mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acids including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA can be further concentrated by supercritical fluid solvent extraction of fish oil

triacylglycerides from the choline based phospholipids to decrease fish oil

triacylglycerides and increase fish oil derived phospholipids.

[0008] In another example, the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acids including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA includes at least 15% EPA and 9% DHA, of which not less than 45% are in the form of

phospholipids. The composition can be delivered advantageously for therapeutic results with 1-4000 mg of a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acids including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA delivered per daily dose. In another example, 0.1-50 mg astaxanthin are added to the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acids including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA per daily dose. In one example, the phospholipids comprise 30% or less of the composition.

[0009] The astaxanthin is preferably derived from Haematococcus pluvialis algae, Pfaffia, kriil, or by synthetic routes, in the free diol, monoester or diester form or any mixture thereof. The hyaluronic acid or sodium hyaluronate (hyaluronan) can be derived from microbial fermentation or animal tissues. About 1 -500 mg of hyaluronan can be delivered per daily dose, in a preferred example, the hyaluronic acid is derived from a biofermenation process and has a surprisingly low molecular weight between 0.5 and 100 kilodaltons (kDa). In another example, the polymers of hyaluronic acid or sodium hyaluronate (hyaluronan) are derived from animal tissue and have molecular weights far exceeding 100 kDa. Such high molecular weight hyaluronans are typically derived from rooster combs and are reportedly mildly anti-inflammatory though this fact is somewhat controversial. The literature clearly indicates that as the molecular weight of hyaluronic acid and its salts increases, its immunogenicity drops dramatically. In addition, more recent scientific literature suggests that low molecular weight hyaluronic acids fragments are unexpectedly highly pro-inflammatory with respect to the innate immune system and would thus not be expected to be useful in the treatment of inflammatory disease states and in particular joint pain associated with OA and/or RH.

[0010] The composition may also include a natural or synthetic cyclooxygenase-1 or -2 inhibitor comprising aspirin, acetaminophen, steroids, prednisone, or NSAIDs. The composition may also include a gamma-linoleic acid rich oil comprising Borage (Borago officinalis L) or Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L),

[0011]The composition may also include an n-3 (omega-3) fatty acid rich oil derived from fish oil (EPA and DHA), aigae oil (EPA and DHA), flax seed oil (ALA), perilia seed oil(ALA) or chia seed oil(AI_A) and the n-3 fatty acid comprises, either alone or in combination, alpha-linolenic, stearidonic, eicosapentaenoic or docosapentaenoic acid. Soluble or insoluble forms of collagen and elastin such as those derived from

hydrolyzed or un-hydrolyzed eggshell membrane can also be advantageously added. The composition may also include anti-inflammatory and/or joint health promoting compounds comprising at least one of the preparations of the green lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus), Boswellia serrata, turmeric (Curcuma longa), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), Andrographis, Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa), bromelain,

methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride or glucosamine sulfate, s-adenosyl-methionine, proanthocyanidins, or flavonoids, and preparations of hydrolyzed or un-hydrolyzed eggshell membrane. The composition may include naturally-derived and/or synthetic antioxidants that are added to retard degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as a tocopherol, tocotrienol, carnosic acid or carnisoi or mixtures thereof either with or without the potent anti-oxidant astaxanthin.

[0012] Different compositions may use different ingredients in combination with the mixture of fish oil and fish oii derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acids including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA , astaxanthin and hyaluronate and be combined with different ingredients and supplemental ingredients for more specific purposes.

[0013JA pharmaceutically acceptable composition comprises a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acids including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA in combination with astaxanthin and hyaluronate and optionally combined with glucosamine sulfate or its hydrochloride salt, chondroitin sulfate, hydrolyzed or unhydrolyzed collagen.eiastin methylsulfonmethane, a gamma-linoieic acid or omega-3 fatty acid rich oil or a cyclooxgenase or lipoxygenase inhibitor for the treatment of symptoms related to joint pain or joint diseases including but not limited to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

[00143 In yet another example, a dietary supplement acceptable composition comprises mixture of fish oil and a fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA in combination with astaxanthin and hyaluronate and optionally combined with glucosamine sulfate or its hydrochloride salt, chondroitin sulfate, hydrolyzed or unhydrolyzed collagen, elastin methylsulfonmethane, a gamma-linoleic acid or omega-3 fatty acid rich oil and a cyclooxgenase and/or lipoxygenase inhibitor for the treatment of symptoms related to joint pain or joint diseases including but not limited to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

[0015] In yet another example, a medical food acceptable composition comprises a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA in combination with astaxanthin and hyaluronate and optionally combined with glucosamine sulfate or its hydrochloride salt, chondroitin sulfate, hydrolyzed or unhydrolyzed collagen, elastin methylsulfonmethane, a gamma-linoieic acid or omega-3 fatty acid rich oil and a cyclooxgenase and/or lipoxygenase inhibitor for the treatment of symptoms related to joint pain or joint diseases including but not limited to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

[0016] In stili another example, a composition is formulated in a therapeutic amount to treat and alleviate symptoms of osteoarthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis, wherein the composition includes a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based,

phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA in combination with astaxanthin and polymers of hyaluronic acid or sodium hyaluronate (hyaluronan) in an oral dosage form. This composition may include other active constituents as explained and identified above relative to the method and composition.

[0017] A method to treat and alleviate symptoms of osteoarthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis in a patient is disclosed by administering a composition comprising a

therapeutic amount of omega choline, in another example, the omega choline is administered with hyaluronic acid of varying molecular weights. In another example, therapeutic composition includes a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA admixed with hyaluronic acid of varying molecular weights and astaxanthin.

Detailed Description of the Preferred Embodiments

[0018] The present invention will now be described more fully hereinafter. This invention may, however, be embodied in many different forms and should not be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein. Rather, these embodiments are provided so that this disclosure will be thorough and complete, and will fully convey the scope of the invention to those skilled in the art.

[0019] The composition includes EPA and DHA functionalized as EPA and DHA bound choline based phospholipids and acyltriglycerides derived from a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA astaxanthin, and in one non-limiting example, low molecular weight polymers of hyaluronic acid or sodium hyaluronate (hyaluronan) in an oral dosage form. In other examples, the hyaluronic acid has varying molecular weights.

[002u]As noted before, surprisingly the composition includes a pro-inflammatory low molecular weight Hyaluronic Acid (LMWtHA). Natural high molecular weight hyaluronic acid is the major hydrodynamic component of synovial fluid and importantly is known to be immuno-neutral to the innate immune system. It is nature's bone joint shock absorbent and lubricant. It has been found that there is excellent oral bioavailability of LMWtHA fragments specifically to connective tissue, which maximizes interaction with targeted cell receptors which may mediate the innate immune response in diseased joints. Therefore in a preferred composition containing a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA and astaxanthin two anti-inflammatory components and LMWtHA are thus combined with one highly inflammatory component. The scientific literature indicates that LMWtHA fragments in in vitro studies has been shown to exhibit potent pro-inflammatory behavior. It therefore remains unclear why a pro-inflammatory component would elicit a favorable overall response in inflamed joint tissues. It is believed that such pro-inflammatory LMWtHA fragments may promote site repair by simulation of the innate immune system repair mechanism and by simulating production of non-immunogenic high molecular weight HA bringing the joint back to homeostasis, however these are merely unproven theories. A great deal of work by leading immunologists is still attempting to unravel all the aspects of the complicated singling processes associated with the innate immune system. Studies using large animal models of osteoarthritis have shown that mild immunogenic Hyaluronic Acids with molecular weights within the range of 0.5-1.0 x 10 6 Da (Dalton) were generally more effective in reducing indices of synovial inflammation and restoring the Theological properties of SF (visco-induction) than non-immunogenic HA's with molecular weights > 2.3 x 10 6 Da. This treatment evolved from treating horses with sterile injections of such hyuronates.

[0021] Astaxanthin is a component of the instant invention in some examples. Related scientific literature indicates that in a lipopolysaccharide induced inflammatory rat model, astaxanthin at just 1 mg/kg in vitro and in vivo: (1) down regulates TNF-alpha production by 75%; (2) down regulates prostaglandin E-2 production (PGE-2) by 75%; (3) inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression of nitric oxide by 58%; and (4) these effects on inflammatory markers were nearly as effective as prednisolone in this model. Such information suggests but does not prove that astaxanthin may be an effective standalone product for the reduction of OA and/or RH pain or other symptomoiogy associated with OA and/or RH however high doses of astaxanthin are required to achieve such anti-inflammatory results to date,

[0022] In induced uveitis, astaxanthin also showed dose dependant ocular antiinflammatory activity by suppression of NO, PGE-2 and TNF-Alpha by directly blocking NO synthase activity. Astaxanthin is also known to reduce C-Reactive Protein (C-RP) blood levels in vivo. For example, in human subjects with high risk levels of C-RP three months of astaxanthin treatment resulted in 43% of patients serum C-RP levels to drop below the risk level. This may explain why C-RP levels dropped significantly in the referenced Deutsch study. Astaxanthin is so powerful that it has been shown to negate the pro-oxidant activity of Vioxx in in vitro experiments, a COX-2 inhibitor belonging to the NSAIDS drug class which is now known to cause cellular membrane lipid peroxidation leading to heart attack and stroke and was thus removed from the US pharmaceutical market. Astaxanthin is absorbed in vitro by lens epithelial cells where it suppresses UVB induced lipid per-oxidative mediated cell damage at umol/L

concentrations. In human trials astaxanthin at 4mgs/day prevented post exercise joint fatigue following strenuous knee exercise when compared to untreated subjects. These results have been shown in:

[0023] 1) Lee et al„ Molecules and Ceils, 16(1):97-105; 2003; [0024]2) Ohgami et a!., Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 44(6):2694-2701 , 2003;

[0025] 3) Spilier et al., J. of the Amer. College of Nutrition, 21 (5): October 2002; and

[0026J4) Fry et al., Univ. of Memphis Human Performance Laboratories, 2001 and 2004, Reports 1 & 2.

[0027]A preferred composition in one embodiment includes 300 mg of krill oil, 45 mg of low molecular weight HA, and 2 mg astaxanthin.

[0028] Astaxanthin has potent singlet oxygen quenching activity. Astaxanthin typically does not exhibit pro-oxidant activity unlike β-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin and Vitamins A and E. Astaxanthin in some studies has been found to be about 50 times more powerful than Vitamin E, 11 times more powerful than β-carotene and three times more powerful than lutein in quenching of singlet oxygen. Astaxanthin is also well known for its ability to quench free radicals. Comparative studies have found astaxanthin to be 65 times more powerful than Vitamin C, 54 times more powerful than β-carotene, 47 times more powerful than lutein, and 14 times more powerful than Vitamin E in free radical quenching ability.

[0029] Studies have shown that HA binds to the surface of dendritic cells ("DC's B ) and stimulated T-cells. Blockade of the CD44-HA interaction leads to impaired T-Ceil activation both in vitro and in vivo. Studies have also shown that in cancer cell lines, LMWtHA fragments specifically induce nitric oxide synthase, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in dendritic cells. In DCs, NO expression caused dendritic cell apoptosis (ceil death). DCs are essential T-cell activators which function by presenting antigens to T-cells, thus apoptosis of DCs may short circuit the adaptive immune system response. This effect was clearly CD44 dependent because pretreatment of DCs with anti-CD44 monoclona antibodies blocked the NO mediated induction of DC apoptosis. It appears that low molecular weight HA fragments interrupt the normal course of the well known T-cell mediated adaptive immune system response. CD44 is a glycoprotein responsible in part for lymphocyte activation (also known as T-cell activation) and is known to specifically bind to HA. On the other hand, as previously discussed, low molecular weight HA fragments appear to up-regulate the innate immune response, particularly in chronic inflammatory conditions where the innate immune system may in some way be compromised.

[0030] Support for such teachings can be found in:

[0031] 1) ummert et al., J. of Immunol. 169, 4322-4331 ;

[0032J2) Termeer et al., Trends in Immunology, Vol. 24, March 2003;

[0033J3) Yang et al., Cancer Res. 62, 2583-259 ; and

[0034J4) KcKee et al., J. Biol. Chem, 272, 8013-8018.

[0035] Additional information can be found in the following references: Ghosh P.

Guidolin D. Semin Arthritis Rheum., 2002 Aug; 32{1):10-37; and P. Rooney, M. Wang,

P. Kumar and S. Kumar, Journal of Cell Science 105, 213-218 (1993).

[0036]The '372 parent application discusses the beneficial aspects of using kriil oil in synergistic combination with other ingredients. It as been determined that a fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA is also advantageous for the treatment of some joint disease states either alone or admixed with other ingredients. One commercially available example of a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA is

Omega Choline 1520F as a phospholipid, omega-3 preparation, which is derived from natural fish oil and sold by Enzymotec Ltd. One example of such composition is described below:

Ingredients (g/100g):

Pure Marine Phospholipids

DHA*

EPA**

* Docosahexaenoic acid

* * Eicosapenteanoic acid

Omega-3

Omega-6 Analytical Data:

Peroxide value (meq/Kg) n.m.t. 5

Loss on Drying (g/100g) n.m.t. 2

Physical Properties:

Consistency Viscous Liquid

[0037]Astaxanthin has an excellent safety record. A study conducted by Stewart et al.2008 obtained the following results:

Oral LD 50: 600 mg/kg (rats);

NOAEL: 465 mg/kg (rats); or

Serum Pharmacokinetics:

1) Ti/ 2 : 6 hours;

2) T max : 8 hours;

3) C max : 65 Mg /L

[0038] At eight weeks of supplementation at 6 mg per day, there was no negative effect in healthy adults. Spiller et al. 2003.

[0039] In accordance with one non-limiting example, astaxanthin has two primary renewable sources, namely a 1 % to 12% astaxanthin oieoresin extracted from the micro algae Haematococcus pluvialis or 1.5-2.5% beadlet derived from the same microalgae.

[0040] In accordance with a non-limiting example, the method treats and alleviates symptoms of osteoarthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis in a patient by administering a therapeutic amount of a composition including a mixture of fish oii and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA in combination with astaxanthin and pro-inflammatory low molecular weight polymers of hyaluronic acid or sodium hyaluronate (hyaluronan) in an oral dosage form. The mixture of fish oi! and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA in one example comprises Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids in the form of triacyiglycerides and phospholipids, although not less than 1% EPA and 5% DHA has been found advantageous. In another example, the omega choline includes at least 15% EPA and 9% DHA, of which not less than 45% are in the form of phospholipids. The composition can be delivered advantageously for therapeutic results with 1^4000 mg of a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA delivered per daily dose. In another example, 0.1-20 mg astaxanthin are supplemented to the omega choline per daily dose.

[0041] It should be understood that an instant formulation can be used for the relief of joint discomfort that includes only a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA. It is possible to use a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA mixed with hyaluronic acid of varying molecular weights or a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA mixed with hyaluronic acid of varying molecular weights and astaxanthin. it should also be understood that an enriched version of a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA can be used wherein the fraction of added fish oil diluents has been

decreased and the proportion of fish oil derived phospholipids has been increased. This can be accomplished by using supercritical C02 and/or solvent extractions for selective removal of triacyiglycerides from phospholipids. In one example, the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA comprises not less than 15g/100g of marine

phospholipids, not less than 12g/100g of DHA, and not less than 7g/100g of EPA. In another example, the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA comprises not less than 22g/100g of omega-3 and less than 3g/100g of omega-6.

[0042] It should also be understood that although the hyaluronic acid has been described as having low molecular weight, the mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA can be mixed with hyaluronic acid of varying molecular weights depending on circumstances of use.

[0043] The astaxanthin is preferably derived from hiaematococcus pluvialis algae, Pfaffia, krill, or by synthetic routes, in the free diol, monoester or diester form at a daily dose of 0.5-8 mg. The polymers of hyaluronic acid or sodium hyaluronate (hyaluronan) can be derived from microbial fermentation or animal tissues. About 1-500 mg of hyaluronan can be delivered per daily dose and preferably between 10 and

70mgs/dose. In another example, the hyaluronic acid is derived from a bio-fermenation process and has a molecular weight between 0.5 and 100 kiiodaltons (kDa). In another example, the polymers of hyaluronic acid or sodium hyaluronate (hyaluronan) are derived from microbial fermentation or animal tissue and have molecular weights exceeding 100 KDa and preferably up to 10 6 KDa;

[0044] The composition may also include a natural or synthetic cyclooxygenase-1 or -2 inhibitor comprising for example aspirin, acetaminophen, steroids, prednisone, or NSAIDs. The composition may also include a gamma-iinoleic acid rich oil comprising Borage (Borago officinalis L.) or Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L), which delivers a metabolic precursor to PGEi synthesis.

[0045]The composition may also include an n-3 (omega-3) fatty acid rich oil derived from fish oil, algae oil, flax seed oil, chia seed oil or perilla seed oil and the n-3 fatty acid comprises alpha-linolenic, stearidonic, eicosapentaenoic or docosapentaenoic acid. Hydroiyzed or unhydroiyzed collagen and elastin derived from eggshell membranes can also be advantageously added. The composition may also include anti-inflammatory and/or natural joint health promoting compounds comprising at least one of preparations of green lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus), Boswellia serrata, turmeric {Curcuma longa), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), Andrographis, Cat's claw {Uncaria tomentosa), bromelain, methylsulfonyimethane (MSM), chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine sulfate or its hydrochloride salt, s-adenosyi-methionine, proanthocyanidins, or flavonoids. The composition may include naturally-derived and synthetic antioxidants that are added to retard degradation of fatty acids such as tocopherols, tocotrienols, carnosic acid or Carnoso! and/or astaxanthin.

[0046] Different compositions may use different ingredients in combination with the a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA, astaxanthin and hyaluronate and be combined with different ingredients and supplemental compositions for more specific purposes.

[0047] A pharmaceutically acceptable composition comprises a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA in combination with astaxanthin and hyaluronate optionally combined with one or more ingredients including but not limited to

glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, collagen, methylsulfonmethane, a gamma- linoleic acid or omega-3 fatty acid rich oil, a cyclooxgenase inhibitor or a lipoxygenase inhibitor for the treatment of symptoms related to joint diseases including but not limited to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

[0048] In yet another example, a dietary supplement acceptabie composition comprises a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA in combination with astaxanthin and hyaluronate optionally combined one or more ingredients, including but not limited to, glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sufate, collagen, methylsulfonmethane, a gamma- linoleic acid or omega-3 fatty acid rich oil a cyclooxgenase inhibitor or a lipoxygenase inhibitor for the treatment of symptoms related to joint diseases including but not limited to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. [0049] In yet another example, a medical food acceptable composition comprises a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based, phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA in combination with astaxanthin and hyaluronate and optionally combined with one or more ingredients including

glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sufate, collagen, methylsulfonmethane, a gamma- linoleic acid or omega-3 fatty acid rich oil,a cyclooxgenase inhibitor or a lipoxygenase inhibitor for the treatment of symptoms related to joint diseases including but not limited to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

[0050] In still another example, a composition is formulated in a therapeutic amount to treat and alleviate symptoms of osteoarthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis, wherein the composition includes a mixture of fish oil and fish oil derived, choline based,

phospholipid bound fatty acid mixture including polyunsaturated EPA and DHA in combination with astaxanthin and polymers of hyaluronic acid or sodium hyaluronate (hyaluronan) in an oral dosage form. This composition may include other active constituents as explained and identified above relative to the method and composition.

[0051] Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent form of arthritis. Osteoarthritis is a disease in which the cartiiage that acts as a cushion between the bones in joints begins to wear away causing bone on bone joint swelling and joint pain. It is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage along with a peri-articular bone response. It affects both sexes, mainly in the fourth and fifth decades of life. The knee joint is most commonly affected joint. At present the management is by pharmacological and non- pharmacological therapy. Corrective surgical therapy and or joint replacement therapy in some cases may not be possible.

[0052] Traditional treatments for Osteoarthritis involve the use of analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or cyclooxygenase-2 specific (COX-2) NSAIDs alone or in combination with other active analgesics including but not limited to opiods or steroids. Advances in recombinant protein synthesis aiso provide relief from the symptoms of OA and RH by the use of genetically engineered proteins with specific functionality. Steroids or high molecular weight hyaluronic acid injections have also been used with some success, however, these therapies have well known deleterious side effects.

£0053] Many of these treatments alone have shown limited effectiveness in clinical trials. To avoid the cardiac risks and gastrointestinal issues associated with traditional OA treatments (particularly with long term use), many patients have turned to

complimentary and alternative medicines (CAMs) such as dietary supplements.

Glucosamine and chondroitin alone or in combination, are widely marketed as dietary supplements to treat joint pain due to OA. A major clinical trial on glucosamine and chondroitin (The GAIT Study) failed to show any significant improvement in VVOMAC scores over placebo except in the highest quartile of patients studied. Because of their limited effectiveness, the search for additional CAMs to treat OA continues (see for example Ruff et al., Eggshell membrane in the treatment of pain and stiffness from Osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, Clin. Rheumatol (2009) 28:907-914).

[0054] Many modifications and other embodiments of the invention will come to the mind of one skilled in the art having the benefit of the teachings presented in the foregoing descriptions and the associated drawings. Therefore, it is understood that the invention is not to be limited to the specific embodiments disclosed, and that

modifications and embodiments are intended to be included within the scope of the appended claims.