Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
COMPOSITION FOR THE TREATMENT OF (PRE)OBESITY AND/OR ASSOCIATED MORBIDITIES THERETO
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/074409
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to compositions and methods of treatment and/or prevention of diseases and conditions associated with (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto of a subject. In particular, the present invention relates to compositions comprising at least one human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) and at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid.

Inventors:
OBERMUELLER-JEVIC UTE (DE)
RÜDENAUER STEFAN (DE)
Application Number:
PCT/EP2020/079259
Publication Date:
April 22, 2021
Filing Date:
October 16, 2020
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
BASF SE (DE)
International Classes:
A61K31/19; A23L29/00; A23L29/30; A23L33/00; A23L33/10; A23L33/125; A23L33/21; A61K31/702; A61K45/00; A61K45/06; A61P3/04
Domestic Patent References:
WO2018206434A12018-11-15
Foreign References:
US20180160714A12018-06-14
Other References:
J. BRUCE GERMAN ET AL: "Saturated Fats: A Perspective from Lactation and Milk Composition", LIPIDS, vol. 45, no. 10, 23 July 2010 (2010-07-23), DE, pages 915 - 923, XP055375490, ISSN: 0024-4201, DOI: 10.1007/s11745-010-3445-9
MALGORZATA WITKOWSKA-ZIMNY ET AL: "Milk Therapy: Unexpected Uses for Human Breast Milk", NUTRIENTS, vol. 11, no. 5, 26 April 2019 (2019-04-26), pages 944, XP055681647, DOI: 10.3390/nu11050944
HUA V. LIN ET AL: "Butyrate and Propionate Protect against Diet-Induced Obesity and Regulate Gut Hormones via Free Fatty Acid Receptor 3-Independent Mechanisms", PLOS ONE, vol. 7, no. 4, 10 April 2012 (2012-04-10), pages e35240, XP055541519, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035240
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BASF IP ASSOCIATION (DE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims:

1. A composition according to any one of claims 12 to 20 for use in the treatment and/or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, preferably of mammals, more preferably of humans.

2. The composition according to any one of claims 12 to 20 for use according to claim 1, wherein the (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto is pre-obesity or obesity.

3. The composition according to any one of claims 12 to 20 for use according to claim 1, wherein the (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto is a morbitity associated to (pre)obesity.

4. A method for treating a subject having, suspected of having or being at risk of developing (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, as described in claim 1 , comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a composition according to any one of claims 12 to 20.

5. A nutritional supplement or a functional food comprising a composition according to any one of claims 12 to 20.

6. The nutritional supplement or the functional food according to claim 5 for use in the treatment and/or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, preferably of mammals, more preferably of humans.

7. The nutritional supplement or the functional food according to claim 5 for use according to claim 6, wherein the (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto is pre-obesity or obesity.

8. The nutritional supplement or the functional food according to claim 5 for use according to claim 6, wherein the (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto is a morbitity associated to (pre)obesity.

9. A method for the dietary management of a subject having, suspected of having or being at risk of developing a disease, in particular (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a composition according to any one of claims 12 to 20 or a nutritional supplement according to any one of claims 5 or a nutritional supplement according to claim 5 for use according to any one of claims 6 to 8 or a nutritional food according to any one of claims 5 or a nutritional food according to claim 5 for use according to any one of claims 6 to 8.

10. A method to treat a subject having (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, by administering to the subject a) an effective amount of a composition according to any one of claims 12 to 20, a composition according to any one of claims 12 to 20 for use as a medicament according to claim 21 , a composition according to any one of claims 12 to 20 for use in the treatment or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto according to any one of claims 1 to 3, a nutritional supplement or a functional food according to any one of claims 5, a nutritional supplement or food according to claim 5 for use according to any one of claims 6 to 8, or of one of component A and component B as described in any one of claims 12 to 20, and b) an effective amount of at least one pharmaceutical suitable to treat said (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, wherein the application rate of the at least one pharmaceutical suitable to treat said (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto is reduced compared to a treatment with the at least one pharmaceutical alone.

11. A kit for the pharmaceutical use or dietary management use comprising a first component A being at least one HMO, preferably as described in any one of claims 12 to 20, and a second component B being at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof, preferably as described in any of claims 12 to 20.

12. A composition comprising i) at least one HMO, and ii) at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof.

13. The composition according to claim 12, wherein one of the at least one HMO is 2’- fucosyllactose (2’-FL).

14. The composition according to claim 12 or 13, wherein one of the at least one HMO is 6’- sialyllactose (6’-SL).

15. The composition according to any one of claims 12 to 14, wherein one of the at least one HMO is lacto-N-tetraose (LNT).

16. The composition according to any one of claims 12 to 15, wherein one of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is propionic acid or a derivative thereof.

17. The composition according to any one of claims 12 to 16, wherein one of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is butyric acid or a derivative thereof.

18. The composition according to any one of claims 12 to 17, wherein the at least one C3-C4- alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is propionic acid or a derivative thereof and butyric acid or a derivative thereof.

19. The composition according to any one of claims 12 to 18, wherein the weight to weight ratio of the at least one HMO (component A) : of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof (component B) is from 100:1 to 1:100, preferably from 20:1 to 1:20, more preferably 10:1 to 1:15, particularly 2:1 to 1:8.

20. The composition according to any one of claims 12 to 19, wherein the weight to weight ratio of the propionic acid or a derivative thereof : butyric acid or a derivative thereof is from 100: 1 to 1:100, preferably from 20:1 to 1:20, more preferably from 10:1 to 1:15, even more preferably 5:1 to 1:20, particularly 2:1 to 1:8.

21. A composition as described in any one of the claims 12 to 20 for use as a medicament, preferably as a medicament for mammals, more preferably for humans.

Description:
Composition for the treatment of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto Description

The present invention relates to compositions and methods of treatment and/or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto. In particular, the present invention relates to compositions comprising at least one human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) and at least one C3- C4-alkane carboxylic acid.

Background of the invention

(Pre)obesity is a medical condition of a subject which is characterized by an abnormal and/or excessive fat accumulation in the body of said subject. A commonly used method for diagnosing (pre)obesity is the body mass index (BMI) which can be determined by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by the square of his or her height (in meters). According to the WHO a person with a BMI of 25 to up to 30 is considered pre-obese and a person with a BMI of 30 or more is considered obese (in particular a BMI of 30 to up to 35 defines a class I obesity; a BMI of 35 to up to 40 defines a class II obesity and a BMI of 40 or more defines a class III obesity). Notwithstanding the foregoing some health authorities have amended the before-mentioned worldwide accepted definition slightly. E.g. Asian populations develop negative health consequences already at a lower BMI than Caucasians; so, Japan has defined obesity in case the BMI is greater than 25 while China uses a BMI of greater than 28.

A common feature in the development of pre-obesity as well as obesity is weight gain due to fat accumulation in body tissues. Inter alia a lack of appetite and/or satiety control leads to over consumption of foods and thereby over-supply with energy from carbohydrates, proteins and fats. This leads in mammals inter alia to the production of fats and their deposition in cells and tissues. It is hypothesized that the underlying mechanism for a lack of appetite and/or satiety control is due to dysregulation of leptin and ghrelin hormones, which act on the hypothalamus region of the brain that is central for the regulation of appetite, satiety and energy expenditure.

In the hypothalamus, the arcuate nucleus contains neurons that express peptides, which have stimulating or inhibitory function. Neurons expressing neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) stimulate eating and inhibit satiety. Neurons expressing pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and -amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) stimulate satiety and inhibit eating. Both types of neurons are regulated by the leptin hormone. Therefore, a deficiency in leptin signaling, either via leptin deficiency or leptin resistance, leads to over consumption of foods and weight gain. The over-supply of food may lead to storage of fat in cells and tissues such as adipocytes which are in particular present in the adipose tissue of the face, neck, breast, abdomen, arms, hips, legs and feet of mammals. The adipose tissue located in the abdomen is often classified as visceral fat or abdominal fat, and it surrounds abdominal organs like the liver, the kidneys, the stomach, the gall bladder, the intestinum and the prostate, but also the heart; the adipose tissue located underneath the skin is usually classified as subcutaneous fat; and the adipose tissue interspersed in skeletal muscles is often classified as intramuscular fat.

The adipose tissue is generally considered as an endocrine organ producing hormones including inter alia leptin, estrogen, resistine, cytokines.

Furthermore, the over-supply of food may not lead only to a storage of fat in adipocytes but also or alternatively in other cells such as hepatocytes which are present in the liver, skeletal muscle cells which are present in skeletal muscles, cardiomyocytes which are present in the heart; and the like. (Pre)obesity occurs usually not only as a result of excessive food intake, but also as a result of lack of physical activity, genetic susceptibility and/or the use of certain medications such as insulin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants, steroids, phenytoin, valproate, pizotifen, and some forms of hormonal contraception. It is also assumed that insufficient sleep, the uptake of environmental pollutants (e.g. endocrine disruptors), epigenetic risk factors passed on from parents and late pregnancy of a person’s mother contribute to weight gain and so to (pre)obesity.

(Pre)obesity is often linked with a number of conditions and/or diseases of the cardiovascular system, the metabolic system, the reproductive system, the gut, the brain and the nerves, the lungs, the skin, the urinary tract, the bones and the psyche (see Table 1).

Table 1:

The WHO stated that in 2016 more than 1.9 billion adults (18 years and older) were overweight. Of these over 650 million were obese (BMI of equal to or greater than 30). Also, the WHO reported that over 340 million children and adolescents aged 5-19 had an BMI of equal to or more than 25 in 2016.

For treatment or prevention of (pre)obesity calorie restriction, dietary changes and physical exercise are commonly recommended. In particular for obesity additional measures are available, like medications to reduce appetite or to inhibit fat digestion (lipase inhibitors), as well as bariatric surgery such as gastric banding, partial gastric resection, gastric bypass. For treatment of conditions and/or diseases linked to pre(obesity) (associated morbidities) as outlined in Table 1 further measures and medications are available depending on the specific indication.

Although these preventive measure and treatments exist, they are often not successful or they are dramatic, like bariatric surgery. So, there is still an urgent need for compositions being suitable in the treatment and/or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto.

Summary of the invention

Accordingly, the present invention provides in a first aspect a composition comprising i) at least one HMO, and ii) at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof.

Another aspect of the present invention relates to said composition for use in the treatment or prevention of(pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto. Another aspect of the present invention relates to said composition for use in the treatment or prevention of pre-obesity. Another aspect of the present invention relates to said composition for use in the treatment or prevention of obesity. Another aspect of the present invention relates to said composition for use in the treatment or prevention of morbidities associated to (pre)obesity thereto. In another aspect the present invention relates to methods for treating a subject having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto. In another aspect the present invention relates to methods for treating a subject having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing pre-obesity. In another aspect the present invention relates to methods for treating a subject having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing obesity. In another aspect the present invention relates to methods for treating a subject having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing morbidities associated to (pre)obesity. In a further aspect the present invention relates to a nutritional supplement or a functional food comprising said composition. Another aspect of the present invention is related to the use of said composition as a nutritional supplement or a functional food, in particular in the dietary management of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto. Another aspect of the present invention is related to the use of said composition as a nutritional supplement or a functional food, in particular in the dietary management of pre obesity. Another aspect of the present invention is related to the use of said composition as a nutritional supplement or a functional food, in particular in the dietary management of obesity. Another aspect of the present invention is related to the use of said composition as a nutritional supplement or a functional food, in particular in the dietary management of morbidities associated to (pre)obesity. In a further aspect the present invention relates to a kit for the pharmaceutical use or dietary management use comprising the components of said composition.

Detailed description of the invention

It has now been found that HMOs can be combined with C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acids or derivatives thereof. Such compositions provide beneficial effects as described herein.

The present invention provides a composition. The composition comprises i) at least one HMO, and ii) at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof.

For the purpose of the present invention, the term “HMO" refers to human milk oligosaccharide(s). These carbohydrates are resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis by digestive enzymes (e.g. pancreatic and/or brush border). In the human breast milk many different kinds of HMOs are found. Each individual HMO is based on a combination of glucose, galactose, sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid), fucose and/or N-acetylglucosamine with many and varied linkages between them. So far over 130 such structures have been identified in human milk. Almost all of them have a lactose moiety at their reducing end while sialic acid and/or fucose (when present) occupy terminal positions at the non-reducing ends. The HMOs can be acidic (e.g. charged sialic acid containing oligosaccharide) or neutral (e.g. fucosylated oligosaccharide). In an embodiment of the present invention the HMO is selected from the group of fucosylated oligosaccharides, N-acetylated oligosaccharides and sialylated oligosaccharides.

In an embodiment of the present invention the HMO is a "fucosylated oligosaccharide". These are HMOs having a fucose residue. It has a neutral nature. Some examples are 2'-FL (2'- fucosyllactose), 3-FL (3-fucosyllactose), difucosyllactose, lacto-N-fucopentaose (e.g. lacto-N- fucopentaose I, lacto-N-fucopentaose II, lacto-N-fucopentaose III, lacto-N-fucopentaose V), lacto-N-fucohexaose, lacto-N-difucohexaose I, fucosyllacto-N-hexaose, fucosyllacto- N- neohexaose, difucosyllacto-N-hexaose I, difucosyllacto-N-neohexaose II and any combination thereof. In a preferred embodiment the fucosylated oligosaccharide is selected from the group comprising 2’-FL, 3-FL and difucosyllactose (e.g. 2’,2”-DiFL and/or 3,2’-DiFL). In particular the fucosylated oligosaccharide is 2’-FL.

In another embodiment of the present invention the HMO is a ”N-acetylated oligosaccharide”. The term ”N-acetylated oligosaccharide(s)” encompasses both "N-acetyl-lactosamine" and "oligosaccharide(s) containing N-acetyl-lactosamine". They are neutral oligosaccharides having an N-acetyl-lactosamine residue. Suitable examples are LNT (lacto-N-tetraose), para-lacto-N- neohexaose (para-LNnH), LNnT (lacto-N-neotetraose) or any combination thereof. Other examples are lacto-N-hexaose, lacto-N-neohexaose, para-lacto-N-hexaose, para-lacto-N- neohexaose, lacto-N-octaose, lacto-N- neooctaose, iso- lacto-N-octaose, para- lacto-N-octaose and lacto-N-decaose or any combination thereof. In a preferred embodiment the N-acetylated oligosaccharide is selected from the group of LNT and LNnT.

In another embodiment of the present invention the HMO is a ’’sialylated oligosaccharide" . The term ’’sialylated oligosaccharide” encompasses an oligosaccharide having a sialic acid residue. It has an acidic nature. Some examples are 3’-SL (3'-sialyllactose) and 6’-SL (6'-sialyllactose). In a preferred embodiment the sialylated oligosaccharide is 6’-SL.

In another embodiment the HMO is selected from the group comprising 2’-FL, 3-FL, difucosyllactose (e.g. 2’,2”-DiFL and/or 3,2’-DiFL), LNT, LNnT, 3’-SL and 6’-SL and/or any combination thereof. In particular, the HMO is selected from the group comprising 2’-FL, difucosyllactose (e.g. 2’,2”-DiFL and/or 3,2’-DiFL), LNT, LNnT and 6’-SL and/or any combination thereof. Especially the HMO is selected from the group comprising 2’-FL, LNT, LNnT and 6'-SL and/or any combination thereof. For the purpose of the present invention, the term “C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative thereof” encompasses propionic acid, n-butyric acid and iso-butyric acid (2-methyl propionic acid) as well as derivatives thereof and/or any mixture thereof. Suitable derivatives are salts, esters and amides, in particular physiologically acceptable ones.

Examples for physiologically acceptable salts are alkali salts, like sodium or potassium salts, or alkaline-earth salts, like magnesium or calcium salts, or choline salts. Preferably the physiologically acceptable salts are alkali salts, in particular sodium salts or potassium salts, especially sodium salts.

Examples for physiologically acceptable esters are those derived from C1-C6 alcohols, in particular those derived from monohydric C1-C6 alcohols, e.g. those derived from methanol or ethanol, or dihydric C1-C6 alcohols, like those derived from 1,2-ethandiol, or C1-C4 alkoxy substituted monohydric alcohols, like those derived from 2-methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol or 2-butoxyethanol. Other examples for physiologically acceptable esters are glycerides, like mono-, di-, or triglycerides, in particular mono- or diglycerides. Preferably the physiologically acceptable esters are those derived from monohydric C1-C6 alcohols, e.g. those derived from methanol or ethanol, or mono- or diglycerides.

Examples for physiologically acceptable amides are those derived from mono- or di-C1-C6-alkyl amines.

In an embodiment of the present invention the C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is propionic acid (= free propionic acid) or butyric acid (= free butyric acid) or a mixture thereof.

In another embodiment the C3-C4 alkane carboxylic acid is provided as physiologically acceptable derivative thereof; in particular the derivative is a physiologically acceptable salt, e.g. a sodium salt or potassium salt, or a mixture thereof, or a physiologically acceptable ester, e.g. said ester is derived from C1-C6 alcohols, in particular a mono-or a dihydric C1-C6 alcohol, or said ester is a mono- or diglyceride, or a mixture thereof.

In a further embodiment the C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative thereof is sodium propionate or potassium propionate or sodium butyrate or potassium butyrate or a mixture thereof. Especially, it is sodium propionate or sodium butyrate or a mixture thereof. In a further embodiment the C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative thereof is propionic acid or a derivative thereof, in particular it is a physiologically acceptable salt of propionic acid, especially it is sodium propionate or potassium propionate, or a physiologically acceptable ester of propionic acid, especially methyl propionate or ethyl propionate or propionic acid monoglyceride or propionic acid diglyceride, particularly ethyl propionate or propionic acid monoglyceride. In a particular embodiment the C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative thereof is sodium propionate or potassium propionate.

In a further embodiment the C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative thereof is butyric acid or a derivative thereof, in particular it is a physiologically acceptable salt of butyric acid, especially it is sodium butyrate or potassium butyrate, or a physiologically acceptable ester of butyric acid, especially methyl butyrate or ethyl butyrate or butyric acid monoglyceride or butyric acid diglyceride, particularly ethyl butyrate or butyric acid monoglyceride. In a particular embodiment the C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative thereof is sodium butyrate or potassium butyrate.

In a further embodiment the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative thereof is a mixture of propionic acid and butyric acid or derivatives thereof, in particular it is a mixture of physiologically acceptable salts of propionic acid and butyric acid, especially it is a mixture of sodium propionate and sodium butyrate or a mixture of potassium propionate and potassium butyrate, or a mixture of physiologically acceptable esters of propionic acid and butyric acid, especially a mixture of methyl propionate and methyl butyrate, or a mixture of ethyl propionate and ethyl butyrate, or a mixture of propionic acid monoglyceride and butyric acid monoglyceride, or a mixture of propionic acid diglyceride and butyric acid diglyceride, particularly a mixture of ethyl propionate and ethyl butyrate or a mixture of propionic acid monoglyceride and butyric acid monoglyceride. In a particular embodiment the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative thereof is a mixture of sodium propionate and sodium butyrate or a mixture of potassium propionate and potassium butyrate.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition comprises i) as component A 2’-FL, and ii) as component B propionic acid and/or butyric acid or derivative(s) thereof, preferably sodium propionate and sodium butyrate.

In an embodiment of the present invention the composition comprises i) at least one HMO, and ii) at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof, wherein the ratio of the at least one HMO (component A) and the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof (component B) is from 100 :1 to 1: 100, preferably from 20:1 to 1:20, more preferably 10:1 to 1:10, even more preferably from 3: 1 to 1:3, in particular 2:1 to 1:2.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition comprises as at least one C3- C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof a mixture of propionic acid or a derivative thereof and butyric acid or a derivative thereof, in a ratio of from 100 : 1 to 1 : 100, preferably from 20:1 to 1: 20, more preferably from 10:1 to 1:15, even more preferably from 2: 1 to 1:8.

In another embodiment of the present invention the at least one HMO and the at least one C3- C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof are present in synergistic amounts.

In another embodiment of the present invention the total amount of the at least one HMO and the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof is from 1 to 100 wt% of the total composition, preferably from 10 to 100 wt%.

In another embodiment the total amount of the at least one HMO is from 10 to 90 wt% of the total composition, preferably from 20 to 80 wt%, more preferably from 30 to 70 wt%, even more preferably from 40 to 60 wt%. In yet another embodiment the total amount of the at least one HMO is from 5 to 50 wt% of the total composition, preferably from 8 to 40 wt%, more preferably from 10 to 35 wt%, even more preferably from 15 to 30 wt%. In yet another embodiment the total amount of the at least one HMO is from 50 to 95 wt% of the total composition, preferably from 55 to 80 wt%, more preferably from 60 to 75 wt%.

In another embodiment the total amount of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof is from 10 to 90 wt% of the total composition, preferably from 15 to 85 wt%, more preferably from 20 to 75 wt%, even more preferably from 25 to 60 wt%. In yet another embodiment the total amount of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof is from 10 to 50 wt% of the total composition, preferably from 15 to 45 wt%, more preferably from 20 to 35 wt%. In yet another embodiment the total amount of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof is from 50 to 90 wt% of the total composition, preferably from 55 to 80 wt%, more preferably from 60 to 75 wt%.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition can further comprise one or more vitamins or related compounds thereto. Examples of vitamins and related compounds thereto include vitamin A (e.g. retinol, retinyl acetate, retinyl palmitate, retinyl stearate, retinyl esters with other long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, retinal, retinoic acid and the like), vitamin B1 (e.g. thiamine, thiamine pyrophosphate, TPP, thiamine triphosphate, TTP, thiamine hydrochloride, thiamine mononitrate and the like), vitamin B2 (e.g. riboflavine, flavine mononucleotide (FMN), flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD), lactoflavine, ovoflavine and the like), vitamin B3 (e.g. nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NicMN), pyridine-3-carboxylic acid and the like, as well as the vitamin B3-precursor tryptophan), pantothenic acid (e.g. pantothenate, panthenol and the like), vitamin B6 (e.g. pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, pyridoxine hydrochloride and the like), biotin, folic acid (e.g. folate, folacin, pteroylglutamic acid and the like), vitamin B12 (e.g. cobalamin, methylcobalamin. deoxyadenosylcobalamin, cyanocobalamin, hydroxycobalamin, adenosylcobalamin and the like), vitamin E (e.g. alpha-, beta-, gamma- and/or delta-tocopherol, alpha-, beta-, gamma- and/or delta-tocopherol acetate, alpha-, beta-, gamma- and/or delta- tocopherol succinate, alpha-, beta-, gamma- and/or delta-tocopherol nicotinate, alpha-, beta-, gamma- and/or delta tocotrienol and the like), vitamin K (e.g. vitamin K1, phylloquinone, naphthoquinone, vitamin K2, menaquinone-7, vitamin K3, menaquinone-4, menadione, menaquinone-8, menaquinone-8H, menaquinone-9, menaquinone-9H, menaquinone-10, menaquinone-11, menaquinone-12, menaquinone-13 and the like ), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (e.g. calciferol, cholecalciferol, 1 ,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, ergocalciferol and the like), and the like and/or mixtures thereof.

The presence and amounts of specific vitamins and/or related compounds thereto will vary depending on the intended use.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition does not comprise one or more vitamins or related compounds thereto.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition can further comprise one or more carotenoids. Examples of carotenoids include astaxanthin, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, meso-zeaxanthin, zeaxanthin and the like (including cis/trans isomers) and/or mixtures thereof.

The presence and amounts of specific carotenoids will vary depending on the intended use.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition does not comprise one or more carotenoids. In another embodiment of the present invention the composition can further comprise one or more medium-chain fatty acids. These medium-chain fatty acids may be provided as free fatty acids, as glycerides (e.g. as monoglycerides, diglycerides or triglycerides and/or as mixtures thereof), as phospholipids, as alkyl esters and/or as mixtures thereof, preferably as glycerides, more preferably as triglycerides or alkyl esters. Examples of medium-chain fatty acids include caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid and the like and /or mixtures thereof.

The presence and amounts of specific medium chain fatty acids will vary depending on the intended use.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition does not comprise one or more medium-chain fatty acids.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition can further comprise one or more long-chain fatty acids. These long-chain fatty acids may be provided as free fatty acids, as glycerides (e.g. as monoglycerides, diglycerides or triglycerides and/or as mixtures thereof), as phospholipids, as alkyl esters and/or as mixtures thereof, preferably as glycerides, more preferably as triglycerides or as alkyl esters. Examples of long chain fatty acids include saturated long chain fatty acids (e.g. myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, behenic acid, lignoceric acid, cerotic acid and the like and/or mixtures thereof), mono- unsaturated long chain fatty acids (e.g. myristoleic acid, palmitoleic acid, sapienic acid, oleic acid, elaidic acid, vaccenic acid, erucic acid and the like and/or mixtures thereof), polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids (e.g. linoleic acid, linoelaidic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and the like and/or mixtures thereof) and/or mixtures thereof. These long chain fatty acids are comprised for example in vegetable oils, single cell oils and marine oils, e.g. fish oil, krill oil and the like.

The presence and amounts of specific long chain fatty acids will vary depending on the intended use.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition does not comprise one or more long-chain fatty acids.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition can further comprise one or more prebiotics. Examples of prebiotics include water-insoluble fibers (e.g. lignin, cellulose, hemi-cellulose, resistant starch, xanthum gum and the like and/or mixtures thereof), water- soluble fibers (e.g. arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, alginic acid and derivatives thereof, agar, carrageen, raffinose, xylose, polydextrose, lactulose and the like and/or mixtures thereof), other oligosaccharides like xylooligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, isomalto-oligosaccharides and the like and/or mixtures thereof ,in particular water-insoluble fibers (e.g. lignin, cellulose, hemi-cellulose, resistant starch, xanthum gum and the like and/or mixtures thereof), water-soluble fibers (e.g. arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, alginic acid and derivatives thereof, agar, carrageen, raffinose, xylose, polydextrose, lactulose and the like and/or mixtures thereof) and the like and/or mixtures thereof.

The presence and amounts of specific prebiotics will vary depending on the intended use.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition does not comprise one or more prebiotics.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition can further comprise one or more probiotics. Examples of probiotics optionally present in the composition of the present invention include microorganisms or parts thereof of the family Lactobacillaceae, e.g. of the genus Lactobacillus (e.g. the species lactobacillus acidophilus, lactobacillus alimentarius, lactobacillus casei, lactobacillus delbrueckii (like lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. bulgaricus, lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. delbrueckii, lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. lactis), lactobacillus helveticus, lactobacillus plantarum, lactobacillus reuteri, lactobacillus rhamnosus, lactobacillus salivarius and the like), of the genus Bifidobacterium (e.g. the species bifidobacterium animalis, bifidobacterium bifidum, bifidobacterium breve, bifidobacterium infantis, bifidobacterium lactis, bifidobacterium longum and the like), of the genus Pediococcus (e.g. the species pediococcus acidilactici, pediococcus pentosaceus and the like), of the genus Lactococcus (e.g. the species lactococcus lactis (like lactococcus latis spp. cremoris, lactococcus lactis spp. lactic and the like) and of the genus Streptococcus (e.g. the species streptococcus thermophilus and the like) and of the genus Faecalibacterium (e.g. the species faecalibacterium prausnitzii) and of the genus Bacillus (e.g. the species bacillus subtilis) and the like and/or mixtures thereof.

The presence and amounts of specific probiotics will vary depending on the intended use.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition does not comprise one or more probiotics.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition can further comprise one or more phenolic compounds. Examples of phenolic compounds include monophenols (e.g. apiole, carnosol, carvacrol, dillapiole, rosemarinol and the like), flavonoids (e.g. quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, fisetin, rutin, isorhamnetin, hesperidin, naringenin, silybin, eriodyctiol, acacetin, apigenin, chrysin, diosmetin, tangeritin, luteolin, catechins like epigallocatechin gallate, theaflavin, thearubigins, proanthocyanidins, pelargonidin, peonidin, cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, petunidin and the like), isoflavonoids (e.g. daidzein, genistein, glycitein and the like), aurones, chalconoids, flavonolignans, lignans, phytoestrogens, stilbenoids (e.g. resveratrol, pterostilbene, piceatannol and the like), curcuminoids (e.g. curcumin and the like), tannins, aromatic acids (e.g. salicylic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid, tannic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, coumarin and the like), phenylethanoids (e.g. tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleocanthal, oleuropein and the like ), capsaicin, gingerol, alkyl- resorcinol and the like and/or mixtures thereof.

The presence and amounts of specific phenolic compounds will vary depending on the intended use.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition does not comprise one or more phenolic compounds.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition can further comprise one or more herbals, e.g. known from Chinese diets, Indian diets, Mediterranean diets and the like. These herbals can be provided as powders obtained from the plant and/or fungus or parts thereof or as extracts thereof.

Examples for herbals known from Chinese diets include extracts or powders of hawthorn fruit, wolfberry, spatholobus stem, caterpillar fungus, cloud mushroom, crysanthemum, honeysuckle flower, mulberry leaf, glossy privet fruit, malaytea scurfpea fruit, Cherokee rose fruit, palmleaf raspberry fruit, Chinese magnoliavine fruit, reishi mushroom, ephedra, epimedium, Angelica root, Astragalus root, rhubarb, licorice, morinda root, notoginseng, white peony root, American ginseng, fleeceflower root, kudzu root, rehmannia root, salvia root, Chinese yam, wild buckwheat rhizome, tall gastrodia tuber, golden root, Cassia seed, Coix seed, Dodder seed and the like and/or mixtures thereof.

Examples for herbals known from Indian diets include extracts or powders of Amalaki (Indian gooseberry), Haritaki (chebulic myrobalan), Bibhitaki (beleric), Haldi (turmeric), Tulsi (holy basil), Shigru (moringa), Twak (cinnamon), Yashtimadhu (licorice root), Dhanyaka (coriander), Ashwagandha (winter cherry), Kumkuma (saffron), Manjistha (Indian madder), Brahmi (bacopa), Neem (margosa), Ajwain (Bishop’s weed), Elaichi (cardamom), Shikakai (Acacia concinna), Shatavari (wild asparagus), Jeera (cumin), Guduchi (tinospora) and the like and/or mixtures thereof.

Examples for herbals known from Mediterranean diets include extracts or powders of rosemary, basil, parsley, saffron, thyme, oregano, sage, cilantro, lemon, orange, grape, grapeseed, fig, blueberry, raspberry, strawberry, cherry, fennel, sesame seeds, pine seeds, garlic, onion, ginger root, pepper, chili and the like, olive oil and/or mixtures thereof.

The presence and amounts of specific herbals will vary depending on the intended use.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition does not comprise one or more herbals.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition can further comprise one or more minerals. Examples of minerals include such ones comprising calcium, phosphorous, iodine, iron, magnesium, copper, zinc, manganese, chlorine, potassium, sodium, selenium, chromium, molybdenum and the like and/or mixtures thereof. Minerals are usually added in salt form.

The presence and amounts of specific minerals will vary depending on the intended population.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition does not comprise one or more minerals. In a further embodiment of the present invention the composition does not comprise a mineral comprising iron.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition does not comprise one or more antibodies.

The compositions of the present invention can be prepared by mixing the at least one HMO, and the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof, and optionally further components e.g. vitamins and related compounds thereto, carotenoids, medium chain fatty acids, long chain fatty acids, prebiotics, probiotics, phenolic compounds, herbals, minerals and the like and/or mixtures thereof, as known in the art. In an embodiment thereof the composition does not comprise more than 80 wt% water.

Furthermore, the present invention provides a composition which comprises i) at least one HMO, and ii) at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof, for use as a medicament, preferably as a medicament for mammals, birds and/or fishes, in particular a medicament for mammals. For the purpose of the present invention, the term ’’mammals” encompasses humans and non human mammals. Examples for non-human mammals are livestock, e.g. sheep, goats, pigs, cattles, horses, camels, llamas and the like, and pets, e.g. cats, dogs and the like.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use as a medicament for humans.

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use as a medicament for livestock and/or pets.

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use as a medicament for birds, e.g. poultry (like chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys and the like) and ornamental birds (like canaries and the like).

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use as a medicament for fishes, e.g. fishes used for consumption (like salmon, tuna, sardines, cod, trout, and the like) and ornamental fishes (like kois and the like).

The compositions of the present invention for use as a medicament can be administered orally, enterally or parenterally, preferably orally.

In an embodiment of the present invention the composition for use as a medicament is an orally administrable composition.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition comprises i) as component A 2’-FL, and ii) as component B propionic acid and/or butyric acid or derivative(s) thereof, preferably sodium propionate and sodium butyrate, for use as a medicament, preferably as a medicament for humans.

It is understood that the embodiments mentioned for the composition shall be applicable for the compositions for use as a medicament and the specific embodiments thereto.

Furthermore, the present invention provides a composition which comprises i) at least one HMO, and ii) at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof, for the use in the treatment and/or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, preferably of mammals, more preferably of humans.

For the purpose of the present invention the term ’’treatment” in the context of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto means using an effective therapy or management to alleviate, reduce or cure the condition and/or disease ((pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto) and/or symptoms thereof, as the case may be, in addition it also includes the stabilization of the condition and/or disease, as the case may be, in order not to worsen in the course of the respective condition and/or disease. In an embodiment of the present invention treatment is understood as using an effective therapy or management to stabilize, alleviate or reduce the condition and/or disease and/or symptoms thereof, as the case may be.

Within the context of the present invention the term ’’prevention” in the context of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto means an effective therapy or management so that the condition and/or disease ((pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto) does not de novo develop, manifest and/or symptoms thereof do not occur.

In an embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the prevention of(pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto.

For the purpose of the present invention the term ’’(pre)obesity” refers to a condition and/or disease, as the case may be, which is characterized by an abnormal and/or excessive fat accumulation in the body of a respective subject. This fat can be accumulated in adipocytes which are in particular present in adipose tissue and which form inter alia abdominal fat, subcutaneous fat and/or intramuscular fat, in particular abdominal fat. Also, this fat can be accumulated in hepatocytes, skeletal muscles cells, cardiomyocytes and the like. In particular, a person with a BMI of 25 or more is considered as (pre)obese.

Wthin the context of the present invention the term ”pre-obesity” refers to a condition or disease wherein the respective subject shows an BMI of 25 to up to 30, and the term ’’obesity” refers to a condition or disease wherein the respective subject shows an BMI of 30 or more. In particular, the term ”class-l-obesity” is linked to a BMI of 30 to up to 35, the term ”class-ll-obesity” to a BMI of 35 to up to 40 and the term ”class-lll-obesity” to a BMI of 40 or more. In an embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of pre-obesity of a human.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of obesity of a human.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of class-l-obesity of a human, or in another embodiment of class-1 l-obesity of a human, or in another embodiment of class-ill-obesity of a human.

For the purpose of the present invention the term “associated morbidities” as well as the term ’’morbidities associated to” mean one or more conditions and/or diseases which are co occurring to the primary condition or disease ((pre)obesity), or which are occurring later in the life of the subject who had earlier in his or her life said primary condition and/or disease ((pre)obesity).

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity, e.g. an associated morbidity of the cardiovascular system, which includes hypertension, abnormal blood cholesterol levels, hypertriglyceridemia, coronary heart disease (like angina, myocardial infarction), congestive heart failure, atherosclerosis, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, etc., an associated morbidity of the metabolic system, which includes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (like simple fatty liver, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis), liver cirrhosis, liver cancer, diabetes type II, etc., an associated morbidity of the reproductive and/or genital system, which includes menstrual disorders, hypogonadism, infertility, gynecomastia, erectile dysfunction, complications during pregnancy, intrauterine fetal death, birth defects, buried penis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, endometrial cancer, etc., an associated morbidity of the gastrointestinal system, which includes gastroesophageal reflux disease, cholelithiasis, esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, gall bladder cancer, etc., an associated morbidity of the nervous system, which includes idiopathic intracranial hypertension, migraine, meralgia paraesthetica, carpal tunnel syndrome, stroke, dementia, multiple sclerosis, etc., an associated morbidity of the respiratory system, which includes obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, asthma, complications during anesthesia etc., an associated morbidity of the dermal system, which includes stretch marks, cellulitis, hirsutism, acanthosis nigricans, lymphedema, intertrigo, malignant melanoma etc., an associated morbidity of the urinary and/or renal system, which includes urinary incontinence, chronic renal failure, kidney cancer etc., an associated morbidity of the bone system, which includes low mobility, low back pain, osteoarthritis, gout, leukemia etc., an associated morbidity of the psyche, which includes low mood, anxiety, social isolation, depression etc., and the like, in particular of a human.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity of the cardiovascular system, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of hypertension, abnormal blood cholesterol levels and/or hypertriglyceridemia, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of coronary heart disease (like angina, myocardial infarction), congestive heart failure, atherosclerosis, deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity of the metabolic system, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of simple fatty liver and/or diabetes type II, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, liver cirrhosis and/or liver cancer, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity of the reproductive and/or genital system, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity. In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of menstrual disorders, hypogonadism, gynecomastia and/or erectile dysfunction, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of infertility, complications during pregnancy, intrauterine fetal death, birth defects, buried penis, polycystic ovarian syndrome and/or endometrial cancer, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity of the gastrointestinal system, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of gastroesophageal reflux disease and/or cholelithiasis, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and/or gallbladder cancer, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity of the nervous system, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of idiopathic intracranial hypertension, migraine, meralgia paraesthetica and/or carpal tunnel syndrome, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of stroke, dementia and/or multiple sclerosis, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity. In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity of the respiratory system, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of obstructive sleep apnea, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of obesity hypoventilation syndrome, asthma and/or complications during anaesthesia, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity of the dermal system, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of stretch marks, cellulitis, hirsutism, acanthosis nigricans and/or lymphedema, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of intertrigo and/or malignant melanoma, in particular of a human subject having pre obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity of the urinary and/or renal system, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of urinary incontinence, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity. In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of chronic renal failure and/or kidney cancer, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity of the bone system, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of low mobility and/or low back pain, in particular of a human subject having pre obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of osteoarthritis, gout and/or leukemia, in particular of a human subject having pre obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity of the psyche, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of low mood and/or anxiety, in particular of a human subject having pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition is for use in the treatment or prevention of social isolation and/or depression, in particular of a human subject having pre obesity, or in particular of a human subject having obesity.

The compositions of the present invention for use in the treatment or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto can be administered orally, enterally or parenterally, preferably orally.

In an embodiment of the present invention the composition for use in the treatment or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto is an orally administrable composition. In another embodiment of the present invention the composition for use in the treatment or prevention of (pre)obesity is an orally administrable composition, in particular for the use in the treatment or prevention of pre-obesity of a human subject, or in particular for the use in the treatment or prevention of obesity of a human subject.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition for use in the treatment or prevention of morbidities associated to (pre)obesity is an orally administrable composition, in particular for the use in the treatment or prevention of morbidities associated to pre-obesity of a human subject, or in particular for the use in the treatment or prevention of morbidities associated to obesity of a human subject.

In another embodiment of the present invention the composition comprises i) as component A 2’-FL, and ii) as component B propionic acid and/or butyric acid or derivative(s) thereof, preferably sodium propionate and sodium butyrate, for use in the treatment or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto of a mammal, in particular of pre-obesity of a human, or in particular of obesity of a human, or in particular of morbidities associated to (pre)obesity.

It is understood that the embodiments mentioned for the composition shall be applicable for the compositions for use in the treatment or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto and the specific embodiments thereto.

Furthermore, the present invention provides a method to treat a subject having a disease, in particular (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, or to prevent a subject being suspected of having or being at risk of developing a disease, in particular (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, by administering to the subject an effective amount of the composition which comprises i) at least one HMO, and ii) at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof.

In an embodiment of the invention said method is for treating a subject having pre-obesity, in particular a human, or preventing a subject being suspected of having or being at risk of developing pre-obesity, in particular a human. In another embodiment of the invention said method is for treating a subject having obesity, in particular a human, or preventing a subject being suspected of having or being at risk of developing obesity, in particular a human.

In another embodiment of the invention said method is for treating a subject having morbidities associated to (pre)obesity, in particular a human, or preventing a subject being suspected of having or being at risk of developing morbidities associated to (pre)obesity, in particular a human.

In another embodiment of the invention said human subject is in the age of 12 years or older, preferably 18 years or older, more preferably 35 years or older, in particular 50 years or older.

It is understood that in this method the composition can be administered, preferably orally, or that any of the “at least one HMO” and the “at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof’ and optional further components can be administered separately, preferably orally. Furthermore it is understood that in case the composition comprises as at least one HMO two or more HMOs that these can be administered separately, preferably orally, and in case the composition comprises as at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof two or more C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof that also these can be administered separately, preferably orally.

In an embodiment thereof, the daily application rate of the at least one HMO is from 0.1 to 20.0 g, preferably from 1.0 to 15.0 g, more preferably from 2.0 to 10.0 g, in particular from 2.5 to 5.0 g-

In another embodiment thereof, the daily application rate of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof is from 0.1 to 10.0 g, preferably from 1.0 to 9.0 g, more preferably from 1.2 to 9.0 g, in particular from 2.0 to 8.0 g, especially from 2.5 to 6.0 g.

In another embodiment thereof, the propionic acid and/or a derivative thereof can be administered in an application rate from 0.1 to 6.0 g/day, preferably from 0.5 to 5.0 g/day, more preferably from 1.0 to 4.0 g/day.

In a further embodiment thereof, the butyric acid and/or a derivative thereof can be administered in an application rate from 0.1 to 9.0 g/day, preferably from 0.5 to 7.0 g/day, more preferably from 1.0 to 5.0 g/day. In another embodiment the daily application rate of propionic acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 0.1 to 4.0 g, and the daily application rate of butyric acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 0.1 to 6.0 g, preferably the daily application rate of propionic acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 0.5 to 4.0 g, and the daily application rate of butyric acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 0.5 to 5.0 g, more preferably the daily application rate of propionic acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 1.0 to 3.0 g, and the daily application rate of butyric acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 1.5 to 4.0 g.

Furthermore, the present invention provides a method to treat a subject having a disease, in particular (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, or to prevent a subject being suspected of having or being at risk of developing a disease, in particular (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, by administering to the subject an effective amount of the composition which comprises i) as component A 2’-FL, and ii) as component B propionic acid and/or butyric acid or derivative(s) thereof, preferably sodium propionate and sodium butyrate.

It is understood that the embodiments mentioned for the composition shall be applicable for the use of the composition in this method accordingly and in the specific embodiments thereto.

Furthermore, the present invention provides the use of a composition comprising i) at least one HMO, and ii) at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof, for the manufacture of a medicament, preferably for the treatment or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto.

In an embodiment the present invention provides the use of a composition comprising i) as component A 2’-FL, and ii) as component B propionic acid and/or butyric acid or derivative(s) thereof, preferably sodium propionate and sodium butyrate, for the manufacture of a medicament, preferably for the treatment or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto. In an embodiment of the invention the medicament manufactured as mentioned above is for treating a subject having pre-obesity, in particular a human, or preventing a subject being suspected of having or being at risk of developing pre-obesity, in particular a human.

In another embodiment of the invention the medicament manufactured as mentioned above is for treating a subject having obesity, in particular a human, or preventing a subject being suspected of having or being at risk of developing obesity, in particular a human.

In another embodiment of the invention the medicament manufactured as mentioned above is for treating a subject having morbidities associated to (pre)obesity, in particular a human, or preventing a subject being suspected of having or being at risk of developing morbidities associated to (pre)obesity, in particular a human.

It is understood that the embodiments mentioned for the composition shall be applicable for the use of the composition in this use accordingly and in the specific embodiments thereto.

Furthermore, the present invention provides a nutritional supplement comprising a composition which comprises i) at least one HMO, and ii) at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof.

For the purpose of the present invention the term “nutritional supplement” means a manufactured product intended to supplement a diet, in particular of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto. Examples for nutritional supplements include “dietary supplements” and “medical foods”. A dietary supplement is intended to supplement a diet, in particular of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, however it needs not to be used under medical supervision. A medical food is also intended to supplement a diet, in particular of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, but it is under medical supervision. The terms “medical foods” and “food for special medical purpose” are interchangeable.

It is understood that the nutritional supplement can comprise said composition or that the nutritional supplement can comprise any of the “at least one HMO” and the “at least one C3-C4- alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof’ and optional further components in separate form.

In an embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement is a dietary supplement.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement is a medical food.

In an embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing pre-obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing morbidities associated to (pre)obesity.

In an embodiment thereof, the daily application rate of the at least one HMO is from 0.1 to 20.0 g, preferably from 1.0 to 15.0 g, more preferably from 2.0 to 10.0 g, in particular from 2.5 to 5.0 g-

In another embodiment thereof, the daily application rate of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof is 0.1 to 10.0 g, preferably from 1.0 to 9.0 g, more preferably from 1.2 to 9.0 g, in particular from 2.0 to 8.0 g, especially from 2.5 to 6.0 g. Preferably, propionic acid and/or a derivative thereof can be administered in an application rate from 0.1 to 6.0 g/day, preferably from 0.5 to 5.0 g/day, more preferably from 1.0 to 4.0 g/day. Preferably butyric acid and/or a derivative thereof can be administered in an application rate from 0.1 to 9.0 g/day, preferably from 0.5 to 7.0 g/day, more preferably from 1.0 to 5.0 g/day. In another embodiment the daily application rate of propionic acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 0.1 to 4.0 g, and the daily application rate of butyric acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 0.1 to 6 g, preferably the daily application rate of propionic acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 0.5 to 4.0 g, and the daily application rate of butyric acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 0.5 to 5.0 g, more preferably the daily application rate of propionic acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 1.0 to 3.0 g, and the daily application rate of butyric acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 1.5 to 4.0 g.

In another embodiment of the invention said subject is a human, preferably in the age of 12 years or older, more preferably 18 years or older, even more preferably 35 years or older, in particular 50 years or older.

It is understood that in this method the nutritional supplement can be administered, preferably orally, or that any of the “at least one HMO” and the “at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof’ and optional further components can be administered separately, preferably orally. Furthermore it is understood that in case the nutritional supplement comprises as at least one HMO two or more HMOs that these can be administered separately, preferably orally, and in case the nutritional supplement comprises as at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof two or more C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof that also these can be administered separately, preferably orally.

In another embodiment the present invention provides a nutritional supplement comprising a composition which comprises i) as component A 2’-FL, and ii) as component B propionic acid and/or butyric acid or derivative(s) thereof, preferably sodium propionate and sodium butyrate, in particular for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto.

In another embodiment of the present invention said nutritional supplement is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing pre-obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention said nutritional supplement is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing obesity. In another embodiment of the present invention said nutritional supplement is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing morbidities associated to (pre)obesity.

It is understood that the embodiments mentioned for the composition shall be applicable for the nutritional supplement accordingly and the specific embodiments thereto.

Furthermore, the present invention provides a method for the dietary management of a subject having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, by administering to the subject an effective amount of the nutritional supplement which comprises a composition comprising i) at least one HMO, and ii) at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof.

In an embodiment of the present invention said method is for the dietary management of a subject having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing pre-obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention said method is for the dietary management of a subject having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention said method is for the dietary management of a subject having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing morbidities associated to (pre)obesity.

It is understood that the nutritional supplement can comprise said composition or that the nutritional supplement can comprise any of the “at least one HMO” and the “at least one C3-C4- alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof” and optional further components in separate form.

In an embodiment the present invention provides a method for the dietary management of a subject having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, by administering to the subject an effective amount of the nutritional supplement which comprises a composition comprising i) as component A 2’-FL, and ii) as component B propionic acid and/or butyric acid or derivative(s) thereof, preferably sodium propionate and sodium butyrate. In another embodiment of the present invention said method is for the dietary management of a subject having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing pre-obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention said method is for the dietary management of a subject having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention said method is for the dietary management of a subject having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing morbidities associated to (pre)obesity.

It is understood that the embodiments mentioned for the composition shall be applicable for the use of the nutritional supplement in this method accordingly and in the specific embodiments thereto.

Both, the medicament (in general and for the respective specific use) and the nutritional supplement (in general and for the respective specific use) of the present invention can be delivered in any suitable format. Formulations suitable for oral administration may be in the form of capsules, tablets, pills, dragees, lozenges (using a flavored basis, usually sucrose and acacia ortragacanth), powders, granules, and the like or as a solution or a suspension in an aqueous or non-aqueous liquid, or as an oil-in-water or water-in-oil liquid emulsion, or as an elixir or syrup, or as pastilles (using an inert base, such as gelatin and glycerin, or sucrose and acacia), each comprising a predetermined amount of the at least one HMO, the at least one C3-C4- alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof and optional further components. The medicament (in general and for the respective specific use) and/or the nutritional supplement (in general and for the respective specific use) of the present invention may also be administered as a bolus, electuary or paste.

It is understood that the active ingredients of said medicament and nutritional supplement can be delivered together in a respective suitable format or that each of component A and component B can be delivered in a respective format or that each of the active ingredients can be delivered in a respective format, or any combination thereof.

In solid dosage forms for oral administration (capsules, tablets, pills, dragees, lozenges, powders, granules, and the like), the desired components of the composition may be mixed with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, such as sodium citrate or dicalcium phosphate, and/or any of the following: (1) fillers or extenders, such as starches, lactose, sucrose, glucose, mannitol, and/or silicic acid; (2) binders, such as carboxymethylcellulose, alginates, gelatin, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, sucrose and/or acacia; (3) humectants, such as glycerol; (4) disintegrating agents, such as agar-agar, calcium carbonate, potato or tapioca starch, alginic acid, certain silicates, and sodium carbonate; (5) solution retarding agents, such as paraffin; (6) absorption accelerators, such as quaternary ammonium compounds; (7) wetting agents, such as acetyl alcohol and glycerol monostearate; (8) absorbents, such as kaolin and bentonite clay; (9) lubricants, such a talc, calcium stearate, magnesium stearate, solid polyethylene glycols, sodium lauryl sulfate, and mixtures thereof; (10) coloring agents; and (11) flavors, such as lemon, orange, apricot, banana, cherry, strawberry, raspberry, blueberry, peppermint, vanilla, chocolate, coffee, cappuccino flavor and the like. In some cases, the compositions may also comprise buffering agents.

In a specific embodiment, powders and/or granules can be reconstituted with water or another aqueous liquid prior to consumption. In a particular embodiment the so obtained liquid does not comprise more than 80 wt% water.

In another embodiment such above-mentioned liquid formulations do not comprise more than 80 wt% water.

Furthermore, the present invention provides a functional food comprising a composition which comprises i) at least one HMO, and ii) at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof.

For the purpose of the present invention the term “functional food” means a food which is fortified with the composition according to the present invention and intended to be used in a diet, in particular of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto. The terms “functional food” and “fortified food” are interchangeable.

Examples for foods being suitable for the preparation of functional foods are (1) dairy products e.g. yogurt, dessert, smoothie, milk and the like or mixtures thereof; (2) bakery products e.g. bread, rolls, pasta, cookie, cake, cereal bar and the like or mixtures thereof; (3) candy products e.g. candies, gummies, chewing gum, chocolate, pudding, cookie and the like or mixtures thereof; (4) beverage products e.g. fruit juice, vegetable juice, lemonade, water and the like or mixtures thereof.

It is understood that the functional food can comprise said composition or that the functional food can comprise any of the “at least one HMO” and the “at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof’ and optional further components in separate form.

Furthermore it is understood that in case the composition comprises as the at least one HMO two or more HMOs these can be comprised separately in the functional food or together as composition, and in case the composition comprises as the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof two or more C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof these can be comprised separately in the functional food or together as composition.

In an embodiment of the present invention the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto.

In another embodiment of the present invention the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing pre obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing obesity.

In an embodiment of the present invention the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing morbidities associated to (pre)obesity.

In an embodiment thereof, the daily application rate of the at least one HMO is from 0.1 to 20.0 g, preferably from 1.0 to 15.0 g, more preferably from 2.0 to 10.0 g, in particular from 2.5 to 5.0 g-

In another embodiment thereof, the daily application rate of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof is 0.1 to 10.0 g, preferably from 1.0 to 9.0 g, more preferably from 1.2 to 9.0 g, in particular from 2.0 to 8.0 g, especially from 2.5 to 6.0 g. Preferably, propionic acid and/or a derivative thereof can be administered in an application rate from 0.1 to 6.0 g/day, preferably from 0.5 to 5.0 g/day, more preferably from 1.0 to 4.0 g/day. Preferably butyric acid and/or a derivative thereof can be administered in an application rate from 0.1 to 9.0 g/day, preferably from 0.5 to 7.0 g/day, more preferably from 1.0 to 5.0 g/day. In another embodiment the daily application rate of propionic acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 0.1 to 4.0 g, and the daily application rate of butyric acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 0.1 to 6.0 g, preferably the daily application rate of propionic acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 0.5 to 4.0 g, and the daily application rate of butyric acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 0.5 to 5.0 g, more preferably the daily application rate of propionic acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 1.0 to 3.0 g, and the daily application rate of butyric acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 1.5 to 4.0 g.

In another embodiment of the invention said subject is a human, preferably in the age of 12 years or older, more preferably 18 years or older, even more preferably 35 years or older, in particular 50 years or older.

In another embodiment the present invention provides a functional food comprising a composition which comprises i) as component A 2’-FL, and ii) as component B propionic acid and/or butyric acid or derivative(s) thereof, preferably sodium propionate and sodium butyrate, in particular for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto.

In another embodiment of the present invention said functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing pre obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention said functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention said functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing morbidities associated to (pre)obesity. It is understood that the embodiments mentioned for the composition shall be applicable for the functional food accordingly and the specific embodiments thereto.

Furthermore, the present invention provides a method for the dietary management of a subject having, being suspected to have or being at risk of developing (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, by administering to the subject an effective amount of the functional food which comprises a composition comprising i) at least one HMO, and ii) at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof.

In an embodiment of the present invention said method is for the dietary management of a subject having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing pre-obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention said method is for the dietary management of a subject having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention said method is for the dietary management of a subject having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing morbidities associated to (pre)obesity.

It is understood that the “at least one HMO” and the “at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof” and optional further components can be comprised separately in the functional food or together as composition.

Furthermore it is understood that in case the composition comprises as the at least one HMO two or more HMOs these can be comprised separately in the functional food or together as composition, and in case the composition comprises as the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof two or more C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof these can be comprised separately in the functional food or together as composition.

In an embodiment the present invention provides a method for the dietary management of a subject having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, by administering to the subject an effective amount of a functional food which comprises a composition comprising i) as component A 2’-FL, and ii) as component B propionic acid and/or butyric acid or derivative(s) thereof, preferably sodium propionate and sodium butyrate.

In another embodiment of the present invention said method is for the dietary management of a subject having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing pre-obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention said method is for the dietary management of a subject having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention said method is for the dietary management of a subject having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing morbidities associated to (pre)obesity.

It is understood that the embodiments mentioned for the composition shall be applicable for the use of the functional food in this method accordingly and in the specific embodiments thereto.

The functional food of the present invention can be prepared by known techniques and it can have any suitable type of format such as (1) a dairy product e.g. yogurt, dessert, smoothie, milk and the like or mixtures thereof; (2) a bakery product e.g. bread, rolls, pasta, cookie, cake, cereal bar and the like or mixtures thereof; (3) a candy product e.g. candies, gummies, chewing gum, chocolate, pudding, cookie and the like or mixtures thereof; (4) a beverage product e.g. fruit juice, vegetable juice, lemonade, water and the like or mixtures thereof.

Furthermore, it is contemplated herein that the composition, the composition for use as a medicament, the composition for use in the treatment or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, the nutritional supplement and the functional food, in particular for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, respectively, or in particular for use in the treatment or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, respectively, as disclosed herein, can be co-administered to subjects receiving at least one pharmaceutical against said (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto. Examples for pharmaceuticals used in the treatment of (pre)obesity are lipase inhibitors and the like which inhibit fat digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, the present invention provides a method to treat a subject having (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, by administering to the subject a) an effective amount of a composition, a composition for use as a medicament, a composition for use in the treatment or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, a nutritional supplement or a functional food, in particular for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, or in particular for use in the treatment or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, which comprises i) at least one HMO, and ii) at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof, and b) an effective amount of at least one pharmaceutical suitable to treat said (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, in particular, wherein the application rate of the at least one pharmaceutical suitable to treat said (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto is reduced compared to a treatment with the at least one pharmaceutical alone.

In an embodiment thereof the (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto is pre-obesity or obesity and the pharmaceutical is a lipase inhibitor.

Furthermore, the present invention provides a composition comprising a) i) at least one HMO, and/or ii) at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof, and b) an effective amount of at least one pharmaceutical, in particular for use as a medicament, especially for use in the treatment or prevention for (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto.

In an embodiment thereof the present invention provides a composition comprising a) i) as component A 2’-FL, and/or ii) as component B propionic acid and/or butyric acid or derivative(s) thereof, preferably sodium propionate and/or sodium butyrate, and b) a lipase inhibitor in a pharmaceutical effective amount, in particular for use as a medicament, especially for use in the treatment or prevention for (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto. In an embodiment thereof the present invention provides a composition comprising a) as component A at least one HMO, preferably 2’-FL, and b) a lipase inhibitor in a pharmaceutical effective amount, without any C3-C4 C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof, in particular for use as a medicament, especially for use in the treatment or prevention for (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto.

It is understood that the embodiments mentioned for the components and for the diseases and the symptoms mentioned above shall apply here to.

In particular, the composition, the composition for use as a medicament, the composition for use in the treatment or prevention of pre-obesity, the nutritional supplement, in particular for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre obesity, or in particular for use in the treatment or prevention of pre-obesity, or the functional food, in particular for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity, or in particular for use in the treatment or prevention of pre obesity, used in said method comprises 2’-FL and/or propionic acid and/or butyric acid or derivative(s) thereof, preferably 2’-FL, sodium propionate and sodium butyrate.

In another embodiment the composition, the composition for use as a medicament, the composition for use in the treatment or prevention of obesity, the nutritional supplement, in particular for use in the dietary management of obesity or in particular for use in the treatment or prevention of obesity, or the functional food, in particular for use in the dietary management of obesity or in particular for use in the treatment or prevention of obesity, used in said method comprises 2’-FL and/or propionic acid and/or butyric acid or derivative(s) thereof, preferably 2’- FL, sodium propionate and sodium butyrate.

In an embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of pre-obesity.

In an embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of obesity. In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of class-l-obesity, or in another embodiment of class-1 l-obesity, or in another embodiment of class-ill-obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of a morbidity associated to (pre)obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity of the cardiovascular system, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of hypertension, abnormal blood cholesterol levels and/or hypertriglyceridemia, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of coronary heart disease (like angina, myocardial infarction), congestive heart failure, atherosclerosis, deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity of the metabolic system, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of simple fatty liver and/or diabetes type II, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, liver cirrhosis and/or liver cancer, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity of the reproductive and/or genital system, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of menstrual disorders, hypogonadism, gynecomastia and/or erectile dysfunction, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of infertility, complications during pregnancy, intrauterine fetal death, birth defects, buried penis, polycystic ovarian syndrome and/or endometrial cancer, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity of the gastrointestinal system, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of gastroesophageal reflux disease and/or cholelithiasis, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and/or gallbladder cancer, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity of the nervous system, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject or being suspected of having or at risk of developing having obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of idiopathic intracranial hypertension, migraine, meralgia paraesthetica and/or carpal tunnel syndrome, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of stroke, dementia and/or multiple sclerosis, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity of the respiratory system, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of obstructive sleep apnea, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of obesity hypoventilation syndrome, asthma and/or complications during anaesthesia, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity of the dermal system, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of stretch marks, cellulitis, hirsutism, acanthosis nigricans and/or lymphedema, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of intertrigo and/or malignant melanoma, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity of the urinary and/or renal system, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of urinary incontinence, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of chronic renal failure and/or kidney cancer, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity of the bone system, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of low mobility and/or low back pain, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of osteoarthritis, gout and/or leukemia, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of an associated morbidity of the psyche, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of low mood and/or anxiety, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre- obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

In another embodiment of the present invention the nutritional supplement or the functional food is for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected or being at risk developing pre-obesity or for use in the treatment or prevention of social isolation and/or depression, in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing pre-obesity, or in particular of a human subject having or being suspected of having or at risk of developing obesity.

Furthermore, the present invention provides a kit for the pharmaceutical use or dietary management use comprising a first component comprising at least one HMO and a second component comprising at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof.

In an embodiment the present invention provides a kit for the pharmaceutical use or dietary management use comprising a first component comprising 2’-FL, and a second component comprising propionic acid and/or butyric acid or derivative(s) thereof, preferably sodium propionate and sodium butyrate.

In another embodiment the present invention provides a kit for the pharmaceutical use or dietary management use comprising a first component comprising 2’-FL, a second component comprising propionic acid or derivative(s) thereof, preferably sodium propionate, and a third component comprising butyric acid or derivative(s) thereof, preferably sodium butyrate.

In another embodiment the present invention provides said kit for the pharmaceutical use or dietary management use for the treatment or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto.

In another embodiment the present invention provides said kit for the pharmaceutical use or dietary management use for the treatment or prevention of pre-obesity.

In another embodiment the present invention provides said kit for the pharmaceutical use or dietary management use for the treatment or prevention of obesity. In another embodiment the present invention provides said kit for the pharmaceutical use or dietary management use for the treatment or prevention of morbidities associated to (pre)obesity.

It is understood that the embodiments mentioned for the components A and B shall be applicable for the kit accordingly and in the specific embodiments thereto.

Furthermore, the present invention provides a kit for the pharmaceutical use comprising a first component comprising at least one HMO, and a second component comprising a pharmaceutical, preferably a pharmaceutical for use in the treatment or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, and optionally a third component comprising at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof.

In an embodiment the present invention provides a kit for the pharmaceutical use comprising a first component comprising 2’-FL, a second component comprising a lipid inhibitor and optionally a third component comprising propionic acid and/or butyric acid or derivative(s) thereof, preferably sodium propionate and sodium butyrate.

Furthermore, the present invention provides a kit for the pharmaceutical use comprising a first component comprising C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof, and a second component comprising a pharmaceutical, preferably a pharmaceutical for use in the treatment or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, and optionally a third component comprising at least one HMO.

In an embodiment the present invention provides a kit for the pharmaceutical use comprising a first component comprising propionic acid and/or butyric acid or derivative(s) thereof, a second component comprising a lipid inhibitor and optionally a third component 2’-FL.

It is understood that the embodiments mentioned for the components A and B and the diseases shall be applicable for the kit accordingly and in the specific embodiments thereto.

Within the context of the present invention, the term "butyric acid" denotes n-butyric acid and the term “butyrate” denotes n-butyrate. Also within the content of the present invention, the term ”at least one HMO” is interchangeable with the term ’’component A”, and the term ”at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof’ is interchangeable with the term “component B”. Within the context of the present application, it is noted that in case the composition comprises several components that these can also be administered separately. However, this means that such components can be administered together or separately, as the case may be

Also, within the context of the present invention, ratios given are weight to weight ratios unless stated otherwise. In addition, in the context of the invention, the terms "comprising" or "comprises" do not exclude other possible elements. The composition of the present invention, including the embodiments described herein, can comprise, consist of, or consist essentially of the essential elements and limitations of the invention described herein, as well as any additional or optional ingredients, components, or limitations described herein or otherwise depending on the needs. The terminology as set forth herein is for description of the embodiments only and should not be construed as limiting the disclosure as a whole. Furthermore, as used in the description and the appended claims, the singular forms "a", "an", and "the" are inclusive of their plural forms, and the other way around, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. It is to be understood that the embodiments of the subject matter of the invention can be applied in the specific context but also in other combinations, without leaving the scope of the invention. E.g. it is understood that the embodiments mentioned for the composition of the present invention also apply for composition for use as a medicament, etc. The same applies for the respective conditions and/or diseases.

In the following specific embodiments of the present invention are described.

1. A composition comprising i) at least one HMO, and ii) at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof.

2. The composition according to embodiment 1 , wherein one of the at least one HMO’s is a fucosylated oligosaccharide.

3. The composition according to embodiment 1 or 2, wherein one of the at least one HMO is 2’-fucosyllactose (2’-FL).

4. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 3, wherein one of the at least one HMO’s is a sialylated oligosaccharide. 5. The composition according to any one of embodiments embodiment 1 to 4, wherein one of the at least one HMO is 6’-sialyllactose (6’-SL).

6. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 5, wherein one of the at least one HMO’s is a N-acetylated oligosaccharide.

7. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 6, wherein one of the at least one HMO is lacto-N-tetraose (LNT).

8. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the at least one HMO is one or more HMOs selected from the group consisting of 2’-FL, 3-FL, difucosyl- lactose (in particular 2’,2”-DiFL and/or 3,2’-DiFL), LNT, LNnT, 3’-SL and 6’-SL.

9. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 8, wherein the at least one HMO is one, two or three HMOs selected from the group consisting of 2’-FL, 3-FL, difucosyllactose (in particular 2’,2”-DiFL and/or 3,2’-DiFL), LNT, LNnT, 3’-SL and 6’-SL.

10. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 9, wherein the at least one HMO is one, two or three HMOs selected from the group consisting of 2’-FL, LNT, LNnT, 3’-SL and 6’-SL.

11. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 9, wherein the at least one HMO is one, two or three HMOs selected from the group consisting of 2’-FL, 2’,2”-DiFL and 3,2’-DiFL.

12. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 11 wherein the at least one HMO is 2’-FL.

13. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 12, wherein one of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is propionic acid or a derivative thereof.

14. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 13, wherein one of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is a physiologically acceptable salt or ester of propionic acid. 15. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 14, wherein one of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is an alkali salt or an alkaline earth salt of propionic acid.

16. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 15, wherein one of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is a sodium or potassium salt of propionic acid.

17. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 16 wherein the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is sodium or potassium propionate.

18. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 14, wherein one of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is a C1-C6 alkyl ester or a mono- or diglyceride of propionic acid.

19. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 18, wherein one of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is butyric acid or a derivative thereof.

20. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 19, wherein one of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is a physiologically acceptable salt or ester of butyric acid.

21. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 20, wherein one of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is an alkali salt or an alkaline earth salt of butyric acid.

22. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 21 , wherein one of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is sodium or potassium salt of butyric acid.

23. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 22 wherein the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is a sodium or potassium butyrate. 24. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 20, wherein one of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is a C1-C6 alkyl ester or a mono- or diglyceride of butyric acid.

25. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 24, wherein the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is propionic acid or a derivative thereof and butyric acid or a derivative thereof.

26. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 25, wherein the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is a physiologically acceptable salt of propionic acid and physiologically acceptable salt of butyric acid.

27. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is an alkali salt or an alkaline earth salt of propionic acid and an alkali salt or an alkaline earth salt of butyric acid.

28. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 27, wherein the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is a sodium or potassium salt of propionic acid and a sodium or potassium salt of butyric acid.

29. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 28 wherein the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is sodium or potassium propionate and sodium or potassium butyrate.

30. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 25, wherein the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is a physiologically acceptable ester of propionic acid and a physiologically acceptable ester of butyric acid.

31. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 30, wherein the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is a C1-C6 alkyl ester or a mono- or diglyceride of propionic acid and a C1-C6 alkyl ester or a mono- or diglyceride of butyric acid.

32. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 31 , wherein the weight to weight ratio of the at least one HMO (component A) : the at least one C3-C4 alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof (component B) is from 100:1 to 1:100. 33. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 32, wherein the weight to weight ratio of (component A) : (component B) is from 20:1 to 1:20, preferably from 10:1 to 1:10, more preferably from 3:1 to 1:3, in particular from 2:1 to 1:2.

34. The composition according to any one of embodiments 25 to 33, wherein the weight to weight ratio of the propionic acid or a derivative thereof : butyric acid or a derivative thereof is from 100:1 to 1:100.

35. The composition according to any one of embodiments 25 to 34, wherein the weight to weight ratio of the propionic acid or a derivative thereof : butyric acid or a derivative thereof is from 20:1 to 1:20, preferably from 10:1 to 1:15, more preferably from 2:1 to 1:8.

36. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 35, wherein the at least one HMO and the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof are present in synergistic amounts.

37. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 36, wherein the total amount of the at least one HMO and the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof is from 1 to 100 wt% of the total composition, preferably from 10 to 100 wt%.

38. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 37, wherein the total amount of the at least one HMO is from 10 to 90 wt% of the total composition, preferably from 20 to 80 wt%, more preferably from 30 to 70 wt%, even more preferably from 40 to 60 wt%.

39. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 37, wherein the total amount of the at least one HMO is from 5 to 50 wt% of the total composition, preferably from 8 to 40 wt%, more preferably from 10 to 35 wt%, even more preferably from 15 to 30 wt%.

40. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 37, wherein the total amount of the at least one HMO is from 50 to 95 wt% of the total composition, preferably from 55 to 80 wt%, more preferably from 60 to 75 wt%.

41. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 40, wherein the total amount of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof is from 10 to 90 wt% of the total composition, preferably from 15 to 85 wt%, more preferably from 20 to 75 wt%, even more preferably from 25 to 60 wt%.

42. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 40, wherein the total amount of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof is from 10 to 50 wt% of the total composition, preferably from 15 to 45 wt%, more preferably from 20 to 35 wt%.

43. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 40, wherein the total amount of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof is from 50 to 90 wt% of the total composition, preferably from 55 to 80 wt%, more preferably from 60 to 75 wt%.

44. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 43, wherein the composition further comprises one or more vitamins or related compounds thereto.

45. A composition according to embodiment 44, wherein the one or more vitamins or related compounds thereto are selected from the group of vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, biotin, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin E, vitamin K, vitamin C and vitamin D, or related compounds thereto and/or mixtures thereof.

46. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 45, wherein the composition further comprises one or more carotenoids.

47. The composition according to embodiment 46, wherein the one or more carotenoids are selected from the group of astaxanthin, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-crypto- xanthin, lutein, lycopene, meso-zeaxanthin, zeaxanthin (including cis/trans isomers) and/or mixtures thereof.

48. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 47, wherein the composition further comprises one or more medium-chain fatty acids, in free form, as glyceride, phospholipid, alkyl ester and/or mixtures thereof.

49. The composition according to embodiment 48, wherein the one or more medium chain fatty acids are selected from the group of caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid and/or mixtures. 50. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 49, wherein the composition further comprises one or more long-chain fatty acids, in free form, as glyceride, phospholipid, alkyl ester and/or mixtures thereof.

51. The composition according to embodiment 50, wherein the one or more long chain fatty acids are selected from the group of saturated long chain fatty acids, mono-unsaturated long chain fatty acids, polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids and/or mixtures thereof.

52. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 51, wherein the composition further comprises one or more prebiotics.

53. The composition according to embodiment 52, wherein the one or more prebiotics are selected from the group of water-insoluble fibers, water-soluble fibers and/or mixtures thereof.

54. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 53, wherein the composition further comprises one or more probiotics.

55. The composition according to embodiment 54, wherein the one or more probiotics are selected from the group of the family Lactobacilaceae, preferably of the genus Lacto bacillus, in particular of the species lactobacillus acidophilus, lactobacillus alimentarius, lactobacillus casei, lactobacillus delbrueckii, lactobacillus helveticus, lactobacillus plantarum, lactobacillus reuteri, lactobacillus rhamnosus, lactobacillus salivarius, of the genus Bifidobacterium, in particular of the species bifidobacterium animalis, bifido bacterium bifidum, bifidobacterium breve, bifidobacterium infantis, bifidobacterium lactis, bifidobacterium longum, of the genus Pediococcus, in particualar of the species pedio- coccus acidilactici, pediococcus pentosaceus, of the genus Lactococcus, in particular of the species lactococcus lactis, of the genus Streptococcus, in particular of the species streptococcus thermophilus, of the genus Faecalibacterium, in particular of the species faecalibacterium prausnitzii, of the genus Bacillus, in particular of the species bacillus subtilis, and/or mixtures thereof.

56. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 55, wherein the composition further comprises one or more phenolic compounds. 57. The composition according to embodiment 56, wherein the one or more phenolic compounds are selected from the group of monophenols, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, aurones, chalconoids, flavonolignans, lignans, phytoestrogens, stilbenoids, piceatannol, curcuminoids, tannins, aromatic acids, phenylethanoids, capsaicin, gingerol, alkylresorcinol and/or mixtures thereof.

58. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 57, wherein the composition further comprises one or more herbals.

59. The composition according to embodiment 58, wherein the one or more herbals are selected from herbals known from Chinese diets, Indian diets, Mediterranean diets and/or mixtures thereof.

60. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 59, wherein the composition further comprises one or more minerals.

61. The composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 60, wherein the composition does not comprise an antibody.

62. A composition as described in any one of the embodiments 1 to 61 for use as a medicament, preferably as a medicament for mammals, birds and/or fishes, more preferably for mammals, even more preferably for humans.

63. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 61 for use in the treatment and/or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, preferably of mammals, birds and/or fishes, more preferably of mammals, even more preferably of humans.

64. The composition according to embodiment 63, wherein the (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto is pre-obesity, in particular of a human.

65. The composition according to embodiment 63, wherein the (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto is obesity, in particular of a human.

66. The composition according to embodiment 65, wherein the obesity is class-l-obesity or class-ll-obesity or class-ill-obesity, in particular of a human. 67. The composition according to embodiment 63, wherein the (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto is an associated morbidity, in particular of a human.

68. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 67, wherein the associated morbidity is an associated morbidity of the cardiovascular system, an associated morbidity of the metabolic system, an associated morbidity of the reproductive and/or genital system, an associated morbidity of the gastrointestinal system, an associated morbidity of the nervous system, an associated morbidity of the respiratory system, an associated morbidity of the dermal system, an associated morbidity of the urinary and/or renal system, an associated morbidity of the bone system, an associated morbidity of the psyche, of a subject, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre obesity or a human having obesity.

69. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 67, wherein the associated morbidity is hypertension, abnormal blood cholesterol levels and/or hypertriglyceridemia of a subject, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre-obesity or a human having obesity.

70. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 67, wherein the associated morbidity is coronary heart disease (in particular angina, myocardial infarction), congestive heart failure, atherosclerosis, deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism of a subject, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre obesity or a human having obesity.

71. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 67, wherein the associated morbidity is simple fatty liver and/or diabetes type II, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre-obesity or a human having obesity.

72. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 67, wherein the associated morbidity is non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, liver cirrhosis and/or liver cancer, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre-obesity or a human having obesity.

73. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 67, wherein the associated morbidity is menstrual disorders, hypogonadism, gynecomastia and/or erectile dysfunction, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre-obesity or a human having obesity.

74. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 67, wherein the associated morbidity is infertility, complications during pregnancy, intrauterine fetal death, birth defects, buried penis, polycystic ovarian syndrome and/or endometrial cancer, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre-obesity or a human having obesity.

75. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 67, wherein the associated morbidity is gastroesophageal reflux disease and/or cholelithiasis, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre-obesity or a human having obesity.

76. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 67, wherein the associated morbidity is esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and/or gallbladder cancer, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre-obesity or a human having obesity.

77. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 67, wherein the associated morbidity is idiopathic intracranial hypertension, migraine, meralgia paraesthetica and/or carpal tunnel syndrome, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre obesity or a human having obesity.

78. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 67, wherein the associated morbidity is stroke, dementia and/or multiple sclerosis, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre-obesity or a human having obesity.

79. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 67, wherein the associated morbidity is obstructive sleep apnea, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre-obesity or a human having obesity.

80. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 67, wherein the associated morbidity is obesity hypoventilation syndrome, asthma and/or complications during anaesthesia, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre-obesity or a human having obesity. 81. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 67, wherein the associated morbidity is stretch marks, cellulitis, hirsutism, acanthosis nigricans and/or lymphedema, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre-obesity or a human having obesity.

82. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 67, wherein the associated morbidity is intertrigo and/or malignant melanoma, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre-obesity or a human having obesity.

83. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 67, wherein the associated morbidity is urinary incontinence, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre-obesity or a human having obesity.

84. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 67, wherein the associated morbidity is chronic renal failure and/or kidney cancer, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre-obesity or a human having obesity.

85. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 66, wherein the associated morbidity is low mobility and/or low back pain, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre-obesity or a human having obesity.

86. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 67, wherein the associated morbidity is osteoarthritis, gout and/or leukemia, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre-obesity or a human having obesity.

87. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 67, wherein the associated morbidity is low mood and/or anxiety, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre-obesity or a human having obesity.

88. A composition as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 67, wherein the associated morbidity is social isolation and/or depression, in particular a human, even more particular a human having pre-obesity or a human having obesity.

89. The composition according to any one of embodiments 62 to 88, wherein the composition is an orally administrable composition. 90. A method for treating a subject having, suspected of having or being at risk of developing a disease, in particular (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 61.

91. The method according to claim 90, wherein the subject, in particular a human, has, is suspected of having or being at risk of developing pre-obesity.

92. The method according to claim 90, wherein the subject, in particular a human, has, is suspected of having or being at risk of developing obesity.

93. The method according to claim 90, wherein the subject, in particular a human, has, is suspected of having or being at risk of developing morbidities associated to (pre)obesity.

94. The method according to any one of embodiments 90 to 93, wherein the application rate of the at least one HMO is from 0.1 to 20.0 g/day, preferably from 1.0 to 15.0 g/day, more preferably from 2.0 to 10.0 g/day, in particular from 2.5 to 5.0 g/day.

95. The method according to any one of embodiments 90 to 94, wherein the application rate of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof is from 0.1 to 10.0 g/day, preferably from 1.0 to 9.0 g/day, more preferably from 1.2 to 9.0 g/day, in particular from 2.0 to 8.0 g/day, especially from 2.5 to 6.0 g/day.

96. The method according to any one of embodiments 90 to 95, wherein one of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof is propionic acid or a derivative thereof and is applied at a rate from 0.1 to 6.0 g/day, preferably from 0.5 to 5.0 g/day, more preferably from 1.0 to 4.0 g/day.

97. The method according to any one of embodiments 90 to 96, wherein one of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof is butyric acid and/or a derivative thereof and is applied at a rate from 0.1 to 9.0 g/day, preferably from 0.5 to 7.0 g/day, more preferably from 1.0 to 5.0 g/day.

98. The method according to any one of embodiments 90 to 97, wherein the at least one C3- C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof is a mixture of propionic acid or a derivative thereof and butyric acid or a derivative thereof and the application rate of propionic acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 0.1 to 4.0 g/day and the application rate of butyric acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 0.1 to 6.0 g/day, preferably the application rate of propionic acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 0.5 to 4.0 g/day, and the application rate of butyric acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 0.5 to 5.0 g/day, more preferably the application rate of propionic acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 1.0 to 3.0 g/day, and the application rate of butyric acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 1.5 to 4.0 g/day.

99. The method according to any one of embodiments 90 to 98, wherein the composition is administered orally.

100. A nutritional supplement or a functional food comprising a composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 61.

101. The nutritional supplement or the functional food according to embodiment 100 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, preferably of mammals, birds and/or fishes, more preferably of mammals, even more preferably of humans.

102. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 101 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing pre-obesity, preferably of mammals, birds and/or fishes, more preferably of mammals, even more preferably of humans.

103. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 101 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing obesity, preferably of mammals, birds and/or fishes, more preferably of mammals, even more preferably of humans.

104. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 101 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing morbidities associated to (pre)obesity, preferably of mammals, birds and/or fishes, more preferably of mammals, even more preferably of humans.

105. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing an associated morbidity of the cardiovascular system, an associated morbidity of the metabolic system, an associated morbidity of the reproductive and/or genital system, an associated morbidity of the gastrointestinal system, an associated morbidity of the nervous system, an associated morbidity of the respiratory system, an associated morbidity of the dermal system, an associated morbidity of the urinary and/or renal system, an associated morbidity of the bone system or an associated morbidity of the psyche, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity.

106. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing hypertension, abnormal blood cholesterol levels and/or hypertriglyceridemia, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity.

107. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing coronary heart disease (in particular angina, myocardial infarction), congestive heart failure, atherosclerosis, deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity.

108. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing simple fatty liver and/or diabetes type II, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity.

109. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, liver cirrhosis and/or liver cancer, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity.

110. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing menstrual disorders, hypogonadism, gynecomastia and/or erectile dysfunction, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing infertility, complications during pregnancy, intrauterine fetal death, birth defects, buried penis, polycystic ovarian syndrome and/or endometrial cancer, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing gastroesophageal reflux disease and/or cholelithiasis, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and/or gallbladder cancer, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing idiopathic intracranial hypertension, migraine, meralgia paraesthetica and/or carpal tunnel syndrome, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing stroke, dementia and/or multiple sclerosis, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing obstructive sleep apnea, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing obesity hypoventilation syndrome, asthma and/or complications during anaesthesia, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing stretch marks, cellulitis, hirsutism, acanthosis nigricans and/or lymphedema, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing intertrigo and/or malignant melanoma, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing urinary incontinence, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing chronic renal failure and/or kidney cancer, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing low mobility and/or low back pain, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing osteoarthritis, gout and/or leukemia, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity.

124. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing low mood and/or anxiety, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity.

125. The nutritional supplement or functional food according to embodiment 104 for use in the dietary management of subjects having, being suspected of having or being at risk of developing social isolation and/or depression, in particular of a human, even more particular of a human having pre-obesity or of a human having obesity.

126. A method for the dietary management of a subject having, suspected of having or being at risk of developing (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, particularly overweight or obesity, comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 61 or a nutritional supplement according to any one of embodiments 100 to 125 or a nutritional food according to any one of embodiments 100 to 125.

127. The method according to claim 126, wherein the subject, in particular a human, has, is suspected of having or being at risk of developing pre-obesity.

128. The method according to claim 126, wherein the subject, in particular a human, has, is suspected of having or being at risk of developing obesity.

129. The method according to claim 126, wherein the subject, in particular a human, has, is suspected of having or being at risk of developing morbidities associated to (pre)obesity.

130. The method according to any one of embodiments 126 to 129, wherein the application rate of the at least one HMO is from 0.1 to 20.0 g/day, preferably from 1.0 to 15.0 g/day, more preferably from 2.0 to 10.0 g/day, in particular from 2.5 to 5.0 g/day.

131. The method according to any one of embodiments 126 to 130, wherein the application rate of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof is from 0.1 to 10.0 g/day, preferably from 1.0 to 9.0 g/day, more preferably from 1.2 to 9.0 g/day, in particular from 2.0 to 8.0 g/day, especially from 2.5 to 6.0 g/day.

132. The method according to any one of embodiments 126 to 131, wherein one of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof is propionic acid or a derivative thereof and is applied at a rate from 0.1 to 6.0 g/day, preferably from 0.5 to 5.0 g/day, more preferably from 1.0 to 4.0 g/day.

133. The method according to any one of embodiments 126 to 132, wherein one of the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof is butyric acid and/or a derivative thereof and is applied at a rate from 0.1 to 9.0 g/day, preferably from 0.5 to 7.0 g/day, more preferably from 1.0 to 5.0 g/day.

134. The method according to any one of embodiments 126 to 133, wherein the at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof is a mixture of propionic acid or a derivative thereof and butyric acid or a derivative thereof and the application rate of propionic acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 0.1 to 4.0 g/day and the application rate of butyric acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 0.1 to 6.0 g/day, preferably the application rate of propionic acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 0.5 to 4.0 g/day, and the application rate of butyric acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 0.5 to 5.0 g/day, more preferably the application rate of propionic acid and/or a derivative thereof is from

1.0 to 3.0 g/day, and the application rate of butyric acid and/or a derivative thereof is from 1.5 to 4.0 g/day.

135. The method according to any one of embodiments 126 to 134, wherein the nutritional supplement or the nutritional food is administered orally.

136. A composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 61, a composition for use as a medicament according to embodiment 62, a composition for use in the treatment or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto according to any one of embodiments 63 to 89, a nutritional supplement or a functional food according to any one of embodiments 100 to 125, which is administered to a subject having or being suspected of having or being at risk of developing (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto , wherein the composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 61 , the composition for use as a medicament according to embodiment 62, the composition for use in the treatment or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto according to any one of embodiments 63 to 89, the nutritional supplement or a functional food according to any one of embodiments 100 to 125 is administered to the subject in addition to at least one pharmaceutical suitable to treat said (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, in particular wherein the application rate of the pharmaceutical suitable to treat said (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, is reduced compared to a treatment with said pharmaceutical alone.

137. A composition for use in the treatment or prevention of pre-obesity according to any one of embodiments 63 to 89, a nutritional supplement or a functional food according to any one of embodiments 100 to 125, which is administered to a subject having or being suspected of having or being at risk of developing pre-obesity, wherein the composition for use in the treatment or prevention of pre-obesity according to any one of embodiments 63 to 89, the nutritional supplement or a functional food according to any one of embodiments 100 to 125 is administered to the subject in addition to at least one pharmaceutical suitable to treat said pre-obesity, in particular wherein the application rate of the pharmaceutical suitable to treat said pre-obesity, is reduced compared to a treatment with said pharmaceutical alone.

138. A composition for use in the treatment or prevention of obesity according to any one of embodiments 63 to 89, a nutritional supplement or a functional food according to any one of embodiments 100 to 125, which is administered to a subject having or being suspected of having or being at risk of developing obesity, wherein the composition for use in the treatment or prevention of obesity according to any one of embodiments 63 to 89, the nutritional supplement or a functional food according to any one of embodiments 100 to 125 is administered to the subject in addition to at least one pharmaceutical suitable to treat said obesity, in particular wherein the application rate of the pharmaceutical suitable to treat said obesity, is reduced compared to a treatment with said pharmaceutical alone.

139. A composition for use in the treatment or prevention of morbidities associated to (pre)obesity according to any one of embodiments 63 to 89, a nutritional supplement or a functional food according to any one of embodiments 100 to 125, which is administered to a subject having or being suspected of having or being at risk of developing morbidities associated to (pre)obesity, wherein the composition for use in the treatment or prevention of morbidities associated to (pre)obesity according to any one of embodiments 63 to 89, the nutritional supplement or a functional food according to any one of embodiments 100 to 125 is administered to the subject in addition to at least one pharmaceutical suitable to treat said morbidities associated to (pre)obesity, in particular wherein the application rate of the pharmaceutical suitable to treat said morbidities associated to (pre)obesity, is reduced compared to a treatment with said pharmaceutical alone. A method to treat a subject having (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, by administering to the subject a) an effective amount of a composition according to any one of embodiments 1 to 61 , a composition for use as a medicament according to embodiment 61, a composition for use in the treatment or prevention of prejobesity and/or associated morbidities thereto according to any one of embodiments 63 to 89, a nutritional supplement or a functional food according to any one of embodiments 100 to 125, or with only one of component A and component B as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 61 , and b) an effective amount of at least one pharmaceutical suitable to treat said (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto, wherein the application rate of the at least one pharmaceutical suitable to treat said (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto is reduced compared to a treatment with the at least one pharmaceutical alone. A method according to embodiment 140, wherein the (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto is pre-obesity or obesity and wherein the at least one pharmaceutical suitable to treat said pre-obesity or obesity, is selected from the group of pharmaceuticals of the lipase inhibitor group being suitable to inhibit fat digestion. Use of the composition as defined in any one of embodiments 1 to 61 as a nutritional supplement for the dietary management of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto. A composition for use as a medicament according to embodiment 62, a composition for use in the treatment or prevention of morbidities associated to (pre)obesity according to any one of embodiments 63 to 89, a nutritional supplement or a functional food according to any one of embodiments 100 to 125; wherein the subject is a human, preferably in the age of 12 years or older, more preferably 18 years or older, even more preferably 35 years or older, in particular 50 years or older. 144. A method according to any one of embodiments 90 to 99 or 126 to 135 or 140 to 141, wherein the subject is a human, preferably in the age of 12 years or older, more preferably 18 years or older, even more preferably 35 years or older, in particular 50 years or older.

145. A kit for the pharmaceutical use or dietary management use comprising a first component A being at least one HMO, preferably as described in any one of embodiments 1 to 61, and a second component B being at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative(s) thereof, preferably as described in any of embodiments 1 to 61 for the treatment or prevention of (pre)obesity and/or associated morbidities thereto.

146. The kit according to embodiment 145, wherein the kit is for the pharmaceutical use or dietary management use for the treatment or prevention of pre-obesity.

147. The kit according to embodiment 145, wherein the kit is for the pharmaceutical use or dietary management use for the treatment or prevention of obesity.

148. The kit according to embodiment 145, wherein the kit is for the pharmaceutical use or dietary management use for the treatment or prevention of morbidities associated to (pre)obesity.

Examples

The following examples illustrate certain exemplary embodiments of the subject matter of the present invention as detailed above. The Examples are given solely for the purpose of illustration and are not to be construed as limitation.

Example 1 - In vivo study on the lipid accumulation in C. elegans:

The Caenorhabditis elegans wild type strain N2 is a model organism for humans to study obesity. This nematode stores lipids in its hypodermic and intestinal cells, easy to detect by staining.

In the present experiment, the wild type C. elegans strain N2 is used and Nile red to monitor lipid storage in C. elegans. These are cultured in plates with nematode growth medium (NGM) (control) and Escherichia coli OP50 strain is used as nematode diet. Four groups of samples are build, one serves as an untreated control and receives PO50 only, another one is treated with at least one HMO, a further one with at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof, and another one with the combination of at least one HMO and at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof. In addition, in each sample on top of the NGM the staining agent Nile Red will be added. The samples will be incubated at 20°C until young adult stage. After this incubation period each sample is placed in M9 buffer and fluorescence is measured.

The combination of at least one HMO and at least one C3-C4-alkane carboxylic acid or derivative thereof shows that this combination decreases the intake of fat in the hypodermic/intestinal cells of the C. elegans wild type N2 compared to the control.