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Title:
COMPOSITION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/064222
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Use of a compound of Formula (1) in a nonaqueous battery electrolyte formulation (1) wherein R is a fluorinated alkyl group and X is selected from the group consisting of F, Cl, H, CF3, and C1 to C6 alkyl which may be at least partially fluorinated and -OR group can be cis- or trans- to any other group X.

Inventors:
SHARRATT, Andrew (The Heath Business & Technical Park, Runcorn Cheshire WA7 4QX, GB)
SAXENA, Ira (The Heath Business & Technical Park, Runcorn Cheshire WA7 4QX, GB)
OLJACA, Miodrag (Concord, Massachusetts, US)
Application Number:
EP2020/077746
Publication Date:
April 08, 2021
Filing Date:
October 02, 2020
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
MEXICHEM FLUOR S.A. DE C.V. (San Luis Potosi S.L.P, C.P., MX)
MEXICHEM UK LIMITED (Cheshire WA7 4QX, GB)
International Classes:
H01M10/0525; H01M10/0567; H01M10/0568; H01M10/0569; H01M10/42
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BOWERS, Craig (The Belgrave Centre Talbot Street, Nottingham Nottinghamshire NG1 5GG, GB)
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Claims:
CLAIMS

1. Use of a compound of Formula 1 in a nonaqueous battery electrolyte formulation wherein

R is a fluorinated alkyl group and X is selected from the group consisting of F, Cl, H, CF3, and Ci to C6 alkyl which may be at least partially fluorinated and the group OR can be cis- or trans- to any other group.

2. Use of a nonaqueous battery electrolyte formulation comprising a compound of Formula 1 in a battery wherein

R is a fluorinated alkyl group and X is selected from the group consisting of F, Cl, H, CF3, and Ci to Ob alkyl which may be at least partially fluorinated and the group OR can be cis- or trans- to any other group.

3. Use according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the formulation comprises a metal electrolyte salt, present in an amount of 0.1 to 20 wt% relative to the total mass of the nonaqueous electrolyte formulation.

4. Use according to claim 3, wherein the metal salt is a salt of lithium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, lead, zinc or nickel.

5. Use according to claim 4, wherein the metal salt is a salt of lithium selected from the group comprising lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPFe), lithium hexafluoroarsenate monohydrate (LiAsFe), lithium perchlorate (LiCICU), lithium tetrafluoroborate (L1BF4), lithium triflate (USO3CF3), lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (Li(FS02)2N) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Li(CF3S02)2N).

6. Use according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the formulation comprises an additional solvent in an amount of from 0.1wt% to 99.9wt% of the liquid component of the formulation

7. Use according to claim 6, wherein the additional solvent is selected from the group comprising dimethyl carbonate (DMC), ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), propylene carbonate (PC) or ethylene carbonate (EC).

8. A battery electrolyte formulation comprising a compound of Formula 1.

9. A formulation comprising a metal ion and a compound of Formula 1, optionally in combination with a solvent wherein

R is a fluorinated alkyl group and X is selected from the group consisting of F, Cl, H, CF3, and Ci to C6 alkyl which may be at least partially fluorinated and the -OR4 group can be cis- or trans to any of the groups R1, R2 or R3

10. A battery comprising a battery electrolyte formulation comprising a compound of Formula 1 wherein

R is a fluorinated alkyl group and X is selected from the group consisting of F, Cl, H, CF3, and Ci to Ob alkyl which may be at least partially fluorinated and -OR group can be cis- or trans- to any other group X.

11. A formulation according to any one of claims 8 to 10, wherein the formulation comprises a metal electrolyte salt, present in an amount of 0.1 to 20wt% relative to the total mass of the nonaqueous electrolyte formulation.

12. A formulation according to claim 11, wherein the metal salt is a salt of lithium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, lead, zinc or nickel.

13. A formulation according to claim 12, wherein the metal salt is a salt of salt of lithium selected from the group comprising lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPFe), lithium hexafluoroarsenate monohydrate (LiAsFe), lithium perchlorate (UCIO4), lithium tetrafluoroborate (L1BF4), lithium triflate (USO3CF3), lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (Li(FSC>2)2N) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Li(CF3SC>2)2N).

14. A formulation according to any one of claims 8 to 13, wherein the formulation comprises an additional solvent in an amount of from 0.1 wt% to 99.9wt% of the liquid component of the formulation

15. A formulation according to claim 14, wherein the additional solvent is selected from the group comprising dimethyl carbonate (DMC), ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), propylene carbonate (PC) and ethylene carbonate (EC).

16. A method of reducing the flammability of a battery and / or a battery electrolyte comprising the addition of a formulation comprising a compound of Formula 1 wherein

R is a fluorinated alkyl group and X is selected from the group consisting of F, Cl, H, CF3, and Ci to Ob alkyl which may be at least partially fluorinated and -OR group can be cis- or trans- to any other group X.

17. A method of powering an article comprising the use of a battery comprising a battery electrolyte formulation comprising a compound of Formula 1 wherein

R is a fluorinated alkyl group and X is selected from the group consisting of F, Cl, H, CF3, and Ci to C6 alkyl which may be at least partially fluorinated and -OR group can be cis- or trans- to any other group X.

18. A method of retrofitting a battery electrolyte formulation comprising either (a) at least partial replacement of the battery electrolyte with a battery electrolyte formulation comprising a compound of Formula 1 and / or (b) supplementation of the battery electrolyte with a battery electrolyte formulation comprising a compound of Formula 1 wherein

R is a fluorinated alkyl group and X is selected from the group consisting of F, Cl, H, CF3, and Ci to Ob alkyl which may be at least partially fluorinated and -OR group can be cis- or trans- to any other group X.

19. A method of preparing a formulation containing a compound of Formula 1 wherein

R is a fluorinated alkyl group and X is selected from the group consisting of F, Cl, H, CF3, and Ci to C6 alkyl which may be at least partially fluorinated and -OR group can be cis- or trans- to any other group X; by reacting a compound of Formula 2a and / or Formula 2b

G 3C X (2b) with an alcohol ROH; under basic reaction conditions at elevated temperature and pressure.

20. A method of preparing a battery electrolyte formulation comprising mixing a compound of formula 1 with ethylene, propylene or fluoroethylene carbonate and lithium hexafluorophosphate.

21. A method of improving battery capacity/charge transfer within a battery/battery life/ etc by the use of a compound of Formula 1.

22. A method according to any one of claims 16 to 21, wherein the formulation comprises a metal electrolyte salt, present in an amount of 0.1 to 20wt% relative to the total mass of the nonaqueous electrolyte formulation.

23. A method according to claim 22, wherein the metal salt is a salt of lithium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, lead, zinc or nickel.

24. A method according to claim 23, wherein the metal salt is a salt of salt of lithium selected from the group comprising lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), lithium hexafluoroarsenate monohydrate (LiAsFe), lithium perchlorate (LiCICU), lithium tetrafluoroborate (L1BF4), lithium triflate (USO3CF3), lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (Li(FSC>2)2N) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Li(CF3SC>2)2N).

25. A method according to any one of claims 16 to 24, wherein the formulation comprises an additional solvent in an amount of from 0.1 wt% to 99.9wt% of the liquid component of the formulation

26. A method according to claim 25, wherein the additional solvent is selected from the group comprising dimethyl carbonate (DMC), ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), propylene carbonate (PC) and ethylene carbonate (EC).

Description:
Composition

The present disclosure relates to nonaqueous electrolytic solutions for energy storage devices including batteries and capacitors, especially for secondary batteries and devices known as supercapacitiors.

There are two main types of batteries; primary and secondary. Primary batteries are also known as non-rechargeable batteries. Secondary batteries are also known as rechargeable batteries. A well-known type of rechargeable battery is the lithium-ion battery. Lithium-ion batteries have a high energy density, no memory effect and low self-discharge.

Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used for portable electronics and electric vehicles. In the batteries lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.

Typically, the electrolytic solutions include a nonaqueous solvent and an electrolyte salt plus additives. The electrolyte is typically a mixture of organic carbonates such as ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, fluoroethylene carbonate and dialkyl carbonates containing a lithium ion electrolyte salt. Many lithium salts can be used as the electrolyte salt and common examples include lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPFe), lithium bis (fluorosulfonyl) imide "LiFSI" and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI).

The electrolytic solution has to perform a number of separate roles within the battery.

The principal role of the electrolyte is to facilitate the flow of electrical charge between the cathode and anode. This occurs by transportation of metal ions within the battery from and or to one or both of the anode and cathode, where by chemical reduction or oxidation, electrical charge is liberated /adopted.

Thus the electrolyte needs to provide a medium which is capable of solvating and / or supporting the metal ions.

Due to the use of lithium electrolyte salts and the interchange of lithium ions with lithium metal; which is very reactive with water, as well as the sensitivity of other battery components to water; the electrolyte is usually non-aqueous. Additionally the electrolyte has to have suitable rheological properties to permit / enhance the flow of ions therein; at the typical operating temperature to which a battery is exposed and expected to perform.

Moreover the electrolyte has to be as chemically inert as possible. This is particularly relevant, in the context of the expected lifetime of the battery, in regard to internal corrosion within the battery (e.g. of the electrodes and casing) and the issue of battery leakage. Also of importance within the consideration of chemical stability is flammability. Unfortunately typical electrolyte solvents can be a safety hazard since they often comprise a flammable material.

This can be problematic as in operation when discharging or being discharged, batteries may accumulate heat. This is especially true for high density batteries such as lithium ion batteries. It is therefore desirable that the electrolyte displays a low flammability, with other related properties such as a high flash point.

It is also desirable that the electrolyte does not present an environmental issue with regard to disposability after use or other environmental issue such as global warming potential.

It is an object of the present invention to provide a nonaqueous electrolytic solution, which provides improved properties over the nonaqueous electrolytic solution of the prior art.

Use Aspects

According to a first aspect of the invention there is provided the use of a compound of Formula 1 in a nonaqueous battery electrolyte formulation. Preferably the composition comprising a compound of formula 1 is used in a lithium ion battery.

According to a second aspect of the invention there is provided the use of a nonaqueous battery electrolyte formulation comprising a compound of Formula 1 in a battery.

Composition /Device Aspects

According to a third aspect of the invention there is provided a battery electrolyte formulation comprising a compound of Formula 1.

According to a fourth aspect of the invention there is provided a formulation comprising a metal ion and a compound of Formula 1 , optionally in combination with a solvent. According to a fifth aspect of the invention there is provided a battery comprising a battery electrolyte formulation comprising a compound of Formula 1.

Method Aspects

According to a sixth aspect of the invention there is provided a method of reducing the flash point of a battery and / or a battery electrolyte formulation, comprising the addition of a formulation comprising a compound of Formula 1.

According to a seventh aspect of the invention there is provided a method of powering an article comprising the use of a battery comprising a battery electrolyte formulation comprising a compound of Formula 1.

According to an eighth aspect of the invention there is provided a method of retrofitting a battery electrolyte formulation comprising either (a) at least partial replacement of the battery electrolyte with a battery electrolyte formulation comprising a compound of Formula 1 and / or (b) supplementation of the battery electrolyte with a battery electrolyte formulation comprising a compound of Formula 1.

According to a ninth aspect of the invention there is provided a method of preparing a compound of method of preparing a compound of a compound of Formula 1 by reacting a compound of Formula 2a and / or Formula 2b

P 3 C - - - X (2b) with an alcohol ROH; under basic reaction conditions at elevated temperature and pressure. In formula 2a X is halogen or -CF 3 with the proviso that at least one X is H. Most preferably at least one X is halogen and at least one X is H and wherein these where at least one X is halogen and one X is hydrogen these groups are trans to each other.

In formula 2b X is hydrogen or -CF 3 .

According to a tenth aspect of the invention there is provided a method of preparing a battery electrolyte formulation comprising mixing comprising a compound of Formula 1 with a lithium containing compound.

According to an eleventh aspect of the invention there is provided a method of improving battery capacity/charge transfer within a battery/battery life/ etc by the use of a compound of Formula 1.

Compound of Formula 1

In reference to all aspects of the invention the preferred embodiment of Formula (1) is below wherein

R is a fluorinated alkyl group and the stereochemistry of the -OR group can be either cis- or trans- to any other function and X is selected from the group consisting of F, Cl, H, CF 3 , and Ci to Ob alkyl which may be at least partially fluorinated.

Alternatively, and also in reference to all aspects of the invention an alternate embodiment of Formula (1) is below wherein

R 1 is selected from the group consisting of F, Cl, H, CF 3 , and Ci to Ob alkyl which may be at least partially fluorinated;

R 2 is selected from the group consisting of F, Cl, H, CF 3 , and Ci to C 6 alkyl which may be at least partially fluorinated;

R 3 is selected from the group consisting of F, Cl, H, CF 3 , and Ci to C 6 alkyl which may be at least partially fluorinated;

R 4 is selected from the group consisting of and Ci to C12 alkyl which may be at least partially fluorinated; wherein at least one of R 1 to R 4 is or comprises F and the stereochemistry of the -OR 4 group can be cis- or trans- to any other function.

It is to be noted that the ninth aspect of the invention shall be taken to apply to both embodiments of the Formula (1).

Advantages

In the aspects of the invention the electrolyte formulation has been found to be surprisingly advantageous.

The advantages of using compounds of Formula 1 in electrolyte solvent compositions manifest themselves in a number of ways. Their presence can reduce the flammability of the electrolyte composition (such as when for example measured by flashpoint). Their oxidative stability makes them useful for batteries required to work in harsh conditions and they are compatible with common electrode chemistries and can even enhance the performance of these electrodes through their interactions with them.

Additionally, electrolyte compositions comprising compounds of formula 1 have been found to have superior physical properties including low viscosity and a low melting point, yet a high boiling point with the associated advantage of little or no gas generation in use. The electrolyte formulation has been found to wet and spread extremely well over surfaces particularly fluorine containing surfaces; this is postulated to result from a beneficial a relationship between its adhesive and cohesive forces, to yield a low contact angle.

Furthermore, electrolyte compositions that comprise compounds of Formula 1 have been found to have superior electro-chemical properties including improved capacity retention, improved cyclability and capacity, improved compatibility with other battery components e.g. separators and current collectors and with all types of cathode and anode chemistries including systems that operate across a range of voltages and especially high voltages and which include additives such as silicon. In addition, the electrolyte formulations display good solvation of metal (e.g. lithium) salts and interaction with any electrolyte solvents present.

Preferred features relating to the aspects of the invention follows below.

Preferred Compounds

Preferred examples of compounds of the first embodiment of Formula 1 are where:-

R is CH2CF3, CH2CF2CF2CHF2 or CH(CF 3 ) 2 ; and X is H.

Preferred features of the alternate embodiment of the compound of Formula 1 are as in the following numbered paragraphs. Paragraph 1 - the compound of Formula 1 , wherein preferably at least two or three of R 1 to R 4 is or comprises F; for example one or two of R 1 to R 3 is or comprises F while R 4 comprises F.

Paragraph 2 - the compound of paragraph 1, wherein preferably only one of R 1 to R 4 comprises Ci to Ob alkyl, whether unfluorinated or at least partially fluorinated.

Paragraph 3 - the compound of paragraph 1 or 2, wherein preferably R 2 is selected from the group consisting of H, CF 3 , and Ci to Ob alkyl which may be at least partially fluorinated.

Paragraph 4 - the compound of paragraphs 1 to 3, wherein preferably R 2 is selected from the group consisting of H and CF 3 .

Paragraph 5 - the compound of paragraphs 1 to 4, wherein preferably R 2 is CF 3 .

Paragraph 6 - the compound of paragraphs 1 to 5, wherein preferably R 4 is Ci to Ob alkyl which may be at least partially fluorinated;

Paragraph 7 - the compound of paragraphs 1 to 6, wherein preferably R 4 is Ci to C4 alkyl which may be at least partially fluorinated;

Paragraph 8 - the compound of paragraphs 1 to 7, wherein preferably R 4 is selected from the group consisting of ethyl, n-propyl, iso-propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl and at least partially fluorinated derivatives thereof.

Paragraph 9 - the compound of paragraphs 1 to 8, wherein preferably R 4 is selected from the group consisting of CH 2 CF 3 , CH 2 CH 2 CF 3 , CH 2 CHFCF 3 , CH 2 CF 2 CF 2 CHF 2 and CH(CF 3 ) 2 .

Paragraph 10 - the compound of paragraphs 1 to 9, wherein preferably R 1 and R 3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, CF 3 , and Ci to Ob alkyl which may be at least partially fluorinated.

Paragraph 11 - the compound of paragraphs 1 to 10, wherein preferably R 1 and R 3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, CF 3 , CH 2 CF 3 , CH 2 CH 2 CF 3 , CH 2 CHFCF 3 , CH 2 CF 2 CF 2 CHF 2 and CH(CF 3 ) 2 .

Paragraph 12 - the compound of paragraphs 1 to 11, wherein preferably R 1 and R 3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H and CF 3 . Paragraph 13 - the compound of paragraphs 1 to 12, wherein preferably R 1 and R 3 is H.

Preferred examples of compounds of the alternate embodiment of the compound of Formula 1 are where:-

R 1 is H,

R 2 is CFs,

R 3 is H, and

R 4 is CH2CF3, CH2CF2CF2CHF2 or CH(CF 3 ) 2 .

Electrolyte Formulation

Preferably the electrolyte formulation comprises 0.1wt% to 99.9wt% of a compound of Formula 1. Optionally the compound of Formula 1 is present (in the electrolyte formulation) in an amount of more than 1wt%, optionally more than 5wt%, optionally more than 10wt%, optionally more than 15wt%, optionally more than 20wt% and optionally more than 25wt%. Optionally the compound of Formula 1 is present (in the electrolyte formulation) in an amount of less than 1wt%, optionally less than 5wt%, optionally less than 10wt%, optionally less than 15wt%, optionally less than 20wt% and optionally less than 25wt%.

Metal Salts

The nonaqueous electrolytic solution further comprises a metal electrolyte salt, typically present in an amount of 0.1 to 20wt% relative to the total mass of the nonaqueous electrolyte formulation.

The metal salt generally comprises a salt of lithium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, lead, zinc or nickel. .

Preferably the metal salt comprises a salt of lithium, such as those selected from the group comprising lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPFe), lithium hexafluoroarsenate monohydrate (LiAsFe), lithium perchlorate (UCIO 4 ), lithium tetrafluoroborate (L1BF 4 ), lithium triflate (USO 3 CF 3 ), lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (Li(FSC>2)2N) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Li(CF3SC>2)2N). Most preferably the metal salt comprises LiPF 6 . Thus in a most preferred variant of the fourth aspect of the invention there is provided a formulation comprising LiPFe and a compound of Formula 1 , optionally in combination with a solvent

Solvents

The nonaqueous electrolytic solution may comprise a solvent. Preferred examples of solvents include fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and / or propylene carbonate (PC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC) or ethylene carbonate (EC).

Where present the solvent makes up from 0.1 wt% to 99.9wt% of the liquid component of the electrolyte.

Additives

The nonaqueous electrolytic solution may include an additive.

Suitable additives may serve as surface film-forming agents, which form an ion permeable film on the surface of the positive electrode or the negative electrode. This can pre-empt a decomposition reaction of the nonaqueous electrolytic solution and the electrolyte salt occuring on the surface of the electrodes, thereby preventing the decomposition reaction of the nonaqueous electrolytic solution on the surface of the electrodes.

Examples of film-forming agent additives include vinylene carbonate (VC), ethylene sulfite (ES), lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB), cyclohexylbenzene (CHB) and ortho-terphenyl (OTP). The additives may be used singly, or two or more may be used in combination.

When present the additive is present in an amount of 0.1 to 3wt% relative to the total mass of the nonaqueous electrolyte formulation.

Battery

Primary / Secondary Battery

The battery may comprise a primary (non-rechargeable) or a secondary battery (rechargeable). Most preferably the battery comprises a secondary battery. A battery comprising the nonaqueous electrolytic solutions will generally comprise several elements. Elements making up the preferred nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery cell are described below. It is appreciated that other battery elements may be present (such as a temperature sensor); the list of battery components below is not intended to be exhaustive.

Electrodes

The battery generally comprises a positive and negative electrode. Usually the electrodes are porous and permit metal ion (lithium ions) to move in and out of their structures with a process called insertion (intercalation) or extraction (deintercalation).

For rechargeable batteries (secondary batteries), the term cathode designates the electrode where reduction is taking place during the discharge cycle. For lithium-ion cells the positive electrode ("cathode") is the lithium-based one.

Positive Electrode ( Cathode )

The positive electrode is generally composed of a positive electrode current collector such as a metal foil, optionally with a positive electrode active material layer disposed on the positive electrode current collector.

The positive electrode current collector may be a foil of a metal that is stable at a range of potentials applied to the positive electrode, or a film having a skin layer of a metal that is stable at a range of potentials applied to the positive electrode. Aluminium (Al) is desirable as the metal that is stable at a range of potentials applied to the positive electrode.

The positive electrode active material layer generally includes a positive electrode active material and other components such as a conductive agent and a binder. This is generally obtained by mixing the components in a solvent, applying the mixture onto the positive electrode current collector, followed by drying and rolling.

The positive electrode active material may be a lithium (Li) containing transition metal oxide. The transition metal element may be at least one selected from the group consisting of scandium (Sc), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and yttrium (Y). Of these transition metal elements, manganese, cobalt and nickel are the most preferred. Some of the transition metal atoms in the transition metal oxide may be replaced by atoms of a non-transition metal element. The non-transition element may be selected from the group consisting of magnesium (Mg), aluminium (Al), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and boron (B). Of these non-transition metal elements, magnesium and aluminium are the most preferred.

Preferred examples of positive electrode active materials include lithium-containing transition metal oxides such as UC0O 2 , LiNi0 2 , LiMn 2 0 4 , LiMn0 2 , LiNii.yCo y 0 2 (0<y<1), Li N i 1 - y. z Co y Mn z 0 2 (0<y+z<1) and LiNii. y.z Co y Al z 0 2 (0<y+z<1). LiNi1-y-zCo y Mn z 0 2 (0<y+z<0.5) and LiNii- y-z Co y Al z 0 2 (0<y+z<0.5) containing nickel in a proportion of not less than 50 mol % relative to all the transition metals are desirable from the perspective of cost and specific capacity. These positive electrode active materials contain a large amount of alkali components and thus accelerate the decomposition of nonaqueous electrolytic solutions to cause a decrease in durability. However, the nonaqueous electrolytic solution of the present disclosure is resistant to decomposition even when used in combination with these positive electrode active materials.

The positive electrode active material may be a lithium (Li) containing transition metal fluoride. The transition metal element may be at least one selected from the group consisting of scandium (Sc), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and yttrium (Y). Of these transition metal elements, manganese, cobalt and nickel are the most preferred.

Some of the transition metal atoms in the transition metal fluoride may be replaced by atoms of a non-transition metal element. The non-transition element may be selected from the group consisting of magnesium (Mg), aluminium (Al), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and boron (B). Of these non-transition metal elements, magnesium and aluminium are the most preferred.

A conductive agent may be used to increase the electron conductivity of the positive electrode active material layer. Preferred examples of the conductive agents include conductive carbon materials, metal powders and organic materials. Specific examples include carbon materials as acetylene black, ketjen black and graphite, metal powders as aluminium powder, and organic materials as phenylene derivatives.

A binder may be used to ensure good contact between the positive electrode active material and the conductive agent, to increase the adhesion of the components such as the positive electrode active material with respect to the surface of the positive electrode current collector. Preferred examples of the binders include fluoropolymers and rubber polymers, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) ethylene-propylene-isoprene copolymer and ethylene-propylene-butadiene copolymer. The binder may be used in combination with a thickener such as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or polyethylene oxide (PEO).

Negative Electrode (Anode)

The negative electrode is generally composed of a negative electrode current collector such as a metal foil, optionally with a negative electrode active material layer disposed on the negative electrode current collector.

The negative electrode current collector may be a foil of a metal. Copper (lithium free) is suitable as the metal. Copper is easily processed at low cost and has good electron conductivity.

Generally, the negative electrode comprises carbon, such as graphite or graphene.

Silicon based materials can also be used for the negative electrode. A preferred form of silicon is in the form of nano-wires, which are preferably present on a support material. The support material may comprise a metal (such as steel) or a non-metal such as carbon.

The negative electrode may include an active material layer. Where present the active material layer includes a negative electrode active material and other components such as a binder. This is generally obtained by mixing the components in a solvent, applying the mixture onto the positive electrode current collector, followed by drying and rolling.

Negative electrode active materials are not particularly limited, provided the materials can store and release lithium ions. Examples of suitable negative electrode active materials include carbon materials, metals, alloys, metal oxides, metal nitrides, and lithium-intercalated carbon and silicon. Examples of carbon materials include natural / artificial graphite, and pitch-based carbon fibres. Preferred examples of metals include lithium (Li), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), germanium (Ge), indium (In), gallium (Ga), titanium, lithium alloys, silicon alloys and tin alloys. Examples of lithium based materials include lithium titanate (LhTiOs)

As with the positive electrode, the binder may be a fluoropolymer or a rubber polymer and is desirably a rubbery polymer, such as styrene-butadiene copolymer (SBR). The binder may be used in combination with a thickener. Separator

A separator is preferably present between the positive electrode and the negative electrode. The separator has insulating properties. The separator may comprise a porous film having ion permeability. Examples of porous films include microporous thin films, woven fabrics and nonwoven fabrics. Suitable materials for the separators are polyolefins, such as polyethylene and polypropylene.

Case

The battery components are preferably disposed within a protective case.

The case may comprise any suitable material which is resilient to provide support to the battery and an electrical contact to the device being powered.

In one embodiment the case comprises a metal material, preferably in sheet form, moulded into a battery shape. The metal material preferably comprises a number of portions adaptable be fitted together (e.g. by push-fitting) in the assembly of the battery. Preferably the case comprises an iron / steel-based material.

In another embodiment the case comprises a plastics material, moulded into a battery shape. The plastics material preferably comprises a number of portions adaptable be joined together (e.g. by push-fitting / adhesion) in the assembly of the battery. Preferably the case comprises a polymer such as polystyrene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinylidene chloride, or polymonochlorofluoroethylene. The case may also comprise other additives for the plastics material, such as fillers or plasticisers. In this embodiment wherein the case for the battery predominantly comprises a plastics material a portion of the casing may additionally comprise a conductive / metallic material to establish electrical contact with the device being powered by the battery.

Arrangement

The positive electrode and negative electrode may be wound or stacked together through a separator. Together with the nonaqueous electrolytic solution they are accommodated in the exterior case. The positive and negative electrodes are electrically connected to the exterior case in separate portions thereof Module / Pack

A number / plurality of battery cells may be made up into a battery module. In a battery module the battery cells may be organised in series and / or parallel. Typically these are encased in a mechanical structure.

A battery pack may be assembled by connecting multiple modules together in series or parallel. Typically battery packs include further features such as sensors and controllers including battery management systems and thermal management systems. The battery pack generally includes an encasing housing structure to make up the final battery pack product.

End Uses

The battery of the invention, in the form an individual battery/cell, module and / or pack (and the electrolyte formulations therefor) are intended to be used in one or more of a variety of end products.

Preferred examples of end products include portable electronic devices, such as GPS navigation devices, cameras, laptops, tablets and mobile phones. Other preferred examples of end products include vehicular devices (as provision of power for the propulsion system and / or for any electrical system or devices present therein) such as electrical bicycles and motorbikes as well as automotive applications (including hybrid and purely electric vehicles).

The invention will now be illustrated with reference to the following non-limiting examples.

Examples

Example 1 - Ether Preparation The following steps were followed.

• Potassium hydroxide (17.0 g, 250 mmol) was added slowly and with stirring to a solution of water (4.0 g) and alcohol (40 g) in a 100 ml Hastelloy C pressure vessel which was equipped with an inlet port for gases or liquids, pressure and temperature indicators and a cruciform gas entraining stirrer assembly.

• The vessel was sealed, purged with nitrogen and pressure tested. The contents were then heated to 20-60°C (depending on the reaction) with stirring at 1000 rpm

• Once equilibrated, the unsaturated organofluorine feed component was added and the reaction conditions maintained until no further change was indicated by the pressure or temperature indicators.

• The contents were recovered, washed with water and the organic fraction recovered.

• The organic fraction was dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and subjected to a simple “top and tail” distillation to remove lights and heavies.

• The reaction products were then analysed by GC-MS.

TFMA is trifluoromethyl acetylene

Example 2 - Lame Scale Ether Preparation

The basic procedure outlined in Example 1 was followed with larger batches (300-500g) of the organofluorine feed component and the crude products were analysed by NMR spectroscopy.

Example 3 Electrochemical compatibility testing

Electrochemical compatibility was assessed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) using a Gamry Instruments Potentiometer and a standard three electrode test cell. The working and counter electrodes were made of glassy carbon (area 0.071 cm 2 ) with a platinum wire reference electrode. The basic electrolyte solution was 0.25 M tetrabutyl ammonium fluoroborate (TBAF) in acetonitrile (ACN) and the cell was referenced to ferrocene/ferrocenium (Fc/Fc + ) couple at 0 V.

Figure 1 shows three CV traces which serve to demonstrate the electrochemical compatibility of trifluoropropenyl ethers such as Product E6:

• CV 1 0.25 M TBAF in ACN

• CV 2 0.25 M TBAF in ACN + Product E6 CV 30.25 M TBAF in ACN + Propylene carbonate

Example 4 - Preparation of electrolyte compositions

1 M solutions of lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6 ) / lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl) () in solvents comprising the products of E6 or E7 and various common electrolyte solvents were prepared and analysed by 19 F NMR spectroscopy.

The compositions are shown in Tables 1 to 4 below. Tables 1 to 4 also contain a reference to the 19 F NMR spectrum (see also page 21).

In Tables 1 to 4 the following abbreviations are used. PC = propylene carbonate FEC = fluoroethylene carbonate EC = ethylene carbonate EMC = ethyl methyl carbonate

All percentages are by weight.

Table 1 Table 2

Table 3

Table 4

Flammability and safety testing Flash point

Flashpoints were determined using a Miniflash FLP/H device from Grabner Instruments following the ASTM D6450 standard method:

These measurements demonstrate that the addition of the additives designated MEXI-1 and MEXI-2 significantly raised the flashpoint of the standard electrolyte solution.

Self-extinguishing time

Self-extinguishing time was measured with a custom-built device that contained an automatically controlled stopwatch connected to an ultraviolet light detector:

• The electrolyte to be examined (500 pl_) was applied to a Whatman GF/D (0 = 24 mm) glass microfiber filter • The ignition source was transferred under the sample and held in this its position for a preset time (1, 5 or 10 seconds) to ignite the sample. Ignition and burning of the sample were detected using a UV light detector.

• Evaluation is carried out by plotting the burning time / weight of electrolyte [s g _1 ] over ignition time [s] and extrapolation by linear regression line to ignition time = 0 s

• Self-extinguishing time (s.g- 1 ) is the time that is needed until the sample stops burning once inflamed.

These measurements demonstrate that the compounds MEXI-1 and MEXI-2 have flame retarding properties.

Electrochemical testing Drying

Before testing MEXI-1 and MEXI-2 were dried by treatment with a pre-activated type 4A molecular sieve. Water levels in the pre- and post-treated samples were determined by the Karl Fischer method:

Electrolyte formulation

Electrolyte preparation and storage was carried out in an argon filled glove box (H2O and C>2< 0.1 ppm). The base electrolyte was 1M LiPF 6 in ethylene carbonate:ethyl methyl carbonate (3 : 7 wt.%) with MEXI-1 or MEXI-2 additive at concentrations of 2, 5, 10 and 30 wt.%.

Cell chemistry and construction

The performance of each electrolyte formulation was tested in multi-layer pouch cells over 50 cycles (2 cells per electrolyte): Chemistry 1: Lithium-Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese-Oxide (NCM622) positive electrode and artificial graphite (specific capacity: 350 mAh g _1 ) negative electrode. The area capacity of NMC622 and graphite amounted to 3.5 mAh cnr 2 and 4.0 mAh cnr 2 , respectively. The N/P ratio amounted to 115%.

Chemistry 2: Lithium-Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese-Oxide (NCM622) positive electrode and SiO x /graphite (specific capacity: 550 mAh g _1 ) negative electrode. The area capacity of NMC622 and SiO x /graphite amount to 3.5 mAh/cnr 2 and 4.0 mAh cnr 2 , respectively. The N/P ratio amounted to 115%.

The test pouch cells had the following characteristics:

• Nominal capacity 240 mAh +/- 2%

• Standard deviations:

Capacity: ± 0.6 mAh

Coulombic Efficiency (CE) 1 st cycle: ± 0.13%

Coulombic Efficiency (CE) subsequent cycles: ± 0.1%

Positive electrode: NMC-622

• Active material content: 96.4%

• Mass loading: 16.7 mg cnr 2 Negative electrode: Artificial Graphite

• Active material content: 94.8%

• Mass loading: 10 mg cnr 2

• Separator: PE(16 pm) + 4 pm AI 2 O 3

• Balanced at cut-off voltage of 4.2 V Negative electrode: Artificial graphite + SiO

• Active material content:94.6%

• Mass loading: 6.28 mg cnr 2

• Separator: PE(16 pm) + 4 pm AI 2 O 3

• Balanced at cut-off voltage of 4.2 V After assembly the following formation protocol was used:

1. Step charge to 1.5 V followed by 5 h rest step (wetting step @ 40°C)

2. CCCV (C/10, 3.7 V (li mit : 1 h)) (preformation step)

3. Rest step (6 h)

4. CCCV (C/10, 4.2 V (I M : 0.05C)) rest step (20 min) 5. CC discharge (C/10, 3.8 V), (degassing of the cell)

6. CC discharge (C/10, 2.8 V)

Following this formation step, the cells were tested as follows:

• Rest step (1.5 V, 5 h), CCCV (C/10, 3.7 V (1 h))

• Rest step (6 h), CCCV (C/10, 4.2 V (I M : 0.05C))

• Rest step (20 min), CC discharge (C/10, 3.8 V)

• Degassing step

• Discharge (C/10, 2.8 V), rest step (5 h)

• CCCV (C/3, 4.2 V (lii mit : 0.05C)), rest step (20 min)

• CC discharge (C/3, 2.8 V)

• 50 cycles or until 50% SOH is reached at 40 °C:

CCCV (C/3, 4.2 V (lii mit : 0.02C)), rest step (20 min)

CC discharge (C/3, 3.0 V), rest step (20 min)

Test results

The test results for both additives in each cell chemistry are summarised in Tables 5-8 and Figures 24-27. From this data it can be seen that both additives in both cell chemistries had a positive influence on cell performance improving both Coulombic efficiency and cycling stability. These results combined with the safety related studies demonstrate that the compounds of this invention simultaneously improved both the safety and performance of energy storage devices containing them.

Table 5: Electrochemical performance of MEXI-1 - Cell Chemistry 1

Table 6: Electrochemical performance of MEXI-1 - Cell Chemistry 2

Table 7: Electrochemical performance of MEXI-2 - Cell Chemistry 1

Table 8: Electrochemical performance of MEXI-2 - Cell Chemistry 2

Fiaures

Figure 1 shows three CV traces which serve to demonstrate the electrochemical compatibility of trifluoropropenyl ethers such as product E6.

Figures 2 - 11 illustrate the results of various spectroscopic analytical techniques carried out on compositions comprising some of the reaction products from the Examples and some reference products.

Figure 2 shows a 19 F NMR spectrum of LiPF 6 in ethylene carbonate.

Figure 3 shows a 19 F NMR spectrum of LiPF 6 in propylene carbonate.

Figure 4 shows a 19 F NMR spectrum of LiPF 6 in ethylene carbonate / propylene carbonate / dimethyl carbonate.

Figure 5 shows a 19 F NMR spectrum of LiPF 6 in 30 % E6 / 70% ethylene carbonate.

Figure 6 shows a 19 F NMR spectrum of LiPF 6 in 30 % E6 / 70% propylene carbonate.

Figure 7 shows a 19 F NMR spectrum of LiPF 6 in 80 % E6 / 20% ethylene carbonate.

Figure 8 shows a 19 F NMR spectrum of LiPF 6 in 80 % E6 / 20% propylene carbonate.

Figure 9 shows a 19 F NMR spectrum of LiPF 6 in 30 % E7 / 70% propylene carbonate.

Figure 10 shows a 19 F NMR spectrum of LiPF 6 in 50 % E7 / 50% ethylene carbonate.

Figure 11 shows a 19 F NMR spectrum of LiPF 6 in 80 % E7 / 20% ethylene carbonate.

Figures 12a to 12d show 19 F NMR spectra of LiPFe and CF CH=CHOCH CF in propylene carbonate.

Figures 13a to 13c show 19 F NMR spectra of UPF 6 and CF CH=CHOCH CF in propylene carbonate (90%) and fluoroethylene carbonate (10%). Figures 14a to 14c show 19 F NMR spectra of LiPF 6 and CF3CH=CHOCH2CF3 in ethylene carbonate (30%) and ethyl methyl carbonate (70%).

Figures 15a to 15c show 19 F NMR spectra of LiFSI and CF3CH=CHOCH2CF3 in propylene carbonate.

Figures 16a to 16c show 19 F NMR spectra of LiFSI and CF3CH=CHOCH2CF3 in propylene carbonate (90%) and fluoroethylene carbonate (10%).

Figures 17a to 17b show 19 F NMR spectra of LiFSI and CF 3 CH=CHOCH 2 CF3 in ethylene carbonate (30%) and ethyl methyl carbonate (70%).

Figures 18a to 18c show 19 F NMR spectra of LiPFeand CF3CH=CHOCH2CF2CHF2in propylene carbonate.

Figures 19a to 19c show 19 F NMR spectra of LiPFeand CF3CH=CHOCH2CF2CHF2in propylene carbonate (90%) and fluoroethylene carbonate (10%).

Figures 20a to 20c show 19 F NMR spectra of LiPFe and CF3CH=CHOCH2CF2CHF2 in ethylene carbonate (30%) and ethyl methyl carbonate (70%).

Figures 21a to 21c show 19 F NMR spectra of LiFSI and CF3CH=CHOCH2CF2CHF2 in propylene carbonate.

Figures 22a to 22c show 19 F NMR spectra of LiFSI and CF3CH=CHOCH2CF2CHF2 in propylene carbonate (90%) and fluoroethylene carbonate (10%).

Figures 23a to 23c show 19 F NMR spectra of LiFSI and CF3CH=CHOCH 2 CF 2 CHF2 in ethylene carbonate (30%) and ethyl methyl carbonate (70%).

Figure 24 shows the electrochemical performance of MEXI-1 - cell chemistry 1 Figure 25 shows the electrochemical performance of MEXI-1 - cell chemistry 2 Figure 26 shows the electrochemical performance of MEXI-2 - cell chemistry 1 Figure 27 shows the electrochemical performance of MEXI-2 - cell chemistry 2 (% in composition by weight)