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Patent Searching and Data


Title:
CONTROL APPARATUS FOR VEHICLE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2007/088761
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A target throttle opening degree computing device (43-46) of a control apparatus computes a target throttle opening degree (θg) of a throttle valve (16) and includes a phase lead compensator (56). A filter (49) filters the target throttle opening degree (θg) to provide an ultimate target throttle opening degree (θt), which is used to drive a drive motor (15) to adjust an opening degree of the throttle valve (16).

Inventors:
YOSHIKAWA HISAYO (JP)
KAMIO SHIGERU (JP)
KASASHIMA KENJI (JP)
ITO MASAHIRO (JP)
Application Number:
JP2007/051120
Publication Date:
August 09, 2007
Filing Date:
January 18, 2007
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
DENSO CORP (JP)
TOYOTA MOTOR CO LTD (JP)
YOSHIKAWA HISAYO (JP)
KAMIO SHIGERU (JP)
KASASHIMA KENJI (JP)
ITO MASAHIRO (JP)
International Classes:
F02D35/00; F02D11/10; F02D41/00; F02D41/14
Foreign References:
EP0345814A21989-12-13
DE19741086A11999-03-25
DE10233578A12004-02-05
JP2002309990A2002-10-23
JPH1122515A1999-01-26
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
YAHAGI, Kazuyuki et al. (Takisada Bldg. 2-13-19, Nishiki, Naka-ku, Nagoya-cit, Aichi ., JP)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A control apparatus that controls a control subject (15, 16) of a vehicle,

the control apparatus comprising:

a phase lead compensator (56) that performs phase lead compensation;

and

a noise filter (49) that is positioned between the phase lead compensator

(56) and the control subject (15, 16).

2. The control apparatus according to claim 1, wherein:

the control subject is an electronic throttle system (15, 16) of an internal

combustion engine that controls a throttle opening degree of a throttle valve (16)

in such a manner that a cylinder air charge quantity of the internal combustion

engine coincides with a target cylinder air charge quantity; and

the phase lead compensator (56) compensates a charging delay of intake

air, which has passed the throttle valve (16).

3. The control apparatus according to claim 1 or 2, further comprising a

closed loop (44-46) that performs feedback control of one of an estimative valve

and a sensed value of a control quantity of the control subject (15, 16), wherein

the filter (49) is positioned outside of the closed loop (44-46).

4. The control apparatus according to claim 3, wherein the closed loop (44-

46) includes the phase lead compensator (56).

5. The control apparatus according to claim 1, wherein:

the control subject (15, 16) is an electronic throttle system (15, 16) of an

internal combustion engine, which includes a throttle valve (16);

the control apparatus further comprises a target throttle opening degree

computing device (43-46), which computes a target throttle opening degree (θg)

of the throttle valve (16) and includes the phase lead compensator (56); and

the filter (49) filters the target throttle opening degree (θg) of the

throttle valve (16), which is outputted from the target throttle opening degree

computing device (43-46).

6. The control apparatus according to claim 5, wherein the target throttle

opening degree computing device (43-46) includes a closed loop (44-46), in

which the phase lead compensator (56) is provided.

7. The control apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the

filter (49) is a phase lag compensator (49).

Description:

DESCRIPηON

CONTROL APPARATUS FOR VEHICLE

Technical Field

The present invention relates to a control apparatus, which controls a

control subject of a vehicle and includes a phase lead compensator and a noise filter.

Background Art

For example, Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication No. Hll-22515

discloses an electronic engine control system of a vehicle, which achieves a

relatively good engine response upon driver's operation of an accelerator and thereby implements relatively good drivability of the vehicle. In this engine

control system, a demanded torque (a target torque), which is demanded by the driver, is computed based on an accelerator opening degree and an engine

rotational speed. Then, a target throttle opening degree (a target cylinder air

charge quantity) of a throttle valve is computed based on the target torque, and

an actual throttle opening degree of the throttle vlave is controlled to the target

throttle opening degree. This control system includes a phase lead compensator,

which compensates a charging delay of intake air, which has passed through the

throttle valve.

Furthermore, Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication No. 2002-309990

recites another system, which includes a feedback control system (a closed loop

system) that compensates a target throttle opening degree through a feedback

operation based on a difference between a target cylinder air charge quantity and

an estimative actual cylinder air charge quantity.

As described above, the control system, which controls the throttle

5 opening degree (the cylinder air charge quantity), includes the phase lead compensator that compensates the charging delay of the intake air, which has

passed the throttle valve. Thus, when a noise is added to an input of the control

system, the system becomes unstable due to the phase lead compensator.

To address this disadvantage, a noise filter is applied to the input of the

LO control system. Through use of this filter, in the steady operational period of the

engine, the phase lead compensation becomes zero (or the phase lead

compensation is forcefully changed to zero in the steady operational period of the engine), and thereby the system is stabilized. However, the recent study of the

inventors of the present invention reveals that the control state becomes

L5 unstable in a moderate transient operational period of the engine due to influences of the following fluctuations (1) and (2) to cause hunting of the target throttle opening degree.

(1) Fluctuations of the target cylinder air charge quantity per unit time.

(2) Fluctuations of a computed value (a map value) of a charging >0 efficiency η, which is caused by fluctuations of, for example, the engine rotational

speed and the valve timing.

In this case, the fluctuations during the computation will not cause a

substantial problem. However, when the target throttle opening degree shows

the hunting, the motor of the electronic throttle system will be operated

according to the hunting target value. Thus, the unnecessary operation is

performed. This unnecessary operation may result in, for example, the

deteriorated fuel consumption, the deteriorated durability of the electronic

throttle system and the deteriorated drivability of the vehicle.

As described above, the control system, which includes the phase lead

compensator, is sensitive to the noise applied to the input of the control system.

Thus, the noise filter is applied to the input of the control system to achieve the

stability of the control system. However, the input of the control system includes

not only the target cylinder air charge quantity but also other operational

parameters (e.g., the engine rotational speed, the valve timing), which may have

negative influences on the charging efficiency η. Thus, when the filter needs to

be applied to each of the hunting factors, the multiple filters need to be applied.

This results in the deterioration in the response. That is, the filter acts as a

phase lag compensator. Thus, when the number of the filters is increased

further, the response is delayed further.

Disclosure of the Invention

The present invention is made in view of the above disadvantages. Thus,

it is an objective of the present invention to provide a control apparatus of a

vehicle, which can achieve both of a relatively good response and a relatively

good stability of a control subject even in a moderate transient operational period

of the control subject.

To achieve the objective of the present invention, there is provided a

control apparatus that controls a control subject of a vehicle. The control

apparatus includes a phase lead compensator and a noise filter. The phase lead

compensator performs phase lead compensation. The noise filter is positioned

between the phase lead compensator and the control subject.

Brief Description of the Drawings

The invention, together with additional objectives, features and

advantages thereof, will be best understood from the following description, the

appended claims and the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a schematic view showing a structure of an engine control

system according to an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a block diagram schematically showing a vehicle control system;

FIG. 3 is a block diagram showing an output controller of the present

embodiment;

FIG. 4 is a block diagram showing details of a target throttle opening

degree computing arrangement and an estimative value computing arrangement

of the output controller;

FIG. 5 is a block diagram showing a transfer function of a filter of the

output controller;

FIG. 6 is a flowchart showing a target throttle opening degree computing

) routine of the embodiment;

FIG. 7 is a flowchart showing an estimative value (Pmest, Mtest)

computing routine of the embodiment;

FIG. 8 is a diagram showing a map of the embodiment, which is used to

convert a target cylinder air charge quantity Mt to a target intake air pipe

pressure Pmt;

FIG. 9 is a diagram showing a map of the embodiment, which is used to

compute a flow quantity coefficient φ based on a ratio (Pmest/Pa) between an

estimative intake air pipe pressure Pmest and an atmospheric pressure Pa;

FIG. 10 is a diagram showing a map of the embodiment, which is used to

convert a throttle opening cross sectional area At to a target throttle opening

degree θt;

FIG. 11 is a diagram showing a map of the embodiment, which is used to

convert an estimative intake air pipe pressure Pmest to an estimative cylinder air

charge quantity Mtest;

FIG. 12A is a time chart showing a change in a cylinder air charge

quantity in view of time in a moderate operational transition period;

FIG. 12B is a time chart showing a change in a target throttle opening

degree in view of time in the moderate transient operational period; and

FIG. 12C is a time chart showing a change in an actual throttle opening

degree in view of time in the moderate operational transition period.

Best Modes for Carrying Out the Invention

An embodiment of the present invention, which is implemented in a

control system that controls an electronic throttle system, will be described with

reference to the accompanying drawings.

First, a schematic structure of an engine control system will be described

with reference to FIG. 1. An air cleaner 13 is provided to an upstream end of an

intake air pipe 12 of a cylinder injection type internal combustion engine 11, and

an air flow meter 14, which senses an intake air quantity, is provided on a

downstream side of the air cleaner 13. A throttle valve 16 and a throttle opening

degree sensor 17 are provided on a downstream side of the air flow meter 14.

An opening degree (a throttle opening degree) of the throttle valve 16 is adjusted

through a drive motor 15 of the electronic throttle system, and the throttle

opening degree sensor 17 senses the throttle opening degree of the throttle

valve 16.

A surge tank 18 is provided on a downstream side of the throttle valve

16, and an intake air pipe pressure sensor 19, which senses an intake air pipe

pressure, is provided to the surge tank 18. Furthermore, an intake manifold 20,

which conducts air to the respective cylinders of the engine 11, is connected to

the surge tank 18. Also, each of the conductive passage parts of the intake

manifold 20, which are connected to the cylinders, respectively, is provided with a

flow control valve 31 that controls a gas flow strength (a swirl flow strength, a

tumble flow strength) in the corresponding cylinder.

A fuel injection valve 21 is provided to a top of each cylinder of the

engine 11 to directly inject fuel into the cylinder. A spark plug 22 is provided to

each cylinder at a cylinder head of the engine 11 to ignite the fuel and air

mixture contained in the cylinder through discharging of sparks from the spark

plug 22. Furthermore, a variable valve timing device 39 is provided to intake

valves 37 of the engine 11 to change opening/closing timing of the intake valves

37, and a variable valve timing device 40 is provided to exhaust valves 38 of the

engine 11 to change opening/closing timing of the exhaust valves 38.

A coolant temperature sensor 23 is provided to a cylinder block of the

engine 11 to sense the coolant temperature of the engine 11. A crank angle

sensor 24 is positioned radially outward of a crankshaft (not shown) to output a

crank angle signal (a pulse signal) every time the crankshaft rotates a

predetermined crank angle. A crank angle and an engine rotational speed are

sensed based on output pulse signals of the crank angle sensor 24.

An upstream-side catalytic converter 26 and a downstream-side catalytic

converter 27 are provided in an exhaust pipe 25 of the engine 11 to purify the

exhaust gas of the engine 11. Furthermore, an exhaust gas sensor 28 (e.g., an

air/fuel ratio sensor, an oxygen sensor) is provided on an upstream side of the

upstream-side catalytic converter 26 to sense an air/fuel ratio or a rich/lean state

of the exhaust gas. Furthermore, a pedal position (an accelerator opening

degree) of an accelerator pedal 35 is sensed with an accelerator sensor 36.

An output of each of the above sensors is supplied to an engine control

circuit (hereinafter referred to as "ECU") 30. The ECU 30 has a microcomputer

as its main component. When each corresponding routine (described below), which is stored in a ROM (a storage medium) of the ECU 30, is executed, the

ECU 30 sets a target throttle opening degree in a manner that coincides an

output torque of the engine 11 with a target torque (a demanded torque) to

control an intake air quantity (a cylinder air charge quantity, which is a quantity of air charged in the corresponding cylinder).

In the present embodiment, as shown in FIG. 2, a target torque is set by

each of, for example, an idle speed controller (ISC) 50, a cruise controller 51, a

traction controller 52, an automatic transmission control apparatus (AT-ECU) 53

and an antilock-brake system control apparatus (ABS-ECU) 54. Then, an

application selector (application selecting means) 41 selects an ultimate target

torque from these target torques. Thereafter, an output controller (output

control apparatus or output controlling means) 42 computes an actuator

command value (a target throttle opening degree) based on the ultimate target

torque and outputs the computed actuator command value to the engine 11 to

coincide the output torque of the engine 11 with the target torque.

As shown in FIG. 3, the output controller 42 includes a target value

computing arrangement (target value computing means) 43, a target throttle

opening degree computing arrangement (target throttle opening degree

computing means) 44, an operation limiting arrangement (operation limiting

means) 45 and an estimative value computing arrangement (estimative value

computing means) 46. The target value computing arrangement 43, the target

throttle opening degree computing arrangement 44, the operation limiting

arrangement 45 and the estimative value computing arrangement 46 form a

target throttle opening degree computing device, which computes a target

throttle opening degree θg described below based on the ultimate target torque.

Specifically, the target value computing arrangement 43 converts the ultimate

target torque to a target cylinder air charge quantity Mt, which is a target air

charge quantity that is charged in the corresponding cylinder. The target throttle

opening degree computing arrangement 44 computes a target throttle opening

degree based on the target cylinder air charge quantity Mt. The operation

limiting arrangement 45 limits the target throttle opening degree in view of, for

example, emissions and a drive performance of the motor 15 of the electronic

throttle system through an upper and lower limit guard process and a drive

speed/acceleration guard process of the throttle valve 16. The estimative value

computing arrangement 46 computes an estimative value (Pmest) of the cylinder

air charge quantity and an estimative value (Mtest) of the intake air pipe

pressure, which can be achieved with the target throttle opening degree θg,

which is limited by the operation limit process (the guard processes).

The output controller 42 further includes a filter 49, which filters

fluctuations (noise) of the target throttle opening degree θg, which is limited by

the operation limiting arrangement 45 through the operation limiting process (the

guard processes). In this instance, no filter is applied to influential operational

parameters (e.g., the engine rotational speed and the valve timing), which may

have a substantial influence on the target cylinder air charge quantity Mt and/or

a charging efficiency η that serve as the input to the target throttle opening

degree computing arrangement 44. Furthermore, the filter 49, which filters the

fluctuations (the noise) of the target throttle opening degree θg, is placed outside

of a closed loop that includes the target throttle opening degree computing

arrangement 44, the operation limiting arrangement 45 and the estimative value

computing arrangement 46. As shown in FIG. 5, the filter 49 is expressed by a

transfer function of a first-order lag, i.e., Transfer Function of Filter 49 = l/(Tfs +

1), where "Tf" denotes a time constant of the filter 49.

D The throttle opening degree is controlled based on a filtered target

throttle opening degree (ultimate target throttle opening degree) θt, from which

the fluctuations (the noise) are filtered by the filter 49.

Based on the fact that the intake air pipe pressure Pm and the cylinder

air charge quantity have a generally linear relationship with each other, as shown

in FIG. 4, the target throttle opening degree computing arrangement 44

computes a target intake air pipe pressure Pmt, which is required to achieve the

target cylinder air charge quantity Mt, based on a map (see FIG. 8) that uses the

target cylinder air charge quantity Mt as a parameter. This is performed by a

5 target intake air pipe pressure computing section 55 of the target throttle

opening degree computing arrangement 44. The relationship between the intake

air pipe pressure Pm and the cylinder air charge quantity changes according to

the engine operational condition, such as the engine rotational speed and the

intake/exhaust valve timing. Thus, the map, which is used to convert the target

.0 cylinder air charge quantity Mt to the target intake air pipe pressure Pmt, also

uses the engine operational condition, such as the engine rotational speed and/or

the intake/exhaust valve timing, as a parameter(s).

Then, a surge tank charging delay compensation value is computed

through use of the following equation 1 in a compensation value computing

.5 section 56. The surge tank charging delay compensation value is a value that is

used to compensate a delay (a surge tank charging delay) in the intake air from

the throttle valve 16 to the surge tank 18. As indicated in the following equation

1, the surge tank charging delay compensation value is obtained by multiplying a

gain (V/κ-R-Tmp) with a time derivative value (dPm/dt) of a difference dPm

:0 (=Pmt - Pmest) between the target intake air pipe pressure Pmt and the

estimative intake air pipe pressure Pmest. This difference dPm is previously

obtained at a subtracter 58.

(Equation 1)

TANK CHARGING DELAY COMPENSATION VALUE = .^L

K • R • Tmp dt fdPm _ Pmt -Pmest N j I dt ~ dt J

Here, V denotes an intake air specific heat ratio, and "R" denotes an

intake air gas-law constant. Furthermore, "Tmp" denotes an intake air

temperature, and "V" denotes a volume of an air passage from the throttle valve

16 to the surge tank 18.

Furthermore, as expressed by the following equation 2, the target throttle

opening degree computing arrangement 44 obtains a throttle passing air quantity

Mi, which is a quantity of the intake air that passes the throttle valve 16, by

adding the estimative cylinder air charge quantity Mtest, which is computed by

the estimative value computing arrangement 46, to the surge tank charging delay

compensation value at an adder 59.

(Equation 2)

... ... . V dPm

Mι = Mtest + •

K • R • Tmp dt

The above equation 2 expresses an inverse model of an intake air system

model, which simulates the charging delay of the intake air, which has passed the

throttle valve 16.

Then, based on the throttle passing air quantity Mi, a target throttle

opening degree, which is required to achieve the throttle passing air quantity Mi,

is computed by a target throttle opening degree computing section 57 of the

target throttle opening degree computing arrangement 44. Thereafter, this

computed target throttle opening degree is limited by the operation limiting

arrangement 45 through the predetermined operation limiting process (the upper

and lower limit guard process and the drive speed/acceleration guard process of the throttle valve 16) to obtain a limited target throttle opening degree θg. Next,

the limited target throttle opening degree θg is filtered by the filter 49 in the

filtering process (a first order lag process) to filter the fluctuations (the noise) from the limited target throttle opening degree θg and thereby to determine an

ultimate target throttle opening degree θt. Then, this ultimate target throttle

opening degree θt is outputted to a motor drive circuit (not shown) of the

electronic throttle system to drive the drive motor 15.

The estimative value computing arrangement 46 includes a throttle

passing air quantity estimating section (throttle passing air quantity estimating means) 47 and an air charging delay computing section (air charging delay

computing means) 48. The throttle passing air quantity estimating section 47

estimates a throttle passing air quantity Miest, which can be achieved with the target throttle opening degree θg that is limited by the operation limiting

arrangement 45. The air charging delay computing section 48 computes the

estimative cylinder air charge quantity Mtest and the estimative intake air pipe

pressure Pmest based on the estimative throttle passing air quantity Miest

through use of the intake air system model, which simulate the charging delay of the intake air, which has passed the throttle valve 16. The throttle passing air

quantity estimating section 47 computes the estimative throttle passing air

quantity Miest through use of the following equation 3.

(Equation 3)

VRβTmp

Here, "μ" denotes a flow quantity adaptation coefficient, and "Pa"

denotes the atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, "φ" denotes a flow quantity

coefficient (or simply referred to as "flow coefficient"), which is determined by a

ratio (Pmest/Pa) between the estimative intake air pipe pressure Pmest and the

5 atmospheric pressure Pa (see FIG. 9). Also, "At" denotes a throttle opening cross

sectional area, which corresponds to the target throttle opening degree θt.

The air charging delay computing section 48 computes the estimative

intake air pipe pressure Pmest based on the estimative throttle passing air

quantity Miest through use of the intake air system model, which is expressed by

.0 the following equation 4.

(Equation 4)

dPmest κ*R»Tmp

-(Miest -Mtestold) dt V dPmest = Pmest - Pmestold = dt • K * R * Tmp (Miest - Mtestold)

Pmest = Pmestold + dt • — — - — -(Miest - Mtestold)

Here, "Pmestold" denotes a previous estimative intake air pipe pressure,

and "Mtestold" denotes a previous estimative cylinder air charge quantity.

L 5 Furthermore, "dt" denotes a computation cycle (computation period).

Through use of the equation 4, after computation of the current

estimative intake air pipe pressure Pmest, the estimative cylinder air charge

quantity Mtest, which corresponds to the computed current estimative intake air

pipe pressure Pmest, is computed through use of a map (see FIG. 11). Here, the

.0 relationship between the estimative intake air pipe pressure Pmest and the

estimative cylinder air charge quantity Mtest changes according to the engine

operational condition, such as the engine rotational speed and the intake/exhaust

valve timing. Thus, the map, which is used to convert the estimative intake air

pipe pressure Pmest to the estimative cylinder air charge quantity Mtest, also

uses the engine operational condition, such as the engine rotational speed and

5 the intake/exhaust valve timing, as the parameter(s).

The above described throttle control operation is executed by the ECU 30

according to the routines shown in FIGS. 6 and 7. Hereinafter, details of each of

these routines will be described.

First, with reference to FIG. 6, a target throttle opening degree

.0 computing routine, which is executed at predetermined intervals during the

operation of the engine, will be described. Upon starting of this routine, the

ultimate target torque, which is selected by the application selector 41, is retrieved at step 101. Then, at step 102, the target cylinder air charge quantity

Mt is computed based on the current engine rotational speed NE and the ultimate

L5 target torque through use of a two dimensional map. Thereafter, at step 103, the target intake air pipe pressure Pmt, which is required to achieve the target

cylinder air charge quantity Mt, is computed through use of the map (see FIG. 8),

which uses the target cylinder air charge quantity Mt as the parameter. Here, the

relationship between the intake air pipe pressure Pm and the cylinder air charge

ZO quantity changes according to the engine operational condition, such as the

engine rotational speed and the intake/exhaust valve timing. Thus, the map (see

FIG. 8), which is used to convert the target cylinder air charge quantity Mt to the

target intake air pipe pressure Pmt, also uses the engine operational condition,

such as the engine rotational speed and/or the intake/exhaust valve timing, as

the parameter(s).

Thereafter, at step 104, a guard process (or atmospheric pressure

compensation) is performed on the target intake air pipe pressure Pmt in such a

manner that the target intake air pipe pressure Pmt falls within an achievable

5 intake air pipe pressure range, which can be achieved under the current

atmospheric pressure condition. Then, at step 105, the estimative intake air pipe

pressure Pmest and the estimative cylinder air charge quantity Mtest, which are

computed in an estimative value (Pmest, Mtest) computing routine of FIG. 7

described below, are retrieved. Next, at step 106, the difference dPm (=Pmt -

LO Pmest) between the target intake air pipe pressure Pmt and the estimative intake

air pipe pressure Pmest is computed.

Thereafter, at step 107, the surge tank charging delay compensation value, which is required to perform the phase lead compensation on the

difference dPm by the amount that corresponds to the delay (the surge tank

L5 charging delay) of the intake air from the throttle valve 16 to the surge tank 18, is computed through use of the equation 1. Then, at step 108, the throttle

passing air quantity Mi is obtained by adding the estimative cylinder air charge

quantity Mtest to the surge tank charging delay compensation value.

Then, at step 109, based on the throttle passing air quantity Mi, the i0 target throttle opening degree θt, which is required to achieve the throttle

passing air quantity Mi, is computed as follows. First, a required throttle opening

cross sectional area At, which is required to achieve the throttle passing air

quantity Mi, is computed through use of the following equation 5.

(Equation 5)

Here, the flow quantity coefficient φ is computed based on the ratio

(Pmest/Pa) between the estimative intake air pipe pressure Pmest and the

atmospheric pressure Pa through use of, for example, the map shown in FIG. 9.

The throttle opening cross sectional area At, which is computed through

the above equation 5, is converted to the target throttle opening degree θg

through use of, for example, a map shown in FIG. 10.

Next, at step 110, the target throttle opening degree θg is limited

through the predetermined operation limiting process (the upper and lower limit

guard process and the drive speed/acceleration guard process of the throttle

valve 16). Thereafter, at step 111, the limited target throttle opening degree θg,

which is limited by the operation limiting process, is filtered by the filter 49 in the

filtering process (the first order lag process) to filter the fluctuations (the noise)

from the limited target throttle opening degree θg to determine the ultimate

target throttle opening degree θt.

Now, with reference to FIG. 7, the estimative value (Pmest, Mtest)

computing routine, which is executed at predetermined intervals during the

operation of the engine, will be described. Upon starting of this routine, at step

201, the current target throttle opening degree θg, which is limited through the

predetermined operation limiting process, is retrieved. Then, at step 202, the

throttle passing air quantity Miest, which can be achieved with this target throttle

opening degree θg, is estimated. At this time, the target throttle opening degree

θg is converted to the throttle opening cross sectional area At through use of the

map similar to the map shown in FIG. 10, and the estimative throttle passing air

quantity Miest is computed based on this throttle opening cross sectional area At

through use of the equation 3.

Thereafter, at step 203, an intake air pipe pressure change amount

5 dPmest, which is an amount of change in the intake air pipe pressure per

computation cycle dt, is computed based on a difference (Miest - Mtestold)

between the current estimative throttle passing air quantity Miest and the

previous estimative cylinder air charge quantity Mtestold through use of the

equation 4, which simulates the surge tank charging delay. Then, the intake air

.0 pipe pressure change amount dPmest per computation cycle dt is added to the

previous estimative intake air pipe pressure Pmestold to obtain the current

estimative intake air pipe pressure Pmest.

Then, at step 203, the estimative cylinder air charge quantity Mtest,

which corresponds to the estimative intake air pipe pressure Pmest, is computed

.5 through use of, for example, the map (see FIG. 11). Here, the relationship

between the estimative intake air pipe pressure Pmest and the estimative

cylinder air charge quantity Mtest changes according to the engine operational

condition, such as the engine rotational speed and the intake/exhaust valve

timing. Thus, the map (see FIG. 11), which is used to convert the estimative

!0 intake air pipe pressure Pmest to the estimative cylinder air charge quantity

Mtest, also uses the engine operational condition, such as the engine rotational

speed and/or the intake/exhaust valve timing, as the parameter(s).

Next, advantages of the present embodiment will be described with

reference to FIGS. 12A to 12C.

FIGS. 12A to 12C show time charts, which indicate the control

characteristics in a moderate transient operational period of the engine and compare a prior art filtering case (prior art system), a final stage filtering case

(the case of the present embodiment) and a non-filtering case (no filter). In the

prior art filtering case, the filter is applied on the input (e.g., the target cylinder

air charge quantity Mt) of the control system. In the final stage filtering case of

the present embodiment, the filter is applied to the output (the target throttle

opening degree) of the control system. In the non-filtering case, a filter is not

applied to the control system at all. In the control system, which controls the throttle opening degree (the

cylinder air charge quantity), the phase lead compensator, which compensates

the charging delay of the intake air, which has passed the throttle valve 16, is provided. Thus, in the case where the filter is not provided to the control system

at all, when the noise is added to the input of this control system, the target

throttle opening degree shows the hunting in the moderate transient operational period due to the action of the phase lead compensator, as shown in FIG. 12B, so

that the target throttle opening degree becomes unstable.

In order to address this disadvantage, in the prior art system, the filter is

applied to the input of the control system. However, in the prior art system,

besides the target cylinder air charge quantity, the input, to which the filter is

applied, further includes various operational parameters (e.g., the engine

rotational speed and the valve timing), which may have the substantial influence on the charging efficiency η. Thus, when the filter is applied to each of these

hunting factors of the input, which causes the hunting, the multiple filters are

applied to the input, so that the response is retarded.

Unlike the above cases, according to the present embodiment, instead of

providing the filter to the input side of the control system, the filter 49 is

positioned between the phase lead compensator and the control subject, i.e., is

positioned on the output side of the control system. Specifically, in the present

embodiment, the input side filter, which causes the deterioration of the response,

is eliminated in view of the finding that the fluctuations encountered during the

computation will not cause a significant problem even when the filter is not

applied to the input of the control system, and the filter is provided only to the

output side of the control system to filter the fluctuations of the target throttle

opening degree and thereby to stabilize the control system. According to the

present embodiment, the single filter 49 is sufficient to filter the fluctuations of

the target throttle opening degree. Thus, in comparison to the prior art system,

which applies the filter to each of the hunting factors, the delay in the response

caused by the filtering is reduced according to the present embodiment.

Therefore, even in the moderate transient operational period, the hunting of the

target throttle opening degree can be advantageously limited while maintaining

the good response of the control system. As a result, the good response and the

good stability of the control system can be both achieved. In this way, the

improved fuel consumption, the increased durability of the electronic throttle

system, and the improved drivability of the vehicle can be achieved.

In the control system, which has the closed loop, like in the present

embodiment, when the filter is provided in the closed loop, an apparent phase

lead compensation gain increases to improve the response. However, the output

(the target throttle opening degree) of the control system disadvantageously

becomes overshooting relative to the excessive stepwise changes.

In contrast to this, in the present embodiment, the filter 49 is placed

outside of the closed loop. Therefore, it is possible to advantageously limit the

overshooting of the output (the target throttle opening degree) of the control

system even with respect to the excessive stepwise changes of the control

system, which has the closed loop.

Furthermore, according to the present embodiment, the estimative

cylinder air charge quantity (Mtest) and the estimative intake air pipe pressure

(Pmest) are computed in view of the charging delay of the intake air based on

the target throttle opening degree, which is limited by the predetermined

operation limiting arrangement 45 through the operation limiting process. Then,

the difference dPm (=Pmt - Pmest) between the target value Pmt of the intake

air pipe pressure and the estimative valve Pmest of the intake air pipe pressure is

computed. Thereafter, the difference dPm is compensated through the phase

lead compensation by the amount that corresponds to the charging delay of the

intake air to obtain the throttle passing air quantity Mi. Next, the target throttle

opening degree is computed based on the throttle passing air quantity Mi. This

target throttle opening degree is limited through the operation limiting process in

view of, for example, the emissions. Thus, when the target cylinder air charge

quantity Mt shows the stepwise changes, the target throttle opening degree will

be gradually decreased with a moderate inclination to the corresponding target

throttle opening degree, which is set for the steady operational period that occurs

after the stepwise changes instead of showing a rapid temporal increase and a

subsequent rapid decrease to the corresponding target throttle opening degree.

Thus, when the target cylinder air charge quantity Mt shows the stepwise

changes, the target throttle opening degree, which is limited through the

operation limiting process, will only show the moderate overshooting beyond the

5 target throttle opening degree, which is set for the steady operational period

after the stepwise changes. In this way, the response of the actual cylinder air

charge quantity relative to the target cylinder air charge quantity Mt, which

shows the stepwise changes, is increased.

The present invention is not limited to the control system, which has the

0 closed loop, and may be applied to any other suitable control system, which has

no closed loop. In the control system, which has no closed loop, the position of

the operation limiting arrangement 45 and the position of the filter 49 may be

reversed. Specifically, the target throttle opening degree, which is computed by

the target throttle opening degree computing arrangement 44, may be filtered

.5 through the filtering process and may be then limited through the operation

limiting process. That is, the filter may be positioned anywhere between the

phase lead compensator and the control subject.

The present invention is not limited to the control system, which controls

the electronic throttle system as the control subject, and may be applied to any

>0 other suitable control system of the vehicle.

Additional advantages and modifications will readily occur to those skilled

in the art. The invention in its broader terms is therefore not limited to the

specific details, representative apparatus, and illustrative examples shown and

described.