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Title:
DENTAL COMPOSITION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/146225
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a dental composition comprising (i) a polymerizable composition containing a compound having repeating units of the following formula (I), wherein R1 represents a hydrogen atom or a linear C1-6 alkyl group, or a branched or cyclic C3-6 alkyl group; L represents a divalent organic linker group which may contain one or more monovalent or divalent organopolysiloxane groups and/or one or more monovalent or divalent perfluorohydrocarbyl groups; n is an integer of at least 1; and (ii) one or more vinyl compounds selected from vinyl ethers, vinyl esters, vinylsiloxanes, (meth) acrylamides and 1-alkenes having from 4 to 20 carbon atoms, said vinyl compounds being copolymerizable with the compound having repeating units of formula (I); and (iii) a polymerization initiator system.

Inventors:
KLEE JOACHIM (DE)
WÖRNER MELISSA (DE)
SZILLAT FLORIAN (DE)
RITTER HELMUT (DE)
Application Number:
PCT/EP2018/053223
Publication Date:
August 16, 2018
Filing Date:
February 08, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
DENTSPLY DETREY GMBH (DE)
International Classes:
A61K6/00; A61K6/083; A61K6/90
Foreign References:
DE102010046697A12012-03-29
EP0020945A11981-01-07
EP0137329A21985-04-17
DE2343622A11974-03-21
DE2552634A11976-08-12
CN103709257B2016-01-20
DE102010046697A12012-03-29
US5545676A1996-08-13
US4298738A1981-11-03
US4324744A1982-04-13
US4385109A1983-05-24
EP0173567A21986-03-05
Other References:
K. AALTO-KORTE ET AL., CONTACT DERMATITIS, vol. 57, no. 5, December 2007 (2007-12-01), pages 324 - 330
YAMAMOTO K. ET AL., J. TETRAHEDRON LETT., vol. 21, 1980, pages 1653 - 1656
NICEWICZ D.A. ET AL., ORG. SYNTH., vol. 85, 2008, pages 278 - 286
NICEWICZ D.A., J. AM. CHEM. SOC., vol. 127, no. 17, 2005, pages 6170 - 6171
BOYCE G.R. ET AL., J. ORG. CHEM., vol. 77, no. 10, 2012, pages 4503 - 4515
BOYCE G.R. ET AL., ORG. LETT., vol. 14, no. 2, 2012, pages 652 - 655
EL-ROZ, M. ET AL., CURRENT TRENDS IN POLYMER SCIENCE, vol. 15, 2011, pages 1 - 13
KRICHELDORF, H. R.; YASHIRO, T.; WEIDNER, S., MACROMOLECULES, vol. 42, 2009, pages 6433 - 6439
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HARTZ, Nikolai F. (DE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1. A dental composition comprising

(i) a polymerizable composition containing a compound having repeating units of the following formula (I):

(I)

wherein

R represents a hydrogen atom or a linear Ci-e alkyl group, or a branched or cyclic C3-6 alkyl group;

L represents a divalent organic linker group which may contain one or more monovalent or divalent organopolysiloxane groups and/or one or more monovalent or divalent

perfluorohydrocarbyl groups; and

n is an integer of at least 1 ;

(ii) one or more vinyl compounds selected from vinyl ethers, vinyl esters, vinylsiloxanes, (meth) acrylamides and 1-alkenes having from 4 to 20 carbon atoms, said vinyl compounds being copolymerizable with the compound having repeating units of formula (I); and

(iii) a polymerization initiator system.

2. The dental composition according to claim 1 , wherein the polymerizable composition containing a compound having repeating units of formula (I) is obtainable by reacting a mixture comprising:

(a) x equivalents of one or more compounds of the following formula (I):

(ID

wherein

R1 is as defined in claim 1 ;

(b) y equivalents of a compound of the following formula (II):

HO— L— OH

(III)

wherein

L is as defined in claim 1 ; and

(c) optionally z equivalents of one or more compounds of the

following formula (IV) or (V):

R— COOH

(iv)

R- OH

(V) wherein

R2 independently is an organic group which may contain one or more monovalent or divalent organopolysiloxane groups and/or one or more monovalent or divalent perfluorohydrocarbyl groups, and/or one or more polymerizable groups selected from (meth)acryloyl groups, (meth)acrylamido groups, vinyl ether groups, vinyl ester groups, aziridine, epoxide groups and oxetane groups,

wherein 0.05 < x/y < 0.66, and 2y -2x < z < 1.5(2y -2x), wherein x, y, and z are the molar equivalents of components (a), (b) and (c).

The dental composition according to claim 1 or 2, wherein R1 is a hydrogen atom.

The dental composition according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein L is a divalent hydrocarbyl group.

5. The dental composition according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein L is a divalent organic linker group containing a divalent

organopolysiloxane group.

6. The dental composition according to any one of the preceding claims,

wherein the organopolysiloxane group contains a polymerizable group selected from vinylether, vinylester, oxetane, and aziridine groups.

7. The dental composition according to any one of the preceding claims, which is adapted to form an interpenetrating network (IPN) by a combination of a free radical polymerization and a cationic polymerization.

8. The dental composition according to any one of the preceding claims,

wherein the polymerizable composition (i) has a refractive index of from 1.450 to 1.540.

9. The dental composition according to any one of the preceding claims which is selected from a dental impression material and a dental composite.

10. A process for the preparation of a polymerizable composition for use in a dental composition, which comprises reacting a mixture comprising:

(a) x equivalents of one or more compounds of the following formula (I):

(II)

wherein

R1 is as defined in claim 1 ;

y equivalents of a compound of the following formula (II):

HO— L— OH

(ill)

wherein L is as defined in claim 1 ; and

(c) optionally z equivalents of one or more compounds of the following formula (IV) or (V):

R— COOH

(IV)

R- OH

(V) wherein

R2 independently is an organic group which may contain one or more monovalent or divalent organopolysiloxane groups and/or one or more monovalent or divalent perfluorohydrocarbyl groups, and/or one or more

polymerizable groups selected from (meth)acryloyl groups, (meth)acrylamido groups, vinylether groups, vinylester groups, aziridine, epoxide groups and oxetane groups,

wherein 0.05 < x/y < 0.66, and 2y -2x < z < 1.5(2y -2x), wherein x, y, and z are the molar equivalents of components (a), (b) and (c).

11. A polymerizable composition obtainable by the process of claim 10.

12. The polymerizable composition according to claim 11 , which comprises

polymerizable macromonomers of one of the following formula (VI):

wherein

is an integer of from 0 to 20,

is an integer of from 0 to 20,

is an integer of from 1 to 40, R1 represents a hydrogen atom or a linear C-i-6, branched C2-6 or cyclic C3- 6 alkyl group,

R3 represents a linear C1-6, or a branched or cyclic C3-6 alkyl group group, R4 represents a vinyl group, a vinylether group, a vinylester group, an aziridine group, an oxetane group or a represents a linear C1-6, or a branched or cyclic C3-6 alkyl group, and

wherein n is an average chain length which is in the range of from 1 to 50.

14. Use of a polymerizable macromonomer of the formula (VI) as defined in claim 13 in a dental composition.

15. The use according to claim 14, wherein the dental composition is a dental impression material, a flowable dental composite, a universal dental composite, a packable dental composite or a pit and fissure sealer.

Description:
Dental Composition

Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to a dental composition containing a polymerizable composition containing a compound having repeating units which are reactive in a radical polymerization. Moreover, the present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a polymerizable composition for use in a dental composition. The present invention also relates to a polymerizable composition obtainable by the process of the invention. Finally, the present invention relates to a use of a specific polymerizable macromonomer in a dental composition.

The dental composition may be a dental impression material, a flowable dental composite, a universal dental composite, a packable dental composite or a pit and fissure sealer, which compositions are suitable in particular for patients suffering from (meth)acrylate sensitization.

Background of the Invention

Acrylic monomers such as methyl methacrylate (MMA), triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), 2,2-bis[4-(2- hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]propane (bis-GMA), and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), are contained in many dental compositions. Dental personnel or patients may become sensitized by exposure to acrylic monomers. Allergic reactions may result when the sensitized personnel or patient becomes exposed again to such allergens. Numerous studies confirm high incidence of sensitization to (meth) acrylates in dental professionals, as well as in patients undergoing dental treatment and exposed to resin-based materials (K. Aalto-Korte et al. Contact Dermatitis 57(5):324-30 December 2007). Accordingly, exposure to acrylic monomers should be reduced or even completely avoided, notably by individuals suffering from (meth)acrylate sensitization.

On the other hand, dental acrylic preparations provide desirable properties and cannot be easily substituted in dental restorative materials such as dental composites. Therefore, a need exists for dental compositions which do not contain acrylic allergens and which maintain or improve the properties available by the use of (meth)acrylates.

A dental impression is a negative record of the tissues of the mouth which may be used for the fabrication of dentures, crowns or other prostheses. A dental impression is carried out by placing a fluid material in a customized tray into the mouth of the patient. The material then sets to become an elastic solid, and when removed from the mouth retains the shape of the teeth. Conventionally, a dental impression material needs to be activated by mixing and kneading two kinds of pastes which need to be stored separately.

Dental impression materials may be classified on the basis of

hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties, the setting mechanism and elasticity. Impression material may set by a reversible physical process or an irreversible chemical reaction for providing rigid or elastic impressions. Considering irreversible chemical reactions, elastic impressions may be obtained by curing of alginate, polysulfide, polyether or silicone impression material whereas rigid impressions are formed by impression plaster or zinc eugenol cement.

The preparation of a dental impression by an irreversible chemical reaction requires the material to have an acceptable working time and setting time. Therefore, conventional dental impression materials are formulated so as to provide working and setting times in a predetermined range. Conventional dental impression materials do not allow to have an arbitrarily long working time while allowing having at the same time a very short setting time.

On the other hand, (meth)acrylate based materials tend to stick to the dental surfaces so that the removal of a cured dental impression from the patient's mouths may be difficult. Moreover, given the large volume of dental impression material, the use of acrylic monomers in a dental impression material poses the risk of

sensitization and is undesirable in patients suffering from (meth)acrylate

sensitization. DE 10 2010 046 697 discloses a radical polymerizable dental material comprising a first component containing an organic compound derived from maleic acid and/or fumaric acid that has no additional ethylenically unsaturated groups in addition to the groups derived from maleic acid and/or fumaric acid, and a second component containing an organic compound comprising at least one acrylic acid ester and/or methacrylic acid ester residue.

Summary of the Invention

It is the problem of the present invention to provide a dental composition which does not give rise to allergic reactions in dental personnel or patients, and which has an arbitrarily long working time and which has at the same time a short setting time, and which provides superior properties of a cured dental composition including mechanical properties, refractive index, and viscosity even in the absence of solvents.

It is a further problem of the present invention to provide a process for the preparation of a polymerizable composition which may be used in a dental composition such as a dental impression material or a dental composite, whereby the composition does not give rise to allergic reactions in dental personnel or patients and provides superior properties including mechanical properties, refractive index, and viscosity even in the absence of solvents.

Furthermore, it is the problem of the present invention to provide a polymerizable composition which does not give rise to allergic reactions in dental personnel or patients, and which may be used for the preparation of a dental impression material or a dental composite for providing superior properties including mechanical properties, refractive index, and viscosity even in the absence of solvents.

Furthermore, it is the problem of the present invention to provide specific

polymerizable macromonomers which does not give rise to allergic reactions in dental personnel or patients, for use in a dental impression material or a dental composite. This problem is solved according to the present invention by a dental composition comprising

(i) a polymerizable composition containing a compound having repeating units of the following formula (I):

(I)

wherein

R 1 represents a hydrogen atom or a linear C1-6, or branched or cyclic C3-6 alkyl group;

L represents a divalent organic linker group which may contain one or more monovalent or divalent organopolysiloxane groups and/or one or more monovalent or divalent perfluorohydrocarbyl groups; and n is an integer of at least 1 ;

one or more compounds selected from vinyl ethers, vinyl esters,

vinylsiloxanes, (meth) acrylamides and 1-alkenes having from 4 to 20 carbon atoms, said vinyl compounds being copolymerizable with the compound having repeating units of formula (I); and

a polymerization initiator system.

Moreover, the present invention provides a process for the preparation of a polymerizable composition for use in a dental composition, which comprises reacting a mixture comprising:

(a) x equivalents of one or more compounds of the following formula (I):

(ID

wherein

R 1 is as defined in claim 1 ; (b) y equivalents of a compound of the following formula (II):

HO— L— OH

(III)

wherein

L is as defined above; and

(c) optionally z equivalents of one or more compounds of the following formula (III):

R— COOH

(IV)

wherein

R 2 is an alkyl group, an alkenyl group, or an aralkyl group, which groups may be substituted by 1 to 3 groups which may be the same or different and independently are selected from a phenyl group, a halogen atom or a hydroxyl group,

wherein 0.05 < x y < 0.66, and 2y -2x < z < 1.5(2y -2x), wherein x, y, and z are the molar equivalents of components (a), (b) and (c).

Furthermore, the present invention provides a polymerizable composition obtainable by the process of the present invention.

Finally, the present invention provides a use of a polymerizable macromonomer according to the present invention in a dental composition such as a dental impression material or a dental composite material.

The present invention is based on the recognition that a dental composition comprising a polymerizable composition containing a compound having repeating units of formula (I) does not give rise to allergic reactions in dental personnel or patients and may be adapted to provide an arbitrarily long working time and a quick setting time and also provides superior properties of the cured composition including mechanical properties, refractive index, and viscosity even in the absence of solvents. Moreover, the present invention is based on the recognition that a compound having repeating units of the following formula (I) may be cured according to a radical copolymerisation with compounds having polymerizable groups selected from a vinyl group, a vinylether group, and a vinylester group. Furthermore, a compound having repeating units of formula (I) may be cured by a combination of a free-radical copolymerisation with compounds having polymerizable groups selected from a vinyl group, a vinylether group, and a vinylester group, and a cationic polymerisation with a compound having polymerizable groups selected from an aziridine group, an epoxide group and an oxetane group. Accordingly, the dental composition of the present invention may be adapted to form an interpenetrating network (IPN) by a combination of a free radical polymerization and a cationic polymerization.

Therefore, the dental composition according to the present invention may be used as an alternative for (meth)acrylate based dental compositions for use as a dental impression material, a flowable dental composite, a universal dental composite, a packable dental composite or a pit and fissure sealer.

Detailed Description of Preferred Embodiments

The linear C1-6, or branched or cyclic C3-6 alkyl group as defined herein may have the following meaning.

A linear C1-6 alkyl group may be selected from methyl, ethan-1-yl, propan-1-yl, butan-1-yl, pentan-1-yl or hexan-1-yl.

A branched C3-6 alkyl group may be selected from isopropyl, isobutyl, tert.-butyl, pentan-2-yl, pentan-3-yl, 2-methylbutan-1-yl, 2-methylbutan-2-yl, 2-methylbutan-3- yl, 2,2-dimethylpropyl, hexan-2-yl, hexan-3-yl, 2-methylpentan-1-yl, 3-methylpentan- 1-yl, 4-methylpentan-1-yl, 2-methylpentan-2-yl, 3-methylpentan-2-yl, 4- methylpentan-2-yl, 2-methylpentan-3-yl, 3-methylpentan-3-yl, 4-methylpentan-3-yl, 2,2-dimethylbutan-1-yl, 2,3-dimethylbutan-1-yl, 3,3-dimethylbutan-1-yl, 2,2- dimethylbutan-2-yl, 2,3-dimethylbutan-2-yl, and 3,3-dimethylbutan-2-yl.

A cyclic C3-6 alkyl group may be selected from a cyclopropyl group, a cyclobutyl group, a cyclopentyl group or a cyclohexyl group. The term "polymerization" relates to the formation of larger molecules, namely macromolecules or polymers by combining a number of compounds. The term "polymerizable" in the context of a compound refers to the capability of the compound to polymerize under formation of covalent bonds. Polymerizable compounds may form linear macromolecules or they may be combined to form crosslinked polymers having a three-dimensional network structure. According to a particular embodiment, the polymerizable compounds used according to the present invention may form interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) by independent polymerization processes. An interpenetrating polymer network is a polymer comprising two or more networks which are at least partially interlaced on a molecular scale but not covalently bonded to each other and cannot be separated unless chemical bonds are broken. Polymerizable compounds having a single polymerizable functional group form linear polymers, whereas polymerizable compounds having at least two polymerizable functional groups may form

crosslinked polymers also known as polymer networks. Semi-interpenetrating polymer network (SIPN) may also be formed by forming a polymer comprising one or more networks and one or more linear or branched polymer(s) characterized by the penetration on a molecular scale of at least one of the networks by at least some of the linear or branched macromolecules. Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks are polymer blends since the constituent linear or branched polymers can, in principle, be separated from the constituent polymer network(s) without breaking chemical bonds. Sequential interpenetrating polymer networks are interpenetrating polymer networks prepared by a process in which the second component network is formed following the formation of the first component network. Sequential semi- interpenetrating polymer network are semi-interpenetrating polymer networks prepared by a process in which the linear or branched components are formed following the completion of the reactions that lead to the formation of the network(s) or vice versa.

The term "polymerizable composition" as used herein means a composition containing one or more compounds having at least one polymerizable double bond, preferably a carbon-carbon double bond. The term "curing" means the polymerization of polymerizable compounds such as monomers, oligomers or even polymers, into preferably a crosslinked polymer network.

The term "polymerization initiator system" as used herein means any compound or mixture of compounds capable of initiating polymerization of polymerizable compounds. The term "polymerization initiator" means any chemical compound forming free radicals when activated, e. g. by exposure to heat, light or interaction with a coinitiator in a photochemical or thermal process. A "photoinitiator system" is a polymerization initiator system which may be activated by light such as actinic light having a wavelength of from 250 to 800 nm.

The present invention provides a polymerizable composition which is polymerizable or copolymerizable by a polymerization initiator system. The polymerizable composition is contained in a dental composition, which may be a dental impression material or a dental composite. The dental composition is preferably a one-pack dental composition. The dental composite may be a universal dental composite, a packable dental composite or a pit and fissure sealer. Preferably, the dental composition according to the present invention is a dental impression material.

The dental composition of the present invention comprises a polymerizable composition containing a compound having repeating units of the following formula

(I):

(I)

Formula (I) includes any geometric isomer in view of the carbon-carbon double bond. Accordingly, a compound having repeating units of formula (I) may contain E- isomers or Z-isomers or a mixture of E- and Z-isomers. Preferably, predominantly nonlinear Z-isomers are present in view of the viscosity of the polymerizable composition.

In formula (11 ), R 1 represents a hydrogen atom or a linear C1-6, branched or cyclic C3-6 alkyl group. According to a preferred embodiment, R 1 is a hydrogen atom.

In formula (I), L represents a divalent organic linker group. The divalent organic linker group may be a divalent hydrocarbyl group. The divalent organic linker group may be derived from an organic diol compound, preferably from an organic di- primary diol compound of the following formula (la), which forms a diester linkage in a compound of formula (I):

(la)

wherein L' is a divalent organic group. The organic group may be selected from a divalent hydrocarbyl group, an organopolysiloxane group and a perfluoroalkylene group.

According to a preferred embodiment, L or L' is a divalent substituted or

unsubstituted aliphatic group having 2 to 20 carbon atoms or a divalent aromatic group having 6 to 20 carbon atoms. The divalent aliphatic group having 2 to 20 carbon atoms or the aromatic group having 6 to 20 carbon atoms may have a substituent instead of a hydrogen atom. The divalent aliphatic group here refers to alkylene, substituted alkylene, alkenylene, substituted alkenylene, alkynylene, substituted alkynylene or polyalkyleneoxy. Alkylene, substituted alkylene, alkenylene, and substituted alkenylene are preferred, more preferably alkylene and substituted alkylene. The divalent aliphatic group preferably has a chain structure, more preferably a straight-chain structure.

The divalent aliphatic group preferably contains 2 to 20, more preferably 2 to 15, even more preferably 2 to 12, especially preferably 2 to 10 carbon atoms.

Examples of substituents on the divalent aliphatic group include fluorine atoms, hydroxy, carboxy, amino, aryl, alkoxy, aryloxy, monoalkylamino and dialkylamino. The divalent aromatic group refers to a divalent monocyclic or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon group. Specific examples of the divalent aromatic group include, for example, 1 ,2-phenylene, 1 ,3-phenylene, 1 ,4-phenylene, biphenyl-4,4'-diyl, diphenylmethane-4,4'-diyl, 3,3'-dimethylbiphenyl-4,4'-diyl, 1 ,2-naphthalene, 1 ,5- naphthalene, and 2,6-naphthalene. Examples of substituents on the divalent aromatic group include the examples of substituents on the divalent aliphatic group listed above, as well as alkyl.

The divalent organic linker group L may contain one or more monovalent or divalent organopolysiloxane groups. According to a specific embodiment, the divalent organic linker group L contains one monovalent or divalent organopolysiloxane group. According to a further specific embodiment, the divalent organic linker group L contains 2 to 6, preferably 2 to 4 monovalent or divalent organopolysiloxane groups.

A monovalent organopolysiloxane group may be present as a substituent of the divalent hydrocarbyl group or as an end-capping group, and preferably is a group of the following formula (lb):

(lb) wherein

R 3 which may be the same or different, independently represents a linear C1-6, or a branched or cyclic C3-6 alkyl group group,

R 4 which may be the same or different when more than one R 4 is present,

independently represents a vinyl group, a vinylether group, a vinylester group, an aziridine group, an oxetane group, or represents a linear C1-6, or a branched or cyclic C3-6 alkyl group, or a further group of the formula (lb), and wherein a is an integer of from 0 to 50. A divalent organopolysiloxane group may be a group of the following formula (lb):

(lc)

wherein

R 3 which may be the same or different when more than one R 3 is present,

independently represents a linear C1-6, or a branched or cyclic C3-6 alkyl group,

R 4 which may be the same or different when more than one R 4 is present,

independently represents a vinyl group, a vinylether group, a vinylester group, an aziridine group, an oxetane group, or represents a linear C1-6, or a branched or cyclic C3-6 alkyl group, or a further monovalent group of the formula (lb), and

wherein b is an integer of from 0 to 50.

Preferably, a polysiloxane group may be selected from polydlalkylsiloxanes such as polydimethylsiloxane, polyethylmethylsiloxane or polydiethylsiloxane.

The divalent organopolysiloxane group may bridge two fragments of the divalent organic linker group or form a cyclic structure with a portion of the divalent organic linker group. According to a preferred embodiment, L is a divalent hydrocarbyl group which may contain one or more monovalent or divalent polysiloxane groups.

The divalent organic linker group may also contain one or more monovalent or divalent perfluorohydrocarbyl groups. The perfluorohydrocarbyl group is a hydrocarbyl group of which all hydrogen atoms are substituted by fluorine atoms.

According to a preferred embodiment, L is a divalent hydrocarbyl group which may contain one or more monovalent or divalent perfluorohydrocarbyl groups. The monovalent perfluorohydrocarbyl groups include alkyl and aryl perfluorocarbons; suitable perfluorohydrocarbyl groups are, for example, trifluoro methyl, pentafluoroethyl, pentafluorophenyl, and heptafluoronaphthyl. The aryl groups of the hydrocarbyl groups are preferably Ci-ie alkyl groups or C6-2o aryl or aralkyl groups.

Preferably, L is a polyalkylene group or a polyalkyleneoxide group, which groups may contain a monovalent or divalent polysiloxane groups, or L is a divalent group containing a combination of a polyalkylene group, a polyalkyleneoxide group, and a polysiloxane group.

A polyalkylene group may be a C2-20 polyalkylene group, more preferably, a C2-12 alkylene group such as an ethylene group, a propylene group, a butylene group, a pentylene group, a hexylene group, a heptylene group, an octylene group, a nonylene group, a decylene group, an undecylene group or a dodecylene group.

A polyalkylene oxide group may be a poly C2-6 alkylene oxide group such as a polyethylene oxide group, a polypropylene oxide group, a polybutylene oxide group a polypentylene oxide group or a polyhexylene oxide group. Preferably, the poly C2- 6 alkylene oxide group has 2 to 20 repeating units.

A divalent group containing a combination of a polyalkylene group, a

polyalkyleneoxide group, and polysiloxane group maybe a group of the following formula (Id):

wherein

m is an integer of from 0 to 20,

o is an integer of from 0 to 20,

p is an integer of from 1 to 40,

R 3 represents a linear C1-6, or a branched or cyclic C3-6 alkyl group group, R 4 represents a vinyl group, a vinyl ether group, a vinyl ester group, an aziridine group, an oxetane group or represents a linear C1-6, or a branched or cyclic C3-6 alkyl group group,

According to a preferred embodiment, L is a divalent organic linker group containing a divalent organopolysiloxane group. Preferably, the organopolysiloxane group contains a polymerizable group selected from vinylether, vinylester, oxetane, and aziridine groups.

In formula (I), n is an integer of at least 1. The integer n is preferably in the range of from 1 to 70. More preferably, n is in the range of from 2 to 20.

The polymerizable composition containing a compound having repeating units of formula (I) is obtainable by reacting a mixture comprising:

(a) x equivalents of one or more compounds of the following formula (I):

(II)

wherein

R is as defined above;

(b) y equivalents of a compound of the following formula (II):

HO— L— OH

(Ml)

wherein

L is as defined above; and

(c) optionally z equivalents of one or more compounds of the following

formula(IV) or (V):

R— COOH

(IV)

R- OH

(V) wherein

R 2 is an organic group which may contain one or more monovalent or divalent organopolysiloxane groups and/or one or more monovalent or divalent perfluorohydrocarbyl groups, and/or one or more polymerizable groups selected from (meth)acryloyl groups, (meth)acrylamido groups, vinylether groups, vinylester groups,

wherein 0.05 < x/y < 0.66, and 2y -2x < z < 1.5(2y -2x), wherein x, y, and z are the molar equivalents of components (a), (b) and (c).

R 2 is an organic group which may contain one or more monovalent or divalent organopolysiloxane groups and/or one or more monovalent or divalent

perfluorohydrocarbyl groups, and/or one or more polymerizable groups selected from (meth)acryloyl groups, (meth)acrylamido groups, vinylether groups, vinylester groups. According to a preferred embodiment, R 2 is an aromatic group. When R 2 is an aromatic group, the refractive index of the dental composition tends to increase. Preferably, the dental composition according to the present invention contains a polymerizable composition (i) having a refractive index of from 1.450 to 1.540.

The dental composition according to the present invention further one or more compounds copolymerizable with the compound having repeating units of formula (I). The one or more compounds copolymerizable with the compound having repeating units of formula (I) are selected from vinyl compounds. The vinyl compounds may be vinyl ethers and derivatives thereof, vinyl esters and derivatives thereof, vinylsiloxanes and derivatives thereof, as well as (meth) acrylamides and 1- alkenes having from 4 to 20 carbon atoms. Specific examples of vinyl ethers and derivatives thereof are selected from divinyl ether, ethylene glycol divinyl ether, diethylene glycol divinyl ether, triethyleneglycol divinyl ether, tetraethylene glycol divinyl ether, vinyl-2-chloroethyl ether, vinyl-n-butyl ether, 1 ,4- cyclohexanedimethanol divinyl ether, 1 ,4-cyclohexanediol divinyl ether, vinylglycidyl ether, bis(4-(vinyloxymethyl)cyclohexylmethyl)glutarate, tri(ethyleneglycol) divinyl ether, 1 ,4-butanediol divinyl ether, tetramethylene glycol divinyl ether, neopentyl glycol divinyl ether, trimethylol propane trivinyl ether, trimethylol ethane trivinyl ether, bis(4-(vinyloxy) butylisophthalate, hexanediol divinyl ether, pentaerythritol divinyl etherdivinyl ether, allylvinyl ether, methylvinyl ether, and ethylvinyl ether.

Vinyl esters and derivatives thereof, are obtainable by the esterification of an epoxy resin with an unsaturated monocarboxylic acid, and include vinyl acetate, vinyl benzoate, vinyl cinnamate, vinyl 4-tert-butylbenzoate, vinyl stearate, vinyl propionate, vinyl valerate, vinyl pivalate vinyl decanoate, divinyl ester allyl vinyl ester, adipic acid divinyl ester, tris(4-vinyloxy)butyl trimellilate, bis(4-(vinyloxy)butyl) terephthalate, tetraethylene glycol divinyl ether, pentaerythritol trivinyl ether, and butenyl vinyl ester.

Vinylsiloxanes and derivatives thereof may be selected from vinylpolysiloxanes and polyvinylpolysiloxanes such as monovinyldimethyl terminated

polydimethylpolysiloxane.

(Meth) acrylamides may be compounds of the following formulae:

Preferred acrylamides according to formulae (D), (E), (F) have the following formulae:

Most preferred are the following bisacrylamides:

N N'-diallyl-1 ,4- bisacrylamido-(2E)-but-2-en (BAABE) having the structural formula

and

N,N'-diethyl-1 ,3-bisacrylamido-propan (BADEP) having the structural formula

The vinyl compounds may also be selected from monofunctional monomers selected from 1-alkenes having from 4 to 20 carbon atoms and include the following: 1-butene; 1-pentene; 1-hexene; 1-heptene; 1-octene; 1-nonene; 1-decene; 1- dodecene; 1-tetradecene; 1 -hexadecene; 1-heptadecene; 1-octadecene; 2-methyl- 1-butene; 3,3-dimethyl-1-pentene; 2-methyl-1-heptene; 4,4-dimethyl-1-heptene; 3,3- dimethyl-1-hexene; 4-methyl-1-pentene; 1-eicosene; 1-docosene; 1-tetracosene; 1- hexacosene; 1-octacosene; 1 -triacontene; 1 -dotriacontene; 1 -tetratriacontene; 1- hexatriacontene; 1-octatriacontene; 1-tetracontene; 1-dotetracontene; 1- tetratetracontene; 1-hexatetracontene; 1-octatetracontene; 1-pentacontene;

1-hexacontene and mixtures thereof.

The dental composition according to the present invention further contains (iii) a polymerization initiator system. The polymerization initiator system (iii) may be any compound or system capable of initiating the polymerization of the polymerizable composition containing a compound having repeating units of formula (I).

A polymerization initiator system may be a binary or ternary system. A binary system may include a polymerization initiator and an electron donor compound, and a ternary system may further include a component capable of catalysing radical and/or cationic polymerization, in particular in case the composition contains cationically polymerizable groups such as a vinyl group, a vinyl ether group, a vinyl ester group, an aziridine group, an oxetane group. Examples of suitable catalysts are selected from an iodonium salt, a sulfonium salt, and a phosphonium salt, as for example described in US 5,545,676.

Suitable photoinitiators for the polymerization initiator system (ii) are Norrish type I and Norrish type II photoinitiators.

Suitable Norrish type I photoinitiators are phosphine oxides and Si- or Ge-acyl compounds.

Phosphine oxide photoinitiators may have a functional wavelength range of about 380 nm to about 450 nm, which include acyl and bisacyl phosphine oxides such as those described in US 4,298,738, US 4,324,744 US and 4,385,109 and EP 0 173 567. Specific examples of the acylphosphine oxides include 2,4,6- trimethylbenzoyldiphenylphosphine oxide, bis(2,4,6- trimethylbenzoyl)phenylphosphine oxide, dibenzoylphenylphosphine oxide, bis(2,6- dimethoxybenzoyl)phenylphosphine oxide, tris(2,4-dimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide, tris(2-methoxybenzoyl)phosphine oxide, 2,6- dimethoxybenzoyldiphenylphosphine oxide, 2,6-dichlorobenzoyldiphenylphosphine oxide, 2,3,5,6-tetramethylbenzoyldiphenylphosphine oxide, benzoyl-bis(2,6- dimethylphenyl)phosphonate, and 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoylethoxyphenylphosphine oxide. Commercially available phosphine oxide photoinitiators capable of free- radical initiation when irradiated at wavelength ranges of greater than about 380 nm to about 450 nm include bis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phenyl phosphine oxide (IRGACURE 819), bis(2,6-dimethoxybenzoyl)-(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphine oxide (CGI 403), a 25:75 mixture, by weight, of bis(2,6-dimethoxybenzoyl)-2,4,4- trimethylpentyl phosphine oxide and 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-phenylpropan-1-one (IRGACURE 1700), a 1 :1 mixture, by weight, of bis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phenyl phosphine oxide and 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-phenylpropane-1-one (DAROCUR 4265), and ethyl 2,4,6-trimethylbenzylphenyl phosphinate (LUCIRIN LR8893X). Typically, the phosphine oxide initiator is present in the composition in catalytically effective amounts, such as from 0.1 percent by weight to 5.0 percent by weight, based on the total weight of the composition.

Si- or Ge-acyl compound photoinitiators preferably have the following formula (X):

X p -R p

(X)

wherein

X p is a group of the following formula (XI):

2

FT O

11 1

R— M-

R 10

(XI)

wherein

M is Si or Ge;

R 10 represents a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl or

hydrocarbylcarbonyl group;

R 11 represents a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl or

hydrocarbylcarbonyl group;

R 12 represents a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl group; and R p (i) has the same meaning as X p , whereby the compound of formula (X) may be symmetrical or unsymmetrical; or (ϋ) is a group of the following formula (XII): p— -Y-R 13

O

(XII)

wherein

Y p represents a single bond, an oxygen atom or a group NR', wherein R' represents a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl group;

R 13 represents a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl group, a trihydrocarbylsilyl group, a

mono(hydrocarbylcarbonyl)dihydrocarbylsilyl group or a di(hydrocarbylcarbonyl)monohydrocarbylsilyl group; or (iii) when M is Si, R p may be a substituted or unsubstituted

hydrocarbyl group.

Photoinitiator compounds of formula (X) represent polymerization initiators which are particularly suitable for dental compositions. Compounds of formula (X) provide a high polymerization efficiency, and coloration problems are avoided. Moreover, in a polymerization system comprising a conventional photoinitiator such as camphor quinone, coloration is efficiently suppressed. Furthermore, compounds of formula (X) have a light absorption within the wavelength range typically applied in dental application, they are compatible with the ingredients of dental compositions and besides, they are considered physiologically harmless. Therefore, compounds of formula (X) are particularly preferred as photoinitiators.

In connection with compound of formula (X), the term "substituted" as used herein means that R 10 , R 11 , R 12 , R 3 and R ' may be substituted by a substituent selected from the group consisting of halogen atoms, a nitro group, a cyano group, a hydroxy group, an amino group, C1-6 alkyl groups, Ci-e alkoxy groups and a -NR x R y group wherein R x and R y independently from each other represent a C1-6 alkyl group. Here, illustrative of the halogen atoms can be fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine. The C1-6 alkyl groups are, for example, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl and n-butyl. Illustrative of the C1-6 alkoxy groups are, for example, methoxy, ethoxy and propoxy. The alkyl moieties in these substituents may be linear, branched or cyclic.

Preferably, the substituent is selected from a chlorine atom, a nitro group, a C1-4 alkoxy group and a -NR x R y group wherein R x and R y independently from each other represent a C1-4 alkyl group.

If R 10 , R 11 and R 12 are substituted, then it is preferred that they are substituted with 1 to 3 substituents, more preferably with 1 substituent.

In the compound of formula (X), moieties R 0 , R and R 12 may be defined as follows:

R 10 and R 1 independently from each other represent a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl or hydrocarbylcarbonyl group, and R 12 represents a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl group.

The hydrocarbyl group may be an alkyl group, a cycloalkyl group, a cycloalkylalkyl group, an arylalkyl group or an aryl group.

An alkyl group may be straight-chain or branched C1-20 alkyl group, typically a C1-8 alkyl group. Examples for a Ci-6 alkyl group can include linear or branched alkyl groups having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, preferably 1 to 4 carbon atoms, for example, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, n-pentyl, isopentyl and n-hexyl.

A cycloalkyl group may be a C3-20 cycloalkyl group, typically a C3-8 cycloalkyl group. Examples of the cycloalkyl group can include those having 3 to 6 carbon atoms, for example, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl and cyclohexyl.

A cycloalkylalkyl group may have 4 to 20 carbon atoms and may include a combination of a linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms and a cycloalkyl group having 3 to 14 carbon atoms. Examples of the cycloalkylalkyl(-) group can for example, include methylcyclopropyl(-) methylcyclobutyl(-), methylcyclopentyl(-), methylcyclohexyl(-), ethylcyclopropyl(-), ethylcyclobutyl(-), ethylcyclopentyl(-), ethylcyclohexyl(-), propylcyclopropyl(-), propylcyclobutyl(-), propylcyclopentyl(-), propylcyclohexyl(-).

An arylalkyl(-) group may be a C7-20 arylalkyl(-) group, typically a combination of a linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms and an aryl(-) group having 6 to 10 carbon atoms. Specific examples of an arylalkyl(-) group are a benzyl(-) group or a phenylethyl(-) group.

An aryl group can include aryl groups having 6 to 10 carbon atoms. Examples of the aryl group are phenyl and naphtyl.

The hydrocarbylcarbonyl groups of R 10 and R 1 1 represent acyl groups (Rorg-(C=0)-) in which the organic residue Rorg is a hydrocarbyl residue as defined above.

Compound of formula (X) may contain one or two hydrocarbylcarbonyl groups, that is either one of R 0 or R 11 is a hydrocarbylcarbonyl group, or both R 0 and R 1 1 are hydrocarbylcarbonyl groups. Preferably, compound of formula (X) contains one hydrocarbylcarbonyl group.

Preferably, the hydrocarbylcarbonyl group is an arylcarbonyl group, more preferably a benzoyl group.

Preferably, R 10 and R 1 1 are independently selected from the group consisting of a straight chain or branched C1-6 alkyl group, and a phenyl or benzoyl group which may optionally be substituted by one to three substituents selected from halogen atoms, a nitro group, a C1-4 alkoxy group and a -NR x Ry group wherein R x and R y independently from each other represent a C1-4 alkyl group, and R 12 is a straight chain or branched C1-6 alkyl group or a phenyl group.

Most preferably, R 10 and R 1 1 are independently selected from the group consisting of a straight chain or branched C1-4 alkyl group, and a phenyl or benzoyl group which may optionally be substituted with one substituent selected from the group consisting of selected from a halogen atom, a nitro group, a C1-4 alkoxy group and a -NR x R y group wherein R x and R y independently from each other represent a C1-4 alkyl group, and R 2 is a straight chain or branched C1-4 alkyl group.

In the compound of formula (X), R p may have the same meaning as X p , whereby the compound of formula (X) may be symmetrical or unsymmetrical. Alternatively, R p may represent a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl group, or a group of formula (XII). Preferably, if R p has the same meaning as X p , then compound of formula (X) is unsymmetrical. If R p represents a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl group, then the hydrocarbyl group has the same meaning as defined above for R 6 and is independently selected therefrom.

In the group of formula (XII) of compound of formula (X), R 13 represents a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl group, a trihydrocarbylsilyl group, a mono(hydrocarbylcarbonyl)-dihydrocarbylsilyl group or a

di(hydrocarbylcarbonyl)monohydrocarbylsilyl group.

If R 13 of formula (XII) is a trihydrocarbylsilylgroup, a mono(hydrocarbylcarbonyl)- dihydrocarbylsilyl group or a di(hydrocarbylcarbonyl)monohydrocarbylsilyl group, each of the hydrocarbyl and hydrocarbylcarbonyl groups has the same meaning as defined for R 10 , R 1 and R 12 and is independently selected therefrom.

In formula (XII), R' has the same meaning as defined for R 12 and is independently selected therefrom.

If M is Si in compound of formula (X), R p may be also be a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl group, wherein the hydrocarbyl group has the same meaning as defined above for R 2 and is independently selected therefrom.

For example, compounds of formula (X) wherein R p has the same meaning as X p and which are symmetrical may be have the following structural formulae:

For example, compounds of formula (X) wherein R p represents a group of formula (XII) wherein Y p is a bond, an oxygen atom or a NR ' group, and R 13 represents a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl group may have the following structural

For example, compounds of formula (X) wherein R p represents a group of formula (XII) wherein R 13 represents a trihydrocarbylsilyl group have the following structural formulae:

For example, compounds of formula (X) wherein M is Si and R p represents a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl group, may have the following structural formulae:

Preferably, compound of formula (X) is selected from the group consisting of:

wherein compounds of formula (X) with M = Si are particularly preferred.

Most preferably, compound of formula (X) is selected from the group consisting of: compound of formula (X) is selected from the group consisting of:

wherein it is particularly preferred that M = Si.

Suitable Norrish type II photoinitiators are for example combinations of sensitizer compounds such as monoketones and diketones that absorb some light within a range of about 250 nm to about 520 nm (preferably, about 450 nm to about 500 nm) with a coinitiator. Particularly suitable sensitizer compounds include alpha diketones that have some light absorption within a range of about 250 nm to about 520 nm (even more preferably, about 450 to about 500 nm). Examples of sensitizer compounds include camphor quinone, benzil, furil, 3,3,6,6-tetramethylcyclo- hexanedione, phenanthraquinone, 1-phenyl-1 ,2-propanedione and other 1-aryl-2- alkyl-1 ,2-ethanediones, and cyclic alpha diketones. Suitable coinitiators are electron donor compounds including substituted amines, e.g., ethyl dimethylaminobenzoate or dimethylamino benzonitrile, or a polymerizable compound having CH-acidity such as the present polymerizable compounds of formula (IV).

Tertiary amine reducing agents may be used in combination with an acylphosphine oxide Examples of suitable aromatic tertiary amine include N,N-dimethylaniline, N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine, N,N-dimethyl-m-toluidine, N,N-diethyl-p-toluidine, N,N- dimethyl-3,5-dimethylaniline, N,N-dimethyl-3,4-dimethylaniline, N,N-dimethyl-4- ethylaniline, N,N-dimethyl-4-isopropylaniline, N,N-dimethyl-4-t-butylaniline, N,N- dimethyl-3,5-di-t-butylaniline, N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-3,5-dimethylaniline, N,N- bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-p-toluidine, N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-3,4-dimethylaniline, N,N- bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-ethylaniline, N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-isopropylaniline, N,N- bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-t-butylaniline, N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-3,5-di-isopropylaniline, N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-3,5-di-t-butylaniline, 4-N,N-dimethylaminobenzoic acid ethyl ester, 4-N,N-dimethylaminobenzoic acid methyl ester, 4-N,N-dimethylaminobenzoic acid n-butoxyethyl ester, 4-N,N-dimethylaminobenzoic acid 2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl ester, 4-N,N-dimethylaminobenzophenone ethyl 4-(N,N- dimethylamino)benzoate and Ν,Ν-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate. Examples of an aliphatic tertiary amine include trimethylamine, triethylamine, N- methyldiethanolamine, N-ethyldiethanolamine, N-n-butyldiethanolamine, N- lauryldiethanolamine, triethanolamine, 2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate, N- methyldiethanolamine dimethacrylate, N-ethyldiethanolamine dimethacrylate, triethanolamine monomethacrylate, triethanolamine dimethacrylate, and

triethanolamine trimethacrylate.

The amine reducing agent may be present in the composition in an amount from 0.1 percent by weight to 5.0 percent by weight, based on the total weight of the composition.

In case the dental composition is in the form of an acidic composition, that is a composition having a pH of less than 7, depending on the composition ' s pH level, it is preferred to select compounds of formula (X) with the proviso that they do not contain ester groups, or at least only ester groups which do not significantly hydrolyse in aqueous media at pH 3 at room temperature within one month.

Thereby, an advantageous stability of an acidic dental composition, that is a composition having a pH of less than 7, in terms of shelf-life stability of the uncured dental composition as well as stability after curing in the mouth of a patient is ensured. Therefore, for acidic dental compositions, particularly preferred are compounds of formula (X) excluding R p being a group of formula (XII) in which Y p is an oxygen atom.

Furthermore, since the acylsilyl moiety (-C(=0)-Si-) might be sensitive to basic conditions, that is a pH higher than 7, it is preferred to suitably select a pH value of the composition being higher than 7 with the proviso that the acylsilyl moiety is not cleaved in aqueous media at the selected basic pH at room temperature within one month.

The compound of the formula (X) may be a known compound which is commercially available or a may be prepared according to published procedures.

The compound of formula (X) wherein M is Si and R p represents a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl group may for example be readily prepared by means of a one-step Pd-catalyzed reaction with a disilane as described e.g. by Yamamoto K. et al., J. Tetrahedron Lett, 1980, vol. 21 , pages 1653 to 1656:

Scheme 3: Preparation of acylsilanes

In Scheme 3, the reaction is exemplary depicted with hexamethylsilan as the disilane, whereby a compound of formula (X) wherein R 0 , R and R 12 represent a methyl group is obtained. It is understood that R 10 , R 11 and R 12 can be varied by applying disilanes having hydrocarbon substituents other than methyl.

The compound of formula (X) wherein R p represents a group of formula (XII) in which Y p is an oxygen atom and R 13 represents a hydrocarbyl group may for example be prepared by a three-step synthesis as described by Nicewicz D.A. et al. in Org. Synth., 2008, 85, pages 278 to 286. In this three-step synthesis, an acetoacetate is converted to an azide compound, which is then reacted with a trihydrocarbylsilyltrifluoromethane-sulfonate to obtain a trihydrocarbylsilyldiazoacetate, which is finally reacted with potassium peroxymonosulfate to arrive at the target compound:

i-Pr 2 NEt + t-BuMe 2 SiOS0 2 CF 3

Et 2 0

Scheme 4: Preparation of silylglyoxylates

In Scheme 4, the reaction is exemplary depicted for obtaining a compound of formula (X) wherein in X p of formula (X), R 10 and R 11 represent a methyl group, and R 12 represents a tert-butyl group. It is understood that R 10 , R 1 and R 12 can be varied by applying a trihydrocarbylsilyltrifluoromethane-sulfonate other than t- BuMeSiOS02CF 3 .

Alternatively, compounds of formula (X) wherein M is Si, R p represents a group of formula (XII) and Y p represents an oxygen atom may be prepared by a single-pot three-component coupling reaction of a silylglyoxylate, a terminal alkyne and an aldehyde in the presence of Zn and Et3N as described by Nicewicz D.A. in J. Am. Chem. Soc, 2005, 127 (17), pages 6170 to 6171. Further syntheses of

silylglyoxylate compounds are described e.g. by Boyce G.R. et al. in J. Org. Chem., 2012, 77 (10), pages 4503 to 4515 and Boyce G.R. et al. in Org. Lett., 2012, 14 (2), pages 652 to 655.

For example, the following compounds of formula (X) are known and commercially available, and their Chemical Abstracts (CAS) No. is given in brackets:

benzoyltriphenylsilane (1 171 -49-9), benzoyltrimethylsilan (5908-41-8), 1- [(trimethylsilyl) carbonylj-naphthalene (88313-80-8), 1-methoxy-2-[(trimethylsilyl)- carbonyl]- benzene (107325-71 -3). (4-chlorobenzoyl) (triphenyl) silane (1 172-90-3), (4-nitrobenzoyl) (triphenyl) silane (1 176-24-5), (methyldiphenylsilyl)phenyl- methanone (18666-54-1 ), (4-methoxybenzoyl) triphenylsilan (1 174-56-7) and tert- butyl (tert-butyldimethylsilyl)glyoxylate (852447-17-7).

All compounds of formula (X) comprise the group of formula (XI)

R 12 O

-J1

R— M-

(XI).

In formula (XI), M, R 10 , R 11 and R 12 are defined as above. Depending on the selection of M, the group of formula (XI) represents an acylsilane or acylgermane group. Upon exposure to UV-VIS-light, the bond between M and the acyl group may be cleaved, whereby a silyl/germanyl and an acyl radical is formed as a

polymerization initiating structure, but in competition to the cleavage into to radicals, a carbene structure might be formed:

R

R"

Scheme 5: Carbene formation versus radical formation

This competition between the formation of polymerization initiating radicals and carbene formation is described for acylsiianes by EI-Roz, M. et al. in Current Trends in Polymer Science, 20 1 , vol. 15, pages 1 to 13. Besides, in case in compound of formula (X) wherein R p has the same meaning as X p or is a group of formula (XII), the C-C bond of the 1 ,2-diketone moiety (-C(=0)- C(=0)-) may be cleaved upon exposure to UV-VIS-light into two acyl radicals. This cleavage is exemplary shown for compound of formula (X) wherein R p is a group of formula (XII) and Y p is an oxygen atom, that is for a glyoxylate (-0-C=0)-C(=0)-) compound:

R 1i-0 R"

Scheme 6: Cleavage of -0-C(=0)-C(=0)- moiety of a glyoxylate

Besides, in compound of formula (X), there is a third possibility for a radical cleavage in case R p is a compound of formula (XII) wherein Y p is an oxygen atom and R 13 is a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl group. Namely, an intra- or intermolecular hydrogen abstraction might occur, where a hydrogen radical is abstracted:

Scheme 7: Hydrogen abstraction (intra- or intermolecular)

Both the cleavage of a glyoxylate group and the hydrogen abstraction mechanism is known for photoinitiators which do not contain silicium or germanium, such as ethyl phenylglyoxylate (Irgacure ® MBF). For compounds of formula (X) wherein R p has the same meaning as X p or is a group of formula (XII), the present inventors carried out molecular modelling calculations from which it appears that a Si-C or Ge-C bond cleavage can be ruled out, since the C-C bond of the -C(=0)-C(=0)- moiety is weaker than the Si-C or Ge- C bond.

The photoinitiator system may further comprise diaryl iodonium salts, triaryl sulfonium salts and tetraaryl or tetraalkyi phosphonium salts. These salts may serve as a coinitiator for improving the polymerization performance of the photoinitiator, but they may also serve as an initiator for cationic polymerization.

For example, diaryl iodonium salt may be selected from the group consisting of (4- methylphenyl)[4-(2-methylpropyl) phenyl] iodonium hexafluoroantimonate, include (4-methylphenyl)[4-(2-methylpropyl) phenyl] iodonium tetrafluoroborate,

diphenyliodonium (DPI) tetrafluoroborate, di(4-methylphenyl)iodonium (Me2-DPI) tetrafluoroborate, phenyl-4-methylphenyliodonium tetrafluoroborate, di(4- heptylphenyl)iodonium tetrafluoroborate, di(3-nitrophenyl)iodonium

hexafluorophosphate, di(4-chlorophenyl)iodonium hexafluorophosphate,

di(naphthyl)iodonium tetrafluoroborate, di(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)iodonium tetrafluoroborate, DPI hexafluorophosphate, Me2-DPI hexafluorophosphate; DPI hexafluoroarsenate, di(4-phenoxyphenyl)iodonium tetrafluoroborat, phenyl-2- thienyliodonium hexafluorophosphate, 3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl-4-phenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate, DPI hexafluoroantimonate, 2,2'-DPI tetrafluoroborate, di(2,4- dichlorophenyl)iodonium hexafluorophosphate, di(4-bromophenyl)iodonium hexafluorophosphate, di(4-methoxyphenyl)iodonium hexafluorophosphate, di(3- carboxyphenyl)iodonium hexafluorophosphate, di(3- methoxycarbonylphenyl)iodonium hexafluorophosphate, di(3- methoxysulfonylphenyl)iodonium hexafluorophosphate, di(4- acetamidophenyl)iodonium hexafluorophosphate, di(2-benzothienyl)iodonium hexafluorophosphate, and DPI hexafluorophosphate.

Particularly preferred iodonium compounds include diphenyliodonium (DPI) hexafluorophosphate, di(4-methylphenyl)iodonium (Me2-DPI) hexafluorophosphate, diaryliodonium hexafluoroantimonate, (4-methylphenyl)[4-(2-methylpropyl) phenyl] iodonium hexafluoroantimonate, (4-methylphenyl)[4-(2- methylpropyl)phenyl]iodonium hexafluorophosphate (Irgacure ® 250, commercial product available from BASF SE), (4-methylphenyl)[4-(2-methylpropyl) phenyl] iodonium tetrafluoroborate, 4-octyloxyphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate, 4-(2-hydroxytetradecyloxyphenyl)phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate, and 4- isopropyl-4'-methyldiphenyliodonium borate.

According to a particularly preferred embodiment, the iodonium compound is DPI hexafluorophosphate and/or 4-isopropyl-4'-methyldiphenyliodonium

tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl) borate.

A preferred triaryl sulfonium salt is S-(phenyl)thianthrenium hexafluorophosphate of the following formula:

PFe.

Particularly preferred phosphonium salts are the tetraalkyl phosphonium salts tetrakis-(hydroxymethyl)-phosphonium (THP) salt or a tetrakis-(hydroxymethyl)- phosphonium hydroxide (THPOH) salt, wherein the anion of the tetraalkyl phosphonium salt is selected from the group consisting of formate, acetate, phosphate, sulphate, fluoride, chloride, bromide and iodide.

A particularly preferred photoinitiator system comprises a photoinitiators of formula (X), optionally in addition with camphor quinone, in combination with a diaryl iodonium salt, triaryl sulfonium salt or a tetraaryl or tetraalkyl phosphonium salt as described above. Preferably, the polymerization initiator is contained in an amount of from 0.01 to 10 percent based on the total weight of the composition. The amount of the

polymerization initiator to be added in the present invention is not particularly limited. Preferably, 0.01 to 10 parts by weight of the polymerization initiator per 100 parts by weight of the polymerizable composition may be used. When the amount of the polymerization initiator is less than 0.01 part by weight, polymerization may not proceed sufficiently and thereby mechanical strength may be reduced. Therefore, the amount is more preferably at least 0.1 part by weight. On the other hand, when the amount of the polymerization initiator exceeds 10 parts by weight, in the case where the polymerization initiator itself has low polymerization performance, sufficient mechanical strength may not be obtained and furthermore precipitation from the composition may occur.

The dental composite of the present invention may further contain a polymerization accelerator. Examples of the polymerization accelerator are amines and sulfinic acids and salts thereof.

The present invention also provides a process for the preparation of a polymerizable composition for use in a dental composition, which comprises reacting a mixture comprising:

(a) x equivalents of one or more compounds of the following formula (I):

(II)

wherein

R 1 is as defined in claim 1 ;

y equivalents of a compound of the following formula (II):

HO— L— OH

(III)

wherein L is as defined in claim 1 ; and

(c) optionally z equivalents of one or more compounds of the following formula (IV) or (V):

R— COOH

(IV)

R- OH

(V) wherein

R 2 independently is an organic group which may contain one or more monovalent or divalent organopolysiloxane groups and/or one or more monovalent or divalent perfluorohydrocarbyl groups, and/or one or more polymerizable groups selected from (meth)acryloyl groups, (meth)acrylamido groups, vinylether groups, vinylester groups, aziridine, epoxide groups and oxetane groups,

wherein 0.05 < x/y < 0.66, and 2y -2x < z < 1.5(2y -2x), wherein x, y, and z are the molar equivalents of components (a), (b) and (c).

According to the present invention, reaction of difunctional components (a) and (b) provide a step-growth oligomerization or polymerization forming a linear molecule wherein molecular blocks A derived from a molecule of formula (II) alternate with molecular blocks (b) derived from a molecule of formula (III). Depending on the stoichiometry, the resulting molecular chain has terminal groups derived from component (a) or (b). Accordingly, in case a stoichiometric excess of component (b) is used, 0.05 < x/y < 0.5, the terminal groups are hydroxyl groups. Alternatively, in case a stoichiometric excess of component (a) is used, 0.5 < x y < 0.66, the terminal groups are carboxylic acid groups. The terminal groups may be further reacted with end-capping groups. In case the terminal groups are hydroxyl groups, a monocarboxylic acid or an anhydride thereof may be used as an end-capping agent. In case the terminal groups are carboxylic acid groups, a monofunctional alcohol may be used as an end-capping agent. Component (a) is preferably maleic anhydride. The anhydride used as component (a) in the process of the present invention is most preferably pure maleic anhydride. However, other maleic anhydride analogs can be utilized such as methylmaleic anhydride, fluoromaleic anhydride and the like.

Component (b) preferably is selected from a straight-chain or branched diol such as 1 ,6-hexanediol, 1 ,10-decanediol, 2-methylpropan-1 ,3-diol, 2,2-dimethylpropan-1 ,3- diol 2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9-hexadecafluoro-1 ,10-decanediol, 1 ,3-bis(4- hydroxybutyl)tetramethyldisiioxane.

The reaction may be carried out by mixing, preferably during heating, of

components (a), (b) and optionally (c) in a reaction vessel and reacting the mixture in a single step for providing a polymerizable composition of the present invention.

Alternatively, the reaction may be carried out by mixing components (a) and (b) for providing a first mixture and reacting the first mixture in a first step, and

subsequently adding component (c) the reaction product of the first step for providing a second mixture and then reacting the second mixture for providing a polymerizable composition of the present invention.

The reaction time is not particularly limited and may be selected in the range from 30 minutes to 48 hours. Preferably, the reaction time is selected in the range of from 1 hours to 12 hours, more preferably, from 2 hours to 10 hours.

The reaction temperature is not particularly limited and may be selected in the range from ambient temperature to the boiling temperature of the mixture. Preferably, the reaction temperature is selected in the range of from 50 °C to the 180 °C, more preferably from 70 °C to 150 °C.

The reaction pressure is not particularly limited and may be selected in the range from ambient pressure to an elevated pressure. Preferably, the reaction pressure is ambient pressure. The reaction may be carried out in the presence or absence of a solvent. Suitable solvent may be selected from aprotic solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide, toluene, DMF, and ethyleneglycol dimethyl ether. Preferably, the reaction is carried out in the absence of a solvent.

The reaction may be carried out in the presence of a catalyst. A suitable catalyst such as Bi(OTf)3 may be used in order to facilitate the reaction. If necessary, the catalyst may also be a phase transfer catalyst. A suitable phase transfer catalyst may be selected from quaternary ammonium and phosphonium salts. Specifically, the phase transfer catalyst may be triethylbenzyl ammonium chloride,

benzyltrimethyl ammonium chloride and hexadecyltributylphosphonium bromide. Preferably, triethylbenzyl ammonium chloride may be used.

The amount of the catalyst is not particularly limited and may be selected in a range of from 0.01 to 5 percent by weight, more preferably 0.1 to 3 percent by weight, based on the total weight of components (a), (b), and (c) present in the reaction mixture.

According to the present invention the molar equivalents wherein x, y, and z of components (a), (b) and (c), respectively are selected to be 0.05 < x/y < 0.66, and 2y -2x < z < 1.5(2y -2x). In case 0.05 < x/y < 0.5, the end-capping component (c) is selected from one or more carboxylic acid compounds of the formula (IV). In case 0.5 < x/y < 0.66, the end-capping component (c) is selected from one or more carboxylic acid compounds of the formula (IV).

The end-capping component (c) may be one or more compounds of the following formula (IV)

R— COOH

(IV) wherein R 2 independently is an organic group which may contain one or more monovalent or divalent organopolysiloxane groups and/or one or more monovalent or divalent perfluorohydrocarbyl groups, and/or one or more polymerizable groups selected from (meth)acryloyl groups, (meth)acrylamido groups, vinylether groups, vinylester groups, aziridine, epoxide groups and oxetane groups.

The end-capping component (c) may be one or more compounds of the following formula (V):

R- OH

(V) wherein R 2 independently is an organic group which may contain one or more monovalent or divalent organopolysiloxane groups and/or one or more monovalent or divalent perfluorohydrocarbyl groups, and/or one or more polymerizable groups selected from (meth)acryloyl groups, (meth)acrylamido groups, vinylether groups, vinylester groups, aziridine, epoxide groups and oxetane groups.

The organic group may be an alicyclic group, an aromatic group, or a siloxane group or a combination thereof. Moreover, the organic group may contain one or more divalent organopolysiloxane groups and/or one or more divalent divalent

perfluorohydrocarbyl groups. The organic group may also be substituted by one or more organopolysiloxane groups and/or perfluorohydrocarbyl groups, and/or one or more polymerizable groups selected from (meth)acryloyl groups, (meth)acrylamido groups, vinylether groups, vinylester groups, aziridine, epoxide groups and oxetane groups. Specific examples of the end-capping group R 2 are a vinyl group, a

(meth)acryloyl group, a (meth)acrylamido group, a vinylether group, a vinylester group, an aziridine group, an epoxide group and an oxetane group.

When component (c) is present in the reaction mixture, the reaction may be carried out in the presence of an inhibitor. The inhibitor may be any conventionally known inhibitor which does not interfere with the desired reaction. The inhibitor may be selected from 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)

Preferably, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol may be used.

The amount of the inhibitor is not particularly limited and may be selected in a range of from 0.001 to 0.5 percent by weight, more preferably 0.01 to 0.3 percent by weight, based on the total weight of components (a), (b), and (c) present in the reaction mixture.

The obtained terminated macromonomer may be soluble in organic solvents such as chloroform, DMF and THF and in reactive diluents such as triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate.

The present invention further provides a polymerizable composition obtainable by the process of the present invention. Preferably, the polymerizable composition according to the present invention has a dynamic viscosity at 23 °C of from 1 to 2000, more preferably 2 to 1500 Pas. Preferably, the polymerizable composition according to the present invention has a refractive index of from 1.450 to 1.540.

The present invention also provides a polymerizable composition obtainable by the process of the present invention. The polymerizable composition may be the direct product of the process and can be used as is for the preparation of a dental composition. Alternatively, the polymerizable composition may be obtained by the process of the present invention and a further purification step.

Preferably, the polymerizable composition comprises polymerizable macromonomer of the following formula (VI):

(VI)

wherein

m is an integer of from 0 to 20,

o is an integer of from 0 to 20,

p is an integer of from 1 to 40,

R 1 represents a hydrogen atom or a linear C1-6, branched C2-6 or cyclic C3- 6 alkyl group,

R 3 represents a linear C1-6, branched C2-6 or cyclic C3-6 alkyl group, R 4 represents a vinyl group, an aziridine group, an oxetane group or a linear C1-6, branched C2-6 or cyclic C3-6 alky! group, and

wherein n is an average chain length which is in the range of from 1 to 50.

The polymerizable macromonomer of the formula (VI) may be used in a dental composition. Preferably, the dental composition is a dental impression material, a flowable dental composite, a universal dental composite, a packable dental composite or a pit and fissure sealer.

The dental impression material or the dental composite of the present invention may contain further polymerizable monomers other than reaction product of components (a), (b), and (c). The polymerizable monomers may be mono-, bi-, tri- or

polyfunctional monomers.

The total amount of the polymerizable monomers contained in the dental impression material or the dental composite besides the polymerizable composition containing macromers is preferably in the range of from 1 part to 100 part by weight per 100 part by weight of the reaction product of components (a), (b), and (c) of the polymerizable composition.

The dental impression material preferably further comprises a filler. The filler is an ingredient for adjusting the viscosity and flowability of the dental impression material before curing and the strength after curing. A filler may be included in a range of from 0.1 to 2 part by weight per 1 part by weight of the curable matrix. Illustrative examples of the filler include reinforcing fillers such as calcium carbonate, wet finely powdered silica, fumed silica, crystalline silica, carbon black, red iron oxide, cerium oxide, titanium oxide, and aluminum hydroxide; and fillers obtained by

hydrophobizing the surface of these fillers with an organosilicon compound. The dental composite of the present invention may further contain a pH adjuster, an ultraviolet absorber, an antioxidant, a polymerization inhibitor, a colorant, an antibacterial agent, an X-ray contrast agent, a thickening agent, a fluorescent agent.

The dental composite of the present invention may further contain a fluorine ion sustained-releasable filler, such as sodium fluoride, calcium fluoride,

fluoroaluminosilicate glass, or sodium monofluorophosphate.

The dental composite may contain an antimicrobial agent. The antimicrobial agent may be a surfactant having an antibacterial activity, such as 12- (meth)acryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide or cetylpyridinium chloride.

The present invention will now be further illustrated based on the following examples.

Examples

Materials: Maleic anhydride (purity 95% or 99 %), 1 ,6-hexanediol (HEX, purity 97% or 99%), 1 ,10-decanediol (DEC, purity 98%), 2,2-dimethylpropane-1 ,3-diol (NPG, purity 99%), monoethyl fumarate (purity 95 %), 2-methyl-1 ,3-propanediol (purity 99%), Bi(OTf)3, 1 ,4-butanediol divinyl ether (BDDVE, purity 98%), triethylenglycol divinyl ether (TEGDVE, purity 98%), 1 ,3-bis(4-hydroxybutyl)tetramethyldisiloxane ( purity >97%) and 2,2 ) 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9-hexadecafluoro-1 ,10-decanediol (purity 97%) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich.

Butylated hydroxytoluene was purchased from F. B. SILBERMANN GmbH & Co. KG.

Camphorquinone and ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (DMABE) were purchased from PCM Products GmbH.

Divinyl adipate (DVA; purity > 99%) was purchased from TCI Deutschland GmbH.

Synthesis of UP-Resins Preparation Example 1 (MEW-01-003-02)

In a 100 mL round bottom flask within a Tornado™ Overhead Stirring System from Radley's, 10 g (0.1020 mol) of maleic anhydride and 12.40 g (0.1049 mol) of 1 ,6- hexanediol were heated up to 180°C (heating bath temperature). The mixture was stirred for 6 h at 180°C and 300 mbar. After cooling down, the remaining water was removed in vacuum at 40°C. A yellowish, clear liquid was obtained. The IR spectrum is shown in Fig. 1.

η = 38.1 Pa * s

IR (cm- 1 ): 1717 (ester C=O)

Preparation Example 2 (MEW-01-026-01)

In a 100 mL round bottom flask with a magnetic stir bar and a distillation bridge to remove the produced water, 10 g (0.1020 mol) of maleic anhydride and 18.168 g (0.1042 mol) of 1 ,10-decanediol were heated to 180°C (heating bath temperature). The reaction mixture was stirred for 6 h at 180°C. After cooling down, the remaining water was removed in vacuum at 40°C. A colorless, clear liquid was obtained which became cloudy after some days,

η = 8.6 Pa*s

IR (cm- 1 ): 1720 (ester C=O)

Preparation Example 3 (MEW-01-112-01)

In a three neck flask with a mechanical stirrer, a gastight magnetic stirrer head and a distillation bridge, 40.404 g (0.4079 mol) of maleic anhydride, 45.172 g (0.4294 mol) of 2,2-dimethylpropane-1 ,3-diol and 89.9 mg (0.4079 mmol) of butylated hydroxytoluene were heated to 160°C (heating bath temperature). After 1 h of stirring at 160°C, a vacuum of 950 mbar was set. After another hour, 179.8 mg (0.8158 mmol) of butylated hydroxytoluene were added and the reaction mixture was stirred for 13 h at 160°C and 950 mbar.

η = 85.7 Pa*s

Conversion of 2,2-dimethylpropane-1 ,3-diol according to NMR: 76.3% 1 H NMR (CDCb, 400 MHz) δ (ppm) = 6.92 - 6.80 (m, HC=CH fumarate, 0.38H), 6.44 - 6.28 (m, HC=CH-COOH, 0.71 H), 6.26 (s, HC=CH maleate, 0.69H), 4.09 - 3.95 (m, CH 2 0, 3.02H), 3.52 (s, CH2OH starting material, 0.20H), 3.40 - 3.32 (m, CH2OH chain end, 0.74H), 1.01 (dt, C(CH 3 )2, 6H)

Preparation Example 4 (MEW-01-110-01)

In a 50 mL round bottom flask with a mechanical stirrer, 916.3 mg (9.25 mmol) of maleic anhydride, 4.639 g (9.74 mmol) of 2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9- hexadecafluoro-1 ,10-decanediol and 2.0 mg (0.0093 mmol) of butylated

hydroxytoluene were heated to 180°C (heating bath temperature). After 2h of stirring at 180°C, 4.1 mg (0.0185 mmol) of butylated hydroxytoluene were added and the reaction mixture was stirred for another hour at 180°C. After cooling down, an off- white solid was obtained which is soluble in tri(ethylene glycol) divinyl ether.

Preparation Example 5 (MEW-01-116-01)

In a 100 mL round bottom flask within a Tornado™ Overhead Stirring System from Radley's, 6.061 g (0.0612 mol) of maleic anhydride, 17.940 g (0.0644 mol) of 1 ,3- bis(4-hydroxybutyl)tetramethyldisiloxane and 27.0 mg (0.1224 mmol) of butylated hydroxytoluene were heated up to 180°C (heating bath temperature). The mixture was stirred for 2 h at 180°C and a colorless, clear liquid was obtained,

η = 0.536 Pa*s

Conversion of 1 ,3-bis(4-hydroxybutyl)tetramethyldisiloxane according to NMR:

72.5%

1 H NMR (CDCb, 400 MHz) δ (ppm) = 6.85 (s, HC=CH fumarate, 0.25H), 6.49-6.32 (m, HC=CH-COOH, 0.77H), 6.23 (s, HC=CH maleate, 0.80H), 4.32 - 4.25 (m, 77H), 4.18 (t, 2.10H), 3.90 - 3.86 (m, 0.08H), 3.70 - 3.62 (m, 1.0 H), 1.85 - 1.80 (m, 0.09H), 1.78 - 1.65 (m, 2.82H), 1.64 - 1.55 (m, 1.18H), 1.47 - 1.33 (m, 3.92H), 0.66 - 0.60 (m, 0.16H), 0.58 - 0.48 (m, 3.80H), 0.20 - 0.11 (m, 0.45H), 0.08 - 0.00 (s, 11.55H)

Preparation Example 6 (MEW-01-122-01_B)

In a 100 mL round bottom flask within a Tornado™ Overhead Stirring System from Radley's, 6.8721 g (0.0694 mol) of maleic anhydride, 9.1242 g (0.0867 mol) of 2,2- dimethylpropane-1 ,3-diol, 5.2632 g (0.0347 mol) of monoethyl fumarate and 22.9 mg (0.1041 mmol) of butylated hydroxytoluene were heated up to 180°C (heating bath temperature). After 1 h of stirring at 180°C, a vacuum of 800 mbar was set with a water jet pump. After another hour, 45.9 mg (0.2081 mmol) of butylated

hydroxytoluene were added and the reaction mixture was stirred for 22 h at 180°C and 800 mbar.

Conversion of 2,2-dimethylpropane-1 ,3-diol according to NMR: 99.2%

1H NMR (CDCI3, 400 MHz) δ (ppm) = 6.94 - 6.80 (m, HC=CH fumarate, 1.83H), 6.25 (s, HC=CH maleate, 0.29H), 4.25 (q, OCH2CH3, 0.29H), 4.1 1 - 3.95 (m, OCH2, 3.93H), 3.36 (s, CH2OH, 0.03H), 1.31 (t, OCH2CH3, 0.38H), 1.06 - 0.90 (m,

C(CH3)2, 6H)

Preparation Example 7 (MEW-01-081-01)

Synthesis according to: Kricheldorf, H. R.; Yashiro, T.; Weidner, S.; Macromolecules 2009, 42, 6433-6439

In a 250 mL round bottom flask within a Tornado™ Overhead Stirring System from Radley's, 40.404 g (0.4079 mol) of maleic anhydride, 38.1934 (0.4196 mol) of 2- methyl-1 ,3-propanediol and 1.338 g (2.040 mmol) of Bi(OTf)3 were heated to 80°C. After 1 h of stirring at 80°C, vacuum was increased with a water jet pump within 1 h to 12 mbar and the mixture was stirred for 22 h.

After cooling down, the resin was dissolved in DCM (900 mL) and extracted with 5% NaOH (6 x 100 mL). The combined aqueous phases were washed with DCM and the combined organic phases were washed with water. After drying with MgSO4, 57.72 mg of butylated hydroxytoluene were added and the solvent was evaporated, η = 1492 Pa*s

Conversion of 2-methyl-1 ,3-propanediol according to NMR: 92.8%

H NMR (CDCI3, 400 MHz) δ (ppm) = 6.26 (s, HC=CH maleate, 1.77H), 4.24 -4.00 (m, OCH2, 3.71 H), 3.60 - 3.46 (m, HOCH2, 0.29H), 2.32 - 2.18 (m, CHCH2O, 0.89H), 2.08 -1 .98 (m, CHCH2OH, 0.16H), 1.07 - 0.90 (m, CH3, 3H)

Application Examples

General Procedure of Copolymerisation The UP-resin was mixed with divinyl ether or divinyl ester. 1 mol % of the amount of double bonds of camphorquinone and 1.3 mol % of the amount of double bonds of DMABE were added. After obtaining a homogenous mixture, all formulations of Table 1 were cured with the Smart Lite Focus (Dentsply Sirona). Furthermore, photo-DSC (DSC 7b Perkin Elmer) measurements are summarized in Tabl.1.

Table 1 : Copolymerization of UP-resin with cross-linker

App. MEW- Diol Cross- Amount T Exposure Peak AH η at

Ex. 01- linker DB * [°C] time [min] [J/g] 23° C

XXX- [%] [min] [Pa*s]

01

1 025 HEX BD DVE 100 37 8.1 0.48 -26.00 1.46

2 031 HEX BD DVE 100 37 20.1 0.53 -45.00 5.6

3 035 HEX TEG 100 37 20.1 0.51 -40.83 38.75

DVE

4 035 HEX TEG 100 80 20.1 0.46 -63.01 38.75

DVE

5 047 DEC TEG 100 37 20.1 0.62 -49.98 6.77

DVE

6 091 _B NPG TEG 38 37 15.1 1.13 -26.87 29.2

DVE

7 091 H NPG DVA 39 37 15.1 0.76 -24.15 22.3

* Amount DB = Amount of double bonds in cross-linker compared to amount of double bonds in the UP-resin

Application Example 8 (MEW-01 -124-01)

1 g of an UP-resin with perfluorinated parts (MEW-01 -110-01 ) was dissolved in 0.307 g of triethylenglycol divinyl ether and mixed homogenously with 8 mg of camphorchinone and 9 mg of DMABE. The mixture was cured with a Smart Lite Focus and a brittle solid was obtained.

Application Example 9 and 10 (MEW-01 -125-01) The following mixtures were made with an UP-resin that obtains siloxane parts (MEW-01-1 16-01 ).

Table 2: Copolymerization of UP-siloxane resin with cross-linker

Application Example 9 10

(MEW-01-125-01 _A) (MEW-01-125-01 _C)

UP-resin (MEW-01-116-01) 4.998 g 2.000 g

TEG DVE 1.359 g -

DVA - 0.530 g

Camphorquinone 44 mg 18 mg

DMABE 66 mg 27 mg

The mixtures were cured with a Smart Lite Focus (Dentsply Sirona) within 20s resulting in hard solids.