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Title:
DEVICES AND METHOD CONFIGURED FOR PROVIDING SUPPORT FOR BACK-HAUL TRAFFIC IN COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2011/020496
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention refers to injecting of backhaul traffic from a core network towards a mobile node to a PDP context and/or EPS bearer at a network entity of a communications network, wherein the network entity is implemented in an intermediate node of the communications network and the network entity is configured to perform said injecting. In particular, the network entity is configured to inject the backhaul traffic to a tunnel, configured to carry the backhaul traffic to the mobile node.

Inventors:
TORRONEN JUHA OLAVI (FI)
Application Number:
PCT/EP2009/060685
Publication Date:
February 24, 2011
Filing Date:
August 18, 2009
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
NOKIA SIEMENS NETWORKS OY (FI)
TORRONEN JUHA OLAVI (FI)
International Classes:
H04W36/12; H04W40/36
Foreign References:
EP1653675A12006-05-03
EP1440537B12007-08-29
EP2034660A12009-03-11
Other References:
NOKIA: "MBMS aspects in SAE/LTE work", 3GPP DRAFT; R3-060652 (MBMS IN LTE), 3RD GENERATION PARTNERSHIP PROJECT (3GPP), MOBILE COMPETENCE CENTRE ; 650, ROUTE DES LUCIOLES ; F-06921 SOPHIA-ANTIPOLIS CEDEX ; FRANCE, vol. RAN WG3, no. Shanghai, China; 20060503, 3 May 2006 (2006-05-03), XP050159579
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
NOKIA SIEMENS NETWORKS OY et al. (Patent Administration, Munich, DE)
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Claims:
CLAIMS :

1. A network entity, the network entity being implemented in an intermediate node of a communications network and being configured to inject a backhaul traffic from a core network towards a mobile node to a PDP context and/or EPS bearer at the network entity, wherein the network entity is configured to inject the backhaul traffic to a tunnel, configured to carry the backhaul traffic to the mobile node.

2. The network entity according to claim 1, wherein the intermediate node is responsible for delivery of data packets of the backhaul traffic from and/or to the mobile node within a geographical service area of the mobile node.

3. The network entity according to claim 2, wherein the intermediate node is a S-GW or a SGSN.

4. The network entity according to claim 1, wherein the in- termediate node is a RNC, NodeB, eNodeB, or a base station.

5. The network entity according to at least one of the preceding claims, wherein the backhaul traffic comprises multicast traffic and wherein the network entity is configured to inject the multicast traffic of the mobile node if the mobile node performs handover to a base station.

6. The network entity according to at least one of the preceding claims, wherein the network entity is configured to:

- detect a handover of the mobile node to a base station; and

- if the mobile node joins a multicast group, inject a multicast traffic of the multicast group of the mobile node.

7. The network entity according to claim 6, wherein the network entity is configured to: - send an IGMP and/or MLD query to the mobile node; and

- if the mobile node replies to the IGMP and/or MLD query, inject a multicast traffic of the mobile node by use of the reply to the IGMP and/or MLD query.

8. The network entity according to claim 6 or 7, wherein the network entity is configured to detect the handover of the mobile node from a Sl-MME and/or SIl signalling.

9. The network entity according to at least one of the preceding claims 1 to 5, wherein the network entity is configured to: - receive a list of multicast groups of the mobile node if the mobile node performs a handover to a base station; and

- inject a multicast traffic of the mobile node by use of the list of multicast groups.

10. The network entity according to claim 9, wherein, if the list of the multicast groups of the mobile node changes, the network entity is configured to receive a changed list of multicast groups of the mobile node.

11. The network entity according to claim 9 or 10, wherein the network entity is configured to receive the list of multicast groups and/or the changed list of multicast groups from a serving gateway.

12. The network entity according to at least one of the claims 5 to 11, wherein the network entity is configured to inject the multicast traffic of the mobile node to a GTP-U tunnel of the mobile node.

13. A serving gateway, wherein the serving gateway is configured to route and/or to forward data packets of a mobile node in a backhaul traffic and/or to serve as an anchor for mobil- ity of the mobile node in the backhaul traffic and wherein the serving gateway is further configured to:

- transmit a list of multicast groups of the mobile node to a network entity according to at least one of the claims 1 to

12 if the mobile node performs a handover to a base station; and/or

- transmit a changed list of the multicast groups of the mo- bile node to the network entity, if the list of the multicast groups of the mobile node changes.

14. A network node, wherein the network node is an intermediate node of a communications network and wherein the network node comprises a network entity according to at least one of claims 1 to 12.

15. A method, wherein the method comprises injecting of a backhaul traffic between a mobile node and a core network to a PDP context and/or EPS bearer at a network entity implemented in an intermediate node of a communications network, wherein the injecting is performed by the network entity and wherein the backhaul traffic is injected to a tunnel, configured to carry the backhaul traffic to the mobile node.

16. A computer program product comprising a code, the code being configured to perform a method according to claim 15.

17. A data carrier comprising a computer program product ac- cording to claim 16.

Description:
Devices and method configured for providing support for back- haul traffic in communications networks

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to providing support for back- haul traffic in communications networks. Particularly, the present invention refers to a network entity, a serving gateway, a method, a computer program product, and a data car- rier, all of them configured for providing support for back- haul traffic in communications networks.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Data traffic in the mobile communications networks is still growing. Operators have pressure to invest in radio communications and to move the existing backhaul from base stations to the core network. The introduction of the LTE (Long Term Evolution) technology seems at first to be an answer for above mentioned problems in radio communications. However, it does not solve the need for increasing of the backhaul capacity.

In some existing solutions, local breakout has been presented as one option to solve the above mentioned backhaul problems. By this bit overloaded term it has been suggested that mobile data is diverted to a fixed network from base station site (e.g., eNodeB in LTE or I-HSPA (Internet High Speed Packet Access) base station) or from RAN (Radio Access Network) site. However, one aspect of the problem is not covered with the suggested local breakout, which is multicast support. The existing solutions do not provide a solution of how to inject multicast traffic for a mobile node as late as possible in a communications network.

In 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project), MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service) has been specified to provide the multicast support in both, the core and the radio network. However, the utilization of the MBMS requires support of mobile nodes or user equipments (UEs) and significant changes with regard to the equipment of a communications network .

Thus, the utilization of the MBMS requires that the MBMS is supported network wide. However, the required changes of mobile nodes or UEs, frequently leading to designing of new mobile nodes or UEs to support MBMS, and of radio / core net- works require significant investments.

Another way to support multicast is the multicast replication in GGSN (General Packet Radio Service) /SAEGW (System Architecture Evolution Gateway) , where a multicast stream is transmitted to each mobile node or UE individually. I.e. according to this solution, the GGSN /SAEGW copies the multicast traffic packets. However, this approach uses a lot of bandwidth in the backhaul and is expensive with regard to resources used.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Object of the present invention is providing of an improved support for backhaul traffic in communications networks.

This object is achieved by a network entity comprising features according to claim 1, a serving gateway comprising features according to claim 13, a network node comprising features according to claim 14, a method comprising features ac- cording to claim 15, a computer program product comprising features according to claim 16, and/or a data carrier comprising features according to claim 17.

Further embodiments of the present invention are provided with the corresponding dependent claims.

The object of the present invention is achieved by a network entity, the network entity being implemented in an intermedi- ate node of a communications network and being configured to inject a backhaul traffic from a core network towards a mobile node to a PDP context and/or EPS bearer at the network entity, wherein the network entity is configured to inject the backhaul traffic to a tunnel, configured to carry the backhaul traffic to the mobile node.

Intermediate node of a communications network is for example RNC, SGSN, base station, NodeB, eNodeB, S-GW (serving gate- way) or another node in the communication network that is not a tunnel end-point node. Thus, the intermediate node of a communications network is not or cannot be a GGSN or P-GW.

By use of the present invention, backhaul traffic (e.g., mul- ticast or any other traffic) is optimized with regard to increasing capacity of backhaul data. Further, by use of the present invention no significant changes of equipment of communications networks and/or no mobile node support is required. Thus, the present invention represents a cost and re- source saving solution for the problem of handling backhaul data of high capacity.

Moreover, the present invention provides an effective and efficient solution by use of which no introducing of MBMS is mandatory when handling the problem of high backhaul data capacity.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the intermediate node is responsible for delivery of data packets of the backhaul traffic from and/or to the mobile node within a geographical service area of the mobile node.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the intermediate node is a S-GW or a SGSN (serving GPRS (general packet radio service) support node) . According to the present embodiment, the intermediate node is a standalone intermediate node in the communications network which is configured to inject the backbone traffic (e.g., multicast traffic). According to a further embodiment of the present invention, the intermediate node is a RNC (radio network controller) , NodeB, eNodeB, or a base station.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the backhaul traffic comprises multicast traffic and wherein the network entity is configured to inject the multicast traffic of the mobile node if the mobile node performs handover to a base station. Thus, by use of the present invention, also high capacity problems with regard to multicast traffic in communications networks can be solved in a cost and/or resource saving way without performing significant changes with regard to equipment of the communications network, without requiring support of mobile nodes, and/or without a mandatory need for introducing of MBMS in the communications network.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the network entity is configured to:

- detect a handover of the mobile node to a base station; and

- if the mobile node joins a multicast group, inject a multicast traffic of the multicast group of the mobile node.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the network entity is configured to:

- send an IGMP (internet group management protocol) and/or MLD (multicast listener discovery) query to the mobile node; and

- if the mobile node replies to the IGMP and/or MLD query, inject a multicast traffic of the mobile node by use of the reply to the IGMP and/or MLD query. According to a further embodiment of the present invention, the network entity is configured to detect the handover of the mobile node from a Sl-MME and/or SIl signalling. According to an embodiment of the present invention, the network entity is configured to:

- receive a list of multicast groups of the mobile node if the mobile node performs a handover to a base station; and

- inject a multicast traffic of the mobile node by use of the list of multicast groups.

According to a further embodiment of the present invention, if the list of the multicast groups of the mobile node changes, the network entity is configured to receive a changed list of multicast groups of the mobile node.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the net- work entity is configured to receive the list of multicast groups and/or the changed list of multicast groups from a serving gateway.

According to a further embodiment of the present invention, the network entity is configured to inject the multicast traffic of the mobile node to a GTP-U tunnel of the mobile node .

The object of the present invention is achieved by a serving gateway, wherein the serving gateway is configured to route and/or to forward data packets of a mobile node in a backhaul traffic and/or to serve as an anchor for mobility of the mobile node in the backhaul traffic and wherein the serving gateway is further configured to:

- transmit a list of multicast groups of the mobile node to a network entity as sketched above and described in more detail below if the mobile node performs a handover to a base station; and/or

- transmit a changed list of the multicast groups of the mo- bile node to the network entity, if the list of the multicast groups of the mobile node changes.

Further, the object of the present invention is achieved by a network node, wherein the network node is an intermediate node of a communications network and wherein the network node comprises a network entity as sketched above and described in more detail below.

Furthermore, the object of the present invention is achieved by a method, wherein the method comprises injecting of a backhaul traffic between a mobile node and a core network to a PDP context and/or EPS bearer at a network entity implemented in an intermediate node of a communications network, wherein the injecting is performed by the network entity and wherein the backhaul traffic is injected to a tunnel, configured to carry the backhaul traffic to the mobile node.

Additionally, the object of the present invention is achieved by a computer program product comprising a code, the code be- ing configured to implement and/or perform said method.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the code is embodied on a data carrier. According to a further embodiment of the present invention, the computer program product is configured to perform said method when the computer program product is executed by a processing unit like a processor, for example. According to another embodiment of the present invention the processing unit is implemented in a network entity as sketched above and explained in more detail below.

Moreover, the object of the present invention is achieved by a data carrier comprising said computer program product. Thus, by the present invention an improved support for back- haul traffic (e.g., multicast or any other traffic) in communications networks is provided.

In particular, backhaul traffic is optimized with regard to increasing capacity of backhaul data. Further, by use of the present invention no significant changes of equipment of communications networks and/or no mobile node support is re- quired. The present invention represents a cost and resource saving solution for the problem of handling backhaul data of high capacity and provides an effective and efficient solution by use of which no introducing of MBMS is mandatory when handling the problem of high backhaul data capacity.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The present invention will be more clearly understood from the following description of the preferred embodiments of the invention read in conjunction with the attached drawings, in which:

Fig. 1 shows implementation of a network entity according to an embodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 2 shows implementation of the present invention according to an embodiment of the present invention; and

Fig. 3 shows implementation of the present invention ac- cording to a further embodiment of the present invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Fig. 1 shows an implementation of a network entity 111 ac- cording to an embodiment of the present invention. The network entity 111 is implemented in an intermediate node 11 of a communications network. This communications network can be based on or related to several communications techniques. E.g. it can be based on and/or related to 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) , LTE etc. The intermediate node 11 can be, e.g., a flexi network gateway, SGSN, RNC, base station, NodeB, eNodeB, or a further intermediate node placed between a mobile node 12 and a core network 15 in the communications network. Thus, the intermediate node 11 is not and cannot be a GGSN or P-GW node, entity or component of a communications network. The network entity 111 is configured to inject the backhaul traffic from the core network 15 towards the mobile node 12 to a PDP context and/or EPS bearer at the network entity 11. In particular, the network entity injects the backhaul traffic to a tunnel 14, which is configured to carry the backhaul traffic to the mobile node 12. In Fig. 1, an exemplary back- haul traffic source 13 transmitting information or data via the core network 15 to the mobile node 12 is shown.

According to the present embodiment, the network entity 111 comprises an injector of injecting module 1111 which performs the injecting of the backhaul traffic.

Further, the backhaul traffic comprises multicast traffic and, according to the present embodiment, the network entity 111 or the injector or injecting module 1111 respectively is configured to inject the multicast traffic of the mobile node 12. In particular, the network entity 111 or the injector or injecting module 1111 respectively inject the multicast traffic to the tunnel 14 if the mobile node 12 performs handover to a base station in the communications network. Here, according to the present embodiment the network entity 111 comprises a handover detector or a handover detecting module 1112, which is configured to detect handovers of the mobile node 12 to base stations in the communications network.

Additionally, according to the present embodiment, the network entity 111 comprises a multicast watcher or a multicast watching module 1113. The network entity 111 or the multicast watcher or a multicast watching module 1113 is configured to watch the multicast traffic of the mobile node 12. Here, the network entity 111 or the multicast watcher or a multicast watching module 1113 has knowledge of multicast groups of the mobile node 12. If the mobile node 12 joins a multicast group or if a list of multicast groups of the mobile node 12 changes in general, the network entity 111 or the multicast watcher or a multicast watching module 1113 are configured to inject the multicast traffic according to or in line with the corresponding changes (e.g. additions) of the multicast groups of the mobile node 12.

According to the present embodiment, the network entity 111 uses the three components or modules 1111, 1112, 1113 to per- form the injecting of the backhaul traffic to the tunnel 14. The components or modules 1111, 1112, 1113 are configured to communicate with each other to perform the injection according to the present embodiment. Thus, for example, if the handover detector or handover detecting module 1112 detects a handover, the multicast watcher or multicast watching module 1113 can be informed by the handover detector or handover detecting module 1112 of the handover. Thus, the multicast watcher or multicast watching module 1113 is enabled to watch and manage the information about multicasting groups of the mobile node 12 in line with the current handover situation. Further, the multicast watcher or multicast watching module 1113 is configured to provide or transmit the current information of multicasting groups of the mobile node 12 to the injector or injecting module 1111. Thus, the injector or in- jecting module 1111 is enabled to handle the injecting in line with the current information of multicasting groups of the mobile node 12 and where appropriate, indirectly, also in line with the current handover situation of the mobile node 12.

Here, it has to be noted that the present invention allows several configurations or arrangements of the network entity 111. The components or modules 1111, 1112, 1113 can be imple- merited in several appropriate ways. Further, they can have also further functionalities and/or can be combined if required. In following, more concrete embodiments of the present invention will be provided by Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 with regard to injection of the multicast traffic of the mobile node 12 to the channel 14. According to the embodiments of Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, the network entity 111 is configured to inject multicast packets, which are to be transmitted to the mobile node 12, to a GTP (GPRS Tunnelling Protocol) tunnel in a Sl-U interface. Thus, in embodiments of Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, the tunnel 14 of Fig. 1 is a GTP tunnel in a Sl-U interface. However, it has to be noted that the present invention is not restricted to this tunnelling technique only and that the present invention can be implemented accordingly also with regard to further appropriate tunnelling techniques.

Fig. 2 shows an implementation of the present invention according to an embodiment of the present invention. According to the present embodiment, an IGMP and/or MLD snooping 205 is performed by the network entity 111.

According to the present embodiment a base station, eNodeB, or NodeB 201, a MME (mobility management entity) 202, a S-GW (serving gateway) 203, and a P-GW (packet data network gateway) 204 are provided in the communications network. The MME 202 is connected to the base station, eNodeB, or NodeB 201 via a Sl-MME interface 211. The S-GW 203 is connected to the base station, eNodeB, or NodeB 201 via a Sl-U interface 212, to the MME 202 via a SIl interface 215, and to the P-GW 204 via a S5 interface 213. Base stations, eNodeB, or NodeB 201, MME 202, S-GW 203, P-GW 204, and interfaces Sl-MME 211, Sl-U 212, SIl 215 and S5 213 are well known and, therefore, will not be described in more detail. Further, a multicast source 13 is shown in Fig. 2. According to the present embodiment, the multicast source 13 is configured to multicast data by use of multicasting enabling techniques like PIM (Protocol-Independent Multicast), IGMP and/or MLD 214, for example, to the mobile node 12 via the core network 15 in Fig. 1.

According to the present embodiment, the network entity 111 is implemented in the Sl-MME interface 211 and in the SIl in- terface 215. Further, the network entity 111 can be implemented also in the Sl-U interface 212 according to the present embodiment. According to an embodiment of the present invention, the Sl-U interface is an interface to the GTP-U tunnel in the communications network.

The network entity 111 or the handover detector or handover detecting module 1112 respectively is configured according to the present embodiment to detect handovers of the mobile node 12 by Sl-MME signalling via the Sl-MME interface 211 and/or by SIl signalling via the SIl interface 215. In particular, according to the present embodiment the network entity 111 or the handover detector or handover detecting module 1112 respectively is configured to detect a handover of the mobile node 12 to the base station, eNodeB, or NodeB 201.

If the network entity 111 (or the handover detector or handover detecting module 1112 respectively) detects such a mobile node 12 handover to the base station, eNodeB, or NodeB 201, the network entity 111 or the multicast watcher or mul- ticast watching module 1113 respectively is configured to send or transmit an IGMP and/or MLD query to mobile node 12. The mobile node 12 replies then to the network entity 111 (or the multicast watcher or multicast watching module 1113 respectively) if the mobile node 12 has joined any multicast group. After receiving the corresponding response from the mobile node 12, the network entity 11 (or the injector or injecting module 1111 respectively) is configured to start injecting of the multicast traffic, directed to the mobile node 12 and concerning the multicast group, to mobile nodes 12 GTP-U tunnel 14.

Fig. 3 shows implementation of the present invention accord- ing to a further embodiment of the present invention. According to the present embodiment a kind of an assisted group management is performed.

In Fig. 3, similar to Fig. 2, a base station, eNodeB, or NodeB 301, a MME (mobility management entity) 302, a S-GW

(serving gateway) 303, and a P-GW (packet data network gateway) 304 are provided in the communications network. The MME 302 is connected to the base station, eNodeB, or NodeB 301 via a Sl-MME interface 311. The S-GW 303 is connected to the base station, eNodeB, or NodeB 301 via a Sl-U interface 312, to the MME via a SIl interface 315, and to the P-GW 304 via a S5 interface 313. Further, also a multicast source 13 is shown in Fig. 3. According to the present embodiment, the multicast source 13 is configured to multicast data by use of multicasting enabling techniques like PIM, IGMP and/or MLD

314, for example, to the mobile node 12 via the core network 15.

According to the present embodiment, the network entity 111 is implemented in the Sl-U interface 312. Further, the network entity 111 can be implemented also in the Sl-MME interface 311 and in the SIl interface 315 according to the present embodiment . According to the present embodiment, the S-GW 303 and the P- GW 304 maintain or manage a list 300 of multicast groups of mobile node 12, wherein the P-GW 304 is configured to perform the functionalities of a multicast router according to the present embodiment. Once the mobile node 12 joins a multicast group, the P-GW 304 is configured to send or transmit an updated multicast group list 300 to the S-GW 303. According to the present embodiment, the transmitting of the updated mul- ticast group list 300 from the P-GW 304 to the S-GW 303 is performed via the S5 interface 313.

The S-GW 303, in turn, is then configured to propagate or transmit the updated multicast group list 300 to the network entity 111. According to the present embodiment, the transmitting of the updated multicast group list 300 from the S-GW 303 to the network entity 111 is performed via the Sl-U interface 312.

These transmittings or providings of a (updated or current) multicast group list 300 to the network entity 111 is visualized in Fig. 3 by dashed arrows from the P-GW 304 to the S-GW 303 and from the S-GW 303 to the network entity 111, wherein each of the dashed arrows is connected to the (updated or current) multicast group list 300 for pointing out that the corresponding (updated or current) multicast group list 300 is transmitted. According to the present embodiment, the network entity 111 or the multicast watcher or multicast watching module 1113 respectively is configured to receive a (updated or current) multicast group list 300 from the S-GW 303. Then, the network entity 11 (or the injector or injecting module 1111 respectively) is configured to start injecting of the multicast traffic, directed to the mobile node 12, to mobile nodes 12 GTP-U tunnel 14 by use of the (updated or current) multicast group list 300.

Once the mobile node 12 performs handover between base stations, eNodeB, or NodeBs 301, the multicast group list 300 is pushed or transmitted to the network entity 111 by the S-GW 303.

Further, if a handover includes also a S-GW 303 change, the P-GW 304 is configured to push or to transmit the multicast group list 300 to the new S-GW 303. The new S-GW 303 trans- mits or propagates then the multicast group list 300 to the network entity 111.

The present embodiment provides the advantage that no

IGMP/MLD signalling delay during handovers has to be accepted. Further, a IGMP/MLD request or query to the mobile node 12 can be authenticated by the P-GW 304 before accepting it. Here, it has to be noted, that the network entity 111 can be implemented according to the present invention also such that both the implementation according to the embodiment of Fig. 2 and the implementation according to the embodiment of Fig. 3 are realized in the network entity 111.

Further, according to an embodiment of the present invention the network entity 111 can be implemented as a local break in (LBI) gateway. Moreover, according to a further embodiment of the present invention, the implementation of the present invention can be a part of a local break out implementation.

Thus, the present invention refers to injecting of backhaul traffic (e.g., multicast traffic) from a core network towards a mobile node to a PDP context and/or EPS bearer at a network entity of a communications network, wherein the network entity is implemented in an intermediate node of the communications network and the network entity is configured to perform said injecting. In particular, the network entity is configured to inject the backhaul traffic to a tunnel, configured to carry the backhaul traffic to the mobile node.

The present invention enables const and/or resource saving to operators. Additionally, by use of the present invention services transmitting large amounts of data like multicast video services, for example, are enabled and can be performed in a fast and efficient way. While embodiments and applications of this invention have been shown and described above, it should be apparent to those skilled in the art, that many more modifications (than mentioned above) are possible without departing from the inventive concept described herein. The invention, therefore, is not restricted except in the spirit of the appending claims. Therefore, it is intended that the foregoing detailed description should be regarded as illustrative rather than limiting.

LIST OF REFERENCES: 11 intermediate node

111 network entity

1111 injector of injecting module

1112 handover detector or handover detecting module

1113 multicast watcher or a multicast watching mod- ule

12 mobile node

13 backhaul (multicast) traffic source

14 tunnel configured to carry backhaul traffic to a mobile node

15 core network

201 base station, eNodeB, or NodeB

202 MME

203 S-GW

204 P-GW

205 IGMP and/or MLD snooping

211 Sl-MME interface

212 Sl-U interface

213 S5 interface

214 at least one multicasting enabling technique 215 SIl interface

300 list of multicast groups

301 base station, eNodeB, or NodeB

302 MME

303 S-GW

304 P-GW

311 Sl-MME interface

312 Sl-U interface 312

313 S5 interface

314 at least one multicasting enabling technique 315 SIl interface