Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
DIBENZOTHIOPHENE DERIVATIVES AND METHODS OF TREATING CANCER THEREWITH
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/199939
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
In one aspect, the present disclosure provides a compound of the formula: (I) wherein the variables are as defined herein. In another aspect, the present disclosure also provides pharmaceutical compositions and methods of use of the compounds disclosed herein.

Inventors:
MCCULLA RYAN (US)
ISOR ANKITA (US)
ARNATT CHRISTOPHER (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2019/026749
Publication Date:
October 17, 2019
Filing Date:
April 10, 2019
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
UNIV SAINT LOUIS (US)
International Classes:
C07D333/76; H01L51/00; H01L51/50
Other References:
SUN ET AL.: "Sulfoxide-Containing Aromatic Nitrogen Mustards as Hypoxia-Directed Bioreductive Cytotoxins", J. MED. CHEM., vol. 43, no. 22, 2000, pages 4160 - 4168, XP055643629
KORANG: "PHOTOCHEMICAL GENERATION OF ATOMIC OXYGEN O(3P) IN r AQUEOUS MEDIUM AND ITS BIOLOGICAL APPLICATION", DISSERTATION, 2012, pages 24
GREGORY ET AL.: "Photodeoxygenation of Dibenzothiophene Sulfoxide: Evidence for a Unimolecular S-O Cleavage Mechanism", J. AM. CHEM. SOC., vol. 119, no. 1, 1997, pages 94 - 102, XP055643634
MCCULLA ET AL.: "Deoxygenation and Other Photochemical Reactions of Aromatic Selenoxides", J. AM. CHEM. SOC., vol. 126, no. 69, 2004, pages 16058 - 16065, XP055643639
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
LONG, Reid, S. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED:

1. A method of treating a cancer in a patient in need thereof comprising (a) administering to the patient a therapeutically effective amount of a compound or composition comprising the compound, wherein the compound has the formula:

wherein:

Ri and R2 are each independently hydrogen, halo, alkyl(c<8), substituted alkyl(c<8), or -Y-R3; wherein:

Y is -S(0)2— , -0S(0)2— , alkanediyl(c<8), substituted alkanediyl(c<8), arenediyl(c<8), substituted arenediyl(c<8), and

R3 is hydroxy, alkoxy(c<8), substituted alkoxy(c<8), aryloxy(c<8), substituted aryloxy(c<8), acyloxycc<8), or substituted acyloxycc<8) and

m or n are each independently 0, 1, 2, or 3;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof;

and (b) exposing a cancer cell in said patient to UV-A light.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the compound is further defined as:

wherein:

Ri and R2 are each independently hydrogen, alkyl(c<8), substituted alkyl(c<8), or -Y-R3; wherein:

Y is alkanediyl(c<8) or substituted alkanediyl(c<8); and R.3 is hydroxy, alkoxy(c<8), substituted alkoxy(c<8), acyloxycc<8), or substituted acyloxy(c<8) and

m or n are each independently 0, 1, 2, or 3;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

3. The method of either claim 1 or claim 3, wherein Ri is -Y-R3.

4. The method according to any one of claims 1-3, wherein R2 is -Y-R3.

5. The method according to any one of claims 1-4, wherein Y is alkanediyl(c<4).

6. The method of claim 5, wherein Y is methylene.

7. The method according to any one of claims 1 and 3-4, wherein Y is arenediyl(c<8).

8. The method of claim 7, wherein Y is benzenediyl.

9. The method according to any one of claims 1 and 3-4, wherein Y is -S(0)2-

10. The method according to any one of claims 1-6, wherein R3 is acyloxycc<4).

11. The method of claim 10, wherein R3 is acetyl.

12. The method according to any one of claims 1-11, wherein R3 is hydroxy.

13. The method according to any one of claims 1 and 3-11, wherein R3 is aryloxycc<8).

14. The method of claim 13, wherein R3 is phenyloxy.

15. The method of either claim 1, 2, or claim 4, wherein Ri is halo.

16. The method of claim 15, wherein Ri is bromo.

17. The method of either claim 1, 2, or claim 3, wherein R2 is halo.

18. The method of claim 17, wherein R2 is bromo.

19. The method according to any one of claims 1-18, wherein m or n is 1 or 2.

20. The method of claim 19, wherein m or n is 1. The method according to any one of claims 1-20, wherein the compound is:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

22 The method of claims 1-21, wherein the cancer is a carcinoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma, mesothelioma, multiple myeloma, or seminoma.

23. The method of claims 1-21, wherein the cancer is of the bladder, blood, bone, brain, breast, central nervous system, cervix, colon, endometrium, esophagus, gall bladder, gastrointestinal tract, genitalia, genitourinary tract, head, kidney, larynx, liver, lung, muscle tissue, neck, oral or nasal mucosa, ovary, pancreas, prostate, skin, spleen, small intestine, large intestine, stomach, testicle, or thyroid.

24. The method of claims 1-23, wherein the method further comprises administering a second therapy.

25. The method of claim 24, wherein the second therapy is surgery, a second chemotherapeutic, radiotherapy, or immunotherapy.

26. The method of claims 1-25, wherein the patient is a mammal.

27. The method of claim 26, wherein the patient is a human.

28. The method of claims 1-27, wherein the compound is administered once.

29. The method of claims 1-28, wherein the compound is administered two or more times.

30. The method of claims 1-29, wherein UV-A light is 320-400 nm light.

Description:
DESCRIPTION

DIBENZOTHIOPHENE DERIVATIVES AND METHODS OF TREATING CANCER

THEREWITH

PRIORITY CLAIM

This application claims benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Application Serial No.

62/656,135, filed April 11, 2018, the entire contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference.

BACKGROUND

1. Field

This disclosure relates to the fields of medicine, pharmacology, chemistry, and oncology. In particular, methods of cancer treatment relating to derivatives of dibenzothiophene-S-oxide (DBTO) are disclosed.

2. Related Art

Reactive oxygen species like atomic oxygen [0( 3 P)] have been indicated to have effects on cell signaling due to oxidative stress. Attempts to generate 0( 3 P) in solution have been challenging due to the high energies associated with 0( 3 P) generation. Dibenzothiophene-S- oxide (DBTO) has been suggested to be an 0( 3 P) pre-cursor in condensed phase.

In recent years, the inventors’ lab group has been successful in synthesizing water soluble DBTO derivatives to explore reactivity of 0( 3 P) with biomolecules. 0( 3 P) being a reactive oxygen species at high concentrations in mitochondria could lead to apoptosis, and at low concentrations could trigger cellular signaling. However, improvements in properties such as cell penetraton and intracellular targeting would greatly enhance the utility of compounds in this class. SUMMARY

In accordance with the present disclosure, there are provided methods of treating a cancer in a patient in need thereof comprising (a) administering to the patient a therapeutically effective amount of a compound or composition described herein, and (b) exposing a cancer cell in said patient to UV-A light.

In some embodiments, the compounds are of the formula:

wherein:

Ri and R2 are each independently hydrogen, halo, alkyl(c<8), substituted alkyl(c<8), or -Y-R3; wherein:

Y is -S(0) 2— , -0S(0)2— , alkanediyl(c<8), substituted alkanediyl(c<8), arenediyl(c<8), substituted arenediyl(c<8), and

R3 is hydroxy, alkoxycc<8), substituted alkoxycc<8), aryloxycc<8), substituted aryloxy(c<8), acyloxycc<8), or substituted acyloxycc<8) and

m or n are each independently 0, 1, 2, or 3;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof;

and (b) exposing a cancer cell in said patient to UV-A light.

In some embodiments, the compounds are further defined as:

wherein:

Ri and R2 are each independently hydrogen, alkyl(c<8), substituted alkyl(c<8), or -Y-R3; wherein:

Y is alkanediyl(c<8) or substituted alkanediyl(c<8); and R.3 is hydroxy, alkoxy(c<8), substituted alkoxy(c<8), acyloxy(c<8), or substituted acyloxy(c<8) and

m or n are each independently 0, 1, 2, or 3;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

In some embodiments, Ri is -Y-R3. In some embodiments, R2 is -Y-R3. In some embodiments, Y is alkanediyl(c<4), such as methylene. In other embodiments, Y is arenediyl(c<8), such as benzenediyl. In some embodiments, Y is -S(0)2- In some embodiments, R3 is acyloxy(c<4), such as acetyl. In other embodiments, R3 is hydroxy. In still other embodiments, R3 is aryloxy(c<8), such as phenyloxy. In some embodiments, Ri is halo, such as bromo. In some embodiments, R2 is halo, such as bromo. In some embodiments, m or n is 1 or 2. In some embodiments, m or n is 1. In some embodiments, the compound is:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

In some embodiments, the cancer is a carcinoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma, mesothelioma, multiple myeloma, or seminoma. In some embodiments, the cancer is of the bladder, blood, bone, brain, breast, central nervous system, cervix, colon, endometrium, esophagus, gall bladder, gastrointestinal tract, genitalia, genitourinary tract, head, kidney, larynx, liver, lung, muscle tissue, neck, oral or nasal mucosa, ovary, pancreas, prostate, skin, spleen, small intestine, large intestine, stomach, testicle, or thyroid. In some embodiments, the method further comprises administering a second therapy, such as surgery, a second chemotherapeutic, radiotherapy, or immunotherapy. In some embodiments, the patient is a mammal, such as a human. In some embodiments, the compound is administered once. In some embodiments, the compound is administered two or more times. In some embodiments, UV-A light is 320-400 nm light.

It is contemplated that any method or composition described herein can be implemented with respect to any other method or composition described herein. For example, a compound synthesized by one method may be used in the preparation of a final compound according to a different method.

The use of the word“a” or“an” when used in conjunction with the term“comprising” in the claims and/or the specification may mean“one,” but it is also consistent with the meaning of“one or more,”“at least one,” and“one or more than one.” The word“about” means plus or minus 5% of the stated number.

Other objects, features and advantages of the present disclosure will become apparent from the following detailed description. It should be understood, however, that the detailed description and the specific examples, while indicating specific embodiments of the disclosure, are given by way of illustration only, since various changes and modifications within the spirit and scope of the disclosure will become apparent to those skilled in the art from this detailed description.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

The following drawings form part of the present specification and are included to further demonstrate certain aspects of the present disclosure. The disclosure may be better understood by reference to one or more of these drawings in combination with the detailed description.

FIG. 1. MA-3 is an atomic oxygen pre-cursor that produces on atomic oxygen on UV-A irradiation

FIGS. 2A-C. Cell Viability assay where MA-3 addition pre-UV exposure decreases % cell viability. MA-4 did not decrease % cell viability in any of the UV-exposure conditions, suggesting that atomic oxygen induces apoptosis due to increase in oxidative stress.

FIG. 3. Microscopy evidence shows that sulfone derivative of MA-3 freely diffused in the cellular environment and include localization into the mitochondria.

FIGS. 4A-4D. Cell viability assays were conducted on compounds 5a and 5b.

The structure of these compounds is shown in FIG. 4D. The analysis of the compounds without UV is shown in FIG.4A, with UV exposure occurring after administration of the compounds in FIG. 4B, and UV exposure occurring before the administration of the compounds in FIG. 4C.

FIG. 5. The localization of the the sulfone derivative of compound 5a is shown by visualization through microscopy.

FIGS. 6A-6C. Cell viability assays were conducted on compounds 5 and 6.

The analysis of the compounds without UV is shown in FIG. 6A, with UV exposure occurring after administration of the compounds in FIG. 6B, and UV exposure occurring before the administration of the compounds in FIG. 6C.

FIGS. 7A-7C. Cell viability assays were conducted on compounds 7 and 8.

The analysis of the compounds without UV is shown in FIG. 7A, with UV exposure occurring after administration of the compounds in FIG. 7B, and UV exposure occurring before the administration of the compounds in FIG. 7C.

FIGS. 8A-8C. Cell viability assays were conducted on compounds 9 and 10.

The analysis of the compounds without UV is shown in FIG. 8A, with UV exposure occurring after administration of the compounds in FIG. 8B, and UV exposure occurring before the administration of the compounds in FIG. 8C. FIGS. 9A-9C. Cell viability assays were conducted on compounds 17 and 18. The analysis of the compounds without UV is shown in FIG. 9A, with UV exposure occurring after administration of the compounds in FIG. 9B, and UV exposure occurring before the administration of the compounds in FIG. 9C. FIGS. 10A-10C. The compounds were analyzed using flow cytometry to determine if the UV-A is required to arrest cell cycle progression.

DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATIVE EMBODIMENTS

As discussed above, reactive oxygen species present significant potential as anti-cancer agents, but at present suffer from certain limitations in terms of delivery and targeting. The inventors speculated that 5-oxo-2,8-diacetoxymethyldibenzothiophene and other dibenzothiophene could be an atomic oxygen 0( 3 P) precursor (Korang el al, 2010). There is literature evidence that indicates that due to S-0 bond cleavage under UV-A light, it releases 0( 3 P) (Gregory el al, 1997). When the inventors treated MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with 5-oxo-2,8-diacetoxymethyldibenzothiophene and other dibenzothiophenes and irradiated the cells with UV-A, they observed a decrease in % cell viability, suggesting that the resulting oxidative stress due to production of 0( 3 P) induces apoptosis in the breast cancer cells killing them. These and other aspects of the disclosure are described in more detail below.

I. Compounds and Formulations Thereof

The compounds provided by the present disclosure is shown, for example, above in the summary section and in the Examples and claims below. They may be made using the methods outlined in the Examples section. These methods can be further modified and optimized using the principles and techniques of organic chemistry as applied by a person skilled in the art. Such principles and techniques are taught, for example, in March’s Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure (2007), which is incorporated by reference herein.

Table 1 : The Compounds Described Herein

The compounds described herein may contain one or more asymmetrically-substituted carbon or nitrogen atoms and may be isolated in optically active or racemic form. Thus, all chiral, diastereomeric, racemic form, epimeric form, and all geometric isomeric forms of a chemical formula are intended, unless the specific stereochemistry or isomeric form is specifically indicated. The compounds may occur as racemates and racemic mixtures, single enantiomers, diastereomeric mixtures and individual diastereomers. In some embodiments, a single diastereomer is obtained. The chiral centers of the compounds of the present disclosure can have the (S) or the (R) configuration.

Chemical formulas used to represent the compound described herein will typically only show one of possibly several different tautomers. For example, many types of ketone groups are known to exist in equilibrium with corresponding enol groups. Similarly, many types of imine groups exist in equilibrium with enamine groups. Regardless of which tautomer is depicted for a given compound, and regardless of which one is most prevalent, all tautomers of a given chemical formula are intended.

The compounds described herein may also have the advantage that they may be more efficacious than, be less toxic than, be longer acting than, be more potent than, produce fewer side effects than, be more easily absorbed than, and/or have a better pharmacokinetic profile (e.g., higher oral bioavailability and/or lower clearance) than, and/or have other useful pharmacological, physical, or chemical properties over, compounds known in the prior art, whether for use in the indications stated herein or otherwise.

In addition, atoms making up the compounds described herein are intended to include all isotopic forms of such atoms. Isotopes, as used herein, include those atoms having the same atomic number but different mass numbers. By way of general example and without limitation, isotopes of hydrogen include tritium and deuterium, and isotopes of carbon include 13 C and 14 C.

The compound described herein may also exist in prodrug form. Since prodrugs are known to enhance numerous desirable qualities of pharmaceuticals (e.g., solubility, bioavailability, manufacturing, etc.), the compounds employed in some methods of the disclosure may, if desired, be delivered in prodrug form. Thus, the disclosure contemplates prodrugs of compound of the present disclosure as well as methods of delivering the compound. The compounds described herein may be prepared by modifying functional groups present in the compounds in such a way that the modifications are cleaved, either in routine manipulation or in vivo, to the parent compound. Accordingly, prodrugs include, for example, compounds described herein in which a hydroxy, amino, or carboxy group is bonded to any group that, when the prodrug is administered to a subject, cleaves to form a hydroxy, amino, or carboxylic acid, respectively.

It should be recognized that the particular anion or cation forming a part of any salt form of a compound provided herein is not critical, so long as the salt, as a whole, is pharmacologically acceptable. Additional examples of pharmaceutically acceptable salts and their methods of preparation and use are presented in Handbook of Pharmaceutical Salts: Properties, and Use (2002), which is incorporated herein by reference.

Those skilled in the art of organic chemistry will appreciate that many organic compounds can form complexes with solvents in which they are reacted or from which they are precipitated or crystallized. These complexes are known as“solvates.” For example, a complex with water is known as a“hydrate.” Solvates of the compound described herein are within the scope of the disclosure. It will also be appreciated by those skilled in organic chemistry that many organic compounds can exist in more than one crystalline form. For example, crystalline form may vary from solvate to solvate. Thus, all crystalline forms of the compounds described herein are within the scope of the present disclosure.

In some embodiments of the present disclosure, a compound is included a pharmaceutical formulation. Materials for use in the preparation of microspheres and/or microcapsules are, e.g., biodegradable/bioerodible polymers such as polygalactin, poly- (isobutyl cyanoacrylate), poly(2-hydroxyethyl-L-glutamine) and, poly(lactic acid). Biocompatible carriers that may be used when formulating a controlled release parenteral formulation are carbohydrates (e.g., dextrans), proteins (e.g., albumin), lipoproteins, or antibodies. Materials for use in implants can be non-biodegradable (e.g., poly dimethyl siloxane) or biodegradable (e.g., poly(caprolactone), poly(lactic acid), poly(gly colic acid) or poly(ortho esters) or combinations thereof).

Formulations for oral use include tablets containing the active ingredient(s) (e.g., the compounds described herein) in a mixture with non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. Such formulations are known to the skilled artisan. Excipients may be, for example, inert diluents or fillers (e.g., sucrose, sorbitol, sugar, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, starches including potato starch, calcium carbonate, sodium chloride, lactose, calcium phosphate, calcium sulfate, or sodium phosphate); granulating and disintegrating agents (e.g., cellulose derivatives including microcrystalline cellulose, starches including potato starch, croscarmellose sodium, alginates, or alginic acid); binding agents (e.g., sucrose, glucose, sorbitol, acacia, alginic acid, sodium alginate, gelatin, starch, pregelatinized starch, microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium aluminum silicate, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, methylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, ethylcellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone, or polyethylene glycol); and lubricating agents, glidants, and anti-adhesives (e.g., magnesium stearate, zinc stearate, stearic acid, silicas, hydrogenated vegetable oils, or talc). Other pharmaceutically acceptable excipients can be colorants, flavoring agents, plasticizers, humectants, buffering agents, and the like.

The tablets may be uncoated or they may be coated by known techniques, optionally to delay disintegration and absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby providing a sustained action over a longer period. The coating may be adapted to release the active drug in a predetermined pattern (e.g. , in order to achieve a controlled release formulation) or it may be adapted not to release the active drug until after passage of the stomach (enteric coating). The coating may be a sugar coating, a film coating (e.g., based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methylcellulose, methyl hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, acrylate copolymers, polyethylene glycols and/or polyvinyl pyrrolidone), or an enteric coating (e.g., based on methacrylic acid copolymer, cellulose acetate phthalate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate, polyvinyl acetate phthalate, shellac, and/or ethylcellulose). Furthermore, a time delay material, such as, e.g., glyceryl monostearate or glyceryl distearate may be employed.

A. Definitions

When used in the context of a chemical group:“hydrogen” means -H;“hydroxy” means -OH;“oxo” means =0;“carbonyl” means -C(=0)-;“carboxy” means -C(=0)OH (also written as -COOH or -CO2H);“halo” means independently -F, -Cl, -Br or -I;“amino” means -NH2;“hydroxyamino” means -NHOH;“nitro” means -NO2; imino means =NH;“cyano” means -CN;“isocyanate” means -N=C=0;“azido” means -N3; in a monovalent context “phosphate” means -OP(0)(OH)2 or a deprotonated form thereof; in a divalent context “phosphate” means -0P(0)(0H)0- or a deprotonated form thereof;“mercapto” means -SH; and“thio” means =S;“sulfonyl” means -S(0)2 ~ ; and“sulfmyl” means -S(O)-.

In the context of chemical formulas, the symbol“-” means a single bond,“=” means a double bond, and“º” means triple bond. The symbol ” represents an optional bond, which if present is either single or double. The symbol“==” represents a single bond or a double bond. Thus, the formula covers, for example, and And it is understood that no one such ring atom forms part of more than one double bond. Furthermore, it is noted that the covalent bond symbol when connecting one or two stereogenic atoms, does not indicate any preferred stereochemistry. Instead, it covers all stereoisomers as well as mixtures thereof. The symbol“‘ LLL ”, when drawn perpendicularly across a bond (e.g., j— CH 3 for methyl) indicates a point of attachment of the group. It is noted that the point of attachment is typically only identified in this manner for larger groups in order to assist the reader in unambiguously identifying a point of attachment. The symbol means a single bond where the group attached to the thick end of the wedge is“out of the page.” The symbol“ " Ml| l” means a single bond where the group attached to the thick end of the wedge is“into the page”. The symbol“ ΆLL ” means a single bond where the geometry around a double bond (e.g., either E or Z) is undefined. Both options, as well as combinations thereof are therefore intended. Any undefined valency on an atom of a structure shown in this application implicitly represents a hydrogen atom bonded to that atom. A bold dot on a carbon atom indicates that the hydrogen attached to that carbon is oriented out of the plane of the paper.

When a variable is depicted as a“floating group” on a ring system, for example, the group“R” in the formula: then the variable may replace any hydrogen atom attached to any of the ring atoms, including a depicted, implied, or expressly defined hydrogen, so long as a stable structure is formed. When a variable is depicted as a“floating group” on a fused ring system, as for example the group“R” in the formula:

then the variable may replace any hydrogen attached to any of the ring atoms of either of the fused rings unless specified otherwise. Replaceable hydrogens include depicted hydrogens (e.g., the hydrogen attached to the nitrogen in the formula above), implied hydrogens (e.g., a hydrogen of the formula above that is not shown but understood to be present), expressly defined hydrogens, and optional hydrogens whose presence depends on the identity of a ring atom (e.g., a hydrogen attached to group X, when X equals -CH-), so long as a stable structure is formed. In the example depicted, R may reside on either the 5-membered or the 6-membered ring of the fused ring system. In the formula above, the subscript letter“y” immediately following the R enclosed in parentheses, represents a numeric variable. Unless specified otherwise, this variable can be 0, 1, 2, or any integer greater than 2, only limited by the maximum number of replaceable hydrogen atoms of the ring or ring system.

For the chemical groups and compound classes, the number of carbon atoms in the group or class is as indicated as follows:“Cn” defines the exact number (n) of carbon atoms in the group/class. “C<n” defines the maximum number (n) of carbon atoms that can be in the group/class, with the minimum number as small as possible for the group/class in question. For example, it is understood that the minimum number of carbon atoms in the groups “alkyl(c<8)”, “cycloalkanediyl(c<8)”, “heteroaryl(c<8)”, and “acyl(c<8)” is one, the minimum number of carbon atoms in the groups“alkenyl(c <8) ”,“alkynyl(c <8) ”, and“heterocycloalkyl(c <8) ” is two, the minimum number of carbon atoms in the group“cycloalkyl(c <8) ” is three, and the minimum number of carbon atoms in the groups“aryl(c <8) ” and“arenediyl(c <8) ” is six. “Cn-n'” defines both the minimum (n) and maximum number (h') of carbon atoms in the group. Thus, “alkyl(C2-io)” designates those alkyl groups having from 2 to 10 carbon atoms. These carbon number indicators may precede or follow the chemical groups or class it modifies and it may or may not be enclosed in parenthesis, without signifying any change in meaning. Thus, the terms“C5 olefin”,“C5-olefin”,“olefin(C5)”, and“olefines” are all synonymous. When any of the chemical groups or compound classes defined herein is modified by the term“substituted”, any carbon atom in the moiety replacing the hydrogen atom is not counted. Thus methoxyhexyl, which has a total of seven carbon atoms, is an example of a substituted alkyl(ci- 6). Unless specified otherwise, any chemical group or compound class listed in a claim set without a carbon atom limit has a carbon atom limit of less than or equal to twelve.

The term“saturated” when used to modify a compound or chemical group means the compound or chemical group has no carbon-carbon double and no carbon-carbon triple bonds, except as noted below. When the term is used to modify an atom, it means that the atom is not part of any double or triple bond. In the case of substituted versions of saturated groups, one or more carbon oxygen double bond or a carbon nitrogen double bond may be present. And when such a bond is present, then carbon-carbon double bonds that may occur as part of keto- enol tautomerism or imine/enamine tautomerism are not precluded. When the term“saturated” is used to modify a solution of a substance, it means that no more of that substance can dissolve in that solution.

The term“aliphatic” signifies that the compound or chemical group so modified is an acyclic or cyclic, but non-aromatic compound or group. In aliphatic compounds/groups, the carbon atoms can be joined together in straight chains, branched chains, or non-aromatic rings (alicy clic). Aliphatic compounds/groups can be saturated, that is joined by single carbon- carbon bonds (alkanes/alkyl), or unsaturated, with one or more carbon-carbon double bonds (alkenes/alkenyl) or with one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds (alkynes/alkynyl).

The term“aromatic” signifies that the compound or chemical group so modified has a planar unsaturated ring of atoms with An +2 electrons in a fully conjugated cyclic p system.

The term“alkyl” when used without the“substituted” modifier refers to a monovalent saturated aliphatic group with a carbon atom as the point of attachment, a linear or branched acyclic structure, and no atoms other than carbon and hydrogen. The groups -CTb (Me), -CH2CH3 (Et), -CH2CH2CH3 (n- Pr or propyl), -CH(CH3)2 (z-Pr, Tr or isopropyl), -CH2CH2CH2CH3 («-Bu), -CH(CH3)CH 2 CH3 (sec-butyl), -CH 2 CH(CH 3 )2 (isobutyl), -C(CH3)3 (tert- butyl, /-butyl, /-Bu or 'Bu). and -CH2C(CH3)3 (weopentyl) are non-limiting examples of alkyl groups. The term“alkanediyl” when used without the“substituted” modifier refers to a divalent saturated aliphatic group, with one or two saturated carbon atom(s) as the point(s) of attachment, a linear or branched acyclic structure, no carbon-carbon double or triple bonds, and no atoms other than carbon and hydrogen. The groups -CH2- (methylene), -CH2CH2-, -CH2C(CH3)2CH2-, and -CH2CH2CH2- are non-limiting examples of alkanediyl groups. The term“alkylidene” when used without the“substituted” modifier refers to the divalent group =CRR' in which R and R' are independently hydrogen or alkyl. Non-limiting examples of alkylidene groups include: =CH2, =CH(CH2CH3), and =C(CH3)2. An“alkane” refers to the class of compounds having the formula H-R, wherein R is alkyl as this term is defined above. When any of these terms is used with the“substituted” modifier, one or more hydrogen atom has been independently replaced by -OH, -F, -Cl, -Br, -I, -NH2, -NO2, -CO2H, -CO2CH3, -CN, -SH, -OCH3, -OCH2CH3, -C(0)CH3, -NHCH3, -NHCH2CH3, -N(CH 3 )2, -C(0)NH 2 , -C(0)NHCH 3 , -C(0)N(CH 3 ) 2 , -0C(0)CH 3 , -NHC(0)CH 3 , -S(0)20H, or -S(0) 2 NH 2 . The following groups are non-limiting examples of substituted alkyl groups: -CH2OH, -CH2CI, -CF3, -CH2CN, -CH 2 C(0)0H, -CH 2 C(0)0CH 3 , -CH 2 C(0)NH 2 , -CH 2 C(0)CH 3 , -CH2OCH3, -CH 2 0C(0)CH 3 , -CH2NH2, -CH 2 N(CH 3 )2, and -CH2CH2CI. The term“haloalkyl” is a subset of substituted alkyl, in which the hydrogen atom replacement is limited to halo (i.e. -F, -Cl, -Br, or -I) such that no other atoms aside from carbon, hydrogen and halogen are present. The group, -CH2CI is a non-limiting example of a haloalkyl. The term“fluoroalkyl” is a subset of substituted alkyl, in which the hydrogen atom replacement is limited to fluoro such that no other atoms aside from carbon, hydrogen and fluorine are present. The groups -CH2F, -CF3, and -CH2CF3 are non-limiting examples of fluoroalkyl groups.

The term“aryl” refers to a monovalent unsaturated aromatic group with an aromatic carbon atom as the point of attachment, said carbon atom forming part of a one or more aromatic ring structures, each with six ring atoms that are all carbon, and wherein the group consists of no atoms other than carbon and hydrogen. If more than one ring is present, the rings may be fused or unfused. Unfused rings are connected with a covalent bond. As used herein, the term aryl does not preclude the presence of one or more alkyl groups (carbon number limitation permitting) attached to the first aromatic ring or any additional aromatic ring present. Non-limiting examples of aryl groups include phenyl (Ph), methylphenyl, (dimethyl)phenyl, -C6H4CH2CH3 (ethylphenyl), naphthyl, and a monovalent group derived from biphenyl (e.g., 4-phenylphenyl). The term“arenediyl” refers to a divalent aromatic group with two aromatic carbon atoms as points of attachment, said carbon atoms forming part of one or more six- membered aromatic ring structures, each with six ring atoms that are all carbon, and wherein the divalent group consists of no atoms other than carbon and hydrogen. As used herein, the term arenediyl does not preclude the presence of one or more alkyl groups (carbon number limitation permitting) attached to the first aromatic ring or any additional aromatic ring present. If more than one ring is present, the rings may be fused or unfused. Unfused rings are connected with a covalent bond. Non-limiting examples of arenediyl groups include:

An“arene” refers to the class of compounds having the formula H-R, wherein R is aryl as that term is defined above. Benzene and toluene are non-limiting examples of arenes.

The term“acyl” when used without the“substituted” modifier refers to the group -C(0)R, in which R is a hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl, or aryl as those terms are defined above. The groups, -CHO, -C(0)CH 3 (acetyl, Ac), -C(0)CH 2 CH 3 , -C(0)CH(CH 3 ) 2 ,

-C(0)CH(CH2)2, -C(0)C 6 H 5 , and -C(0)C6H4CH3 are non-limiting examples of acyl groups. A“thioacyl” is defined in an analogous manner, except that the oxygen atom of the group -C(0)R has been replaced with a sulfur atom, -C(S)R. The term“aldehyde” corresponds to an alkyl group, as defined above, attached to a -CHO group. When any of these terms are used with the“substituted” modifier one or more hydrogen atom (including a hydrogen atom directly attached to the carbon atom of the carbonyl or thiocarbonyl group, if any) has been independently replaced by -OH, -F, -Cl, -Br, -I, -NH 2 , -NO2, -CO2H, -CO2CH3, -CN, -SH, -OCH3, -OCH2CH3, -C(0)CH 3 , -NHCH3, -NHCH2CH3, -N(CH 3 )2, -C(0)NH 2 , -C(0)NHCH 3 , -C(0)N(CH 3 )2, -0C(0)CH 3 , -NHC(0)CH 3 , -S(0) 2 0H, or -S(0) 2 NH 2 . The groups, -C(0)CH2CF3, -CO2H (carboxyl), -CO2CH3 (methylcarboxyl), -CO2CH2CH3, -C(0)NH2 (carbamoyl), and -CON(CH3)2, are non-limiting examples of substituted acyl groups.

The term“alkoxy” when used without the“substituted” modifier refers to the group -OR, in which R is an alkyl, as that term is defined above. Non-limiting examples include: -OCH3 (methoxy), -OCH2CH3 (ethoxy), -OCH2CH2CH3, -OCH(CH3)2 (isopropoxy), or -OC(CH 3 )3 (tot-butoxy). The term“acyloxy”, when used without the“substituted” modifier, refers to groups, defined as -OR, in which R is acyl. The term“aryloxy”, when used without the“substituted” modifier, refers to groups, defined as -OR, in which R is aryl. The term “alkylthio” and“acylthio” when used without the“substituted” modifier refers to the group -SR, in which R is an alkyl and acyl, respectively. The term“alcohol” corresponds to an alkane, as defined above, wherein at least one of the hydrogen atoms has been replaced with a hydroxy group. The term“ether” corresponds to an alkane, as defined above, wherein at least one of the hydrogen atoms has been replaced with an alkoxy group. When any of these terms is used with the“substituted” modifier, one or more hydrogen atom has been independently replaced by -OH, -F, -Cl, -Br, -I, -NH 2 , -NO2, -CO2H, -CO2CH3, -CN, -SH, -OCH3, -OCH2CH3, -C(0)CH 3 , -NHCH3, -NHCH2CH3, -N(CH 3 )2, -C(0)NH 2 , -C(0)NHCH 3 , -C(0)N(CH 3 ) 2 , -0C(0)CH 3 , -NHC(0)CH 3 , -S(0) 2 0H, or -S(0) 2 NH 2 .

II. Cancer and Other Hyperproliferative Diseases

While hyperproliferative diseases can be associated with any disease which causes a cell to begin to reproduce uncontrollably, the prototypical example is cancer. One of the key elements of cancer is that the cell’s normal apoptotic cycle is interrupted and thus agents that interrupt the growth of the cells are important as therapeutic agents for treating these diseases. In this disclosure, the compounds described herein may be used to lead to decreased cell counts and as such can potentially be used to treat a variety of types of cancer lines. In some aspects, it is anticipated that the compounds described herein may be used to treat virtually any malignancy. Cancer cells that may be treated with the compound of the present disclosure include but are not limited to cells from the bladder, blood, bone, bone marrow, brain, breast, colon, esophagus, gastrointestine, gum, head, kidney, liver, lung, nasopharynx, neck, ovary, prostate, skin, stomach, pancreas, testis, tongue, cervix, or uterus. In addition, the cancer may specifically be of the following histological type, though it is not limited to these: neoplasm, malignant; carcinoma; carcinoma, undifferentiated; giant and spindle cell carcinoma; small cell carcinoma; papillary carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma; lymphoepithelial carcinoma; basal cell carcinoma; pilomatrix carcinoma; transitional cell carcinoma; papillary transitional cell carcinoma; adenocarcinoma; gastrinoma, malignant; cholangiocarcinoma; hepatocellular carcinoma; combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma; trabecular adenocarcinoma; adenoid cystic carcinoma; adenocarcinoma in adenomatous polyp; adenocarcinoma, familial polyposis coli; solid carcinoma; carcinoid tumor, malignant; branchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinoma; papillary adenocarcinoma; chromophobe carcinoma; acidophil carcinoma; oxyphilic adenocarcinoma; basophil carcinoma; clear cell adenocarcinoma; granular cell carcinoma; follicular adenocarcinoma; papillary and follicular adenocarcinoma; nonencapsulating sclerosing carcinoma; adrenal cortical carcinoma; endometroid carcinoma; skin appendage carcinoma; apocrine adenocarcinoma; sebaceous adenocarcinoma; ceruminous adenocarcinoma; mucoepidermoid carcinoma; cystadenocarcinoma; papillary cystadenocarcinoma; papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma; mucinous cystadenocarcinoma; mucinous adenocarcinoma; signet ring cell carcinoma; infiltrating duct carcinoma; medullary carcinoma; lobular carcinoma; inflammatory carcinoma; Paget's disease, mammary; acinar cell carcinoma; adenosquamous carcinoma; adenocarcinoma w/squamous metaplasia; thymoma, malignant; ovarian stromal tumor, malignant; thecoma, malignant; granulosa cell tumor, malignant; androblastoma, malignant; sertoli cell carcinoma; Leydig cell tumor, malignant; lipid cell tumor, malignant; paraganglioma, malignant; extra mammary paraganglioma, malignant; pheochromocytoma; glomangiosarcoma; malignant melanoma; amelanotic melanoma; superficial spreading melanoma; malignant melanoma in giant pigmented nevus; epithelioid cell melanoma; blue nevus, malignant; sarcoma; fibrosarcoma; fibrous histiocytoma, malignant; myxosarcoma; liposarcoma; leiomyosarcoma; rhabdomyosarcoma; embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma; alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma; stromal sarcoma; mixed tumor, malignant; Mullerian mixed tumor; nephroblastoma; hepatoblastoma; carcinosarcoma; mesenchymoma, malignant; Brenner tumor, malignant; phyllodes tumor, malignant; synovial sarcoma; mesothelioma, malignant; dysgerminoma; embryonal carcinoma; teratoma, malignant; struma ovarii, malignant; choriocarcinoma; mesonephroma, malignant; hemangiosarcoma; hemangioendothelioma, malignant; Kaposi's sarcoma; hemangiopericytoma, malignant; lymphangiosarcoma; osteosarcoma; juxtacortical osteosarcoma; chondrosarcoma; chondroblastoma, malignant; mesenchymal chondrosarcoma; giant cell tumor of bone; Ewing's sarcoma; odontogenic tumor, malignant; ameloblastic odontosarcoma; ameloblastoma, malignant; ameloblastic fibrosarcoma; pinealoma, malignant; chordoma; glioma, malignant; ependymoma; astrocytoma; protoplasmic astrocytoma; fibrillary astrocytoma; astroblastoma; glioblastoma; oligodendroglioma; oligodendroblastoma; primitive neuroectodermal; cerebellar sarcoma; gangboneuroblastoma; neuroblastoma; retinoblastoma; olfactory neurogenic tumor; meningioma, malignant; neurofibrosarcoma; neurilemmoma, malignant; granular cell tumor, malignant; malignant lymphoma; Hodgkin's disease; paragranuloma; malignant lymphoma, small lymphocytic; malignant lymphoma, large cell, diffuse; malignant lymphoma, follicular; mycosis fungoides; other specified non- Hodgkin's lymphomas; malignant histiocytosis; multiple myeloma; mast cell sarcoma; immunoprobferative small intestinal disease; leukemia; lymphoid leukemia; plasma cell leukemia; erythroleukemia; lymphosarcoma cell leukemia; myeloid leukemia; basophilic leukemia; eosinophilic leukemia; monocytic leukemia; mast cell leukemia; megakaryoblastic leukemia; myeloid sarcoma; and hairy cell leukemia. In certain aspects, the tumor may comprise an osteosarcoma, angiosarcoma, rhabdosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, or leukemia.

III. Therapies

A. Pharmaceutical Formulations and Routes of Administration

Where clinical applications are contemplated, it will be necessary to prepare pharmaceutical compositions in a form appropriate for the intended application. In some embodiments, such formulation with the compound of the present disclosure is contemplated. Generally, this will entail preparing compositions that are essentially free of pyrogens, as well as other impurities that could be harmful to humans or animals.

One will generally desire to employ appropriate salts and buffers to render the compound stable and allow for uptake by target cells. Buffers also will be employed when recombinant cells are introduced into a patient. Aqueous compositions of the present disclosure comprise an effective amount of the compound to cells, dissolved or dispersed in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or aqueous medium. Such compositions also are referred to as inocula. The phrase“pharmaceutically or pharmacologically acceptable” refers to molecular entities and compositions that do not produce adverse, allergic, or other untoward reactions when administered to an animal or a human. As used herein,“pharmaceutically acceptable carrier” includes any and all solvents, dispersion media, coatings, antibacterial and antifungal agents, isotonic and absorption delaying agents and the like. The use of such media and agents for pharmaceutically active substances is well known in the art. Except insofar as any conventional media or agent is incompatible with the compound of the present disclosure, its use in therapeutic compositions is contemplated. Supplementary active ingredients also can be incorporated into the compositions.

The active compositions of the present disclosure may include classic pharmaceutical preparations. Administration of these compositions according to the present disclosure will be via any common route so long as the target tissue is available via that route. Such routes include oral, nasal, buccal, rectal, vaginal or topical route. Alternatively, administration may be by orthotopic, intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intratumoral, intraperitoneal, or intravenous injection. Such compositions would normally be administered as pharmaceutically acceptable compositions, described supra.

The active compound may also be administered parenterally or intraperitoneally. Solutions of the active compound as free base or pharmacologically acceptable salts can be prepared in water suitably mixed with a surfactant, such as hydroxypropylcellulose. Dispersions can also be prepared in glycerol, liquid polyethylene glycols, and mixtures thereof and in oils. Under ordinary conditions of storage and use, these preparations contain a preservative to prevent the growth of microorganisms.

The pharmaceutical forms suitable for injectable use include sterile aqueous solutions or dispersions and sterile powders for the extemporaneous preparation of sterile injectable solutions or dispersions. In all cases the form must be sterile and must be fluid to the extent that easy syringability exists. It must be stable under the conditions of manufacture and storage and must be preserved against the contaminating action of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. The carrier can be a solvent or dispersion medium containing, for example, water, ethanol, polyol (for example, glycerol, propylene glycol, and liquid polyethylene glycol, and the like), suitable mixtures thereof, and vegetable oils. The proper fluidity can be maintained, for example, by the use of a coating, such as lecithin, by the maintenance of the required particle size in the case of dispersion and by the use of surfactants. The prevention of the action of microorganisms can be brought about by various antibacterial and antifungal agents, for example, parabens, chlorobutanol, phenol, sorbic acid, thimerosal, and the like. In many cases, it will be preferable to include isotonic agents, for example, sugars or sodium chloride. Prolonged absorption of the injectable compositions can be brought about by the use in the compositions of agents delaying absorption, for example, aluminum monostearate and gelatin.

Sterile injectable solutions are prepared by incorporating the active compounds in the required amount in the appropriate solvent with several of the other ingredients enumerated above, as required, followed by filtered sterilization. Generally, dispersions are prepared by incorporating the various sterilized active ingredients into a sterile vehicle which contains the basic dispersion medium and the required other ingredients from those enumerated above. In the case of sterile powders for the preparation of sterile injectable solutions, the preferred methods of preparation are vacuum-drying and freeze-drying techniques which yield a powder of the active ingredient plus any additional desired ingredient from a previously sterile-filtered solution thereof.

As used herein,“pharmaceutically acceptable carrier” includes any and all solvents, dispersion media, coatings, antibacterial and antifungal agents, isotonic and absorption delaying agents and the like. The use of such media and agents for pharmaceutical active substances is well known in the art. Except insofar as any conventional media or agent is incompatible with the active ingredient, its use in the therapeutic compositions is contemplated. Supplementary active ingredients can also be incorporated into the compositions.

For oral administration the compound described herein may be incorporated with excipients and used in the form of non-ingestible mouthwashes and dentifrices. A mouthwash may be prepared incorporating the active ingredient in the required amount in an appropriate solvent, such as a sodium borate solution (Dobell's Solution). Alternatively, the active ingredient may be incorporated into an antiseptic wash containing sodium borate, glycerin and potassium bicarbonate. The active ingredient may also be dispersed in dentifrices, including: gels, pastes, powders and slurries. The active ingredient may be added in a therapeutically effective amount to a paste dentifrice that may include water, binders, abrasives, flavoring agents, foaming agents, and humectants.

The compositions of the present disclosure may be formulated in a neutral or salt form. Pharmaceutically-acceptable salts include the acid addition salts (formed with the free amino groups of the protein) and which are formed with inorganic acids such as, for example, hydrochloric or phosphoric acids, or such organic acids as acetic, oxalic, tartaric, mandelic, and the like. Salts formed with the free carboxyl groups can also be derived from inorganic bases such as, for example, sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, or ferric hydroxides, and such organic bases as isopropylamine, trimethylamine, histidine, procaine and the like. Upon formulation, solutions will be administered in a manner compatible with the dosage formulation and in such amount as is therapeutically effective. The formulations are easily administered in a variety of dosage forms such as injectable solutions, drug release capsules and the like. For parenteral administration in an aqueous solution, for example, the solution should be suitably buffered if necessary and the liquid diluent first rendered isotonic with sufficient saline or glucose. These particular aqueous solutions are especially suitable for intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal administration. In this connection, sterile aqueous media which can be employed will be known to those of skill in the art in light of the present disclosure. For example, one dosage could be dissolved in 1 ml of isotonic NaCl solution and either added to 1000 mL of hypodermoclysis fluid or injected at the proposed site of infusion, (see for example,“Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences,” 15th Edition, pages 1035-1038 and 1570-1580). Some variation in dosage will necessarily occur depending on the condition of the subject being treated. The person responsible for administration will, in any event, determine the appropriate dose for the individual subject. Moreover, for human administration, preparations should meet sterility, pyrogenicity, and general safety and purity standards as required by the appropriate regulatory agencies for the safety of pharmaceutical agents.

B. Methods of Treatment

In particular, the compositions that may be used in treating cancer in a subject (e.g., a human subject) are disclosed herein. The compositions described above are preferably administered to a mammal (e.g., rodent, human, non-human primates, canine, bovine, ovine, equine, feline, etc) in an effective amount, that is, an amount capable of producing a desirable result in a treated subject (e.g., causing apoptosis of cancerous cells). Toxicity and therapeutic efficacy of the compositions utilized in methods of the disclosure can be determined by standard pharmaceutical procedures. As is well known in the medical and veterinary arts, dosage for any one animal depends on many factors, including the subject's size, body surface area, body weight, age, the particular composition to be administered, time and route of administration, general health, the clinical symptoms of the infection or cancer and other drugs being administered concurrently. A composition as described herein is typically administered at a dosage that induces death of cancerous cells (e.g., induces apoptosis of a cancer cell), as assayed by identifying a reduction in hematological parameters (complete blood count - CBC), or cancer cell growth or proliferation. In some embodiments, amounts of the compound used to induce apoptosis of the cancer cells is calculated to be from about 0.01 mg to about 10,000 mg/day. In some embodiments, the amount is from about 1 mg to about 1,000 mg/day. In some embodiments, these dosings may be reduced or increased based upon the biological factors of a particular patient such as increased or decreased metabolic breakdown of the drug or decreased uptake by the digestive tract if administered orally. Addtionally, the compound may be more efficacious and thus a smaller dose is required to achieve a similar effect. Such a dose is typically administered once a day for a few weeks or until sufficient reducing in cancer cells has been achieved.

The therapeutic methods of the disclosure (which include prophylactic treatment) in general include administration of a therapeutically effective amount of the compositions described herein to a subject in need thereof, including a mammal, particularly a human. Such treatment will be suitably administered to subjects, particularly humans, suffering from, having, susceptible to, or at risk for a disease, disorder, or symptom thereof. Determination of those subjects "at risk" can be made by any objective or subjective determination by a diagnostic test or opinion of a subject or health care provider (e.g., genetic test, enzyme or protein marker, marker (as defined herein), family history, and the like).

In one embodiment, the disclosure provides a method of monitoring treatment progress. The method includes the step of determining a level of changes in hematological parameters and/or cancer stem cell (CSC) analysis with cell surface proteins as diagnostic markers (which can include, for example, but are not limited to CD34, CD38, CD90, and CD117) or diagnostic measurement (e.g., screen, assay) in a subject suffering from or susceptible to a disorder or symptoms thereof associated with cancer in which the subject has been administered a therapeutic amount of a composition as described herein. The level of marker determined in the method can be compared to known levels of marker in either healthy normal controls or in other afflicted patients to establish the subject's disease status. In preferred embodiments, a second level of marker in the subject is determined at a time point later than the determination of the first level, and the two levels are compared to monitor the course of disease or the efficacy of the therapy. In certain preferred embodiments, a pre-treatment level of marker in the subject is determined prior to beginning treatment according to the methods described herein; this pre-treatment level of marker can then be compared to the level of marker in the subject after the treatment commences, to determine the efficacy of the treatment.

C. Combination Therapies

It is envisioned that the compounds described herein may be used in combination therapies with one or more cancer therapies or a compound which mitigates one or more of the side effects experienced by the patient. It is common in the field of cancer therapy to combine therapeutic modalities. The following is a general discussion of therapies that may be used in conjunction with the therapies of the present disclosure.

To treat cancers using the methods and compositions of the present disclosure, one would generally contact a tumor cell or subject with the compound and at least one other therapy. These therapies would be provided in a combined amount effective to achieve a reduction in one or more disease parameter. This process may involve contacting the cells/subjects with the both agents/therapies at the same time, e.g., using a single composition or pharmacological formulation that includes both agents, or by contacting the cell/subject with two distinct compositions or formulations, at the same time, wherein one composition includes the compound and the other includes the other agent.

Alternatively, the compound described herein may precede or follow the other treatment by intervals ranging from minutes to weeks. One would generally ensure that a significant period of time did not expire between the times of each delivery, such that the therapies would still be able to exert an advantageously combined effect on the cell/subject. In such instances, it is contemplated that one would contact the cell with both modalities within about 12-24 hours of each other, within about 6-12 hours of each other, or with a delay time of only about 1-2 hours. In some situations, it may be desirable to extend the time period for treatment significantly; however, where several days (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7) to several weeks (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8) lapse between the respective administrations.

It also is conceivable that more than one administration of either the compound or the other therapy will be desired. Various combinations may be employed, where a compound of the present disclosure is“A,” and the other therapy is“B,” as exemplified below:

A/B/A B/A/B B/B/A A/A/B B/A/A A/B/B B/B/B/A B/B/A/B A/A/B/B A/B/A/B A/B/B/A B/B/A/A B/A/B/A B/A/A/B B/B/B/A A/A/A/B B/A/A/A A/B/A/A A/A/B/A A/B/B/B B/A/B/B B/B/A/B

Other combinations are also contemplated. The following is a general discussion of cancer therapies that may be used combination with the compounds of the present disclosure.

1. Chemotherapy

The term “chemotherapy” refers to the use of drugs to treat cancer. A “chemotherapeutic agent” is used to connote a compound or composition that is administered in the treatment of cancer. These agents or drugs are categorized by their mode of activity within a cell, for example, whether and at what stage they affect the cell cycle. Alternatively, an agent may be characterized based on its ability to directly cross-link DNA, to intercalate into DNA, or to induce chromosomal and mitotic aberrations by affecting nucleic acid synthesis. Most chemotherapeutic agents fall into the following categories: alkylating agents, antimetabolites, antitumor antibiotics, mitotic inhibitors, and nitrosoureas.

Examples of chemotherapeutic agents include alkylating agents such as thiotepa and cyclosphosphamide; alkyl sulfonates such as busulfan, improsulfan and piposulfan; aziridines such as benzodopa, carboquone, meturedopa, and uredopa; ethylenimines and methylamelamines including altretamine, triethylenemelamine, trietylenephosphoramide, triethiylenethiophosphoramide and trimethylolomelamine; acetogenins (especially bullatacin and bullatacinone); a camptothecin (including the synthetic analogue topotecan); bryostatin; callystatin; CC-1065 (including its adozelesin, carzelesin and bizelesin synthetic analogues); cryptophycins (particularly cryptophycin 1 and cryptophycin 8); dolastatin; duocarmycin (including the synthetic analogues, KW-2189 and CB1-TM1); eleutherobin; pancratistatin; a sarcodictyin; spongistatin; nitrogen mustards such as chlorambucil, chlomaphazine, cholophosphamide, estramustine, ifosfamide, mechlorethamine, mechlorethamine oxide hydrochloride, melphalan, novembichin, phenesterine, prednimustine, trofosfamide, uracil mustard; nitrosureas such as carmustine, chlorozotocin, fotemustine, lomustine, nimustine, and ranimnustine; antibiotics such as the enediyne antibiotics (e.g., calicheamicin, especially calicheamicin gi and calicheamicin coi; dynemicin, including dynemicin A; uncialamycin and derivatives thereof; bisphosphonates, such as clodronate; an esperamicin; as well as neocarzinostatin chromophore and related chromoprotein enediyne antiobiotic chromophores, aclacinomysins, actinomycin, authramycin, azaserine, bleomycins, cactinomycin, carabicin, carminomycin, carzinophilin, chromomycinis, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, detorubicin, 6- diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine, doxorubicin (including morpholino-doxorubicin, cyanomorpholino-doxorubicin, 2-pyrrolino-doxorubicin and deoxydoxorubicin), epirubicin, esorubicin, idarubicin, marcellomycin, mitomycins such as mitomycin C, mycophenolic acid, nogalamycin, olivomycins, peplomycin, potfiromycin, puromycin, quelamycin, rodorubicin, streptonigrin, streptozocin, tubercidin, ubenimex, zinostatin, or zorubicin; anti-metabolites such as methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); folic acid analogues such as denopterin, methotrexate, pteropterin, trimetrexate; purine analogs such as fludarabine, 6-mercaptopurine, thiamiprine, thioguanine; pyrimidine analogs such as ancitabine, azacitidine, 6-azauridine, carmofur, cytarabine, dideoxyuridine, doxifluridine, enocitabine, floxuridine; androgens such as calusterone, dromostanolone propionate, epitiostanol, mepitiostane, testolactone; anti adrenals such as aminoglutethimide, mitotane, trilostane; folic acid replenisher such as folinic acid; aceglatone; aldophosphamide glycoside; aminolevulinic acid; eniluracil; amsacrine; bestrabucil; bisantrene; edatraxate; defofamine; demecolcine; diaziquone; elformithine; elliptinium acetate; an epothilone; etoglucid; gallium nitrate; hydroxyurea; lentinan; lonidainine; maytansinoids such as maytansine and ansamitocins; mitoguazone; mitoxantrone; mopidanmol; nitraerine; pentostatin; phenamet; pirarubicin; losoxantrone; podophyllinic acid; 2-ethylhydrazide; procarbazine; PSK polysaccharide complex); razoxane; rhizoxin; sizofiran; spirogermanium; tenuazonic acid; triaziquone; 2,2',2''-trichlorotriethylamine; trichothecenes (especially T-2 toxin, verracurin A, roridin A and anguidine); urethan; vindesine; dacarbazine; mannomustine; mitobronitol; mitolactol; pipobroman; gacytosine; arabinoside (“Ara-C”); cyclophosphamide; thiotepa; taxoids, e.g., paclitaxel and docetaxel; chlorambucil; gemcitabine; 6-thioguanine; mercaptopurine; methotrexate; platinum coordination complexes such as cisplatin, oxabplatin and carboplatin; vinblastine; platinum; etoposide (VP-16); ifosfamide; mitoxantrone; vincristine; vinorelbine; novantrone; teniposide; edatrexate; daunomycin; aminopterin; xeloda; ibandronate; irinotecan (e.g., CPT-l l); topoisomerase inhibitor RFS 2000; difluorometlhylomithine (DMFO); retinoids such as retinoic acid; capecitabine; cisplatin (CDDP), carboplatin, procarbazine, mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, camptothecin, ifosfamide, melphalan, chlorambucil, busulfan, nitrosurea, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, bleomycin, plicomycin, mitomycin, etoposide (VP 16), tamoxifen, raloxifene, estrogen receptor binding agents, taxol, paclitaxel, docetaxel, gemcitabien, navelbine, famesyl-protein tansferase inhibitors, transplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, vincristin, vinblastin and methotrexate and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, acids or derivatives of any of the above.

2. Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy, also called radiation therapy, is the treatment of cancer and other diseases with ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation deposits energy that injures or destroys cells in the area being treated by damaging their genetic material, making it impossible for these cells to continue to grow. Although radiation damages both cancer cells and normal cells, the latter are able to repair themselves and function properly.

Radiation therapy used according to the present disclosure may include, but is not limited to, the use of g-rays, X-rays, and/or the directed delivery of radioisotopes to tumor cells. Other forms of DNA damaging factors are also contemplated such as microwaves and UV- irradiation. It is most likely that all of these factors induce a broad range of damage on DNA, on the precursors of DNA, on the replication and repair of DNA, and on the assembly and maintenance of chromosomes. Dosage ranges for X-rays range from daily doses of 12.9 to 51.6 mC/kg for prolonged periods of time (3 to 4 wk), to single doses of 0.516 to 1.55 C/kg. Dosage ranges for radioisotopes vary widely, and depend on the half-life of the isotope, the strength and type of radiation emitted, and the uptake by the neoplastic cells.

Radiotherapy may comprise the use of radiolabeled antibodies to deliver doses of radiation directly to the cancer site (radioimmunotherapy). Antibodies are highly specific proteins that are made by the body in response to the presence of antigens (substances recognized as foreign by the immune system). Some tumor cells contain specific antigens that trigger the production of tumor-specific antibodies. Large quantities of these antibodies can be made in the laboratory and attached to radioactive substances (a process known as radiolabeling). Once injected into the body, the antibodies actively seek out the cancer cells, which are destroyed by the cell-killing (cytotoxic) action of the radiation. This approach can minimize the risk of radiation damage to healthy cells.

Conformal radiotherapy uses the same radiotherapy machine, a linear accelerator, as the normal radiotherapy treatment but metal blocks are placed in the path of the x-ray beam to alter its shape to match that of the cancer. This ensures that a higher radiation dose is given to the tumor. Healthy surrounding cells and nearby structures receive a lower dose of radiation, so the possibility of side effects is reduced. A device called a multi-leaf collimator has been developed and may be used as an alternative to the metal blocks. The multi-leaf collimator consists of a number of metal sheets which are fixed to the linear accelerator. Each layer can be adjusted so that the radiotherapy beams can be shaped to the treatment area without the need for metal blocks. Precise positioning of the radiotherapy machine is very important for conformal radiotherapy treatment and a special scanning machine may be used to check the position of internal organs at the beginning of each treatment.

High-resolution intensity modulated radiotherapy also uses a multi-leaf collimator. During this treatment the layers of the multi-leaf collimator are moved while the treatment is being given. This method is likely to achieve even more precise shaping of the treatment beams and allows the dose of radiotherapy to be constant over the whole treatment area.

Although research studies have shown that conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy may reduce the side effects of radiotherapy treatment, it is possible that shaping the treatment area so precisely could stop microscopic cancer cells just outside the treatment area being destroyed. This means that the risk of the cancer coming back in the future may be higher with these specialized radiotherapy techniques.

Scientists also are looking for ways to increase the effectiveness of radiation therapy. Two types of investigational drugs are being studied for their effect on cells undergoing radiation. Radiosensitizers make the tumor cells more likely to be damaged, and radioprotectors protect normal tissues from the effects of radiation. Hyperthermia, the use of heat, is also being studied for its effectiveness in sensitizing tissue to radiation.

3. Immunotherapy

In the context of cancer treatment, immunotherapeutics, generally, rely on the use of immune effector cells and molecules to target and destroy cancer cells. Trastuzumab (Herceptin™) is such an example. The immune effector may be, for example, an antibody specific for some marker on the surface of a tumor cell. The antibody alone may serve as an effector of therapy or it may recruit other cells to actually affect cell killing. The antibody also may be conjugated to a drug or toxin (chemotherapeutic, radionuclide, ricin A chain, cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, etc.) and serve merely as a targeting agent. Alternatively, the effector may be a lymphocyte carrying a surface molecule that interacts, either directly or indirectly, with a tumor cell target. Various effector cells include cytotoxic T cells and NK cells. The combination of therapeutic modalities, i.e., direct cytotoxic activity and inhibition or reduction of ErbB2 would provide therapeutic benefit in the treatment of ErbB2 overexpressing cancers.

In one aspect of immunotherapy, the tumor cell must bear some marker that is amenable to targeting, i.e., is not present on the majority of other cells. Many tumor markers exist and any of these may be suitable for targeting in the context of the present disclosure. Common tumor markers include carcinoembryonic antigen, prostate specific antigen, urinary tumor associated antigen, fetal antigen, tyrosinase (p97), gp68, TAG-72, HMFG, Sialyl Lewis Antigen, MucA, MucB, PLAP, estrogen receptor, laminin receptor, erb B and pl55. An alternative aspect of immunotherapy is to combine anticancer effects with immune stimulatory effects. Immune stimulating molecules also exist including: cytokines such as IL-2, IL-4, IL- 12, GM-CSF, g-IFN, chemokines such as MIP-l, MCP-l, IL-8 and growth factors such as FLT3 ligand. Combining immune stimulating molecules, either as proteins or using gene delivery in combination with a tumor suppressor has been shown to enhance anti-tumor effects (Ju et al, 2000). Moreover, antibodies against any of these compounds may be used to target the anti-cancer agents discussed herein. Examples of immunotherapies currently under investigation or in use are immune adjuvants e.g., Mycobacterium bovis, Plasmodium falciparum, dinitrochlorobenzene and aromatic compounds (U.S. Patents 5,801,005 and 5,739,169; Hui and Hashimoto, 1998; Christodoulides, et ah, 1998), cytokine therapy, e.g., interferons a, b, and g; IL-l, GM-CSF and TNF (Bukowski, etal, 1998; Davidson, etal, 1998; Hellstrand, etal, 1998) gene therapy, e.g., TNF, IL-l, IL-2, p53 (Qin et al, 1998; Austin-Ward and Villaseca, 1998; U.S. Patents 5,830,880 and 5,846,945) and monoclonal antibodies, e.g., anti-ganglioside GM2, anti-HER- 2, anti-pl85 (Pietras, et al, 1998; Hanibuchi, et al, 1998; U.S. Patent 5,824,311). It is contemplated that one or more anti-cancer therapies may be employed with the gene silencing therapies described herein.

In active immunotherapy, an antigenic peptide, polypeptide or protein, or an autologous or allogenic tumor cell composition or“vaccine” is administered, generally with a distinct bacterial adjuvant (Ravindranath and Morton, 1991; Morton, etal, 1992; Mitchell, etal, 1990; Mitchell, et al, 1993).

In adoptive immunotherapy, the patient’s circulating lymphocytes, or tumor infiltrated lymphocytes, are isolated in vitro, activated by lymphokines such as IL-2 or transduced with genes for tumor necrosis, and readministered (Rosenberg, et al, 1988; 1989).

4. Surgery

Approximately 60% of persons with cancer will undergo surgery of some type, which includes preventative, diagnostic or staging, curative, and palliative surgery. Curative surgery is a cancer treatment that may be used in conjunction with other therapies, such as the treatment of the present disclosure, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, gene therapy, immunotherapy and/or alternative therapies.

Curative surgery includes resection in which all or part of cancerous tissue is physically removed, excised, and/or destroyed. Tumor resection refers to physical removal of at least part of a tumor. In addition to tumor resection, treatment by surgery includes laser surgery, cryosurgery, electrosurgery, and microscopically controlled surgery (Mohs’ surgery). It is further contemplated that the present disclosure may be used in conjunction with removal of superficial cancers, precancers, or incidental amounts of normal tissue.

Upon excision of part or all of cancerous cells, tissue, or tumor, a cavity may be formed in the body. Treatment may be accomplished by perfusion, direct injection or local application of the area with an additional anti-cancer therapy. Such treatment may be repeated, for example, every 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 days, or every 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks or every 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12 months. These treatments may be of varying dosages as well.

In some particular embodiments, after removal of the tumor, an adjuvant treatment with a compound of the present disclosure is believe to be particularly efficacious in reducing the reoccurance of the tumor. Additionally, the compounds of the present disclosure can also be used in a neoadjuvant setting.

5. Other Agents

It is contemplated that other agents may be used with the present disclosure. These additional agents include immunomodulatory agents, agents that affect the upregulation of cell surface receptors and GAP junctions, cytostatic and differentiation agents, inhibitors of cell adhesion, agents that increase the sensitivity of the hyperproliferative cells to apoptotic inducers, or other biological agents. Immunomodulatory agents include tumor necrosis factor; interferon alpha, beta, and gamma; IL-2 and other cytokines; F42K and other cytokine analogs; or MIP-l, MIR-Ib, MCP-l, RANTES, and other chemokines. It is further contemplated that the upregulation of cell surface receptors or their ligands such as Fas/Fas ligand, DR4 or DR5/TRAIL (Apo-2 ligand) would potentiate the apoptotic inducing abilities of the present disclosure by establishment of an autocrine or paracrine effect on hyperproliferative cells. Increases intercellular signaling by elevating the number of GAP junctions would increase the anti-hyperproliferative effects on the neighboring hyperproliferative cell population. In other embodiments, cytostatic or differentiation agents may be used in combination with the present disclosure to improve the anti-hyerproliferative efficacy of the treatments. Inhibitors of cell adhesion are contemplated to improve the efficacy of the present disclosure. Examples of cell adhesion inhibitors are focal adhesion kinase (FAKs) inhibitors and Lovastatin. It is further contemplated that other agents that increase the sensitivity of a hyperproliferative cell to apoptosis, such as the antibody c225, could be used in combination with the present disclosure to improve the treatment efficacy.

There have been many advances in the therapy of cancer following the introduction of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs. However, one of the consequences of chemotherapy is the development/acquisition of drug-resistant phenotypes and the development of multiple drug resistance. The development of drug resistance remains a major obstacle in the treatment of such tumors and therefore, there is an obvious need for alternative approaches such as gene therapy. Another form of therapy for use in conjunction with chemotherapy, radiation therapy or biological therapy includes hyperthermia, which is a procedure in which a patient’s tissue is exposed to high temperatures (up to 41.1 °C). External or internal heating devices may be involved in the application of local, regional, or whole-body hyperthermia. Local hyperthermia involves the application of heat to a small area, such as a tumor. Heat may be generated externally with high-frequency waves targeting a tumor from a device outside the body. Internal heat may involve a sterile probe, including thin, heated wires or hollow tubes filled with warm water, implanted microwave antennae, or radiofrequency electrodes.

A patient’s organ or a limb is heated for regional therapy, which is accomplished using devices that produce high energy, such as magnets. Alternatively, some of the patient’s blood may be removed and heated before being perfused into an area that will be internally heated. Whole-body heating may also be implemented in cases where cancer has spread throughout the body. Warm-water blankets, hot wax, inductive coils, and thermal chambers may be used for this purpose.

The skilled artisan is directed to“Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences” 15th Edition, chapter 33, in particular pages 624-652, incorporated herein by reference. Some variation in dosage will necessarily occur depending on the condition of the subject being treated. The person responsible for administration will, in any event, determine the appropriate dose for the individual subject. Moreover, for human administration, preparations should meet sterility, pyrogenicity, and general safety and purity standards as required by the appropriate pharmaceutical agent regulatory agencies.

It also should be pointed out that any of the foregoing therapies may prove useful by themselves in treating cancer.

IV. Synthetic Methods

In some aspects, the compound of this disclosure can be synthesized using the methods of organic chemistry as described in this application. These methods can be further modified and optimized using the principles and techniques of organic chemistry as applied by a person skilled in the art. Such principles and techniques are taught, for example, in March’s Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure (2007), which is incorporated by reference herein.

The synthetic methods described herein can be further modified and optimized for preparative, pilot- or large-scale production, either batch of continuous, using the principles and techniques of process chemistry as applied by a person skilled in the art. Such principles and techniques are taught, for example, in Practical Process Research & Development (2000), which is incorporated by reference herein. The synthetic method described herein may be used to produce preparative scale amounts of the compound described herein.

V. Examples

The following examples are included to demonstrate preferred embodiments of the disclosure. It should be appreciated by those of skill in the art that the techniques disclosed in the examples which follow represent techniques discovered by the inventor to function well in the practice of the disclosure, and thus can be considered to constitute preferred modes for its practice. However, those of skill in the art should, in light of the present disclosure, appreciate that many changes can be made in the specific embodiments which are disclosed and still obtain a like or similar result without departing from the spirit and scope of the disclosure.

EXAMPLE 1 - Synthetic Scheme

Synthesis of MA-3 as an atomic oxygen has been reported in literature (Korang el al. ,

2010).

EXAMPLE 2 - Characterization

FIG. 1 shows the production of atomic oxygen from MA-3 and the resulting chemical byproduct.

MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were plated at 10,000 cells/well on three 96 well plates. After 24 hours incubation at 37°C, varying concentrations of MA-3 and MA-4 were added and incubated for 1 hour at 37°C on only two plates (pre-UV and no UV exposure). One plate with cells were then left at room temperature covered for 30 min (no UV). The second plate (pre-UV) and the third plate (post-UV) were exposed to UV-A in a Luzchem photoreactor with 8 LZC-UVA lamps for 30 min. Varying concentrations of MA-3 and MA-4 were added to post UV exposure plate after irradiation. Plates were then incubated for 24 hours at 37°C and then a MTS cell viability assay (Promega) was performed. Cell viability assay was run on a Flexstation3 mulitmode plate reader and percent viability was calculated. Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism program. Data are shown in FIGS 2A-C. SImialr analysis was run and shown in FIGS. 4A-4C and 6A-9C.

Localization of compounmds 2a and 5a were also explored using microscopy. The localization of these compounds in the cell is shown in FIGS. 3 and 5. Finally, flow cytometry analysis were conducted. The results of these tests are shown in FIGS. 10A-10C.

Table 1, below, gives a rough estimate of deoxygenation of MA-3 in pre-UV exposure plate well. The concentrations were determined using HPLC injections on Agilent Technologies 1200 series HPLC - quaternary pump. The experiment was carried out in two trials consisting of duplicate studies.

Compound 5a was prepared using the synthetic scheme described below and described in Petroff et al, 2018 and Petroff and McCulla, 2016.

DMF

All of the compositions and/or methods disclosed and claimed herein can be made and executed without undue experimentation in light of the present disclosure. While the compositions and methods of this disclosure have been described in terms of preferred embodiments, it will be apparent to those of skill in the art that variations may be applied to the compositions and/or methods and in the steps or in the sequence of steps of the method described herein without departing from the concept, spirit and scope of the disclosure. More specifically, it will be apparent that certain agents which are both chemically and physiologically related may be substituted for the agents described herein while the same or similar results would be achieved. All such similar substitutes and modifications apparent to those skilled in the art are deemed to be within the spirit, scope and concept of the disclosure as defined by the appended claims.

VI. References

The following references, to the extent that they provide exemplary procedural or other details supplementary to those set forth herein, are specifically incorporated herein by reference:

Anderson, Practical Process Research & Development - A Guide for Organic Chemists, 2 nd ed., Academic Press, New York, 2012.

Austin-Ward and Villaseca, Revista Medica de Chile, l26(7):838-845, 1998.

Bukowski et al, Clinical Cancer Res., 4(l0):2337-2347, 1998.

Christodoulides et al, Microbiology, l44(Pt l l):3027-3037, 1998.

Davidson et al., J. Immunother., 2l(5):389-398, 1998.

Gregory et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 119(1), 94-102, 1997.

Handbook of Pharmaceutical Salts: Properties, and Use, Stahl and Wermuth Eds., Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta, 2002.

Hanibuchi et al., Int. J. Cancer, 78(4):480-485, 1998.

Hellstrand et al. , Acta Oncologica, 37(4):347-353, 1998.

Hui and Hashimoto, Infection Immun., 66(l l):5329-5336, 1998.

Ju et al. , Gene Ther., 7(19): 1672-1679, 2000.

Korang et al. , J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (12), 4466-4476, 2010.

Mitchell et al., J. Clin. Oncol., 8(5):856-869, 1990.

Mitchell et aI., Ahh. NY Acad. Sci., 690: 153-166, 1993.

Morton et al. , Arch. Surg., 127:392-399, 1992.

Petroff et al., J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem., 358: 130-137, 2018.

Petroff and McCulla, Tetrahedron Lett., 57(42):4723-4726, 2016.

Pietras et al, Oncogene, 17(17):2235-49, 1998.

Qin et al. , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 95(24):l44l 1-14416, 1998.

Ravindranath and Morton, Intern. Rev. Immunol., 7: 303-329, 1991.

Remington's Pharmaceutical Sci., l5th Ed., Chap. 33, pp. 624-652, 1035-1038, 1570-1580. Rosenberg et al, N. Engl. J. Med., 319: 1676, 1988.

Rosenberg et al, Ann. Surg. 2l0(4):474-548, 1989.

Smith, March’s Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure, 7 th Ed., Wiley, 2013.

U.S. Patent 5,830,880

U.S. Patent 5,846,945

U.S. Patent 5,801,005 U.S. Patent 5,739,169 U.S. Patent 5,824,311