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Title:
DIVING REGULATOR WITH PRESSURE GAUGE IN FIELD OF VIEW AND GAS CYLINDER COMPRISING THE DIVING REGULATOR
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/026587
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A diving regulator is described which comprises a pressure gauge in a field of view. The pressure gauge may be disposed on an ergonomic connector which may be dimensioned to dispose the pressure gauge to the field of view. To accomplish this, the ergonomic connector may comprise a bend. Advantageously, the pressure gauge, or at least the pressure gauge display, is permanently and fixedly disposed in the field of view. Also described are a gas cylinder comprising the diving regulator and a breathing apparatus comprising the gas cylinder and the diving regulator.

Inventors:
HALLAMORE DAVID (AU)
Application Number:
PCT/AU2020/050809
Publication Date:
February 18, 2021
Filing Date:
August 06, 2020
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
HALLAMORE DAVID (AU)
International Classes:
B63C11/22
Foreign References:
US5386824A1995-02-07
US8166973B22012-05-01
US4996982A1991-03-05
US2362643A1944-11-14
US20140345608A12014-11-27
US7571726B22009-08-11
US5764203A1998-06-09
US3208449A1965-09-28
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
WRAYS PTY LTD (AU)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1. A diving regulator comprising: a pressure gauge in a field of view.

2. The diving regulator of Claim 1 wherein the pressure gauge is disposed on an ergonomic connector.

3. The diving regulator of Claim 2 wherein the ergonomic connector is dimensioned to dispose the pressure gauge to the field of view.

4. The diving regulator of Claim 2 wherein the pressure gauge is disposed on an end of the ergonomic connector.

5. The diving regulator of Claim 1 wherein the ergonomic connector comprises a bend.

6. The diving regulator of Claim 5 wherein the bend is at an angle to dispose the pressure gauge in the field of view.

7. The diving regulator of Claim 2 wherein the pressure gauge, or at least a pressure gauge display, is positioned so that the pressure gauge, or at least the pressure gauge display is in said user’s field of view.

8. The diving regulator of Claim 2 wherein the ergonomic connector permanently and fixedly disposes the pressure gauge in the field of view.

9. A gas cylinder comprising a diving regulator, the diving regulator comprising a pressure gauge in a field of view.

10. The gas cylinder of Claim 9 wherein the pressure gauge is disposed on an ergonomic connector.

11. The gas cylinder of Claim 10 wherein the ergonomic connector is dimensioned to dispose the pressure gauge to the field of view.

12. The gas cylinder of Claim 10 wherein the pressure gauge is disposed on an end of the ergonomic connector.

13. The gas cylinder of Claim 9 wherein the ergonomic connector comprises a bend.

14. The gas cylinder of Claim 13 wherein the bend is at an angle to dispose the pressure gauge in the field of view.

15. The gas cylinder of Claim 10 wherein the pressure gauge, or at least a pressure gauge display, is positioned so that the pressure gauge, or at least the pressure gauge display is in said user’s field of view.

15. The gas cylinder of Claim 10 wherein the ergonomic connector permanently and fixedly disposes the pressure gauge in the field of view.

16 An underwater breathing apparatus comprising a gas cylinder and a diving regulator wherein the diving regulator comprises a pressure gauge in a field of view.

17. The underwater breathing apparatus of Claim 16 wherein the pressure gauge is disposed on an ergonomic connector.

18. The underwater breathing apparatus of Claim 17 wherein the ergonomic connector is dimensioned to dispose the pressure gauge to the field of view.

19. The underwater breathing apparatus of Claim 17 wherein the pressure gauge is disposed on an end of the ergonomic connector.

20. The underwater breathing apparatus of Claim 17 wherein the ergonomic connector comprises a bend.

21. The underwater breathing apparatus of Claim 20 wherein the bend is at an angle to dispose the pressure gauge in the field of view.

22. The underwater breathing apparatus of Claim 17 wherein the pressure gauge, or at least a pressure gauge display, is positioned so that the pressure gauge, or at least the pressure gauge display is in said user’s field of view.

23. The underwater breathing apparatus of Claim 17 wherein the ergonomic connector permanently and fixedly disposes the pressure gauge in the field of view.

Description:
DIVING REGULATOR WITH PRESSURE GAUGE IN FIELD OF VIEW AND GAS CYLINDER COMPRISING THE DIVING REGULATOR

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0001] The present invention relates to a diving regulator with a pressure gauge in field of view and a gas cylinder comprising the diving regulator. More particularly, this invention relates to a diving regulator with a pressure gauge in field of view and a gas cylinder comprising the regulator wherein the pressure gauge is disposed on an ergonomic connector.

BACKGROUND TO THE INVENTION

[0002] Portable breathing apparatus are useful in emergency situations and for recreational diving. The amount of equipment required for SCUBA (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus) diving and the requisite training and cost is a significant barrier for many people. Additionally, the transport, cleaning, maintenance and bulkiness and weight during use of the equipment is a burden that many find to be an inconvenience or off-putting.

[0003] United Statement Patent 4996982 to Submersible Systems Inc., discloses a short, compact pressure cylinder with a SCUBA type regulator attached to the top. The apparatus is easily operated and automatically activated by pulling the cylinder from its quick release holster in a single movement. The removal of the cylinder from the holster acts to simultaneously remove a mouthpiece cover and open a supply valve in the regulator, permitting air to be supplied to the regulator valve.

[0004] There are many forms of compact SCUBA apparatus available including ones that are mounted on straps and held to the body, hand-held or held in a user’s mouth. It is difficult to know the remaining capacity of these compact SCUBA apparatus during uninterrupted use.

[0005] There remains a need for convenient, safe and portable diving equipment. [0006] The reference to any prior art in this specification is not, and should not be taken as, an acknowledgement or any form of suggestion that the prior art forms part of the common general knowledge. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0007] Generally, embodiments of the present invention relate to a diving regulator with a pressure gauge in field of view and a gas cylinder comprising the diving regulator.

[0008] In a broad form, the invention relates to a diving regulator with a pressure gauge in field of view and a gas cylinder comprising the regulator wherein the pressure gauge is disposed on an ergonomic connector.

[0009] In a first aspect, although it need not be the only or indeed the broadest aspect, the invention provides a diving regulator comprising: a pressure gauge in field of view.

[0010] In a second aspect, the invention provides a gas cylinder comprising a diving regulator, the diving regulator comprising a pressure gauge in field of view. [0011] In a third aspect, the invention provides a breathing apparatus comprising a gas cylinder and a diving regulator wherein the diving regulator comprises a pressure gauge in field of view.

[0012] In one embodiment the diving regulator has a mouthpiece and further comprises a pressure gauge. In that embodiment the diving regulator may be fitted onto one end of a conventional gas cylinder. With the regulator so fitted, the combination of the diving regulator and the gas cylinder provides a breathing apparatus suitable for use underwater for diving. When the mouthpiece is gripped by a user’s jaws, the pressure gauge is positioned so that it is in the user’s field of view as the user swims underwater. This results, in a preferred arrangement, from by the regulator being fitted onto the one end of the cylinder with the ergonomic connector projecting from the regulator to position the pressure gauge beyond the regulator in a direction away from the one end of the cylinder. The arrangement preferably is such that, with the mouthpiece gripped by the user’s jaws, the cylinder extends across the user’s chin, to or towards the user’s chest, in a position in which the cylinder trails naturally as the user swims forward. Thus, the gauge is located by the connector in advance of the swimming user as the user gazes forwardly. The regulator may be somewhat in the form of a cylindrical cap that is secured on the one end of the cylinder, with the mouthpiece located laterally to one side of the regulator and the connector extending from a location that is on the side of the regulator and, as shown, preferably diametrically opposite the mouthpiece. In each of the first and second aspects, the regulator preferably is one consistent with the form evident from the preferred arrangement of this one embodiment.

[0013] According to any one of the above aspects, the pressure gauge is disposed on an ergonomic connector. The ergonomic connector may be dimensioned to dispose the pressure gauge to the field of view. The pressure gauge may be disposed on an end of the ergonomic connector. The ergonomic connector may comprise a bend. The bend may be at an angle to dispose the gauge in the field of view. The bend may be between a regulator section and a gauge section of the ergonomic connector. The bend may cause the gauge section to extend in a different direction in two dimensions to the regulator section. The two dimensions may be sideways and upwards or sideways and downwards. The side may be a left-hand side of a user or a right-hand side of a user. In one embodiment, the two dimensions are sideways and upwards. The bend may comprise an angle of 80 to 160 °; 90 to 150 ° or 100 to 140 °. In one embodiment the bend comprises an angle of 120 °.

[0014] According to any one of the above aspects, the ergonomic connector may comprise a length of up to 20 cm, such as 3 to 15 cm; or 5 to 10 cm. In one form, the ergonomic connector may comprise a length of 7 cm. The exposed length of the regulator section may be 0.5 to 5.0 cm; 1.0 to 4.0 cm; or 1.25 to 1.75 cm. In one embodiment the exposed length of the regulator section may be 1.5 cm. The exposed length of the gauge section may be 1.0 to 6.0 cm; 1.5 to 5.5 cm; or 2.0 to 3.0 cm. In one embodiment the exposed length of the gauge section may be 2.5 cm. By exposed length is meant that part visible outside of the connection to the diving regulator 100 and pressure gauge 200, respectively.

[0015] According to any one of the above aspects, by disposing the pressure gauge in field of view is meant, positioning the pressure gauge, or at least the, display, so that it is in said user’s field of view.

[0016] According to any one of the above aspects, the field of view may be a user’s or a diver’s field of view. The pressure gauge may be disposed in the field of view and on top of the regulator and/or to a side of the regulator.

[0017] The pressure gauge may comprise a display. The display may comprise a face and a dial. The face comprises a range of pressure values with markings indicating values within the range. The dial may point to a value on the face to indicate a pressure. The pressure may comprise a real time pressure. The pressure gauge may comprise a lens to magnify the face or a part thereof.

[0018] The ergonomic connector may comprise an air-tight attachment at both its pressure gauge end and its diving regulator end. The ergonomic connector may comprise one or both of a plug for air-tight attachment to the regulator block and a regulator seal for air-tight sealing with the regulator block. The regulator seal may comprise a gasket such as, an O-ring. The ergonomic connector may further comprise a regulator connector for attachment to the regulator block. The regulator connector may comprise a thickened region. The ergonomic connector may comprise a pipe comprising an air passage in fluid communication with the regulator block and thereby the gas cylinder. The ergonomic connector may also comprise a gauge connector for attachment to the pressure gauge. The gauge connector may comprise a seal. The seal may comprise a gasket such as, an O- ring. The pipe may be comprised of stainless steel.

[0019] The ergonomic connector permanently and fixedly disposes the pressure gauge in the field of view. The field of view is the user’s field of view.

[0020] The pressure gauge may comprise a gauge passage in fluid communication with the air passage for determination of the pressure. The determined pressure is then exhibited on the display.

[0021] The diving regulator may comprise an external body and a regulator block. The external body and regulator block may be fitted together. The external body may be comprised of a polymeric material. The regulator block may be comprised of a metallic material such as, aluminium.

[0022] The diving regulator may comprise a cylinder valve for control of the flow of breathing gas from the gas cylinder. The pressure regulator may further comprise a regulator seal for air-tight connection to the gas cylinder. The regulator seal may comprise one or more gasket. The regulator seal gasket may comprise one or more of an O-ring; an aluminium washer; and a rubber gasket. The pressure regulator may further comprise an exhaust diaphragm.

[0023] The diving regulator may further comprise a diaphragm cap. The diaphragm cap may comprise a diaphragm and a diaphragm seal. The diaphragm seal may comprise a gasket such as, an O-ring. The diaphragm cap may further comprise a diaphragm lock to securely attach to the external body. [0024] The diving regulator may comprise a core valve. The core valve may comprise a poppet valve. The core valve may comprise a seal, which may be a gasket that may be provided in the form of an O-ring. The core valve may further comprise a plug disposed to sit in core valve seat. The plug may be urged to sit in the core valve seat by a bias. The bias may comprise a spring. The core valve may further comprise a core valve actuator for opening the valve by pushing against the bias. Once the actuator is released, the plug may be urged back into the core valve seat to close the core valve.

[0025] The diving regulator may further comprise a safety valve. The safety valve may be opened if an unsafe or dangerous pressure is reached.

[0026] Advantageously, the diving regulator may comprise a filling inlet that may be used for refilling the gas cylinder. The filling inlet may be covered by a removable cap.

[0027] The gas cylinder comprises a vessel for storing pressurised breathing gas. [0028] The gas cylinder may comprise a (water) volume of 200 to 1000 ml. the volume may comprise 200; 250; 300; 350; 400; 450; 500; 550; 600; 650; 700; 750; 800; 850; 900; 950 or 1000 ml. The gas cylinder may comprise a working pressure of 200 bar. The volume may be 510 ml or 600 ml, which at the working pressure of 200 bar amounts to a capacity of 102L and 120 L of air. The gas cylinder may comprise a height of 15 to 45; 19 to 39; or 24 to 34 cm. The gas cylinder may comprise a diameter of 1 to 11; 3 to 9; or 5 to 7 cm. The gas cylinder comprises a height or length of approximately 29 cm and a diameter of approximately 6 cm. [0029] In one embodiment of any above aspect, the gas cylinder is a mouthpiece gas cylinder or mouth held gas cylinder. The diving regulator may comprise a mouthpiece for holding by a user’s mouth. The diving regulator may further comprise a mouthpiece cover. The mouthpiece may comprise teeth grips that extend to be held between upper and lower teeth. The teeth grips may comprise internal and external flanges.

[0030] Further aspects and/or features of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0031] In order that the invention may be readily understood and put into practical effect, reference will now be made to embodiments of the present invention with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein like reference numbers refer to identical elements. The drawings are provided by way of example only, wherein: [0032] Figure 1: Photograph showing a top perspective view of a diving regulator; gas cylinder; and breathing apparatus according to one embodiment of the invention.

[0033] Figure 2: is a schematic diagram showing a top view in partial cross section of a diving regulator according to one embodiment of the invention.

[0034] Figure 3: is a schematic diagram showing a top view of a pressure gauge according to one embodiment of the invention.

[0035] Figure 4: is a schematic diagram showing a cross sectional view of a pressure gauge according to one embodiment of the invention.

[0036] Figure 5: is a cross sectional view showing the pressure gauge attached to the diving regulator by the ergonomic connector, before a bend is applied, according to one embodiment of the invention.

[0037] Figure 6: is a cross sectional view of an ergonomic connector, before bending, for disposing the pressure gauge in the field of view according to one embodiment of the invention.

[0038] Figure 7: is a schematic diagram showing a cross sectional view of a diving regulator according to one embodiment of the invention.

[0039] Figures 8 and 9: are also schematic diagrams showing different cross- sectional views of the diving regulator of Figure 7.

[0040] Figure 10: is a photograph showing a user’s point of view showing the pressure gauge to be in a field of view.

[0041] Skilled addressees will appreciate that elements in the drawings are illustrated for simplicity and clarity and have not necessarily been drawn to scale. For example, the relative dimensions of some elements in the drawings may be distorted to help improve understanding of embodiments of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0042] Embodiments of the present invention relate to a diving regulator with a pressure gauge in field of view and a gas cylinder comprising the diving regulator. [0043] The invention is of significant advantage because it provides a diving regulator with a pressure gauge in the user’s field of view. Conveniently, the diving regulator may be easily fitted onto a gas cylinder such that the pressure gauge remains in the user’s field of view during use by virtue of it being disposed on an ergonomic connector.

[0044] The invention is at least partly predicated on the inventor’s unexpected discovery that a pressure gauge can be positioned in a user’s field of view. This has the significant advantage of increasing safety, by virtue of not requiring the user to use their hands to locate and manipulate the pressure gauge into their field of view. Further, because the pressure gauge is permanently in the field of view, it is always there as a reminder, so the user does not need to constantly think about checking the remaining breathing gas pressure.

[0045] Hitherto the inventor’s contribution, no regulator, gas cylinder or breathing apparatus, has been provided with the pressure gauge in the field of view. For the first time, the inventor’s discovery provides safe, convenient, lightweight and portable diving equipment that can be used as a primary air source, not just in emergencies.

[0046] To date, compact SCUBA equipment has exclusively made use of pressure gauges mounted on the side of the gas cylinder or diving regulator, where the gauge is out of the field of view. Because this conventional equipment has always positioned the pressure gauge out of a field of view, or not otherwise viewable during uninterrupted use of the equipment, they have been unsuitable for use as a primary air source.

[0047] With the inventor’s novel provision of the pressure gauge in the field of view, this new safety measure means that a smaller cylinder can be safely used as a primary air source. Previously, such smaller cylinders were restricted to secondary air sources that were only suitable for use in an emergency such as, when the primary air source had failed or other emergency when such a primary air source is not available.

[0048] As used herein the term “ergonomic” means the coordination of the design of devices, systems, and physical working conditions with the capacities and requirements of the user. In relation to the ergonomic connector of the invention, this means the ergonomic connector is dimensioned to position the pressure gauge in a user’s field of view so that its design is coordinated with the requirement of the user to readily observe during use without any manipulation of the device relative to the user’s body. All that may be required is a shift of gaze. [0049] Figure 1 shows one embodiment of a diving regulator 100 having a mouthpiece 180 and further comprising a pressure gauge 200 according to the invention. In Figure 1, the diving regulator 100 is shown fitted onto one end of a conventional gas cylinder 300 comprising a vessel 310. The diving regulator 100 may be conveniently removed and reattached to gas cylinder 300 or another cylinder. The combination of the diving regulator 100 and the gas cylinder 300 provides a breathing apparatus suitable for use underwater for diving.

[0050] As shown in Figure 1, the mouthpiece is intended to be gripped by a user’s jaws gas cylinder 300 is gripped by a user’s jaws such that pressure gauge 200 is positioned so that it is in the user’s field of view as the user swims underwater. In the preferred arrangement illustrated, this results from the regulator 100 being fitted onto the one end of the cylinder 300 with the ergonomic connector 202 projecting from the regulator 100 to position the pressure gauge 200 laterally outwardly from and/or beyond the regulator 100 in a direction away from the one end of the cylinder 30 such that the gauge 200 faces towards the user as the user breathes and swims. The arrangement is such that, with the mouthpiece 180 gripped by the user’s jaws, the cylinder extends across the user’s chin, to or towards the user’s chest, in a position in which the cylinder trails naturally as the user swims forward. Thus, the gauge 200 is located by the connector 202 in advance of the swimming user as the user gazes forwardly. As shown, the regulator 100 may be somewhat in the form of a cylindrical cap that is secured on the one end of the cylinder, with the mouthpiece 180 located laterally to one side of the regulator 100 and the connector 202 extending from a location that is on the side of the regulator and, as shown, preferably diametrically opposite the mouthpiece.

[0051] Pressure gauge 200 is positioned in the field of view by it being disposed on ergonomic connector 202. As best shown in Figure 2, pressure gauge 200 is disposed on an end of ergonomic connector 202. Figure 2 also shows that ergonomic connector 202 is dimensioned to dispose the pressure gauge 200 in the user’s field of view. In the embodiment shown in Figure 2, to accomplish this positioning, pressure gauge 200 comprises a bend 204 at an angle to dispose the gauge 200 in the field of view. The bend is shown located between a regulator section 206 and a gauge section 208 of the ergonomic connector 202. The bend 204 causes the gauge section 208 to extend in a different direction in two dimensions, sideways and upwards, to the regulator section 206. The embodiment shows the side to be a left-hand side of a user. In other embodiments, the side may be a right-hand side of the user. While in the embodiment shown, the two dimensions are sideways and upwards, in other embodiments the two dimensions may be sideways and downwards.

[0052] From the teaching herein, the skilled person readily appreciates that by the phrase “disposing the pressure gauge in field of view” is meant positioning the pressure gauge, or at least the, display, so that it is in said user’s field of view. [0053] In the embodiment shown in Figure 2, the bend is at an angle of approximately 120 °.

[0054] As shown in Figure 2, the ergonomic connector 202 is dimensioned so that pressure gauge 200 is disposed in the user’s field of view and on top and to one side of regulator 100.

[0055] Turning to Figure 3, pressure gauge 200 comprises a display 230. The display comprises a face 232 and a dial 234. The face 232 comprises a range of pressure values with markings indicating values within the range. The dial 234 points to a value on the face 232 to indicate a pressure, which is the real time pressure in gas cylinder 300. Although not shown, pressure gauge 200 may comprise a lens to magnify the face or a part thereof.

[0056] Figures 4 and 5 show ergonomic connector 202 prior to be bent to add bend 204. From the teaching herein a skilled person is readily able to select a suitable method for adding bend 204 or of manufacturing ergonomic connector 202 with bend 204.

[0057] As shown in Figure 5, ergonomic connector 202 comprises an air-tight attachment at both its diving regulator end and its pressure gauge end. The air tight attachment at the diving regulator end comprises a plug 210 for air-tight attachment to the regulator block 104 and a regulator seal 212 for air-tight sealing with regulator block 104. The regulator seal 212 may comprise a gasket such as, an O-ring. The ergonomic connector 202 also comprises a regulator connector 214 for attachment to the regulator block 104. The regulator connector 214 may comprise a thickened region. The ergonomic connector 202 comprises a pipe 216 comprising an air passage 218 in fluid communication with the regulator block 104 and thereby the gas cylinder 300. The ergonomic connector 202 also comprises a gauge connector 220 for attachment to the pressure gauge 200. The gauge connector comprises 220 a seal 222 in the form of a gasket shown as an O-ring. The pipe 216 may be comprised of stainless steel.

[0058] The ergonomic connector 202 permanently and fixedly disposes the pressure gauge 200 in the user’s field of view.

[0059] Figures 5 and 6 show the ergonomic connector 202, prior to it being bent, to add bend 204. In the embodiment shown, ergonomic connector 202 comprises a length of 7 cm. Figure 5 shows that only part of the length of ergonomic connector 202 is exposed, that is visible outside of the connections 214, 220 to the diving regulator 100 and pressure gauge 200, respectively. In the embodiment shown the exposed length of the regulator section 206 is approximately 1.5 cm and the exposed length of the gauge section 208 is approximately 2.5 cm.

[0060] From the teaching herein, a skilled person is readily able to select dimensions for ergonomic connector 202 so that it positions or disposes pressure gauge 200, or at least display 230, in the user’s field of view. The absolute and relative sizes of the diving regulator 100 and the pressure gauge 200, or at least display 230, may require consideration in this regard. Suitable lengths for ergonomic connector 200 may comprise 2 to 20 cm; 3 to 15 cm; or 5 to 10 cm. The exposed length of the regulator section 206 may be 0.5 to 5.0 cm; 1.0 to 4.0 cm; or 1.25 to 1.75 cm. The exposed length of the gauge section 208 may be 1.0 to 6.0 cm; 1.5 to 5.5 cm; or 2.0 to 3.0 cm.

[0061] Pressure gauge 200 also comprises a gauge passage 224 in fluid communication with the air passage 218 for determination of the pressure. The determined pressure is then exhibited on the display 230.

[0062] From the teaching herein, the skilled person readily appreciates that the pressure gauge 200 and ergonomic connector 202 may be implemented with any suitable or conventional diving regulator. One suitable diving regulator is that described in United Statement Patent 4996982 to Submersible Systems Inc. discussed above.

[0063] Although the skilled person readily appreciates from the disclosure herein that the pressure gauge 200 and ergonomic connector 202 of the invention may be adapted for use on any suitable diving regulator 100, for completeness, the diving regulator 100 shown in the Figures 7; 8 and 9 will be briefly described. The diving regulator 100 comprises an external body 102 and a regulator block 104. The external body 102 and regulator block 104 are fitted together. The external body 102 is comprised of a polymeric material, while the regulator block 104 is comprised of a metallic material such as, aluminium. From the teaching herein a skilled person is readily able to select suitable materials for the components of the regulator 100, gauge 200 and gas cylinder 300.

[0064] The diving regulator 100 comprises a cylinder valve 106 for control of the flow of breathing gas from the vessel 310. The diving regulator further comprises a regulator seal 108 for air-tight connection to the vessel 310. The regulator seal 108 is shown in the form of one or more gasket. The regulator seal gasket 108 may comprise one or more of an O-ring (not shown); an aluminium washer 110; and a rubber gasket 112. The diving regulator 100 further comprises an exhaust diaphragm 114.

[0065] The diving regulator 100 further comprises a diaphragm cap 118 comprising a diaphragm 124 and a diaphragm seal 120. The diaphragm seal 120 comprises a gasket such as, an O-ring. The diaphragm cap 118 further comprises a diaphragm lock 122 to securely attach to the external body 102.

[0066] The diving regulator also comprises a core valve 126 comprising a poppet valve. The core valve 126 comprises a core valve seal 130, shown in the form of a gasket embodied as an O-ring. The core valve 126 further comprise a plug 132 disposed to sit in core valve seat 128. The plug 132is urged to sit in the core valve seat 128 by a bias 134, which is shown in the form of a spring. The core valve 130 may further comprise a core valve actuator 136 for opening the core valve 130 by pushing against the bias 132. Once the actuator 136 is released, the plug 132 may be urged back into the core valve seat 128 to close the core valve 126.

[0067] The diving regulator 100 further comprises a safety valve 116 which automatically opens if an unsafe or dangerous pressure is reached.

[0068] Advantageously, the diving regulator 100 further comprises a filling inlet 170 that may be used for refilling the cylinder 310. The filling inlet 170 is shown to be covered by a removable cap 172.

[0069] The gas cylinder 300 comprises a vessel 310 for storing pressurised breathing gas. Like, the description of and selection of the diving regulator 100 above, gas cylinder 300 may also be a commercially available type. From the teaching herein a skilled person is readily able to select a suitable gas cylinder 300 for use with the present invention. [0070] The gas cylinder 300 may comprise a volume of 200 to 1000 ml. The volume may comprise 200; 250; 300; 350; 400; 450; 500; 550; 600; 650; 700; 750; 800; 850; 900; 950 or 1000 ml. The gas cylinder 300 may comprise a working pressure of 200 bar. At this working pressure if gas cylinder 300 comprises a volume of 510 ml or 600 ml, the capacity will be 102L and 120 L, respectively, of air. In the embodiment shown, gas cylinder 300 comprises a height of approximately 29 cm and a diameter of approximately 6 cm. From the teaching herein a skilled person is readily able to select a suitable size gas cylinder. For example, gas cylinder 300 may comprise a height of 15 to 45; 19 to 39; or 24 to 34 cm and gas cylinder 300 may comprise a diameter of 1 to 11 ; 3 to 9; or 5 to 7 cm. [0071] The gas cylinder 300 is a mouthpiece gas cylinder or mouth held gas cylinder. The diving regulator 100 may comprise a mouthpiece 180 for holding by a user’s mouth. The diving regulator 100 may further comprise a mouthpiece cover 190. The mouthpiece 190 may comprise teeth grips 182 that extend to be held between upper and lower teeth. The teeth grips 182 may comprise internal flanges 184 and external flanges 186.

[0072] Figure 10 shows a user’s point of view when gripping mouthpiece 180 showing the pressure gauge 200, or at least display 230, to be in the user’s field of view during use.

[0073] In this specification, the terms “comprise”, “comprising” or similar terms are intended to mean a non-exclusive inclusion, such that an apparatus that comprises a list of elements does not include those elements solely, but may well include other elements not listed.

[0074] Throughout the specification the aim has been to describe the invention without limiting the invention to any one embodiment or specific collection of features. Persons skilled in the relevant art may realize variations from the specific embodiments that will nonetheless fall within the scope of the invention.