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Title:
DYEABLE POLYOLEFIN FIBERS AND FABRICS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2002/046503
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Polyolefin fibers, filaments and fabrics made therefrom which comprise a melt blend which comprises (A) a polyolefin; and (B) at least one polyetheresteramide which contains aromatic diol-derived sections, exhibit excellent durable dyeability. The fabrics are useful in woven garments, carpeting, furniture and automobile upholstery, woven industrial fabrics, non-woven absorbents used in disposable diapers, non-woven garments including disposable medical garments, filter media, synthetic paper and the like.

Inventors:
LI SHENG-SHING
LEGGIO ANDREW JOSEPH
ERGENC NADI
Application Number:
PCT/EP2001/013790
Publication Date:
June 13, 2002
Filing Date:
November 27, 2001
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
CIBA SC HOLDING AG (CH)
International Classes:
A41D13/12; A41D31/00; A61F13/00; A61F13/49; A61F13/514; A61L15/16; D01F6/46; D01F8/06; D03D15/00; D04B1/16; (IPC1-7): D01F6/46; D01F8/06
Foreign References:
EP0084277A21983-07-27
GB2112789A1983-07-27
EP0613919A11994-09-07
EP0829520A11998-03-18
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Claims:
What is claimed is:
1. A dyeable fiber or filament, comprising a melt blend which comprises (A) a polyolefin ; and (B) at least one polyetheresteramide which contains aromatic diolderived sections, wherein the aromatic diols are selected from the group consisting of wherein R, and R2 independently are ethylene oxide or propylene oxide, Y is a covalent bond, an alkylen group of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, an alkyliden group of 2 to 6 carbon atoms, a cycloalkylidine group of 5 to 12 carbon atoms, an arylalkylidene group of 7 to 15 carbon atoms, O, SO, S02, CO, S, CF2, C (CF3) 2, or NH, Xi and X2 are independently hydrogen, an straight or branched alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, aralkyl of 6 to 10 carbon atoms, aryl, halogen, sulfonic acid or sulfonic acid salt, j is 0 to 4 and m and n are independently 1 to 32.
2. A fiber or filament according to claim 1, wherein the polyetheresteramide consists essen tially of residues derived from (1) a polyamide oligomer having end units containing a carb oxylic group and having a number average molecular weight from 200 to 5,000 and (2) an oxyalkylated bisphenol compound of formula (II) having a number average molecular weight from 300 to 3,000.
3. A fiber or filament according to claim 1 in which the polyolefin is polypropylene or poly ethylene.
4. A fiber or filament according to claim 2 in which in the carboxylic group is derived from adipic, sebacic, terephthalic or isophthalic acids or 3sulfoisophthalic acid alkali metal.
5. A fiber or filament according to claim 2 wherein said oxyalkylated bisphenol compound comprises an oxyalkylated alkylidene bisphenol.
6. A fiber or filament according to claim 5 wherein said oxyalkylated alkyliden bisphenol is an oxyalkylated bisphenol A.
7. A fiber or filament according to claim 2 wherein said oxyalkylated bisphenol compound is about 20 % to about 80 % by weight of the polyetheresteramide.
8. A fiber or filament according to claim 1 wherein the weight ratio of the polyetherester amides of component (B) to the polyolefin of component (A), (B): (A), is 0.1: 99.9 to 40: 60.
9. A fiber or filament according to claim 1 wherein the polyetheresteramides of component (B), in total, are present in an amount of 0.1 % to 15 % based on the weight of component (A).
10. A fiber or filament according to claim 1 further comprising a dye.
11. A bicomponent fiber comprising a polyolefin component, wherein the polyolefin com ponent comprises a melt blend comprising components (A) and (B) according to claim 1.
12. A woven or nonwoven fabric comprising knitted or bonded polyolefin fibers or filaments according to claim 1.
13. A method for imparting permanent dyeability to polyolefin fibers or filaments or woven or nonwoven fabrics made therefrom, comprising melt extruding a mixture comprising a poly olefin and at least one polyetheresteramide which contains aromatic diolderived sections into a plurality of fibers and cooling the fibers, wherein the aromatic diols are selected from the group consisting of wherein Ri and RZ independently are ethylene oxide or propylene oxide, Y is a covalent bond, an alkylen group of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, an alkyliden group of 2 to 6 carbon atoms, a cycloalkylidine group of 5 to 12 carbon atoms, an arylalkylidene group of 7 to 15 carbon atoms, O, SO, S02, CO, S, CF2, C (CF3) 2, or NH, Xi and X2 are independently hydrogen, an straight or branched alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, aralkyl of 6 to 10 carbon atoms, aryl, halogen, sulfonic acid or sulfonic acid salt, j is 0 to 4 and m and n are independently 1 to 32. 14.
14. A method according to claim 13 further comprising contacting the fiber, filament or fabric with a dye under conditions effective to dye the fiber.
15. An article of manufacture comprising a woven or nonwoven fabric according to claim 12 selected from the group consisting of woven garments, carpeting, furniture upholstery, auto mobile upholstery, woven industrial fabrics, disposable diapers, sanitary pads, incontinence pads, wet and dry wipes, wound dressings, spill abatement pads, medical absorbent pads, nonwoven garments, disposable medical garments, felts, pressed sheets, geotextiles, bipo lar filters, packaging materials, envelopes and synthetic paper.
16. Use of component (B) according to claim 1 for imparting permanent dyeability to poly olefin fibers, filaments or woven or nonwoven fabrics.
Description:
Dyeable Polvolefin Fibers and Fabrics The present invention relates to novel olefin polymer fibers and fabrics that exhibit excellent dyeability. The fibers are useful in garments, carpets, upholstery, disposable medical gar- ments, diapers, and the like.

Polyolefins, for example polypropylene, have many advantageous physical properties. How- ever, its inherent ability to be dyed is very poor. There is a long-felt need for dyeable polyole- fin compositions, in particular polypropylene fiber.

Most often, colored polypropylene in fiber form is obtained by the addition of solid pigments.

Unfortunately, fibers with solid pigment are not nearly as vibrant as dyed fibers. Further, due to their limited number, pigments offer a significantly reduced spectrum of choices as com- pared to dyes. Likewise, use of pigments restricts the patterns that can be applied to an ar- ticle of clothing prepared from polypropylene. Certain pigments, additionally, affect the draw- ability and final properties of the polypropylene fiber. Other polyolefins such as polyethylene possess similar disadvantages. A continuing need exists for dyeable polyolefin compositions, for example polypropylene fibers.

U. S. Patent No. 5,096,995 discloses polyetheresteramides with aromatic backbones.

U. S. Patent No. 3,487,453 discloses the improvement of dye receptivity of polypropylene fiber by the addition of an aromatic polyetherester.

U. S. Patent No. 5,140,065 discloses pigment-compatible thermoplastic molding composi- tions that comprise a block polyetherpolyamide, a block polyetheresterpolyamide, an amor- phous copolyamide and a modified copolyolefin.

U. S. Patent Nos. 5,604,284; 5,652,326 and 5,886,098 disclose antistatic resin compositions comprising a certain polyetheresteramide additive.

U. S. Patent No. 5,985,999 discloses a dyeable polyolefin composition comprising the reac- tion product of a functionalized polypropylene and polyetheramine in which the polyether- amine is grafted onto the functionalized polypropylene.

GB-A-2 112 789 discloses polyolefin compositions with polyetheresteramides that have im- proved shock-resistance properties at low temperature, improved dyeing affinity and anti- static properties.

GB-A-2 112 795 discloses polyolefin textile compositions with polyetheresteramides that ex- hibit improved dyeability and improved antistatic properties.

WO-A-97/47684 discloses polypropylene compositions that show affinity for dispersion dyes that comprise isotactic polypropylene, a copolyamide, and an EVA copolymer.

Surprisingly, it has been found that a specific class of polyetheresteramides are especially effective towards imparting dyeability to polyolefin fibers and fabrics when incorporated therein as melt additives.

The present invention pertains to a dyeable fiber or filament, comprising a melt blend which comprises (A) a polyolefin ; and (B) at least one polyetheresteramide which contains aromatic diol-derived sections, wherein the aromatic diols are selected from the group consisting of wherein Ri and R2 independently are ethylene oxide or propylene oxide, Y is a covalent bond, an alkylen group of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, an alkyliden group of 2 to 6 carbon atoms, a cycloalkylidine group of 5 to 12 carbon atoms, an arylalkylidene group of 7 to 15 carbon atoms, O, SO, SO2, CO, S, CF2, C (CF3) 2, or NH, Xi and X2 are independently hydrogen, an straight or branched alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, aralkyl of 6 to 10 carbon atoms, aryl, halogen, sulfonic acid or sulfonic acid salt, j is 0 to 4 and m and n are independently 1 to 32.

An alkylen group of 1 to 6 carbon atoms is a branched or unbranched radical, for example methylene, ethylene, propylene, trimethylene, tetramethylene, pentamethylene or hexame- thylene.

An alkyliden group of 2 to 6 carbon atoms is a branched or unbranched radical, for example ethylidene, propylidene, butylidene, pentylidene 4-methylpentylidene or hexylidene.

A cycloalkylidene group of 5 to 12 carbon atoms is, for example, cyclopentylidene, cyclo- hexylidene, cycloheptylidene, cyclooctylidene, cyclononylidene, cyclodecylidene, cyclounde- cylidene or cyclododecylidene.

An arylalkylidene group of 7 to 15 carbon atoms is, for example, benzylidene or 2-phenyl- ethylidene.

A straight or branched alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms is, for example, methyl, ethyl, propyl, n- butyl, i-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl or hexyl.

An aralkyl of 6 to 10 carbon atoms is, for example, thienylmethyl, benzyl, a-methylbenzyl, a, a-dimethylbenzyl or 2-phenylethyl.

Aryl is, for example, thienyl, phenyl, pyridyl or imidazolyl.

Halogen is, for example, chlorine, bromine or iodine. Preference is given to chlorine and bromine.

A sufonic acid salt is, for example, a sodium or potassium salt of a sulfonic acid.

The polyetheresteramide additives of component (B) encompass those described in U. S.

Pat. No. 5,096,995; 5,604,284; 5,652,326 and 5,886,098 each hereby incorporated by refe- rence. The present polyetheresteramides may be prepared by the methods disclosed in these references.

The polyetheresteramides of U. S. Pat. No. 5,096,995 with aromatic polyether sections are prepared by copolymerizing the components (a) an aminocarboxylic acid, a lactam, or a salt synthesized from a diamine and a dicarboxylic acid; (b) at least one diol selected from the group consisting of aromatic compounds of formulae (I), (II) and (111) as above; (c) at least one diol compound selected from the group consisting of poly (alkyleneoxide) glycols and diols HO-R3-OH where R3 is an alkylen, alkylidene, cycloalkylidene or arylalkylidene group having 2 to 16 carbon atoms; and (d) a dicarboxylic acid of 4 to 20 carbon atoms; wherein the content of the polyetherester units is 10 to 90 % by weight.

The compounds of (c), poly (alkyleneoxide) glycols, are for example polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol.

The polyetheresteramides of U. S. Pat. Nos. 5,604,284,5,652,326 and 5,886,098 consist essentially of the two components of a polyamide oligomer with carboxylic chain ends having a number average molecular weight from 200 to 5,000 and a bisphenol compound contai- ning oxyalkylene units and having a number average molecular weight from 300 to 3,000.

The terms"bisphenol compound containing oxyalkylene units"and"oxyalkylated bisphenol" of U. S. Pat. Nos. 5,604,284; 5,652,326 and 5,886,098, corresponds to"aromatic diol"of for- mula (II) in terms of the present invention.

By the term"essentially"as mentioned herein it should be understood that although the poly- etheresteramide of the present invention may practically be composed of the two compo- nents explained above, it is allowed to add a third component to the polymer within the range not deteriorating the object and the advantageous effect of the invention.

Compounds used to form the polyamide oligomers mentioned above are amino carboxylic acids, lactams and salts of diamines and dicarboxylic acids. Examples of amino carboxylic acids are m-amino caproic acid, m-aminoenanthic acid, co-aminocaprylic acid, co-aminoper- algonic acid, co-aminocapric acid, 11-aminodecanoic acid and 12-aminodecanoic acid.

Examples of lactams are caprolactam, enantholactam, caprylolactam and laurolactam. Di- amines as the components of the salts mentioned above are hexamethylene diamine, hepta- methylene diamine, octamethylene diamine and decamethylene diamine, and dicarboxylic acids are adipic acid, azelaic acid, sebacic acid, undecane dicarboxylic acid, dodecane di- carboxylic acid and isophthalic acid. Examples among these compounds are caprolactam, 12-aminododecanoic acid and salt of adipic acid and hexamethylene diamine.

Polyamide oligomers with carboxylic chain ends having a number average molecular weight from 200 to 5,000 are obtained by the ring opening polymerization or polycondensation of the polyamide forming components in the presence of a molecular weight modifier. As mole- cular weight modifier dicarboxylic acids with from 4 to 20 carbons are usually used, more specifically aliphatic dicarboxylic acids such as succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, pime- lic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid, sebacic acid, undecane dicarboxylic acid and dodecane dicarboxylic acid; aromatic dicarboxylic acids such as terephthalic acid, isophthalic acid, phthalic acid, naphthalene dicarboxylic acid and 3-sulfoisophthalic acid alkali metal salt ; and alicyclic dicarboxylic acids such as 1,4-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, dicyclohexyl-4, 4'-di- carboxylic acid. Halogeno or sulfoxyl derivatives of these carboxylic acids are also used.

Examples among these compounds are aliphatic dicarboxylic acids and aromatic dicarboxy- lic acids, more preferable are adipic acid, sebacic acid, terephthalic acid, isophthalic acid and 3-sulfoisophthalic acid alkali metal salt.

Examples of bisphenol compounds are dihydroxydiphenyl, C-alkyl substituted bisphenol ; ha- logenated bisphenol ; alkylen bisphenols such as bisphenol F; alkyliden bisphenols such as bisphenol A, cyclohexylidene bisphenol and bistrifluoromethyi methylene bisphenol ; aryl alkyliden bisphenol ; bisphenol S and hydroxybenzophenone. Specific examples among these compounds are alkyliden bisphenols, for example bisphenol A.

The oxyalkylene units which are included in the bisphenol compounds of U. S. Pat. Nos.

5,604,284; 5,652,326 and 5,886,098 are oxyethylene unit, oxypropylene unit, 1-or 2-oxy- butylen unit and oxytetramethylene unit. Examples among these oxyalkylene units are oxy- ethylene unit or the combination of oxyethylene and oxypropylene units.

The bisphenol compounds containing oxyalkylene units, namely oxyalkylated bisphenol com- pounds, may have a number average molecular weight ranging from 300 to 3,000, for example from 1,600 to 3,000. For instance the bisphenol compounds containing from 32 to 60 oxyethylene units are advantageously employed.

Of interest are fibers or filaments wherein the oxyalkylated bisphenol compound comprises an oxyalkylated alkylidene bisphenol, for example an oxyalkylated bisphenol A.

The polyetheresteramide of U. S. Pat. Nos. 5,604,284; 5,652,326 and 5,886,098 is obtained by the polycondensation of the above described polyamide oligomer and bisphenol com- pound in the presence of a known catalyst such as antimony trioxide, monobutyl tin oxide, tetrabutyl titanate, tetrabutyl zirconate and zinc acetate according to need. It is advanta- geous that the bisphenol chains with oxyalkylene units be contained in the amount of from 20 to 80 % by weight of the polyetheresteramide. The relative viscosity of the polyetherester- amide is for instance in the range from 0.5 to 4.0, for example from 0.6 to 3.0. Relative vis- cosity is measured as a 0.5 % by weight solution of the polyetheresteramide in m-cresol at 25°C.

For example, the polyetheresteramide of the present invention may be the reaction product of the ethylene oxide adduct of bisphenol A with an oligomer with carboxyl chain ends pre- pared from E-caprolactam and adipic acid.

The polyetheresteramides of the present invention, containing bisphenol compounds, that is aromatic diol-derived groups, provide excellent dyeability to polyolefin fibers, filaments and fabrics.

The compositions of the present invention may comprise additive mixtures of two or more different polyetheresteramides of component (B).

As used herein, the terms"fiber"or"filament"refers to a flexible, synthetic, macroscopically homogeneous body having a high ratio of length to width and being small in cross section.

These fibers may be produced by any of the processes known in the art, including but not limited to direct profile extrusion, and slit or fibrillated tapes. Hence, it is contemplated that the compositions of this invention are useful in the preparation of dyeable fibers including dyeable woven and non-woven polyolefin fibers.

The present compositions are prepared by melt extrusion processes to form fibers or fila- ments. In accordance with known technology such as continuous filament spinning for yarn or staple fiber, and nonwoven processes such as spunbond production and meltblown pro- duction, the fibers or filaments are formed by extrusion of the molten polymer through small orifices. In general, the fibers or filaments thus formed are then drawn or elongated to induce molecular orientation and affect crystallinity, resulting in a reduction in diameter and an im- provement in physical properties. In nonwoven processes such as spunbonding and melt- blowing, the fibers or filaments are directly deposited onto a foraminous surface, such as a moving flat conveyor and are at least partially consolidated by any of a variety of means in- cluding, but not limited to, thermal, mechanical or chemical methods of bonding. It is known to those skilled in the art to combine processes or the fabrics from different processes to produce composite fabrics which possess certain desirable characteristics. Examples of this are combining spunbond and meltblown to produce a laminate fabric that is best known as SMS, meant to represent two outer layers of spunbond fabric and an inner layer of melt- blown fabric. Additionally either or both of these processes may be combined in any arrange- ment with a staple fiber carding process or bonded fabrics resulting from a nonwoven staple fiber carding process. In such described laminate fabrics, the layers are generally at least partially consolidated by one of the means listed above.

The invention is also applicable to melt extruded bi-component fibers, wherein one of the components is a polyolefin according to this invention.

Non-woven fabrics of polyolefin may have a carded fiber structure or comprise a mat in which the fibers or filaments are distributed in a random array. The fabric may be formed by any one of numerous known processes including hydroentanglement or spun-lace tech- niques, or by air laying or melt-blowing filaments, batt drawing, stitchbonding, etc., depen- ding upon the end use of the article to be made from the fabric.

Spunbond filament sizes are from about 1.0 to about 3.2 denier. Meltblown fibers typically have a fiber diameter of less than 15 microns and typically are less than 5 microns, ranging down to the submicron level. Webs in a composite construction may be processed in a wide variety of basis weights. The size of the fiber will depend on the end use. For instance, hea- vier fibers are often employed for carpet backing as opposed to fibers used to make clothing apparel and the like. The fibers of the present invention may be for example from about 1 to about 1500 denier.

Thermoplastic polypropylene fibers, which are typically extruded at temperatures in the range of from about 210° to about 240°C, are inherently hydrophobic in that they are essen- tially non-porous and consist of continuous molecular chains incapable of attracting or bin- ding to dyes. As a result, untreated polypropylene fabrics, even while having an open pore structure, tend to resist the application of dyes.

According to the present invention, a polyetheresteramide additive is incorporated into a thermoplastic polyolefin, such as polypropylene, in the melt, and is extruded with the poly- olefin into the form of fibers and filaments which are then quenched, attenuated and formed into fabrics, either in a subsequent or concomitant processing step.

The polyetheresteramide may be compounded with the polymer pellets which are to be melt extruded. To improve processing, the polyetheresteramide may be preformulated or com- pounded into a low MFR polypropylene which may also contain a small amount of inorganic powder, such as talc, and other traditional stabilizers.

The mixing of the polyetheresteramide into the polyolefin is done by mixing it into molten polymer by commonly used techniques such as roll-milling, mixing in a Banbury type mixer, or mixing in an extruder barrel and the like. The heat history (time at which held at elevated temperature) can be shortened by mixing the polyetheresteramide with unheated polymer particles so as to achieve substantially even distribution of the agent in the mass of polymer, thereby reducing the amount of time needed for intensive mixing at molten temperature.

Conveniently, the polyetheresteramide additive can also be added substantially simultane- ously or sequentially with any other additives which may be desired in certain instances. The polyetheresteramide may also be preblended with other additives and the blend then added to the polymer. It is contemplated that in some instances the polyetheresteramide may have the additional benefit of aiding the other additives to become more easily or evenly dispersed or dissolved in the polyolefin. For easier batch-to-batch control of quality, it may be preferred to employ concentrated masterbatches of polymer/additive blends which are subsequently blended, as portions, to additional quantities of polymer to achieve the final desired formula- tion. The masterbatch, or the neat additives, may be injected into freshly prepared polymer while the polymer is still molten and after it leaves the polymerization vessel or train, and blended therewith before the molten polymer is chilled to a solid or taken to further proces- sing.

The weight ratio of the polyetheresteramides of component (B) to the polyolefin of compo- nent (A) in the compositions of the present invention, (B): (A), is from 0. 1: 99.9 to 40: 60.

For many applications, the polyetheresteramide is present in an amount of 0.1 % to 15 % based on the weight of component (A), for example in an amount of 1 % to 7 % by weight based on the weight of component (A).

The incorporation of the polyetheresteramide of component (B) into a polyolefin fiber or fila- ment according to the present invention results in observed improved dyeability of these na- turally hydrophobic materials. This modification is also durable, such that the fibers or fila- ments and fabrics made therefrom do not lose their dyeability upon aging or handling. The improved dyeability is stable to repeated washings without a loss of performance, even over extended time periods.

Hence, the present invention also pertains to a method for imparting permanent dyeability to a polyolefin fiber, filament and woven or nonwoven fabrics made therefrom, comprising melt extruding a mixture comprising a thermoplastic polyolefin and at least one polyetherester- amide of component (B).

The present invention is aimed at nonwoven fabrics, for example polypropylene fabrics. It is also aimed at threads or yarns for weaving or knitting in conventional textile processes.

The additives of the present invention are effective irrespective of other factors that influence the properties of nonwoven fabrics, for example, basis weight, fiber diameter, degree and type of bonding of the fibers, and the synergistic effects and influence of composite struc- tures, such as the already describes SMS structures.

The present invention is not limited to single-component fibers. Polyolefin bi-component fi- bers, particularly side-by-side or sheath-core fibers of polypropylene and polyethylene would be expected to demonstrate the same practical benefits as single component fibers of either type.

The dyeable fabrics prepared from the fibers and filaments of the present invention include woven garments (outerwear and underwear); carpeting; furniture and automobile upholstery, woven industrial fabrics; non-woven absorbents used in diapers, sanitary pads, incontinence pads, wet and dry wipes, wound dressings, spill abatement, and medical absorbent pads; non-woven garments, including disposable medical garments; felts ; pressed sheets; geo-tex- tiles ; filters (bipolar) ; packaging materials, including envelopes, and synthetic paper.

The fabrics of the present invention may be sterilized by exposure to about 0.5 to about 10 megarads of gamma irradiation. Sterilization with gamma irradiation is employed for hospital garments and the like.

Examples for polyolefins of component (A) are: 1. Polymers of monoolefins and diolefins, for example polypropylene, polyisobutylene, po- lybut-1-ene, poly-4-methylpent-1-ene, polyisoprene or polybutadiene, as well as polymers of cycloolefins, for instance of cyclopentene or norbornene, polyethylene (which optionally can be crosslinked), for example high density polyethylene (HDPE), high density and high mole- cular weight polyethylene (HDPE-HMW), high density and ultrahigh molecular weight poly- ethylene (HDPE-UHMW), medium density polyethylene (MDPE), low density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), (VLDPE) and (ULDPE).

Polyolefins, i. e. the polymers of monoolefins exemplified in the preceding paragraph, for example polyethylene and polypropylene, can be prepared by different, and especially by the following, methods: i) radical polymerization (normally under high pressure and at elevated temperature). ii) catalytic polymerization using a catalyst that normally contains one or more than one metal of groups IVb, Vb, Vlb or Vlil of the Periodic Table. These metals usually have one or more than one ligand, typically oxides, halides, alcoholates, esters, ethers, amines, alkyls, alkenyls and/or aryls that may be either p-or s-coordinated.

These metal complexes may be in the free form or fixed on substrates, typically on activated magnesium chloride, titanium (III) chloride, alumina or silicon oxide. These catalysts may be soluble or insoluble in the polymerization medium. The catalysts can be used by themselves in the polymerization or further activators may be used, typically metal alkyls, metal hydrides, metal alkyl halides, metal alkyl oxides or metal alkyloxanes, said metals being elements of groups la, Ila and/or Illa of the Periodic Table. The activators may be modified conveniently with further ester, ether, amine or silyl ether groups. These catalyst systems are usually termed Philips, Standard Oil Indiana, Ziegler (-Natta), TNZ (DuPont), metallocene or single site catalysts (SSC).

2. Mixtures of the polymers mentioned under 1.), for example mixtures of polypropylene with polyisobutylene, polypropylene with polyethylene (for example PP/HDPE, PP/LDPE) and mixtures of different types of polyethylene (for example LDPE/HDPE).

3. Copolymers of monoolefins and diolefins with each other or with other vinyl monomers, for example ethylene/propylene copolymers, linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and mixtures thereof with low density polyethylene (LDPE), propylene/but-1-ene copolymers, propylene/isobutylene copolymers, ethylene/but-1-ene copolymers, ethylene/hexene copo- lymers, ethylene/methylpentene copolymers, ethylene/heptene copolymers, ethylene/octene copolymers, propylene/butadiene copolymers, isobutylene/isoprene copolymers, ethylene/- alkyl acrylate copolymers, ethylene/alkyl methacrylate copolymers, ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymers and their copolymers with carbon monoxide or ethylene/acrylic acid copolymers and their salts (ionomers) as well as terpolymers of ethylene with propylene and a diene such as hexadiene, dicyclopentadiene or ethylidene-norbornene ; and mixtures of such copo- lymers with one another and with polymers mentioned in 1) above, for example polypropy- lene/ethylene-propylene copolymers, LDPE/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA), LDPE/ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers (EAA), LLDPE/EVA, LLDPE/EAA and alternating or random polyalkylene/carbon monoxide copolymers and mixtures thereof with other polymers, for example polyamides.

Polyolefins of the present invention are for example polypropylene or polyethylene. Of spe- cial interest are polypropylene homo-and copolymers and polyethylene homo-and copoly- mers. For instance, polypropylene, high density polyethylene (HDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and polypropylene random and impact copolymers.

It is within the purview of the present invention to employ blends or alloys of olefin polymers.

The present polyolefin fibers, filaments and fabrics may also have incorporated or applied thereto appropriate additives such as ultraviolet light absorbers, hindered amine light stabi- lizers, antioxidants, processing aids and other additives.

For example, the compositions of the invention may optionally also contain from about 0.01 to about 10 %, preferably from about 0.025 to about 5 %, and especially from about 0.1 to about 3 % by weight of various conventional stabilizer coadditives, such as the materials listed below, or mixtures thereof.

1. Antioxidants 1.1. Alkylated monophenols, for example 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, 2-tert-butyl-4,6-di- methylphenol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-ethylphenol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-n-butylphenol, 2,6-di-tert-bu- tyl-4-isobutylphenol, 2,6-dicyclopentyl-4-methylphenol, 2- (a-methylcyclohexyl)-4, 6-dimethyl- phenol, 2,6-dioctadecyl-4-methylphenol, 2,4,6-tricyclohexylphenol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-meth- oxymethylphenol, nonylphenols which are linear or branched in the side chains, for example 2,6-di-nonyl-4-methylphenol, 2,4-dimethyl-6- (1'-methylundec-1'-yl) phenol, 2,4-dimethyl-6- (1'- methylheptadec-1'-yl) phenol, 2,4-dimethyl-6- (1'-methyltridec-1'-yl) phenol and mixtures there- of.

1.2. Alkylthiomethylphenols, for example 2,4-dioctylthiomethyl-6-tert-butylphenol, 2,4-dioctyl- thiomethyl-6-methylphenol, 2,4-dioctylthiomethyl-6-ethylphenol, 2,6-di-dodecylthiomethyl-4- nonylphenol.

1.3. Hvdroauinones and alkvlated hvdroquinones, for example 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methoxy- phenol, 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone, 2,5-di-tert-amylhydroquinone, 2,6-diphenyl-4-octade- cyloxyphenol, 2,6-di-tert-butylhydroquinone, 2,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, 3,5-di-tert-bu- tyl-4-hydroxyanisole, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl stearate, bis (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydr- oxyphenyl) adipate.

1.4. Tocopherots, for example a-tocopherol, ß-tocopherol, y-tocopherol, 6-tocopherol and mixtures thereof (vitamin E).

1.5. Hydroxylated thiodiphenyl ethers, for example 2,2'-thiobis (6-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol), 2,2'-thiobis (4-octylphenol), 4,4'-thiobis (6-tert-butyl-3-methylphenol), 4,4'-thiobis (6-tert-butyl- 2-methylphenol), 4,4'-thiobis (3,6-di-sec-amylphenol), 4,4'-bis (2,6-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)- disulfide.

1.6. Alkvlidenebisphenols, for example 2,2'-methylenebis (6-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol), 2,2'- methylenebis (6-tert-butyl-4-ethylphenol), 2,2'-methylenebis [4-methyl-6- (a-methylcyclohexyl)- phenol], 2,2'-methylenebis (4-methyl-6-cyclohexylphenol), 2,2'-methylenebis (6-nonyl-4- methylphenol), 2,2'-methylenebis (4,6-di-tert-butylphenol), 2,2'-ethylidenebis (4,6-di-tert-bu- tylphenol), 2,2'-ethylidenebis (6-tert-butyl-4-isobutylphenol), 2,2'-methylenebis [6-(a-methyl- benzyl)-4-nonylphenol], 2,2'-methylenebis [6- (a, a-dimethylbenzyl)-4-nonylphenol], 4,4'- methylenebis (2,6-di-tert-butylphenol), 4,4'-methylenebis (6-tert-butyl-2-methylphenol), 1,1- bis (5-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-2-methylphenyl) butane, 2,6-bis (3-tert-butyl-5-methyl-2-hydroxy- benzyl)-4-methylphenol, 1,1,3-tris (5-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-2-methylphenyl) butane, 1,1-bis (5- tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-2-methylphenyl)-3-n-dodecylmercaptobuta ne, ethylene glycol bis [3,3- bis (3'-tert-butyl-4'-hydroxyphenyl) butyrate], bis (3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-phenyl) di- cyclopentadiene, bis [2- (3'-tert-butyl-2'-hydroxy-5'-methylbenzyl)-6-tert-butyl-4-me thylphe- nyl] terephthalate, 1,1-bis- (3, 5-dimethyl-2-hydroxyphenyl) butane, 2,2-bis (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4- hydroxyphenyl) propane, 2,2-bis- (5-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy2-methylphenyl)-4-n-dodecylmercap- tobutane, 1,1,5,5-tetra (5-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-2-methylphenyl) pentane.

1.7. O-, N-and S-benzyl compounds, for example 3,5,3', 5'-tetra-tert-butyl-4, 4'-dihydroxydi- benzyl ether, octadecyl-4-hydroxy-3, 5-dimethylbenzylmercaptoacetate, tridecyl-4-hydroxy- 3,5-di-tert-butylbenzylmercaptoacetate, tris (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl) amine, bis (4- tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethylbenzyl) dithioterephthalate, bis (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy- benzyl) sulfide, isooctyl-3, 5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylmercaptoacetate.

1.8. Hydroxvbenzylated malonate, for example dioctadecyl-2, 2-bis (3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydr- oxybenzyl) malonate, di-octadecyl-2- (3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-5-methylbenzyl) matonate, di-do- decylmercaptoethyl-2, 2-bis (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl) malonate, bis [4- (1, 1,3,3-tetra- methylbutyl) phenyl]-2, 2-bis (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl) malonate.

1.9. Aromatic hvdroxybenzvl compounds, for example 1,3,5-tris (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy- benzyl)-2, 4,6-trimethylbenzene, 1,4-bis (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)-2,3,5,6-tetrame- thylbenzene, 2,4,6-tris (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl) phenol.

1.10. Triazine compounds, for example 2,4-bis (octylmercapto)-6-(3, 5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy- anilino)-1, 3,5-triazine, 2-octylmercapto-4, 6-bis (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanilino)-1,3,5-tri- azine, 2-octylmercapto-4, 6-bis (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine, 2,4,6-tris- (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenoxy)-1,2,3-triazine, 1,3,5-tris (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyben- zyl) isocyanurate, 1,3,5-tris (4-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethylbenzyl) isocyanurate, 2,4,6-tris- (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 1,3,5-tris (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy- phenylpropionyl)-hexahydro-1, 3,5-triazine, 1,3,5-tris (3,5-dicyclohexyl-4-hydroxybenzyl) iso- cyanurate.

1.11. Benzvlphosphonates, for example dimethyl-2, 5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylphospho- nate, diethyl-3, 5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylphosphonate, dioctadecyl-3, 5-di-tert-butyl-4-hy- droxybenzylphosphonate, dioctadecyl-5-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-3-methylbenzylphosphonate , the calcium salt of the monoethyl ester of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylphosphonic acid.

1.12. Acvlaminophenols, for example 4-hydroxylauranilide, 4-hydroxystearanilide, octyl N- (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) carbamate.

1.13. Esters of 8- (3. 5-di-te) 1-butv)-4-hvdroxvDhenvnDroDionic acid with mono-or polyhydric alcohols, e. g. with methanol, ethanol, n-octanol, i-octanol, octadecanol, 1,6-hexanediol, 1,9- nonanediol, ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol, neopentyl glycol, thiodiethylene glycol, diethy- lene glycol, triethylene glycol, pentaerythritol, tris (hydroxyethyl) isocyanurate, N, N'-bis (hy- droxyethyl) oxamide, 3-thiaundecanol, 3-thiapentadecanol, trimethylhexanediol, trimethylol- propane, 4-hydroxymethyl-1-phospha-2, 6,7-trioxabicyclo [2.2.2] octane.

1.14. Esters of D- (5-tert-butyl-4-hydroxv-3-methLrlphenylpropionic acid with mono-or poly- hydric alcohols, e. g. with methanol, ethanol, n-octanol, i-octanol, octadecanol, 1,6-hexanedi- ol, 1,9-nonanediol, ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol, neopentyl glycol, thiodiethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, pentaerythritol, tris (hydroxyethyl) isocyanurate, N, N'-bis- (hydroxyethyl) oxamide, 3-thiaundecanol, 3-thiapentadecanol, trimethylhexanediol, trimethyl- olpropane, 4-hydroxymethyl-1-phospha-2, 6,7-trioxabicyclo [2.2.2] octane ; 3,9-bis [2- (3- (3-tert- butyl-4-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl) propionyloxy}-1, 1-dimethylethyl]-2, 4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro [5.5]- undecane.

1.15. Esters of p- (3. 5-dicvc) ohexv)-4-hydroxvDhenv)) prooionic acid with mono-or polyhydric alcohols, e. g. with methanol, ethanol, octanol, octadecanol, 1,6-hexanediol, 1,9-nonanediol, ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol, neopentyl glycol, thiodiethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, tri- ethylene glycol, pentaerythritol, tris (hydroxyethyl) isocyanurate, N, N'-bis (hydroxyethyl) ox- amide, 3-thiaundecanol, 3-thiapentadecanol, trimethylhexanediol, trimethylolpropane, 4-hy- droxymethyl-1-phospha-2, 6,7-trioxabicyclo [2.2.2] octane.

1.16. Esters of 3, 5-di-tert-butvl-4-hydroxyphenvl acetic acid with mono-or polyhydric alco- hols, e. g. with methanol, ethanol, octanol, octadecanol, 1,6-hexanediol, 1,9-nonanediol, ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol, neopentyl glycol, thiodiethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, pentaerythritol, tris (hydroxyethyl) isocyanurate, N, N'-bis (hydroxyethyl) ox- amide, 3-thiaundecanol, 3-thiapentadecanol, trimethylhexanediol, trimethylolpropane, 4-hy- droxymethyl-1-phospha-2, 6,7-trioxabicyclo [2.2.2] octane.

1.17. Amides of B-(3, 5-di-tert-butvl-4-hvdroxvphenvl ! propionic acid e. g. N, N'-bis (3,5-di-tert- butyl-4-hydroxyphenylpropionyl) hexamethylenediamide, N, N'-bis (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy- phenylpropionyl) trimethylenediamide, N, N'-bis (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenylpropionyl) hy- drazide, N, N'-bis [2- (3- [3, 5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl] propionyloxy) ethyl] oxamide (Nau- gard@XL-1, supplied by Uniroyal).

1.18. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) 1.19. Aminic antioxidants, for example N, N'-di-isopropyl-p-phenylenediamine, N, N'-di-sec- butyl-p-phenylenediamine, N, N'-bis (1,4-dimethylpentyl)-p-phenylenediamine, N, N'-bis (1- ethyl-3-methylpentyl)-p-phenylenediamine, N, N'-bis (1-methylheptyl)-p-phenylenediamine, N, N'-dicyclohexyl-p-phenylenediamine, N, N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine, N, N'-bis (2-naph- <BR> <BR> thyl)-p-phenylenediamine, N-isopropyl-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, N- (1, 3-dimethylbutyl)- N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, N- (1-methylheptyl)-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, N- cyclohexyl-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, 4- (p-toluenesulfamoyl) diphenylamine, N, N'-di- methyl-N, N'-di-sec-butyl-p-phenylenediamine, diphenylamine, N-allyldiphenylamine, 4-iso- <BR> <BR> propoxydiphenylamine, N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine, N- (4-tert-octylphenyl)-1-naphthylamine, N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine, octylated diphenylamine, for example p, p'-di-tert-octyldiphenyl- amine, 4-n-butylaminophenol, 4-butyrylaminophenol, 4-nonanoylaminophenol, 4-dodeca- noylaminophenol, 4-octadecanoylaminophenol, bis (4-methoxyphenyl) amine, 2,6-di-tert-butyl- 4-dimethylaminomethylphenol, 2,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, N, N, N', N'-tetramethyl-4, 4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, 1,2-bis [(2-methylphenyl) amino] ethane, 1,2-bis (phenylamino) propane, (o-tolyl) biguanide, bis [4- (1', 3'-dimethylbutyl) phenyl] amine, tert- octylated N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine, a mixture of mono-and dialkylated tert-butyl/tert- octyldiphenylamines, a mixture of mono-and dialkylated nonyldiphenylamines, a mixture of mono-and dialkylated dodecyldiphenylamines, a mixture of mono-and dialkylated isopro- pyl/isohexyldiphenylamines, a mixture of mono-and dialkylated tert-butyldiphenylamines, 2,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-4H-1,4-benzothiazine, phenothiazine, a mixture of mono-and di- alkylated tert-butyl/tert-octylphenothiazines, a mixture of mono-and dialkylated tert-octylphe- nothiazines, N-allylphenothiazine, N, N, N', N'-tetraphenyl-1, 4-diaminobut-2-ene.

2. UV absorbers and light stabilizers 2.1.2-(2'-Hvdroxyphenvl) benzotriazoles, for example 2-(2'-hydroxy-5'-methylphenyl) benzo- triazole, 2- (3', 5'-di-tert-butyl-2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzotriazole, 2- (5'-tert-butyl-2'-hydroxyphe- nyl) benzotriazole, 2- (2'-hydroxy-5'- (1, 1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl) phenyl) benzotriazole, 2- (3', 5'-di- <BR> <BR> tert-butyl-2'-hydroxyphenyl)-5-chlorobenzotriazole, 2- (3'-tert-butyl-2'-hydroxy-5'-methylphe-<BR> nyl)-5-chlorobenzotriazole, 2- (3'-sec-butyl-5'-tert-butyl-2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzotriazole, 2- (2'-<BR> hydroxy-4'-octyloxyphenyl) benzotriazole, 2- (3', 5'-di-tert-amyl-2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzotriazole, 2- (3', 5'-bis (a, a-dimethylbenzyl)-2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzotriazole, 2- (3'-tert-butyl-2'-hydroxy-5'- <BR> <BR> (2-octyloxycarbonylethyl) phenyl)-5-chlorobenzotriazole, 2- (3'-tert-butyl-5'- [2- (2-ethylhexyl- oxy) carbonylethyl]-2'-hydroxyphenyl)-5-chlorobenzotriazole, 2- (3'-tert-butyl-2'-hydroxy-5'- (2- methoxycarbonylethyl) phenyl)-5-chlorobenzotriazole, 2- (3'-tert-butyl-2'-hydroxy-5'- (2-meth-<BR> oxycarbonylethyl) phenyl) benzotriazole, 2- (3'-tert-butyl-2'-hydroxy-5'- (2-octyloxycarbonyl-<BR> ethyl) phenyl) benzotriazole, 2- (3'-tert-butyl-5'- [2- (2-ethylhexyloxy) carbonylethyl]-2'-hydroxy-<BR> phenyl) benzotriazole, 2- (3'-dodecyl-2'-hydroxy-5'-methylphenyl) benzotriazole, 2- (3'-tert-butyl- 2'-hydroxy-5'-(2-isooctyloxycarbonylethyl) phenylbenzotriazole, 2,2'-methylenebis [4- (1,1,3,3- tetramethylbutyl)-6-benzotriazole-2-ylphenol] ; the transesterification product of 2- [3'-tert-bu- tyl-5'- (2-methoxycarbonylethyl)-2'-hydroxyphenyl]-2H-benzotriazole with polyethylene glycol 300; [R-CH2CH2-COO-CH2CHz- --, where R = 3'-tert-butyl-4'-hydroxy-5'-2H-benzotriazol-<BR> 2 2-ylphenyl, 2- [2'-hydroxy-3'- (a, a-dimethylbenzyl)-5'- (1, 1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl) phenyl] benzotri- azole ; 2- [2'-hydroxy-3'- (1, 1, 3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-5'- (a, a-dimethylbenzyl) phenyl] benzotria- zole.

2.2.2-Hydroxvbenzophenones, for example the 4-hydroxy, 4-methoxy, 4-octyloxy, 4-decyl- oxy, 4-dodecyloxy, 4-benzyloxy, 4,2', 4'-trihydroxy and 2'-hydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxy derivatives.

2.3. Esters of substituted and unsubstituted benzoic acids, for example 4-tert-butylphenyl salicylate, phenyl salicylate, octylphenyl salicylate, dibenzoyl resorcinol, bis (4-tert-butylben- zoyl) resorcinol, benzoyl resorcinol, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzo- ate, hexadecyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, octadecyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyben- zoate, 2-methyl-4, 6-di-tert-butylphenyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoate.

2.4. Acrylates, for example ethyl a-cyano-ß, ß-diphenylacrylate, isooctyl a-cyano-ß, ß-diphe- nylacrylate, methyl a-carbomethoxycinnamate, methyl a-cyano-ß-methyi-p-methoxycinna- mate, butyl a-cyano-p-methyl-p-methoxycinnamate, methyl a-carbomethoxy-p-methoxycin- namate and N- (p-carbomethoxy-p-cyanovinyl)-2-methylindoline.

2.5. Nickel compounds, for example nickel complexes of 2,2'-thiobis [4- (1,1,3,3-tetramethyl- butyl) phenol], such as the 1: 1 or 1: 2 complex, with or without additional ligands such as n- butylamine, triethanolamine or N-cyclohexyldiethanolamine, nickel dibutyldithiocarbamate, nickel salts of the monoalkyl esters, e. g. the methyl or ethyl ester, of 4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert- butylbenzylphosphonic acid, nickel complexes of ketoximes, e. g. of 2-hydroxy-4-methylphe- nylundecylketoxime, nickel complexes of 1-phenyl-4-lauroyl-5-hydroxypyrazole, with or with- out additional ligands.

2.6. Stericaliy hindered amines, for example bis (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl) sebacate, bis (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl) succinate, bis (1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4-piperidyl) sebacate, bis (1-octyloxy-2, 2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl) sebacate, bis (1, 2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4-piperi- dyl) n-butyl-3, 5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylmalonate, the condensate of 1- (2-hydroxyethyl)- 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxypiperidine and succinic acid, linear or cyclic condensates of N, N'-bis (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl) hexamethylenediamine and 4-tert-octylamino-2, 6-di- chloro-1, 3,5-triazine, tris (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl) nitrilotriacetate, tetrakis (2,2,6,6- tetramethyl-4-piperidyl)-1, 2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylate, 1,1'- (1, 2-ethanediyl)-bis (3,3,5,5- tetramethylpiperazinone), 4-benzoyl-2, 2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine, 4-stearyloxy-2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine, bis (1,2,2,6,6-pentamethylpiperidyl)-2-n-butyl-2- (2-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert- butylbenzyl) malonate, 3-n-octyl-7, 7,9,9-tetramethyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro [4.5] decane-2, 4-dione, bis (1-octyloxy-2, 2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidyl) sebacate, bis (1-octyloxy-2, 2,6,6-tetramethylpipe- ridyl) succinate, linear or cyclic condensates of N, N'-bis (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl) hexa- methylenediamine and 4-morpholino-2, 6-dichloro-1, 3,5-triazine, the condensate of 2-chloro- 4,6-bis (4-n-butylamino-2, 2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidyl)-1,3,5-triazine and 1,2-bis (3-aminopro- pylamino) ethane, the condensate of 2-chloro-4, 6-di- (4-n-butylamino-1, 2,2,6,6-pentamethyl- piperidyl)-1, 3,5-triazine and 1,2-bis (3-aminopropylamino) ethane, 8-acetyl-3-dodecyl-7, 7,9,9- tetramethyl-1, 3,8-triazaspiro [4.5] decane-2,4-dione, 3-dodecyl-1-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-pipe- ridyl) pyrrolidine-2, 5-dione, 3-dodecyl-1- (1, 2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4-piperidyl) pyrrolidine-2, 5- dione, a mixture of 4-hexadecyloxy-and 4-stearyloxy-2, 2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine, a con- densate of N, N'-bis (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl) hexamethylenediamine and 4-cyclohexyl- amino-2,6-dichloro-1,3,5-triazine, a condensate of 1,2-bis (3-aminopropylamino) ethane and 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine as well as 4-butylamino-2, 2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (CAS Reg.

No. [136504-96-6]); a condensate of 1,6-hexanediamine and 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine as well as N, N-dibutylamine and 4-butylamino-2, 2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (CAS Reg. No.

[192268-64-7]) ; N- (2, 2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl)-n-dodecylsuccinimide, N- (1,2,2,6,6- pentamethyl-4-piperidyl)-n-dodecylsuccinimide, 2-undecyl-7, 7,9,9-tetramethyl-1-oxa-3,8-di- aza-4-oxo-spiro [4,5] decane, a reaction product of 7,7,9,9-tetramethyl-2-cycloundecyl-1-oxa- 3,8-diaza-4-oxospiro- [4,5] decane and epichlorohydrin, 1,1-bis (1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4- piperidyloxycarbonyl)-2- (4-methoxyphenyl) ethene, N, N'-bis-formyl-N, N'-bis (2,2,6,6-tetrame- thyl-4-piperidyl) hexamethylenediamine, a diester of 4-methoxymethylenemalonic acid with 1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4-hydroxypiperidine, poly [methylpropyl-3-oxy-4- (2, 2,6,6-tetramethyl-4- piperidyl)] siloxane, a reaction product of maleic acid anhydride-a-olefin copolymer with 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-aminopiperidine or 1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4-aminopiperidine.

The sterically hindered amine may also be one of the compounds described in GB-A-2 301 106 as component l-a), I-b), I-c), I-d), I-e), I-f), I-g), I-h), I-i), Ij), I-k) or l-l), in particular the light stabilizer 1-a-1,1-a-2,1-b-1,1-c-1,1-c-2,1-d-1,1-d-2,1-d-3,1-e-1,1-f-1, 1-g-1,1-g-2 or 1-k-1 listed on pages 68 to 73 of said GB-A-2 301 106.

The sterically hindered amine may also be one of the compounds described in EP-A-0 782 994, for example compounds as described in claims 10 or 38 or in Examples 1- 12 or D-1 to D-5 therein.

2.7. Sterically hindered amines substituted on the N-atom by a hydroxy-substituted alko group, for example compounds such as 1- (2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-octadecanoyloxy- 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine, 1-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-hexadecanoyloxy-2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine, the reaction product of 1-oxyl-4-hydroxy-2, 2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine with a carbon radical from t-amylalcohol, 1- (2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-hydroxy-2, 2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine, 1- (2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-oxo-2, 2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine, bis (1-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-2, 2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl) sebacate, bis (1- (2- -hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-2, 2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl) adipate, bis (1- (2-hydroxy-2- methylpropoxy)-2, 2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl) succinate, bis (1-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpro- poxy)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl) glutarate and 2,4-bis {N- [1- (2-hydroxy-2-methylpro- oxy)-2, 2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl]-N-butylamino}-6-(2-hydroxye thylamino)-s-triazine.

2.8. Oxamides, for example 4,4'-dioctyloxyoxanilide, 2,2'-diethoxyoxanilide, 2,2'-dioctyloxy- 5,5'-di-tert-butoxanilide, 2,2'-didodecyloxy-5, 5'-di-tert-butoxanilide, 2-ethoxy-2'-ethyloxanilide, N, N'-bis (3-dimethylaminopropyl) oxamide, 2-ethoxy-5-tert-butyl-2'-ethoxanilide and its mixture with 2-ethoxy-2'-ethyl-5, 4'-di-tert-butoxanilide, mixtures of o-and p-methoxy-disubstituted oxanilides and mixtures of o-and p-ethoxy-disubstituted oxanilides.

2.9.2-(2-HvdroxvDhenvl)-1, 3, 5-triazines, for example 2,4,6-tris (2-hydroxy-4-octyloxyphenyl)- 1,3,5-triazine, 2- (2-hydroxy-4-octyloxyphenyl)-4, 6-bis (2,4-dimethylphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 2- (2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4,6-bis (2,4-dimethylphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 2,4-bis (2-hydroxy-4-propyl- oxyphenyl)-6- (2, 4-dimethylphenyl)-1, 3,5-triazine, 2- (2-hydroxy-4-octyloxyphenyl)-4, 6-bis (4- methylphenyl)-1, 3,5-triazine, 2-(2-hydroxy-4-dodecyloxyphenyl)-4, 6-bis (2,4-dimethylphenyl)- 1,3,5-triazine, 2- (2-hydroxy-4-tridecyloxyphenyl)-4, 6-bis (2,4-dimethylphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 2- [2-hydroxy-4- (2-hydroxy-3-butyloxypropoxy) phenyl]-4, 6-bis (2,4-dimethyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 2- [2- hydroxy-4- (2-hydroxy-3-octyloxypropyloxy) phenyl]-4, 6-bis (2,4-dimethyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 2- [4- (dodecyloxy/tridecyloxy-2-hydroxypropoxy)-2-hydroxyphenyl]-4 , 6-bis (2,4-dimethylphenyl)- 1,3,5-triazine, 2-[2-hydroxy-4-(2-hydroxy-3-dodecyloxypropoxy) phenyl3-4, 6-bis (2,4-dimethyl- phenyl)-1, 3,5-triazine, 2- (2-hydroxy-4-hexyloxy) phenyl-4, 6-diphenyl-1, 3,5-triazine, 2- (2-hy- droxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4, 6-diphenyl-1, 3,5-triazine, 2,4,6-tris [2-hydroxy-4- (3-butoxy-2-hy- droxypropoxy) phenyl]-1, 3,5-triazine, 2- (2-hydroxyphenyl)-4- (4-methoxyphenyl)-6-phenyl- 1,3,5-triazine, 2- {2-hydroxy-4- [3- (2-ethylhexyl-1-oxy)-2-hydroxypropyloxy] phenyl}-4, 6-bis (2,4- dimethylphenyl)-1, 3,5-triazine.

3. Metal deactivators, for example N, N'-diphenyloxamide, N-salicylal-N'-salicyloyl hydrazine, N, N'-bis (salicyloyl) hydrazine, N, N'-bis (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenylpropionyl) hydrazine, 3-salicyloylamino-1, 2,4-triazole, bis (benzylidene) oxalyl dihydrazide, oxanilide, isophthaloyl dihydrazide, sebacoyl bisphenylhydrazide, N, N'-diacetyladipoyl dihydrazide, N, N'-bis (salicyl- oyl) oxalyl dihydrazide, N, N'-bis (salicyloyl) thiopropionyl dihydrazide.

4. Phosphites and phosphonites, for example triphenyl phosphite, diphenylalkyl phosphites, phenyldialkyl phosphites, tris (nonylphenyl) phosphite, trilauryl phosphite, trioctadecyl phos- phite, distearylpentaerythritol diphosphite, tris (2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) phosphite, diisodecyl pentaerythritol diphosphite, bis (2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) pentaerythritol diphosphite, bis (2,4-di- cumylphenyl) pentaerythritol diphosphite, bis (2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenyl) pentaerythritol diphosphite, diisodecyloxypentaerythritol diphosphite, bis (2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-methylphenyl)- pentaerythritol diphosphite, bis (2,4,6-tris (tert-butylphenyl) pentaerythritol diphosphite, tristea- ryl sorbitol triphosphite, tetrakis (2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) 4,4'-biphenylene diphosphonite, 6- isooctyloxy-2, 4,8,10-tetra-tert-butyl-12H-dibenz [d, g]-1,3,2-dioxaphosphocin, bis (2,4-di-tert- butyl-6-methylphenyl) methyl phosphite, bis (2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-methylphenyl) ethyl phosphite, 6-fluoro-2, 4,8,10-tetra-tert-butyl-12-methyl-dibenz [d, g]-1,3,2-dioxaphosphocin, 2,2', 2"-nitrilo- [triethyltris (3,3', 5,5'-tetra-tert-butyl-1,1'-biphenyl-2,2'-diyl) phosphite], 2-ethylhexyl (3,3', 5,5'-te- tra-tert-butyl-1, 1'-biphenyl-2, 2'-diyl) phosphite, 5-butyl-5-ethyl-2- (2, 4,6-tri-tert-butylphenoxy)- 1,3,2-dioxaphosphirane.

The following phosphites are especially preferred: Tris (2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) phosphite (Irgafos@168, Ciba Specialty Chemicals Inc.), tris (no- nylphenyl) phosphite, 5. Hydroxylamines, for example N, N-dibenzylhydroxylamine, N, N-diethylhydroxylamine, N, N- dioctylhydroxylamine, N, N-dilaurylhydroxylamine, N, N-ditetradecylhydroxylamine, N, N-di- hexadecylhydroxylamine, N, N-dioctadecylhydroxylamine, N-hexadecyl-N-octadecylhydroxyl- amine, N-heptadecyl-N-octadecylhydroxylamine, N, N-dialkylhydroxylamine derived from hydrogenated tallow amine.

6. Nitrones, for example N-benzyl-a-phenyinitrone, N-ethyl-a-methyinitrone, N-octyl-a-hep- tyinitrone, N-lauryl-a-undecyinitrone, N-tetradecyl-a-tridecylnitrone, N-hexadecyl-a-pentade- cylnitrone, N-octadecyl-a-heptadecylnitrone, N-hexadecyl-a-heptadecyinitrone, N-ocatade- cyl-a-pentadecylnitrone, N-heptadecyl-a-heptadecylnitrone, N-octadecyl-a-hexadecylnitrone, nitrone derived from N, N-dialkylhydroxylamine derived from hydrogenated tallow amine.

7. Amine oxides, for example amine oxide derivatives as disclosed in U. S. Patent Nos.

5,844,029 and 5,880,191, didecyl methyl amine oxide, tridecyl amine oxide, tridodecyl amine oxide and trihexadecyl amine oxide.

8. Benzofuranones and indolinones, for example those disclosed in U. S. 4,325,863; U. S. 4,338,244; U. S. 5,175,312; U. S. 5,216,052; U. S. 5,252,643; DE-A-4316611 ; DE-A-4316622 ; DE-A-4316876 ; EP-A-0589839 or EP-A-0591102 or 3- [4- (2-acetoxyethoxy)- phenyl]-5, 7-di-tert-butylbenzofuran-2-one, 5,7-di-tert-butyl-3- [4- (2-stearoyloxyethoxy) phenyl]- benzofuran-2-one, 3,3'-bis [5,7-di-tert-butyl-3- (4- [2-hydroxyethoxy] phenyl) benzofuran-2-one], 5,7-di-tert-butyl-3- (4-ethoxyphenyl) benzofuran-2-one, 3- (4-acetoxy-3, 5-dimethylphenyl)-5, 7- <BR> <BR> di-tert-butylbenzofuran-2-one, 3- (3, 5-dimethyl-4-pivaloyloxyphenyl)-5, 7-di-tert-butylbenzo- furan-2-one, 3- (3, 4-dimethylphenyl)-5, 7-di-tert-butylbenzofuran-2-one, 3- (2, 3-dimethylphe- nyl)-5,7-di-tert-butylbenzofuran-2-one.

9. Thiosvnergists, for example dilauryl thiodipropionate or distearyl thiodipropionate.

10. Peroxide scavengers, for example esters of-thiodipropionic acid, for example the lauryl, stearyl, myristyl or tridecyl esters, mercaptobenzimidazole or the zinc salt of 2-mer- captobenzimidazole, zinc dibutyldithiocarbamate, dioctadecyl disulfide, pentaerythritol tetra- kis (ß-dodecylmercapto) propionate.

11. Polvamide stabilizers, for example copper salts in combination with iodides and/or phos- phorus compounds and salts of divalent manganese.

12. Basic co-stabilisers, for example melamine, polyvinylpyrrolidone, dicyandiamide, triallyl cyanurate, urea derivatives, hydrazine derivatives, amines, polyamides, polyurethanes, alkali metal salts and alkaline earth metal salts of higher fatty acids, for example calcium stearate, zinc stearate, magnesium behenate, magnesium stearate, sodium ricinoleate and potassium palmitat, antimony pyrocatecholate or zinc pyrocatecholate.

13. Nucleating agents, for example inorganic substances, such as talcum, metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide or magnesium oxide, phosphates, carbonates or sulfates of, prefe- rably, alkaline earth metals ; organic compounds, such as mono-or polycarboxylic acids and the salts thereof, e. g. 4-tert-butylbenzoic acid, adipic acid, diphenylacetic acid, sodium succinate or sodium benzoate; polymeric compounds, such as ionic copolymers (ionomers).

Especially preferred are 1,3: 2,4-bis (3', 4'-dimethylbenzylidene) sorbitol, 1,3: 2,4-di (paramethyl- dibenzylidene) sorbitol, and 1,3: 2,4-di (benzylidene) sorbitol.

14. Fillers and reinforcing agents, for example calcium carbonate, silicates, glass fibres, glass bulbs, asbestos, talc, kaolin, mica, barium sulfate, metal oxides and hydroxides, car- bon black, graphite, wood flour and flours or fibers of other natural products, synthetic fibers.

15. Dispersing agents, such as polyethylene oxide waxes or mineral oil.

16. Other additives, for example plasticisers, lubricants, emulsifiers, pigments, dyes, rheolo- gy additives, catalysts, flow-control agents, optical brighteners, slip agents, crosslinking agents, crosslinking boosters, halogen scavengers, smoke inhibitors, flameproofing agents, antistatic agents, clarifiers such as substituted and unsubstituted bisbenzylidene sorbitols, benzoxazinone UV absorbers such as 2,2'-p-phenylene-bis (3,1-benzoxazin-4-one), Cya- sorb 3638 (CAS# 18600-59-4), and blowing agents.

For example, additives commonly used in this art may be optionally incorporated into the dyeable fibers of the present invention. Representative examples of such materials include hydrophilic modifiers such as monoglyceride such as glycerol monostearate, long chain hydrocarbon with hydrophilic groups appended such as a potassium or sodium salt of a linear alkyl phosphate, or combination thereof. The hydrophilic groups may be carboxylates, sulfates, sulfonates, phosphates, phosphonates, as well as quaternary ammonium salts and polyether groups. In addition, swelling agents can be used during dyeing as well as wetting agents, dye compatibilizers and thickening agents such as various gums. Since polyolefin fibers are often used in outdoor applications, such as outdoor carpeting, the addition of UV stabilizers may be advantageously added. Also, antioxidants may be added to the composi- tions.

In addition, it is contemplated that the present compositions will exhibit improved washability of a polyolefin-based textile fabric or non-woven mat. The nonpolar polyolefin tends to hold onto dirt due to the hydrophobic nature of both. The polyetheresteramide of component (B) is expected to facilitate detergents to penetrate the fabric or matrix so the detergents can loosen and wash away the dirt and oils.

It is also contemplated that the incorporation of polyetheresteramides of component (B) in a polyolefin will increase the absorption and wickability of polyolefin textiles and non-wovens.

One example is the melt blown, non-woven absorbent in baby diapers. Making the surface of the non-woven filament more hydrophilic by incorporating the polar polyetheresteramide into the polyolefin is expected to greatly increase the diaper's moisture absorption characteris- tics.

It is also contemplated that the incorporation of polyetheresteramides of component (B) will increase the abrasion resistance of fibers, fabrics, and other articles. Abrasion resistance is important in the drawing of formed fibers. Typically, a sizing is applied to reduce friction bet- ween the fiber and the metal surfaces of the drawing system.

Polyolefin woven and nonwoven fibers and fabrics prepared according to the present inven- tion also exhibit exceptional printability. As a result of their inherent hydrophobic nature, poly- olefin fibers and fabrics may exhibit problems towards printability, that is standard printing techniques. The compositions of the present invention overcome these problems as well.

Conventional methods can be employed to dye the fibers of this invention. For instance, the fibers may be dyed in a dye both using conventional dyes and disperse dye techniques. Ge- nerally, the dye is applied in the form of a dye solution so that it can be readily applied by dipping the fiber through a trough, for example, containing the dye solution, or by spraying the dye solution on the fiber, or by using a cascading roll technique. As is common, the dye solution can be in the form of a print paste, from which the dyeing is typically conducted by roller printing or screen printing. The fibers can be dyed multiple times using one or more dyeing techniques.

Aqueous dye baths typically have a pH of from about 2 to about 11, generally between about 2 to about 6 for acid dyes. The pH may be adjusted if desired using a variety of compounds, such as formic acid, acetic acid, sulfamic acid, citric acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, monosodium phosphate, tetrasodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, ammonium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, and combinations thereof. Use of a surfactant can be used to aid in dispersing sparingly water soluble disperse dyes in the dye baths. Typically, nonionic surfactants can be employed for this purpose. During the dying step, the dye bath may be agitated to hasten the dyeing ratio. The dyeing step can be carried out at a variety of tempe- ratures, with higher temperatures generally promoting the rate of dyeing.

Another technique known in the art is jet dyeing, which permits high-temperature dyeing and impingement of the dye onto the moving fabric through use of a venturi jet system. Carriers permit faster dyeing at atmospheric pressure and below 100°C. The carriers are typically or- ganic compounds that can be emulsified in water and that affinity for the fiber. Representa- tive examples of such carriers include aromatic hydrocarbons such as diphenyl and methyl- naphthalene, phenols such as phenylphenol, chlorinated hydrocarbons such as dichloro-and tricolor-benzene, and aromatic esters such as methyl salicylate, butyl benzoate, diethyl- phthalate, and benzaldehyde. Carriers are generally removed after dyeing.

Subsequent to dyeing, using a dye mixture with additives above, dry heat may be applied to the fibers at a wide range of elevated temperatures to cause the dye to penetrate into, and become fixed in, the fiber. The dye fixation step involves exposing the fiber to dry heat, such as in an oven. The temperature can vary up to the melt or glass transition temperature of the composition fiber. Generally, higher drying temperatures result in shorter drying times. Typi- cally, the heating time is from about 1 minute to about 10 minutes. Residual dye may then be removed from the fibers.

A disperse dye mixture may thus be applied to the polypropylene fibers in various ways. The dye mixture may be applied intermittently along the length of yarn formed from fibers using various well known techniques to create a desired effect. One suitable method of dyeing fibers may be referred to as the"knit-deknit"dyeing technique. According to this method, the fibers are formed into a yarn which in turn is knit, typically into a tubing configuration. The dye mixture is then intermittently applied to the knit tubing. After dyeing, the tubing is un- raveled and the yarn thus has an intermittent pattern. According to an alternative printing method, the fibers are first formed into yarn which is then woven or knitted into fabric, or is tufted into the carpet. A conventional flat screen printing machine may be used for applying the dye mixture to the fabric or carpet.

Continuous dyeing is carried out on a dyeing range where fabric or carpet is continuously passed through a dye solution of sufficient length to achieve initial dye penetration. Some disperse dyes may be sublimated under heat and partial vacuum into polymer fiber by methods known in the art. Printing of polyolefin compositions made in accordance with this invention can be accomplished with disperse dyes by heat transfer printing under pressure with sufficient heating to cause diffusion or disperse dyes into the polyolefin. Block, flat screen, and heat transfer batch processes, and engraved roller and rotary screen printing continuous processes may be used. Different dye solutions may be jet-sprayed in pro- grammed sequence onto fabric or carpet made of the compositions of this invention as the fabric passes under the jets to form patterns. Dye solution may be metered and broken or cut into a pattern of drops that are allowed to drop on a dyed carpet passing underneath to give a diffuse over-dyed pattern on the carpet. Competitive dyeing of polyolefins is useful when dyeing styled carpets consisting of several different fibers such as nylon, polyester, etc., and a polyolefin. Different styling effects can be produced by controlling shade depth on each type of fiber present. Acid, disperse and premetallized dyes, or combinations thereof, depending upon the fibers present, can be employed to obtain styling effects. It may be possible to produce tweed effects by controlling the amount of reaction product and/or poly- etheresteramide in the dyeable composition. Print dyeing, space dyeing, and continuous dyeing can be carried out with fabrics made from such yarns.

There are many commercially available disperse dyes. Dyes are classified based on method of application and, to a lesser extent, on chemical constitution by the Society of Dyers and Colorists. Various disperse dyes may be found in the listing"Dyes and Pigments by Color Index and Generic Names"set forth in Textile Chemist and Colorist, July 1992, Vol. 24, No.

7, a publication of the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists.

Dyes are intensely colored substances used for the coloration of various substrates, such as paper, plastics, or textile materials. It is believed that dyes are retained in these substrates by physical absorption, by salt or metal-complex formation, or by the formation of covalent chemical bonds. The methods used for the application of dyes to the substrate differ widely, depending upon the substrate and class of dye. It is by applications methods, rather than by chemical constitutions, that dyes are differentiated from pigments. During the application process, dyes lose their crystal structures by dissolution or vaporization. The crystal struc- tures may in some cases be regained during a later stage of the dyeing process. Pigments, on the other hand, retain their crystal or particulate form throughout the entire application procedure.

A large number of dyes, with widely differing properties, are therefore necessary because of the great variety of materials to be dyed. On a worldwide basis, it is believed that several thousand different dyes have achieved commercial significance. Generally, dyes have been classified into groups two ways. One method of classification is by chemical constitution in which the dyes are grouped according to the chromophore or color giving unit of the mole- cule. A second method of classification is based on the application class of end-use of the dye. The dual classification system used in the color index (CI) is accepted internationally throughout the dye-manufacturing and dye-using industries. In this system, dyes are grouped according to chemical class with a Cl number for each chemical compound and according to usage or application class with a Cl name for each dye. Disperse dyes are ge- nerally water-insoluble nonionic dyes typically used for dyeing hydrophilic fibers from aque- ous dispersion. Disperse dyes have been used on polyester, nylon, and acetate fibers. A number of spin finishes can be applied to the fibers prior to drawing. Such finishes can be water-based. The spin finishes can be anionic or nonionic, as is well known in the art. Also, the fibers can be finished prior to dyeing, as by texturizing through mechanical crimping or forming, as is well known in the art.

The present invention also relates to a method for imparting permanent dyeability to polyole- fin fibers or filaments or woven or nonwoven fabrics made therefrom, comprising melt extru- ding a mixture comprising a polyolefin and at least one polyetheresteramide which contains aromatic diol-derived sections into a plurality of fibers and cooling the fibers, wherein the aromatic diols are selected from the group consisting of wherein Ri and R2 independently are ethylene oxide or propylene oxide, Y is a covalent bond, an alkylen group of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, an alkyliden group of 2 to 6 carbon atoms, a cycloalkylidine group of 5 to 12 carbon atoms, an arylalkylidene group of 7 to 15 carbon atoms, O, SO, SO2, CO, S, CF2, C (CFs) 2, or NH, X1 and X2 are independently hydrogen, an straight or branched alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, aralkyl of 6 to 10 carbon atoms, aryl, halogen, sulfonic acid or sulfonic acid salt, j is 0 to 4 and m and n are independently 1 to 32 Preferably the method comprises further contacting the fiber, filament or fabric with a dye under conditions effective to dye the fiber.

The present invention also relates to an article of manufacture comprising a woven or non- woven fabric selected from the group consisting of woven garments, carpeting, furniture up- holstery, automobile upholstery, woven industrial fabrics, disposable diapers, sanitary pads, incontinence pads, wet and dry wipes, wound dressings, spill abatement pads, medical ab- sorbent pads, nonwoven garments, disposable medical garments, felts, pressed sheets, geo-textiles, bipolar filters, packaging materials, envelopes and synthetic paper A preferred embodiment of the present invention is therefore the use of component (B) for imparting permanent dyeability to polyolefin fibers, filaments or woven or nonwoven fabrics.

The following examples illustrate the invention in more detail. They are not to be construed as limiting the invention in any manner whatsoever.

Additives employed in the following examples: PEBAX 1074 (RTM, Elf Atochem) is a polyetheresteramide prepared from PA 12 and poly- ethylene glycol, with a melting point of 158°C.

PELESTAT 1250 (RTM, Sanyo Chemical Industries), a polyetheresteramide of the present invention, contains an oxyalkylated bisphenol and has a melting point of ca. 150°C.

PELESTAT 6321 (RTM, Sanyo Chemical Industries), a polyetheresteramide of the present invention, contains an oxyalkylated bisphenol and has a melting point of ca. 203°C.

IRGASTAB FS 410 (RTM, Ciba SC) is a 1: 1 blend of Irgastab FS-042 [RTM, Ciba SC, a N, N-di (alkyl) hydroxylamine produced by the direct oxidation of N, N-di (hydrogenated tallow)- amine] and CHIMASSORB 944 (RTM, Ciba SC). IRGANOX B 1411 (RTM, Ciba SC) is a 1: 1 synergistic blend of IRGAFOS 168 (RTM, Ciba SC) and IRGANOX 3114 (RTM, Ciba SC). IRGAFOS 168 (RTM) is tris (2,4-di-tert-butylphe- nyl) phosphite, IRGANOX 3114 (RTM) is tris (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl) isocyanurate.

IRGANOX XP 620 (RTM, Ciba SC) is a mixture of 33 % IRGAFOS 126 [RTM, Ciba SC, bis- (2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) pentaerythritol diphosphite], 17 % IRGANOX HP-136 [RTM, Ciba SC, 3- (3, 4-dimethylphenyl)-5, 7-di-tert-butyl-benzofuran-2-one] and 50 % IRGANOX 1010 [RTM, Ciba SC, pentaerythritol tetrakis [3- (3, 5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate].

TINUVIN 234 (RTM, Ciba SC) is 2- (3, 5-bis-a-cumyl-2-hydroxyphenyl)-2H-benzotriazole.

TINUVIN 1577 (RTM, Ciba SC) is 4,6-diphenyl-2- (4-hexyloxy-2-hydroxyphenyl)-s-triazine.

CHIMASSORB 81 (RTM, Ciba SC) is 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxybenzophenone.

FLAMESTAB FR 116 (RTM, Ciba SC) is: FLAMESTAB116 TINUVIN 111 (RTM, Ciba SC) is a synergistic mixture of CHIMASSORB 119 (RTM, Ciba SC) and TINUVIN 622 (RTM, Ciba SC).

TINUVIN 783 (RTM, Ciba SC) is a synergistic mixture of CHIMASSORB 944 (RTM, Ciba SC) and TINUVIN 622 (RTM, Ciba SC).

Chimassorb 944 (RTM) Tinuvin 622 (RTM) in which m is a number from the range from 2 to 200.

Chimassorb 119 (RTM) where R'is The following examples are for illustrative purposes only and are not to be construed as limi- ting the instant invention in any manner whatsoever. Additive levels are reported in weight percent.

Example 1: Polypropylene fiber dyeability.

Fiber grade polypropylene, profax 6301 (RTM, Montell), and the appropriate amount of a po- lyetheresteramide additive are mixed on a turbula mixer for 15 minutes. The blended mix is added to a superior MPM single screw lab extruder at 218,232,246 and 246°C, screw speed is 80 rpm. The molten polypropylene with additive exits a round die, is cooled in a water trough and is fed into a conair jetro pelletizer. The compounded pellets are fed into a Hills Lab fiber Extruder with a 41 hole delta spinneret at 232,246,260 and 274°C. A con- stant pressure of 750 psi controls the screw speed via a feed back loop. The feed, draw, and relax rolls are at 79 and 100°C, and are rotating at 120,400 and 383 meters per minute. The fiber comes in contact with a 6 % aqueous fiber finish solution just before the feed roll. This solution is LUROL PP-4521 (RTM) from Goulston industries. A Leesona (RTM) winder at the end of the line collects the fiber onto a spool. The final denier per filament is 15. The collec- ted fiber is removed from the spool and is knitted into a sock with a Lawson Hemphill FAK (RTM) sampler knitter.

Solutions of dyes are prepared at 1.0 g/L in distilled water in separate containers. For dis- perse dyes this is done by heating water to 63-85°C, then adding water to the dye. The so- lutions of the acid dyes are made by heating water to 85-100°C. The solutions of the leve- ler, lubricant and pH control chemicals are made at room temperature at a 10 % w/w level.

A ROACHES (RTM) programmable dye bath is set to the following conditions: Disperse dye for PP: Temperature rise of 3.5°C per minute to 98°C with a hold time of 60 mi- nutes at 98°C then a cool down at maximum cooling of 5.5°C per minute.

Acid dye for PP: Temperature rise of 3.5°C per minute to 98°C with a hold time of 30 minu- tes at 98°C then a cool down at maximum cooling of 5.5°C per minute.

The appropriate amounts of the solutions (see Table 1) are added to a steel 500 mL cylinder based on a 5.0 g weight of sock. The sock is identified with a laundry tag and is placed in the cylinder. The cylinder is filled with distilled water. The pH is checked and should be 4-5 for disperse dyeing and 6-6.5 for acid dyeing. Finally the cylinders are sealed and placed into the dye bath and the cycle is started. After the dye cycle is completed, the socks are re- moved from the cylinders and are rinsed with tap water. The excess water is removed from the socks via a centrifuge and are dried in a forced air oven at 100°C for 15 minutes.

Lightness and darkness (L) of the socks are measured on a Datacolor Spectrophotometer SF600. L is a measure of light and dark on a scale of 0 (dark) to 100 (light). Instrument con- ditions are CIE lab, D65,10 deg, SCI, SAV, UV400-700. Results are found in Table 2. A lower L value indicates improved dyeability.

Table 1 Dye Solutions Acid Dye % Weight on Fiber IRGALAN Yellow 2GL 1.0 IRGALAN Bordeaux EL 0.2 ERIONYL Black MR 0.3 Sodium phosphate monobasic 3.0 Tetrasodium pyrophosphate 1.0 IRGASOL SW 1. 0 Disperse Dye Yellow K-GL 0.5 Red K-BB 0.5 Blue K-RB 1.0 UNIVADINE DIF 2.0 CIBAFLUID UA 1.0 Acetic Acid 0.5 Table 2 Dyeabilitv Formulation Additive L value A none 78.9 B 5 % PELESTAT 1250 65.8 Acid Dye C 5 % PEBAX 1074 68.2 D 10 % PELESTAT 1250 52.6 E 10 % PEBAX 1074 53.6 A none 54.2 B 5 % PELESTAT 1250 23.4 Disperse Dye C 5 % PEBAX 1074 29.9 D 10 % PELESTAT 1250 19.2 E 10 % PEBAX 1074 21.1 Additives are reported in weight percent based on polypropylene.

Formulations B and D, containing a polyetheresteramide additive of the present invention, impart improved dyeability to polypropylene socks compared to socks containing no additive and those containing polyetheresteramide additives not of the present invention (formula- tions C and E).

The compositions are also tested for wet and dry crock values. The crocking test method determines the degree of color which may be transferred from the surface of a dyed article to other surfaces by rubbing. Such dye transfer is undesirable. The test requires specific rubbing, via a crockmeter, with both a dry and a wet white test cloth across the dyed article.

The cloths are then evaluated via the gray scale. The gray scale is a 5 unit scale (1-5 @ 0.5 divisions), with 5 representing negligible dye transfer.

To qualify as a successful additive to promote polyolefin dyeability, the socks containing the additive should exhibit negligible dye transfer when being evaluated by the crocking test, and there should be no loss of physical properties.

The socks containing the polyetheresteramides of the present invention also show excellent dyeability as evidenced by acceptable wet and dry crock values.

The dyed compositions are also tested for tensile strength. The socks containing the poly- etheresteramides of the present invention exhibit no loss of tensile strength compared to socks containing no additive.

Example 2: Polyolefin Dyeability.

Following the procedure of Example 1, the following formulations are prepared (all amounts are weight percent) and tested for dyeability : Polypropylene Polyetheresteramide Antioxidant UVA HAS 97 3 0. 1-0. 2 95 5 0.1 0.1 0.2 90 10 0.2 0.2 0.1 85 15 0.2 0.2 0.3 80 20 0. 2 0.3 0. 2 70 30 0. 3 0.3 0. 3 Polyethylene Polyetheresteramide Antioxidant UVA HAS 95 5 0. 1 0.15 0.25 90 10 0.1 0.2 0.25 85 15 0.2 0.2 0.3 75 25 0.2 0. 3 0.3 65 35 0.3 0.4 0.2 Polyetheresteramide additives are selected from PELESTAT 1250 and PELESTAT 6321 (RTM, Sanyo Chemical Industries). Antioxidants are selected from IRGASTAB FS 410, IR- GANOX B 1411 and IRGANOX XP 620 (RTM, Ciba SC). Ultraviolet light absorbers (UVAs) are selected from TINUVIN 234, TINUVIN 1577 and CHIMASSORB 81 (RTM, Ciba SC).

Hindered amine stabilizers (HAS) are selected from TINUVIN 111, TINUVIN 622, TINUVIN 783, CHIMASSORB 944 and FLAMESTAB FR 116 (RTM, Ciba SC).

The compositions of the present invention further containing additives such as UV absor- bers, hindered amines, hydroxylamines, phosphites and phenolic antioxidants exhibit excel- lent dyeability as evidenced by low L values and acceptable wet and dry crock values.