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Title:
AN EFFICIENT, COST-EFFECTIVE AND ECO-FRIENDLY CATIONIZING AGENT.
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/205475
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
An efficient and eco-friendly cationizing agent for dyeing; the agent comprising: a) (S)-(-)-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride; and b) at least second component selected from Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) solution (i.e. PDADMAC); Poly(dimethylamine-co-epichlorohydrin-co-ethylenediamine) solution; N'-(2-aminoethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine;2-cyanoguanidine; Ethanol, 2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-, reaction products with epichlorohydrin, ethylenediamine, and 1H-imidazole; or 1,3-Diaza-2,4-cyclopentadiene.

Inventors:
JAIN ASHESH (IN)
JAIN RISHABH (IN)
Application Number:
PCT/IN2021/050347
Publication Date:
October 14, 2021
Filing Date:
April 07, 2021
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
RMC PERFORMANCE CHEMICALS PRIVATE LTD (IN)
International Classes:
D06P1/00; D06M15/00; D06P1/52
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
GHARVE, Shilpa (IN)
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Claims:
We claim:

1. An efficient and eco-friendly cationizing agent for dyeing; the agent comprising a) (S)-(-)-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride; and b) at least second component selected from Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) solution (i.e. PDADMAC); Poly(dimethylamine-co-epichlorohydrin-co- ethylenediamine) solution; N'-(2-aminoethyl)ethane- 1 ,2-diamine ;2-cyanoguanidine; Ethanol, 2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-, reaction products with epichlorohydrin, ethylenediamine, and lH-imidazole; or l,3-Diaza-2,4-cyclopentadiene.

2. The cationizing agent as claimed in claim 1, wherein the cationizing agent comprises at least 20 % wt./wt. (S)-(-)-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride.

3. The cationizing agent as claimed in claim 1, wherein the cationizing agent comprises 20 to 80 % wt./wt. (S)-(-)-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride.

4. The cationizing agent as claimed in claim 1, wherein the cationizing agent comprises at least 20 % wt./wt. the second component.

5. The cationizing agent as claimed in claim 1, wherein the cationizing agent comprises 20 to 80 % wt./wt. the second component.

Description:
TITLE OF THE INVENTION

An efficient, cost-effective and eco-friendly cationizing agent.

This application claims priority from Indian Patent Application No. 202021015566 filed on April 9, 2020.

FIELD OF INVENTION:

The present invention relates to the field of textile dyeing, particularly a cationizing agent for textile dyeing.

In particular, the present invention relates to the cationizing agent which efficiently and firmly fixes dye particles in the absence of electrolyte/salt to increase the strength/depth, tone, evenness of dyeing and at the same time achieves good fastness properties; thereby making the cationizing agent efficient.

The present invention reduces the consumption of dye and also reduces the TDS, COD and BOD of the effluent thereby reducing pollution as well as reducing the cost of dyeing and thus making the cationizing agent eco-friendly and cost-effective.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION:

Cotton fibres are widely applied in textile industry due to its excellent properties of hygroscopicity, air permeability, biodegradability, antistatic etc. The dyeing of these fibres is generally done with reactive dyes due to its brilliancy, variety of hue, high wet fastness, convenient usage and high applicability. These reactive dyes contain a reactive group, either a halo-heterocycle or an activated double bond, that, when applied to a fibre in an alkaline dye bath forms a chemical bond with hydroxyl group on the cellulosic fibre. In recent years, reactive dyes maintain the largest annual consumption in the world among the dyes used for which establishes its important status in the dye manufacturing industry. But some problems, such as low dye utilization, large amount of electrolyte use and high volume of waste water discharge always exist in the application of reactive dyes. The dyeing of one kilogram of cotton with reactive dyes demands 70 to 150 liter water, 0.6-0.8 kg NaCl and 30 to 60 gm dyestuffs. All the reactive dyeing systems require huge amounts of electrolyte such as sodium chloride or sodium sulphate to exhaust dyeing. It also requires huge amount of alkali to fix the dye. These electrolytes are neither exhausted nor destroyed and hence remain in the dye bath after dyeing. Further, only 60 to 65% of dye utilization is achievable even with the use of salt in the normal dyeing systems. Reactive dyeing thus pollute the environment due to highly colored dye bath discharge as well as the discharge of high electrolyte concentration. The high electrolyte concentration in the effluents causes adverse effect on the aquatic organisms as the electrolyte triggers the evolution of hydrogen sulfide gas and thus disturbs the balance in biochemistry of the aquatic organisms. It also leads to deposition of aminosulphate complex in the concrete pipes.

Due to these problems, this class of dyes is the most unfavourable one from the ecological point of view, these effluents produced give high values of BOD/COD (Biological Oxygen Demand / Chemical Oxygen Demand) and the increased salinity of the rivers affects the delicate biochemistry of aquatic life. More than 80,000 tons of reactive dyes are produced and consumed each year making it possible to quantify the total amount of pollution caused by their use. So, most researchers focus on introducing salt-free/low-salt dyeing technology for reactive dyes.

To resolve this aforesaid problem, the industry implemented the surface modification of cellulosic fabric by cationization. A number of processes have been reported from the early 1930's to improve the substantivity of anionic dyes for cellulose by introducing cationic sites in the fiber. The cationizing agents reported for cellulosic fibers are glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride, N,N-dimethylazetidiniumchloride, N-methylolacrylamide, chloro propionyl chloride, polymer PL, polyepichlorohydrin acrylamides, nicotinyl thioglycollate, 3-chloro-2- hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CHPTMAC) and polyamino chlorohydrin quaternary ammonium compound (Cibafix WFF). Some of them have yielded encouraging results.

The reactive dyeing of the cellulosic / cotton fibers is usually carried out in 4 steps namely, scouring, bleaching, cationization and dyeing. Mostly the scouring, bleaching, and cationization of the cellulosic / cotton fibers is carried out in alkaline condition with the addition of alkali, particularly sodium hydroxide. Scouring improves water absorbency and makes the cotton fabric to look clean and soft. However, some cotton fabrics have natural color and therefore, the fabric may not meet the requirement of whiteness. To improve the whiteness, the fabric is subjected to bleaching by treatment with hydrogen peroxide in alkaline condition either at high temperature or at long residence time. The fabric is further subjected to cationization in the alkaline condition to modify the surface and to increase affinity towards dye.

There are certain advantages in salt free dyeing over the conventional dyeing technique, for example the elimination of salts or electrolyte; maximum fixation of dyes; minimum hydrolysis of dyes; low volume of water requirement during the wash off process; increase in the reactivity of reactive dyes; increase in the wash fastness and rubbing fastness of pretreated sample; environmentally friendly and significant savings in process costs.

3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CHPTMAC) is commonly used for modification of cotton fabric and then the fabric is dyed with conventional dyeing procedure without use of salt. Chemically cationized cotton is usually produced by the etherification reaction of cotton with the quaternary ammonium cationizing reagents, especially chloro-2- hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CHPTMAC).

It is used in the range of 30 to 60 gm/liter to cationize 300 kg of cotton or its various blends with synthetic or natural fabrics including lycra, polyester, nylon, silk, viscose etc. However, it is not completely exhausted during the cationization and thus remains in the effluent. This leads to pollution upon the disposal of effluent. Further, it requires higher amount alkali i.e. sodium hydroxide and thus increases TDS of the effluent. This cationizing agent is expensive and it is used in high dosage in the dyeing method. Thus, use of this cationizing agent increases the overall cost of dyeing. This cationizing agent is highly reactive and hence, it reacts with cotton unevenly which results into uneven dyeing.

Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) solution (i.e. PDADMAC) having CAS no. 26062-79- 3 is one of the cationizing agents. But the color strength and fastness properties with direct dyes and reactive dyes in the case of PDADMAC is inferior to CHPTMAC.

Poly(dimethylamine-co-epichlorohydrin-co-ethylenediamine) solution having CAS no. 42751- 79-1 is highly reactive cationizing agent and leads to patchy dyeing. It also has inferior crock and fastness properties. N'-(2-aminoethyl)ethane-l,2-diamine;2-cyanoguanidine having CAS no. 50862-68-5 is another cationizing agent used and leads to inferior colour strength and fastness properties. It also leads to patchy dyeing.

Ethanol, 2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-, reaction products with epichlorohydrin, ethylenediamine and lH-imidazole having CAS no. 90367-12-7 is yet another cationizing agent used and leads to inferior fastness to wet and dry rub properties. It also leads to poor crock fastness and uneven or patchy dyeing. l,3-Diaza-2,4-cyclopentadiene having CAS no. 288-32-4 is not at all explored as cationizing agent in the textile dyeing field.

Now-a-days, due to increased awareness of adverse effects on the environment competitiveness as well as cost competitiveness, industry and government are remarkably well concerned regarding the eco-friendly and efficient technological method of dyeing due to increased pressure and demands claimed by the environmentalist, buyers and end users. Textile industry consumes considerable amount of sodium hydroxide and release the effluent with high TDS. They also use expensive cationizing agents for dyeing that usually remain in the effluent upon dyeing. This leads to water pollution and gradually affects aquatic life. Thus, textile industries are trying the best to reduce TDS, BOD/COD and thus reduce pollution by imparting process modifications due to environmental and commercial concerns as well.

Accordingly, there is need to study and devise a cationizing agent which focuses on tailoring the reactivity of the cationizing agent and increasing the efficiency to modify surface of the cotton fabric evenly which may result into increasing the colour pick-up and colour strength, even dyeing, reducing costing of the dyeing by reducing the consumption of dye without compromising or improvising fastness properties and reducing the TDS, COD and BOD of the effluents thereby significantly reducing pollution.

OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION:

The main object of the invention is to provide the cationizing agent comprising (S)-(-)-(3-chloro- 2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride and at least second component selected from Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) solution (i.e. PDADMAC), Poly(dimethylamine-co- epichlorohydrin-co-ethylenediamine) solution, N'-(2-aminoethyl)ethane- 1 ,2-diamine;2- cyanoguanidine, Ethanol, 2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-, reaction products with epichlorohydrin, ethylenediamine and lH-imidazole; or l,3-Diaza-2,4-cyclopentadiene.

Another object of the invention is to provide the cationizing agent for dyeing; where said cationizing agent comprises (S)-(-)-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride and at least second component in the specific proportion so as to tailor the reactivity of the cationizing agent of the invention with cotton surface and even modification of cotton surface thereby increasing the colour pick-up and colour strength of the dyed fabric and hence increasing the efficiency of agent simultaneously leading to even dyeing.

Yet another object of the invention is to provide the cationizing agent which improves the fastness properties; thereby making the agent efficient.

Yet another object of the invention is to provide the cationizing agent which increases the colour strength of the dyed fabric; thereby reducing consumption of the dye and making the process cost-effective.

Yet another object of the invention is to provide the cationizing agent which reduces consumption of dye in the dyeing step; thereby reducing effluent treatment; COD, BOD and TDS of the effluent; and the pollution and making the cationizing agent eco-friendly.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION:

In the presently claimed invention, it is surprisingly found that the cationizing agent comprising (S)-(-)-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride and at least second component selected from Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) solution (i.e. PDADMAC); Poly(dimethylamine-co-epichlorohydrin-co-ethylenediamine) solution; N'-(2-aminoethyl)ethane- 1, 2-diamine ;2-cyanoguanidine; Ethanol, 2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-, reaction products with epichlorohydrin, ethylenediamine and lH-imidazole; or l,3-Diaza-2,4-cyclopentadiene; tailors the reactivity of the cationizing agent with surface of the cotton or cellulosic material and modify the surface evenly in the cationizing step. This results into even dyeing in the end application. The cationizing agent of the invention may be used at concentration of 30 gm per liter to dye the cellulosic component i.e. cotton and its blends. It increases colour pick-up and colour strength during the dyeing as well as improves fastness properties. According to the present invention, the cationizing agent of the invention increases the colour strength of the dyed fabric in the dyeing step which is a very important advantage to the textile industry as it reduces the dye consumption in the dyeing step and thereby 1) reducing the cost of the dyeing; and 2) reduces BOD, COD, and TDS of the effluent as well as reduces effluent treatment, thereby reducing the pollution. The experiments were carried out to determine the proportion of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride and second component used to prepare the cationizing agent of the invention to achieve desired results.

When the 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (STD 1), or Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) solution (i.e. PDADMAC) (STD 2); or Poly(dimethylamine-co-epichlorohydrin-co-ethylenediamine) solution (STD 3); or N'-(2- aminoethyl)ethane-l,2-diamine;2-cyanoguanidine (STD 4); or Ethanol, 2-[(2- aminoethyl) amino]-, reaction products with epichlorohydrin, ethylenediamine and lH-imidazole (STD 5); or l,3-Diaza-2,4-cyclopentadiene (STD 6) is used below 20% wt./wt. in the cationizing agent then the desired colour strength and fastness properties may not be achieved upon surface modification followed by dyeing.

When the cationizing agent comprises 20 to 80 % wt./wt. of (S)-(-)-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride and 80 to 20 % wt./wt. of at least one second component selected from Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) solution (i.e. PDADMAC); Poly(dimethylamine- co-epichlorohydrin-co-ethylenediamine) solution; N'-(2-aminoethyl)ethane- 1 ,2-diamine;2- cyanoguanidine; Ethanol, 2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-, reaction products with epichlorohydrin, ethylenediamine and lH-imidazole; or l,3-Diaza-2,4-cyclopentadiene; then the increased colour strength and improved fastness properties are achieved upon surface modification followed by dyeing.

The cationizing agent of the invention increases colour strength in the range of 5 to 75 % which decreases dye consumption by 5 to 75 %. The reduction of dye consumption definitely reduces cost of dyeing and also reduces effluent treatment, COD, BOD and TDS of the effluents thereby reducing pollution, which is an additional advantage besides colour strength and fastness properties. Thus, the cationizing agent of the invention is efficient, cost-effective and eco- friendly.

According to the invention, there is provided cationizing agent for dyeing; the agent comprising a) (S)-(-)-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride; and b) at least second component selected from Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) solution (i.e. PDADMAC); Poly(dimethylamine-co-epichlorohydrin-co-ethylenediamine) solution; N'-(2-aminoethyl)ethane-l,2-diamine;2-cyanoguanidine; Ethanol, 2-[(2- aminoethyl) amino]-, reaction products with epichlorohydrin, ethylenediamine, and 1H- imidazole; or l,3-Diaza-2,4-cyclopentadiene.

Typically, the cationizing agent comprises at least 20 % wt./wt. (S)-(-)-(3-chloro-2- hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride.

Typically, the cationizing agent comprises 20 to 80 % wt./wt. (S)-(-)-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride.

Typically, the cationizing agent comprises at least 20 % wt./wt. the second component.

Typically, the cationizing agent comprises 20 to 80 % wt./wt. the second component.

Typically, the cationizing agent of the invention used in the first step of scouring, bleaching and cationization of the dyeing is at least 30 gm /liter.

Typically, the cationizing agent of the invention used in the first step of scouring, bleaching and cationization of the dyeing is in the range of 30 to 60 gm /liter.

When the cationizing agent of the invention used in the first step of scouring, bleaching and cationization of the dyeing leading to even surface modification and even dyeing, good colour pickup with colour strength of at least above 100 % and good fastness properties.

Typically, the cationizing agent of the invention leading to good colour pickup with colour strength in the range of 102 to 170 %

Typically, the dyed material obtained according to the invention has good color fastness to washing being rated 4 and to both dry rubbing and wet rubbing being rated 4 and 3 respectively. Typically, the cationizing agent of the invention reduces consumption of dye in the dyeing step 5 to 75 % thereby making the cationizing agent of the invention efficient, cost-effective and eco- friendly.

Typically, the present invention reduces the cost of dyeing by at least 5 %. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION:

The terms “a,” “an,” “the” and similar referents used in the context of describing the invention following claims are to be construed to cover both the singular and the plural, unless otherwise indicated herein or clearly contradicted by context. Recitation of ranges of values herein is merely intended to serve as a shorthand method of referring individually to each separate value falling within the range. Unless otherwise indicated herein, each individual value is incorporated into the specification as if it was individually recited herein. All methods described herein can be performed in any suitable order unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context. The use of any and all examples, or exemplary language (e.g., “such as”) provided herein is intended merely to better illuminate the invention and does not pose a limitation on the scope of the invention otherwise claimed. No language in the specification should be construed as indicating any non-claimed element essential to the practice of the invention.

Certain embodiments of this invention are described herein, including the best mode known to the inventors for carrying out the invention. Of course, variations on these described embodiments will become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art upon reading the description. The inventor expects skilled artisans to employ such variations as appropriate, and the inventor intend for the invention to be practiced otherwise than specifically described herein. Accordingly, this invention includes all modifications and equivalents of the subject matter recited in the claims appended hereto as permitted by applicable law. Moreover, any combination of the below-described elements in all possible variations thereof is encompassed by the invention unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context.

Specific embodiments disclosed herein can be further limited in the claims using consisting of or/and consisting essentially of language. When used in the claims, whether as filed or added per amendment, the transition term “consisting of excludes any element, step, or ingredient not specified in the claims. The transition term “consisting essentially of limits the scope of a claim to the specified materials or steps and those that do not materially affect the basic and novel characteristic(s). Embodiments of the invention so claimed are inherently or expressly described and enabled herein. As used herein, the term "material" refers to fabric or fiber or yarn. The fabric or yarn is either woven or knitted or felted fabric / yarn made up of the fibers of cotton or cotton blends.

As used herein, the terms "cellulosic material" refers to fabric or fiber or yarn of a cellulose including cotton. The fabric or yarn is either woven or knitted or felted fabric / yarn made up of the cellulose including the cotton fibers.

As used herein, the terms "cotton blends" refers to fabric or fiber or yarn of cotton blending with other synthetic material or natural material including lycra, nylon, silk, viscose, polyester, etc. in different proportions as per the need. The fabric or yarn is either woven or knitted or felted fabric / yarn made up of blending the cotton fibers and other synthetic material or natural material fibers.

As used herein, the term "cationizing agent" refers to any cationizing agent which introduces the cationic group on the surface of the cellulosic material that renders the material's cationic property and increases their affinity for anionic dyes.

As used herein, the term "weight percent (wt. %)" when used without qualification, typically refers to the weight percent of a particular solid component as compared with all solid components present in the reaction mixture.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS:

In the following description, the embodiments are described in sufficient details to enable those skilled in the art to practice the invention. Other embodiments may be utilized and structural, logical and other changes may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. The following detailed description is, therefore, not to be taken in a limiting sense. The detailed description that follows begins with a definition section followed by a description of various embodiments of the invention. A series of examples are presented later followed by a brief conclusion.

Cotton cellulose material has excellent properties such as good moisture absorbency, comfortable to wear, and easy to dye. These properties makes cotton textiles very popular amongst us. The textile industry cotton is composed of 90-96% cellulose based on the weight of the fibers and 4% to 10% non-cellulosic components. The cotton fibers are naturally yellowish or brown in color. Blended fabrics are created when two or more different kinds of fibers are mixed together to create a new fabric with unique properties to cater to specific needs by combining the attributes of different fibers.

Polyester and cotton, which combines the properties of natural and synthetic fibers is one of the most common blended fabrics. Natural fibers are sourced from plants and animals and require only manual separation and recombining for the fibers to be useable. Synthetics are scientifically developed from chemicals such as petroleum and require heavy processing to create the fibers. Cotton is breathable, light and soft making it very comfortable to wear as clothing against the skin. However, it can also wrinkle or shrink when washed. Polyester is strong, doesn't wrinkle or shrink and holds colours well. However, it doesn't breathe and can be uncomfortable and smelly to wear.

Blending these two fabrics creates a material that is comfortable, resistant to wrinkles and holds its shape and colour well. Polyester and cotton has been a popular choice for business shirts as it is comfortable to wear every day and is easy to care for and lasts a long time.

Popular blended fabrics include Elastane (spandex) and Cotton; Wool and Polyester; Linen and Silk; Cotton, Polyester and Viscose; etc

The material used in the present invention is cellulosic material including cotton material or cotton/lycra blends or any other blends with cotton. Particularly, the material is fiber, fabric or yarn is either cotton, cotton-lycra blends or cotton-polyester blends, or any other blends with cotton etc. The fabric is having density of > 50 gsm and <1000 gsm.

To introduce salt free dyeing; one can either modify the reactive dyes or modify cellulose (i.e. cationization of cotton) using cationizing agent. Chemically cationized cotton is usually produced by the etherification reaction of cotton with the tertiary amino or quaternary ammonium cationizing reagents, especially quaternary ammonium cationizing reagents such as 2,3-epoxypropyltrimehtylammonium chloride. One of such cationizing agent is 3-chloro-2- hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC) which in presence of sodium hydroxide produce in situ quaternary ammonium cationizing agent namely 2,3-epoxypropyl trimethylammonium chloride.

The dyeing of cotton is carried out in two steps : pretreatment including scouring, bleaching and cationization in a single bath by using cationizing agent namely, 3-chloro-2- hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC) followed by dyeing in the absence of electrolyte. Following are the steps: a) Pre-treatment (scouring, bleaching and cationization in a single bath)

Machine bath was filled with water in the ratio of fabric 5:1 vol./wt.. To this, wetting agent, lubricating agent, chelating agent were added. The bath was heated to the temperature of 45 °C. Cotton fabric or polyester-cotton blend or lycra -blend of about 180 gsm was loaded in the bath at the constant temperature of 45 °C.

To this bath, caustic soda was dissolved and added at 45 °C. 30 to 60 gm/liter of cationizing agent, 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC) was added to the bath at 60°C. The temperature of the bath was increased to 85 °C and the cationization was carried out. The pre-treated fabric was optionally bleached by adding hydrogen peroxide at the temperature of 95 to 97°C.

The pre-treated fabric was subjected to cold wash and hot wash. Further the fabric was neutralized by using acetic acid optionally in the presence of core neutralizing agent at pH in the range of 5 to 5.5. The pre-treated fabric was then subjected to dyeing. b) Dyeing

The pre-treated fabric was subjected to treatment with lubricating agent and dispersing agent in water at 60°C. The pre-treated fabric was treated with reactive dyes to achieve black shade. The dyeing was carried out at pH in the range of 10.5 to 12 by using sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide. The shade of black of the dyed fabric was checked by spectrophotometric analysis and the depth was matched with standard swatch of fabric.

The fabric was hot washed followed by neutralization using acetic acid. The fabric was further washed by using soap at 80°C. Finally the fabric was subjected to hot wash and cold wash. Similarly, the dyeing of cotton or lycra-cotton blends was carried out by using cationizing agents namely 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC) i.e. (STD 1) alone or by using second component namely Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) solution (i.e. PDADMAC) i.e. (STD 2); Poly(dimethylamine-co-epichlorohydrin-co-ethylenediamine) solution i.e. (STD 3); N'-(2-aminoethyl)ethane-l,2-diamine;2-cyanoguanidine i.e. (STD 4); Ethanol, 2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-, reaction products with epichlorohydrin, ethylenediamine and lH-imidazole i.e. (STD 5); and l,3-Diaza-2,4-cyclopentadiene i.e. (STD 6) individually at concentration of 30 gm/liter or 60 gm/liter in the pretreatment including scouring, bleaching and cationization in a single bath followed by dyeing as described above.

The colour strength and resistance to wash and rub is analyzed /estimated and the results are tabulated in table 1.

Table 1: Results

The color strength of the dyed material obtained by using cationic agent STD 1 alone is in the range of 96.25 to 97.3 i.e. less than 100 % with good leveling and resistance properties. However, the dyed material obtained by using the second components i.e. STD 2, STD 4 and STD 6 individually has inferior color strength as well as resistance properties over STD1 cationic agent. The dyed material obtained by using the second components STD 3 and STD 5 individually has comparable color strength but inferior resistance properties over STD 1 cationic agent. The color strength of the dyed material obtained by using second component STD 4 alone is the least i.e. 74.89 to 79.42%. The dyed material obtained by using second component STD 4 alone also shows very poor wet rub resistance properties. It was also observed that the dyed samples obtained by using the second components alone i.e. STD 2 to STD 6 in the pretreatment step showed some level of non-uniformity or uneven leveling or patchy dyeing which was very much visible in the dark shade dyed fabric.

To overcome these problems associated with the existing arts i.e. cationizing agent STD 1 and individual second components i.e. STD 2 to STD 6, the present invention provides a cationizing agent which increases the colour strength and improves resistance to wash and rubbing resistance of the dyed material. It also reduces consumption of dye in the dyeing step and thus reduces effluent treatment, reduces COD, BOD and TDS of the effluent and thereby substantially eliminates the pollution. This agent reacts at moderate rate with cellulose or cotton to form cellulose with uniformly modified surface and thus leading to uniform dyeing or levelling in the dyed fabric. This agent of the invention reduce cost of dyeing.

In one of the embodiment of the invention, there is provided cationizing agent for dyeing; the agent comprising a) 3-chloro-2- hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride; and b) at least second component selected from Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) solution (i.e. PDADMAC); Poly(dimethylamine-co-epichlorohydrin-co- ethylenediamine) solution; N'-(2-aminoethyl)ethane- 1,2-diamine ;2- cyanoguanidine; Ethanol, 2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-, reaction products with epichlorohydrin, ethylenediamine and lH-imidazole; or l,3-Diaza-2,4- cyclopentadiene ; said cationizing agent tailored reactivity with cellulose to increase efficiency of cationization and uniformly modifying the surface of the fabric and thereby leading uniform dyeing with increased colour strength and improved resistance properties and also to eliminate the problems associated with prior art

In another embodiment of the invention, the cationizing agent comprises at least 20 % wt./wt. 3- chloro-2- hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride.

In preferred embodiment of the invention, the cationizing agent comprises 20 to 80 % wt./wt. 3- chloro-2- hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride.

In another embodiment of the invention, the cationizing agent comprises at least 20 % wt./wt. second component. In preferred embodiment of the invention, the cationizing agent comprises 20 to 80 % wt./wt. second component.

In another embodiment of the invention, there is provided cationizing agent for dyeing; the agent comprising a) 20 to 80 % of 3-chloro-2- hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride; and b) 80 to 20 % of at least second component selected from Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) solution (i.e. PDADMAC); Poly(dimethylamine-co-epichlorohydrin-co- ethylenediamine) solution; N'-(2-aminoethyl)ethane- 1 ,2-diamine ;2-cyanoguanidine; Ethanol, 2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-, reaction products with epichlorohydrin, ethylenediamine and lH-imidazole; or l,3-Diaza-2,4-cyclopentadiene.

In another embodiment of the invention, 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride and second components are admixed in different proportions to obtain various formulations of the cationizing agent of the invention.

Typically, 1 st formulation, 8 th formulation, 9 th formulation, 16 th formulation, 23 rd formulation and 30 th formulation comprises individually STD1, STD 2, STD 3, STD 4, STD 5 and STD 6 respectively. These formulations are used to compare the performance of the cationizing agent of the present invention.

Typically, the below mentioned formulations are not the part of the present invention and are studied to establish the preferred ratio of STD 1 and at least one second component in the cationizing agent of the present invention: a) 2 nd formulation and 7 th formulation comprises STD 1 and STD 2 in the ratio of 10:90 to 90:10 wt./wt. respectively; b) 10 th formulation and 15 th formulation comprises STD 1 and STD 3 in the ratio of 10:90 to 90:10 wt./wt. respectively; c) 17 th formulation and 22 nd formulation comprises STD 1 and STD 4 in the ratio of 10:90 to 90:10 wt./wt. respectively; d) 24 th formulation and 29 th formulation comprises STD 1 and STD 5 in the ratio of 10:90 to 90:10 wt./wt. respectively; and e) 31 st formulation and 36 th formulation comprises STD 1 and STD 6 in the ratio of 10:90 to 90:10 wt./wt. respectively. Typically, the below mentioned formulations of the cationizing agent of the present invention comprising different ratio of STD 1 and at least one second component:

• 3 rd to 6 th formulations of the cationizing agent of the present invention comprises STD 1 and STD 2 in the ratio of 20:80, 40: 60, 60:40 and 80:20 wt./wt. respectively;

• 11 th to 14 th formulations of the cationizing agent of the present invention comprises STD 1 and STD 3 in the ratio of 20:80, 40: 60, 60:40 and 80:20 wt./wt. respectively;

• 18 th to 21 st formulations of the cationizing agent of the present invention comprises STD 1 and STD 4 in the ratio of 20:80, 40: 60, 60:40 and 80:20 wt./wt. respectively;

• 25 th to 28 th formulations of the cationizing agent of the present invention comprises STD 1 and STD 5 in the ratio of 20:80, 40: 60, 60:40 and 80:20 wt./wt. respectively; and

• 32 nd to 35 th formulations of the cationizing agent of the present invention comprises STD 1 and STD 6 in the ratio of 20:80, 40: 60, 60:40 and 80:20 wt./wt. respectively.

These 1 st to 36 th formulations of the cationization agent were used in the pre-treatment step to cationize cotton fabric as well as cotton-lycra fabric and this cationized fabric was dyed further to study colour strength, color fastness to washing and rubbing properties smoothness and leveling.

The cationizing agent of the invention used is at least 30 gm /liter in the pre-treatment step (i.e. first step of scouring, bleaching and cationization).

Typically, the cationizing agent of the invention used is in the range of 30 to 60 gm /liter in the pre-treatment step.

The fabric used in the invention is either cotton (A) or lycra-cotton blend (B) having 150-300 gsm.

Typically the method dyeing comprises step 1 : Pre-treatment of fabric ( i.e. step 1 of scouring, bleaching and cationization) and step 2: dyeing.

Step 1: Pre-treatment (scouring, bleaching and cationization in a single bath)

Machine bath was filled with water in the ratio of fabric 5:1 vol./wt.. To this, wetting agent, lubricating agent, chelating agent were added. The bath was heated to temperature of 60°C. Cotton fabric or cotton-lycra blend of about 150-300 gsm was loaded in the bath at the constant temperature of 45 °C. To this bath, caustic soda was dissolved and added at 45 °C. 30 to 60 gm/liter of cationizing agent of the invention was added to the bath at 60°C. The temperature of the bath was increased to 85°C and the cationization was carried out. The pre-treated fabric was optionally bleached by adding hydrogen peroxide at the temperature of 95 °C to 97°C.

The pre-treated fabric was subjected to hot wash. Further the fabric was neutralized by using acetic acid optionally in the presence of core neutralizing agent at pH in the range of 5 to 5.5. The pre-treated fabric was then subjected to dyeing.

Step 2: Dyeing

The pre-treated fabric was subjected to treatment with lubricating agent and dispersing agent in water at 40°C. The pre-treated fabric was treated with reactive dyes to achieve black shade. The dyeing was carried out at 60°C and at pH in the range of 10.5 to 12 by using sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide. The shade of black of the dyed fabric was checked by spectrophotometric analysis and the depth was matched with standard swatch of fabric.

The fabric was hot washed followed by neutralization using acetic acid. The fabric was further washed by using soap at 80°C. Finally the fabric was subjected to hot wash and cold wash.

In one of the embodiments of the invention, step 1 of pre-treatment (scouring, bleaching and cationization in a single bath) is carried out by using 30 gm/ liter of each cationization agent according to the formulations 3 rd to 6 th , 11 th to 14 th , 18 th to 21 st , 25 th to 28 th , and 32 nd to 35 th of the invention followed by second step of dyeing for fabric of cotton (A) and lycra-cotton blend (B) having 150-300 gsm.

In another embodiments of the invention, step 1 of pre-treatment (scouring, bleaching and cationization in a single bath) is carried out by using 60 gm/ liter of each cationization agent according to the formulations 3 rd to 6 th , 11 th to 14 th , 18 th to 21 st , 25 th to 28 th , and 32 nd to 35 th of the invention followed by second step of dyeing for fabric of cotton (A) and lycra-cotton blend (B) having 150-300 gsm.

Typically, step 1 of pre-treatment (scouring, bleaching and cationization in a single bath) is carried out by using 30 gm/liter and 60 gm/liter of 1 st formulation, 8 th formulation, 9 th formulation, 16 th formulation, 23 rd formulation and 30 th formulation followed by second step of dyeing for fabric of cotton (A) and lycra-cotton blend (B) having 150-300 gsm. The results of these experiments are used as a standard for comparison against the performance of the present invention.

Typically, step 1 of pre-treatment (scouring, bleaching and cationization in a single bath) is carried out by using 30 gm/liter and 60 gm/ liter of 2 nd formulation, 7 th formulation, 10 th formulation, 15 th formulation, 17 th formulation, 22 nd formulation, 24 th formulation, 29 th formulation, 31 st formulation and 36 th formulation followed by second step of dyeing for fabric of cotton (A) and lycra-cotton blend (B) having 150-300 gsm. The results of these experiments are used for comparison against the performance of the present invention.

The colour strength of the dyed material obtained in the experiments carried out by using 1 st to 36 th formulation were analyzed by spectrophotometric analysis. The leveling and smoothness was analyzed manually by visible inspection. The test of color fastness to wash is carried out by ISO 105-C06: A2S while that of the dry and wet rubbing fastness properties is carried out by ISO 105-X12.

According to the results obtained :

The cationizing agent of 1 st formulation comprising STD 1 used in the first step of scouring, bleaching and cationization is in the range of 30 to 60 gm /liter. The cationized fabric is dyed. It leads to colour strength in the range of 96.25 to 97.3 %. It also leads to good resistance properties to wash and to dry rubbing and wet rubbing. It is also leading to acceptable levelling and smoothness. Thus, one of the disadvantage of the 1 st formulation is colour strength is less than 100 %.

The 8 th formulation comprising STD 2 used in the first step of scouring, bleaching and cationization of the dyeing is in the range of 30 to 60 gm /liter. This cationized fabric is dyed. It leads to good resistance properties to wash and to dry rubbing. But it leads to inferior colour strength in the range of 85.5 to 89.1 % and inferior resistance to wet rubbing. It is also leading to patchy dyeing and uneven levelling.

The 9 th formulation comprising STD 3 used in the first step of scouring, bleaching and cationization of the dyeing is in the range of 30 to 60 gm /liter. This cationized fabric is dyed. It leads to colour strength in the range of 94.00 to 95.93 % which is less than 100 %. It also leads to inferior resistance properties to wash and to dry rubbing and wet rubbing. It is also leading to patchy dyeing and uneven levelling. The 16 th formulation comprising STD 4 used in the first step of scouring, bleaching and cationization of the dyeing is in the range of 30 to 60 gm /liter. This cationized fabric is dyed. It leads to inferior colour strength in the range of 74.89 to 79.42 % and also inferior resistance properties to wet rubbing. It is also leading to patchy dyeing and uneven levelling.

The 23 formulation comprising STD 5 used in the first step of scouring, bleaching and cationization of the dyeing is in the range of 30 to 60 gm /liter. This cationized fabric is dyed. It leads to colour strength in the range of 93.25 to 95.82 %, but inferior resistance properties to wash and to wet rubbing. It demonstrated good resistance to dry rubbing. It is also leading to patchy dyeing and uneven levelling.

The 30 th formulation comprising STD 6 used in the first step of scouring, bleaching and cationization of the dyeing is in the range of 30 to 60 gm /liter. This cationized fabric is dyed. It leads to inferior colour strength of 88.06 % and 95.01 % at 30 gm/liter and 60 gm/liter respectively. It also leads to inferior resistance properties to wash and to wet rubbing but it showed good resistance to dry rubbing. It is also leading to extremely patchy dyeing and uneven levelling.

Among 2 nd to 7 th formulations of the cationizing agent comprising STD 1 and STD 2 in various proportions, 5 th formulation is leading to excellent colour strength of 108.3 % with excellent resistance properties to wash and to wet rubbing and dry rubbing properties at 30 gm/liter and 3 formulation is leading to excellent colour strength of 145.2 % with excellent resistance properties at 60 gm/liter. The colour strength of the dyed fabric obtained by using 30 gm/liter and 60 gm/liter of 3 rd to 6 th formulations is in the range of 102.1 % to 108.3 % and 130.23 % to 145.2 % respectively. The 2 nd formulation and 7 th formulation which comprises STD 1 and STD 2 in 10:90 and 90:10 proportion respectively fails to show any improvement in the colour strength and resistance properties particularly resistance to wet rubbing.

Among 10 th to 15 th formulations of the cationizing agent comprising STD 1 and STD 3 in various proportions, 14 th formulation is leading to excellent colour strength of 115% and 133.83 % at 30 gm/liter and 60 gm/ liter respectively. 11 th to 14 th formulation are leading to good resistance properties, good levelling and acceptable smoothness. The colour strength of the dyed fabric obtained by using 30 gm/liter and 60 gm/liter of 11 th to 14 th formulations is in the range of 105.10 % to 115 % and 117.25 % to 133.83 % respectively. The 10 th formulation and 15 th formulation which comprises STD 1 and STD 3 in 10:90 to 90:10 proportion respectively fails to show any improvement in the colour strength and resistance properties.

Among 17 th to 22 nd formulations of the cationizing agent comprising STD 1 and STD 4 in various proportions, 21 st formulation is leading to excellent colour strength of 143.74 % and 169.08 % at 30 gm/liter and 60 gm/ liter respectively. 18 th to 21 st formulations are leading to good resistance properties, good levelling and acceptable smoothness. The colour strength of the dyed fabric obtained by using 30 gm/liter and 60 gm/liter of 18 th to 21 st formulations is in the range of 103.14 % to 143.74 % and 121.01 % to 169.08 % respectively. The 17 th formulation and 22 nd formulation which comprises STD 1 and STD 4 in 10:90 to 90:10 proportion respectively fails to show any improvement in the colour strength and resistance properties.

Among 24 th to 29 th formulations of the cationizing agent comprising STD 1 and STD 5 in various proportions, 26 th formulation is leading to excellent colour strength of 127.49 % with excellent resistance properties to wash and to wet and dry rubbing properties at 30 gm/liter and 27 th formulation is leading to excellent colour strength of 148.59 % with excellent resistance properties at 60 gm/liter. 25 th to 28 th formulations are leading to good resistance properties, good levelling and acceptable smoothness. The colour strength of the dyed fabric obtained by using 30 gm/liter and 60 gm/liter of 25 th to 28 th formulations is in the range of 103.1 % to 129.58 % and 119.04 % to 148.59 % respectively. The 24 th formulation and 29 th formulation which comprises STD 1 and STD in 10:90 to 90:10 proportion respectively fails to show any improvement in the colour strength and resistance properties.

Among 31 st to 36 th formulations of the cationizing agent comprising STD 1 and STD 6 in various proportions, 34 th formulation is leading to excellent colour strength of 109.5 % with excellent resistance properties to wash and to wet and dry rubbing properties at 30 gm/liter and 35 th formulation is leading to excellent colour strength of 131.69 % with excellent resistance properties at 60 gm/liter. 32 nd to 35 th formulations are leading to good resistance properties, good levelling and acceptable smoothness. The colour strength of the dyed fabric obtained by using 30 gm/liter and 60 gm/liter of 32 nd to 35 th formulations is in the range of 102.4 % to 109.5 % and 112.05 % to 131.69 % respectively. The 31 st formulation and 36 th formulation which comprises STD 1 and STD 6 in 10:90 to 90:10 proportion respectively fails to show any improvement in the colour strength and resistance properties. Thus, the present invention is leading to excellent colour strength of the dyed material with good resistance properties to wash and to dry rubbing and wet rubbing properties. It also eliminates problem of patchy dyeing or uneven levelling. According to the invention, the colours strength is increased by at least 5 % to 75 %. Due to increase in the colour strength, dye consumption was reduced to achieve desired colour strength. This reduction in dye consumption leads to reduction of the cost of dyeing at least by 5 %. This also reduced the quantity of dye remaining in the effluent and reduced the COD, BOD and TDS of the effluent; thus lowered the effluent treatment i.e. reduction in consumption of chemicals for removal of colour from the effluent. Thereby, the present invention saved 40 % cost of the effluent treatment. Thus, overall cost of the dyeing was reduced. Thus, the cationizing agent provided by the current invention has specific component in the specific proportion leading to technical advancement like excellent colour strength, even dyeing i.e. levelling, acceptable smoothness and excellent resistance properties at reduced cost as well as reduced pollution (i.e. reduced COD, BOD and TDS of the effluent).

The present invention is illustrated by the following example, which is not intended to limit the effective scope of the invention.

Example 1:

The formulations of the cationizing agents are depicted in Table 2.

Table 2 : Formulations of the cationizing agents

The above-mentioned cationizing agents particularly 1 st formulation, 8 th formulation, 9 th formulation, 16 th formulation, 23 rd formulation and 30 th formulation comprises individually STD 1, STD 2, STD 3, STD 4, STD 5 and STD 6 respectively and the same have been used for comparisons. The 2 nd , 7 th , 10 th , 15 th , 17 th , 22 nd , 24 th , 29 th , 31 st and 36 lh formulations, which comprises STD 1 and STD 2 to STD 6, were prepared by admixing STD 1 and second component STD 2 to STD 6 in 10:90 and 90:10 proportions as indicated in the Table 2 and the same have been used for comparisons. The 3 rd to 6 th , 11 th to 14 th , 18 th to 21 st , 25 th to 28 th and 32 nd to 35 th formulations of the invention were prepared by admixing STD 1 and second components namely STD 2 to STD 6 in a given proportion in Table 2. These formulations 1 st to 36 th were used in the pre-treatment step (i.e. scouring, bleaching and cationization in a single bath) followed by dyeing of cotton and lycra-cotton blend and colour strength, smoothness, leveling, and color fastness to washing and rubbing were studied.

Example 2:

Process of dyeing of cotton (pretreatment including scouring, bleaching and cationization in a single bath followed by dyeing)

Cotton fabric 180 gsm used a) Pre-treatment (scouring, bleaching and cationization in a single bath)

Machine bath was filled with 1500 liters of water. To this, 750 gm of wetting agent (EXSO WET ES), 500 gm of lubricating agent (DEPSOLUBE ACL -B LIQ), 500 gm of chelating agent (EXOSPERSE H/C) were added. The bath was heated to temperature of 45 °C. 300 kg of cotton fabric of about 180 gsm was loaded in the bath at the constant temperature of 45 °C in 10 minutes.

To this bath, 15 kg of caustic soda was dissolved and added at 45°C in 10 minutes and run for another 15 minutes. 30 gm /liter of cationizing agent ( 1 st formulation) was added to the bath at 60°C in 10 minutes. The temperature of the bath was increased to 80°C within 15 minutes. The cationization was carried out at 85 °C for 45 minutes by swirling the fabric in the bath. The bath was cooled to 75°C. 3000 gm of hydrogen peroxide was added at the constant temperature of 75°C and the fabric was kept swirling for 10 minutes. The temperature was increased to 95 °C within 20 minutes. The fabric was bleached at the temperature of 95°C by swirling it for 45 minutes. The bath was allowed to cool to 60°C and this bath was transferred to stock tank for recycling purpose.

The bath having fabric was filled with 1000 liters of water. The fabric was subjected to hot wash by running in the bath for 15 minutes at 60°C. Upon completion of hot wash, the bath was drained.

The fabric was immersed in 1000 liters of water in a bath and it was heated to 30°C. To the bath, 1 kg of neutralizing agent (acetic acid) and 250 gm of core neutral (Invatex AC) were charged to adjust the pH in the range of 5.5. The bath was run for 15 minutes. The bath was drained. The treated fabric was then subjected to dyeing b) Dyeing

1500 liters of water was filled in the bath. The bath was heated to 40°C. To this, 750 gm of lubricating agent (DEPSOLUBE ACL -B LIQ) and 500 gm of dispersing agent (Levocol CWS) were added. The pre-treated fabric was immersed in the bath and the bath was maintained at 60°C for 45 minutes. To this, reactive dye namely 7.4 % of C.YELLOW Eco plus, 0.25 % of C.RED Eco Plus and 0.35 % C. Black GDE were added to achieve 8% black shade. Dye was added over period of 30 minutes. The bath was run for 45 minutes. The pH of the bath was found to be in the range of 6. 7.5 kg of sodium carbonate was added in the bath for 15 minutes. The bath was run for 30 minutes. The pH of the bath was found to be in the range of 11. The temperature of the bath was increased to 60°C. The bath was run by maintaining temperature at 60°C for 30 minutes. The shade of black of the dyed fabric was checked by spectrophotometric analysis and the depth was matched with standard swatch of fabric.

The fabric was hot washed with 1000 liters of water by swirling at 80°C for 15 minutes. The bath was drained.

The fabric was immersed in 1000 liters of water in a bath and it was heated to 60°C. To the bath, 500 gm of neutralizing agent (acetic acid) was charged to adjust the pH in the range of 6. The bath was run for 15 minutes and it was drained. The tank having fabric was filled with 1000 liters of water. To the bath, 0.5 % soap (Dakocal ECO) was added and temperature of the bath was raised to 80°C in 10 minutes. The fabric was swirled for 15 minutes at 80°C. The bath was cooled to 60°C and the same was drained.

The fabric was placed in the bath having 1000 liters of water and temperature was raised to 80°C. The hot wash was carried out by swirling the fabric in hot bath at 80°C for 15 minutes. The bath was drained.

The fabric was placed in the bath having 1000 liters of water and temperature was raised to 30- 35°C. The cold wash was carried out by swirling the fabric in the bath at 35°C for 15 minutes. The bath was drained.

The bath having fabric was again filled with 1000 liters of water and the bath was run for another 15 minutes and fabric was unloaded from same bath.

The dyed fabric was tested for colour strength, smoothness, leveling, and color fastness to washing and rubbing fastness. The results are tabulated in table 3.

Examples 3 to 37:

The examples 3 to 37 were carried out by using 30 gm/liter of cationizing agent of 2 nd to 36 th formulation respectively in the "pre-treatment (scouring, bleaching and cationization in a single bath)" to dye cotton fabric by following the procedures according to example 2. The dyed fabric was tested for colour strength, smoothness, leveling and color fastness to washing and rubbing fastness. The results are tabulated in table 3.

Examples 38 to 73:

The examples 38 to 73 were carried out by using 60 gm/liter of cationizing agent of 1 st to 36 th formulation respectively in the "pre-treatment (scouring, bleaching and cationization in a single bath)" to dye cotton fabric by following the procedures according to example 2. The dyed fabric was tested for colour strength, smoothness, leveling and color fastness to washing and rubbing fastness. The results are tabulated in table 3. Examples 74 to 109:

Process of dyeing of cotton-lycra blend (pretreatment including scouring, bleaching and cationization in a single bath followed by dyeing)

Cotton /lycra blend (96:4) 180 gsm used

The examples 74 to 109 were carried out by using cotton-lycra blend fabric (96:4) 180 gsm and 30 gm/liter of cationizing agent of 1 st to 36 th formulations respectively in the "pre-treatment (scouring, bleaching and cationization in a single bath)" to dye cotton-lycra blend fabric by following the procedures according to example 2. The dyed fabric was tested for colour strength, smoothness, leveling and color fastness to washing and rubbing fastness. The results are tabulated in table 3.

Examples 110 to 145:

The examples 110 to 145 were carried out by using 60 gm/liter of cationizing agent of 1 st to 36 th formulations respectively in the "pre-treatment (scouring, bleaching and cationization in a single bath)" to dye cotton/lycra fabric by following the procedures according to example 2. The dyed fabric was tested for colour strength, smoothness, leveling and color fastness to washing and rubbing fastness. The results are tabulated in table 3.

Table 3: Results of Leveling, Colour strength, Smoothness, and Rating of color fastness properties to wash, to dry rubbing and to wet rubbing Wherein Fabric A=Cotton; and B= Lycra-cotton blend;

According to the results tabulated in Table 3:

The cationizing agent of 1 st formulation comprising 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride i.e. STD 1 used in the first step of scouring, bleaching and cationization is in the range of 30 to 60 gm /liter. The cationized fabric is dyed. It leads to colour strength in the range of 96.25 to 97.3 %. It also leads to good resistance properties to wash and to dry rubbing and wet rubbing. It is also leading to acceptable levelling and smoothness. Thus, one of the disadvantage of the 1 st formulation is that the colour strength is less than 100 %.

The 8 th formulation comprising Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) solution (i.e. PDADMAC) i.e. STD 2 used in the first step of scouring, bleaching and cationization of the dyeing is in the range of 30 to 60 gm /liter. This cationized fabric is dyed. It leads to good resistance properties to wash and to dry rubbing and wet rubbing. But it leads to inferior colour strength in the range of 85.5 to 89.1 % and inferior resistance to wet rubbing. It is also leading to patchy dyeing and uneven levelling.

The 9 th formulation comprising Poly(dimethylamine-co-epichlorohydrin-co-ethylenediamine) solution i.e. STD 3 used in the first step of scouring, bleaching and cationization of the dyeing is in the range of 30 to 60 gm /liter. This cationized fabric is dyed. It leads to colour strength in the range of 94.00 to 95.93 % which is less than 100 %. It also leads to inferior resistance properties to wash and to dry rubbing and wet rubbing. It is also leading to patchy dyeing and uneven levelling.

The 16 th formulation comprising N'-(2-aminoethyl)ethane-l,2-diamine;2-cyanoguanidine i.e. STD 4 used in the first step of scouring, bleaching and cationization of the dyeing is in the range of 30 to 60 gm /liter. This cationized fabric is dyed. It leads to inferior colour strength in the range of 74.89 to 79.42 % and also leads to inferior resistance properties to wet rubbing. It is also leading to patchy dyeing and uneven levelling.

The 23 formulation comprising Ethanol, 2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-, reaction products with epichlorohydrin, ethylenediamine and lH-imidazole i.e. STD 5 used in the first step of scouring, bleaching and cationization of the dyeing is in the range of 30 to 60 gm /liter. This cationized fabric is dyed. It leads to colour strength in the range of 93.25 to 95.82 %, but inferior resistance properties to wash and to wet rubbing. It showed good resistance to dry rubbing. It is also leading to patchy dyeing and uneven levelling.

The 30 th formulation comprising l,3-Diaza-2,4-cyclopentadiene i.e. STD 6 used in the first step of scouring, bleaching and cationization of the dyeing is in the range of 30 to 60 gm /liter. This cationized fabric is dyed. It leads to inferior colour strength of 88.06 % and 95.01 % at 30 gm/liter and 60 gm/liter respectively. It also leads inferior resistance properties to wash and to wet rubbing but it showed good resistance to dry rubbing. It is also leading to extremely patchy dyeing and uneven levelling.

Among 2 nd to 7 th formulations of the cationizing agent comprising STD 1 and STD 2 in various proportions, 5 th formulation leading to excellent colour strength of 108.3% with excellent resistance properties to wash and to wet rubbing and dry rubbing properties at 30 gm/liter and 3 formulation leading to excellent colour strength of 145.2% with excellent resistance properties at 60 gm/liter. 3 rd to 6 th formulation leading to good levelling and acceptable smoothness. The colour strength of the dyed fabric obtained by using 30 gm/liter and 60 gm/liter of 3 rd to 6 th formulations is in the range of 102.1 % to 108.3 % and 130.23 % to 145.2 % respectively. The 2 nd formulation and 7 th formulation which comprises STD 1 and STD 2 in 10:90 and 90:10 proportion respectively fails to show any improvement in the colour strength and wet rubbing resistance properties.

Among 10 th to 15 th formulations of the cationizing agent comprising STD 1 and STD 3 in various proportions, the 14 th formulation is leading to excellent colour strength of 115% and 133.83% at 30 gm/liter and 60 gm/ liter respectively. 11 th to 14 th formulation are leading to good resistance properties, good levelling and acceptable smoothness. The colour strength of the dyed fabric obtained by using 30 gm/liter and 60 gm/liter of 11 th to 14 th formulations is in the range of 105.10 % to 115 % and 117.25 % to 133.83 % respectively. The 10 th formulation and 15 th formulation which comprises STD 1 and STD 3 in 10:90 to 90:10 proportion respectively fails to show any improvement in the colour strength and resistance properties.

Among 17 th to 22 nd formulations of the cationizing agent comprising STD 1 and STD 4 in various proportions, the 21 st formulation is leading to excellent colour strength of 143.74 % and 169.08 % at 30 gm/liter and 60 gm/ liter respectively. 18 th to 21 st formulations are leading to good resistance properties, good levelling and acceptable smoothness. The colour strength of the dyed fabric obtained by using 30 gm/liter and 60 gm/liter of 18 th to 21 st formulations is in the range of 103.14 % to 143.74 % and 121.01 % to 169.08 % respectively. The 17 th formulation and 22 nd formulation which comprises STD 1 and STD 4 in 10:90 to 90:10 proportion respectively fails to show any improvement in the colour strength and resistance properties.

Among 24 th to 29 th formulations of the cationizing agent comprising STD 1 and STD 5 in various proportions, the 26 th formulation is leading to excellent colour strength of 127.49 % with excellent resistance properties to wash and to wet and dry rubbing properties at 30 gm/liter and the 27 th formulation is leading to excellent colour strength of 148.59 % with excellent resistance properties at 60 gm/liter. 25 th to 28 th formulations are leading to good resistance properties, good levelling and acceptable smoothness. The colour strength of the dyed fabric obtained by using 30 gm/liter and 60 gm/liter of 25 th to 28 th formulations is in the range of 103.1 % to 129.58 % and 119.04 % to 148.59 % respectively. The 24 th formulation and 29 th formulation which comprises STD 1 and STD 5 in 10:90 to 90:10 proportion respectively fails to show any improvement in the colour strength and resistance properties.

Among 31 st to 36 th formulations of the cationizing agent comprising STD 1 and STD 6 in various proportions, the 34 th formulation is leading to excellent colour strength in the range of 109.5 % with excellent resistance properties to wash and to wet and dry rubbing properties at 30 gm/liter and the 35 th formulation is leading to excellent colour strength of 131.69 % with excellent resistance properties at 60 gm/liter. 32 nd to 35 th formulations are leading to good resistance properties, good levelling and acceptable smoothness. The colour strength of the dyed fabric obtained by using 30 gm/liter and 60 gm/liter of 32 nd to 35 th formulations is in the range of 102.4 % to 109.5 % and 112.05 % to 131.69 % respectively. The 31 st formulation and 36 th formulation which comprises STD 1 and STD 6 in 10:90 to 90:10 proportion respectively fails to show any improvement in the colour strength and resistance properties.

According to the results of the above-mentioned examples 1 to 145, it is evident that the current invention results into excellent colour strength of dyed material with good resistance properties. In view of the colour strength achieved by using the formulations 1 st , 8 th , 9 th , 16 th , 23 rd and 30 th the minimum colour strength achieved was 74.89 % and maximum was 97.3%. Thus, according to the present invention, the colours strength increased at least by 5 % to 75 % over the colour strength of formulations 1 st . The dyes are usually expensive and it is at least of 300 INR/kg. Due to increase in the colour strength, dye consumption was reduced to achieve desired colour strength. This reduced the cost of the dyeing at least by 5 %. This also reduced the quantity of dye remaining in the effluent and reduced the COD, BOD and TDS of the effluent; thus lowered the effluent treatment i.e. reduction of consumption of chemicals for removal of colour from the effluent. Thereby, the present invention saved 40% cost of the effluent treatment. Thus, overall cost of the dyeing was reduced. Thus, the cationizing agent provided by the current invention has specific component in the specific proportion leading to technical advancement like excellent colour strength, even dyeing i.e. levelling, acceptable smoothness and excellent resistance properties at reduced cost as well as reduced pollution (i.e. reduced COD, BOD and TDS of the effluent). Thus, the cationizing agent of the invention is efficient, cost-effective and eco-friendly.