Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
ELONGATED STEEL ELEMENT COMPRISING A TERNARY OR QUATERNARY BRASS ALLOY COATING AND CORRESPONDING METHOD
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2013/117248
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
An elongated steel element adapted for the reinforcement of rubber products is covered with a ternary or quaternary alloy coating of copper-M-zinc. M is one or two metals selected from the group consisting of cobalt, nickel, tin, indium, manganese, iron, bismuth and molybdenum. The copper content inside the coating ranges from 58 weight per cent to 75 weight per cent, the content of said one or two metals inside the coating ranges from 0.5 weight per cent to 10 weight per cent, the remainder is zinc and unavoidable impurities. The one or two metals are present throughout the coating. The phosphorus is present on and/or in the coating in an amount ranging from 0.3 milligram per square meter to 1 milligram per square meter of the coating. The coating further lacks triazole residues. Good results for under cure adhesion have been obtained. Furthermore, a corresponding method for manufacturing such an elongated steel element is disclosed.

Inventors:
BUYTAERT GUY (BE)
WEMEL DIETER (BE)
REIS PATRICIA (BE)
Application Number:
PCT/EP2012/064475
Publication Date:
August 15, 2013
Filing Date:
July 24, 2012
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
BEKAERT SA NV (BE)
BUYTAERT GUY (BE)
WEMEL DIETER (BE)
REIS PATRICIA (BE)
International Classes:
D07B1/06
Domestic Patent References:
WO2011076746A12011-06-30
Foreign References:
JP2011147994A2011-08-04
US4269877A1981-05-26
US6203932B12001-03-20
EP0314230A11989-05-03
JPH0649783A1994-02-22
JP2012012625A2012-01-19
JP2001234371A2001-08-31
US4189332A1980-02-19
JP2005246447A2005-09-15
US2240805A1941-05-06
US4255496A1981-03-10
US4265678A1981-05-05
GB2076320A1981-12-02
EP0175632A11986-03-26
EP2268839A12011-01-05
EP0257667A11988-03-02
Other References:
ANONYMOUS: "High durable steel cord reinforced rubber tire", RESEARCH DISCLOSURE, MASON PUBLICATIONS, HAMPSHIRE, GB, vol. 274, no. 36, 1 February 1987 (1987-02-01), XP007111321, ISSN: 0374-4353
W. J VAN OOIJ: "Mechanism and Theories of Rubber Adhesion to Steel Tire Cords - An Overview", 1 January 1984 (1984-01-01), XP055028593, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20120531]
SÉBASTIEN HOLLINGER ET AL: "Wear mechanism of tungsten carbide dies during wet drawing of steel tyre cords", WEAR, vol. 255, no. 7-12, 1 August 2003 (2003-08-01), pages 1291 - 1299, XP055054966, ISSN: 0043-1648, DOI: 10.1016/S0043-1648(03)00168-6
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MESSELY, Marc (Zwevegem, BE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
An elongated steel element adapted for the reinforcement of rubber products, said elongated steel element being covered with coating of a ternary or quaternary alloy coating of copper-M-zinc,

where M is one or two metals selected from the group consisting of cobalt, nickel, tin, indium, manganese, iron, bismuth and molybdenum,

the copper content inside said coating ranging from 58 weight per cent to 75 weight per cent,

the content of said one or two metals inside said coating ranging from 0.5 weight per cent to 10 weight per cent,

the remainder being zinc and unavoidable impurities,

said one or two metals being present throughout said coating,

phosphorus being present on and/or in said coating in an amount ranging from 0.3 milligram per square meter to 1 milligram per square meter of said coating, said phosphorus amount being measured by means of an Inductively

Coupled Plasma technique,

said coating further lacking residues of compounds which complex with copper in the coating to form an insoluble film, as measured by a ToF-SIMS technique.

The elongated steel element according to claim 1 ,

the copper content ranging from 61 weight per cent to 70 weight per cent.

The elongated steel element according to claim 2,

the content of said one or two metals ranging from 2 weight per cent to 8 weight per cent.

4. The elongated steel element according to one of the preceding claims,

said elongated steel element being a steel wire or a steel cord.

5. A process for manufacturing an elongated steel element adapted for the reinforcement of rubber products, said process comprising the following steps: a. coating an elongated steel element with a ternary alloy of copper-M- zinc, M being one or two metals selected from the group consisting of cobalt, nickel, tin, indium, manganese, iron, bismuth and molybdenum, the copper content inside said coating ranging from 58 weight per cent to 75 weight per cent, the content of said one or two metals inside said coating ranging from 0.5 weight per cent to 10 weight per cent, the remainder being zinc and unavoidable impurities, said one or two metals being present throughout said coating;

b. drawing said coated elongated steel element in an aqueous lubricant containing a phosphorus compound, the amount of phosphorus compound being such that phosphorus is present on and/or in said coating in an amount ranging from 0.3 milligram per square meter to 1 milligram per square meter of said coating, said phosphorus amount being measured by means of an Inductively Coupled Plasma technique, ,

said lubricant further lacking compounds which complex with the copper in the coating to form an insoluble film, such that said coating lacks residues of said compounds as measured by a ToF-SIMS technique.

6. A process according to claim 5, said process further comprising a step of

twisting two or more of said elongated steel elements.

7. A reinforced rubber article comprising a rubber compound and an elongated steel element wherein said elongated steel element is an elongated steel element according any one of the claims 1 to 4.

Description:
ELONGATED STEEL ELEMENT COMPRISING A TERNARY OR QUATERNARY BRASS ALLOY COATING AND CORRESPONDING METHOD

Description

Technical Field

[0001] The present invention relates to an elongated steel element adapted for

the reinforcement of rubber products. The present invention also relates to a process for manufacturing such an elongated steel element.

Background Art

[0002] Elongated steel elements such as brass coated steel wires and steel cords are widely used to reinforce rubber products such as tires. In order to have a good adhesion formation and to reduce the rate of degradation of adhesion, particularly due to ageing in hot humid conditions, cobalt complexes are added to the rubber compound. However, cobalt is

considered to be a poison for the rubber since, like most transition metals, it is an oxidation catalyst. As a result, oxidation of diene rubber molecules will be accelerated due to the presence of cobalt, which leads to earlier rubber ageing.

Moreover, cobalt also speeds up crack growth rate of the rubber.

[0003] In addition to the above disadvantage there is also the following problem:

Cobalt is a strategic material and it is quite expensive. By adding cobalt to the whole rubber compound, one adds too much cobalt since it has only a positive function at the brass surface. Generally, it is considered that only 20% of the cobalt added to the rubber is used effectively.

[0004] The prior art has already recognized one or more of these problems. A lot of attempts have been made to concentrate the cobalt there where it belongs, namely in or on the coating of the steel wires or steel cords.

[0005] Yet in 1936 there was an attempt to completely replace the brass coating

by a pure cobalt coating on articles for reinforcing rubber (US 2,240,805). [0006] US 4,255,496 (Bekaert) discloses the use of a ternary alloy copper-cobalt- zinc coating instead of a binary alloy copper-zinc (= brass) coating. With this ternary alloy, the rate of bond degradation due to aging in hot humid conditions can be significantly reduced.

[0007] US 4,265,678 (Tokyo Rope) teaches the use of a ternary alloy copper- zinc-cobalt coating with excellent drawability and adhesion properties.

[0008] GB-A-2 076 320 (Sodetal) teaches a thin layer of cobalt on top of a brass coating followed by a wire drawing so that there is a high gradient of cobalt on top of the brass coating.

[0009] EP-A1 -0 175 632 (Goodyear) teaches a quaternary alloy coating copper- zinc-nickel-cobalt on steel elements.

[0010] Finally, WO-A1 -201 1/076746 discloses a steel cord with a ternary or

quaternary alloy coating and with a zinc gradient. Although giving improvement with respect to adhesion, this zinc gradient involves a post- treatment of the wire or cord, meaning an extra operation step in the process.

Disclosure of Invention

[001 1] It is an object of the present invention to avoid the drawbacks of the prior art.

[0012] It is also an object of the present invention to stir the adhesion

performance of ternary alloy and quaternary alloy coated elongated steel elements.

It is yet another object of the present invention to avoid from using extra operation steps in the manufacturing process.

[0013] According to a first aspect of the present invention, there is provided an elongated steel element adapted for the reinforcement of rubber products. This elongated steel element is covered with a ternary alloy or quaternary alloy of a copper-M-zinc coating.

M is one or two metals selected from the group consisting of cobalt, nickel, tin, indium, manganese, iron, bismuth and molybdenum.

The copper content inside this coating ranges from 58 weight per cent to 75 weight per cent, e.g. from 61 wt % to 70 wt %.

The content of the one or two metals inside the coating ranges from 0.5 weight per cent to 10 weight per cent, e.g. 2 wt % to 8 wt %. The one or two metals are present throughout the coating, and not only present at the immediate surface.

The remainder is zinc and unavoidable impurities, e.g. impurities in quantities lower than 0.1 wt %.

The thickness of the coating ranges from 0.05 μηη to 0.50 μηη, e.g. from 0.12 μηη to 0.40 μηη.

The weight percentages of copper, the one or two metals and the balance of zinc may be measured by an analytical dissolution technique and with X-ray fluorescence (XRFS), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) or Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). These measurements are also suitable to obtain the coating weight and the coating thickness.

Phosphorus is present on or in the coating in an amount ranging from 0.3 milligram per square meter to 1 milligram per square meter of the coating, e.g less than 0.99 mg/m 2 , e.g. less than 0.95 mg/m 2 . Examples of under limits are 0.4 mg/m 2 and 0.5 mg/m 2 . This phosphorus amount may be present in the form of phosphates. The phosphorus amount may be measured by means of an Inductively Coupled Plasma technique or by an ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy.

The coating or the surface of the coating is further lacking residues of compounds that complex with the copper in the coating to form an insoluble film. These compounds include triazoles, imidazoles and indazoles. Such compounds include those having the following structural formula:

- C - A = B

II I

- C N

H

where the adjacent carbon atoms are joined to form a benzene or naphthylene ring, said ring being substituted or unsubstituted and wherein A and B are selected from a group consisting of -N- or -CH-, with A and B never being simultaneously equal to -CH-. Examples of such compounds are benzotriazole, tolyltriazole, benzimidazole, indazole, naphthatriazole.

[0015] The absence of these residues may be measured by a Time of Flight -

Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) technique. This technique provides information on the atomic and molecular composition of the uppermost 1 - 3 monolayers with sensitivities at ppm level and lateral resolutions down to 100 nm.

ToF-SIMS is not an inherently quantitative technique because the detected intensities depend on the chemical composition of the ambient material ("matrix effect"). Semi-quantitative information can be obtained if the chemical environment of the samples to be compared is similar.

In spectrometry mode a total mass spectrum of a surface region of interest is acquired. These spectra are usually recorded with high mass resolution and a low number of used primary ions. The high mass resolution is necessary for a reliable identification of secondary ion signals and corresponding sum formulas. The limited number of primary ions guarantees that the detected signals are representative for the original chemical composition of the sample surface (Static SIMS limit).

For the ToF-SIMS measurements of the present invention, an ION-TOF "TOF-SIMS IV" SIMS instrument was used. Ion bombardment of the surface was performed using bismuth ions at 25 keV in a bunched mode. Analysis current is 0.2 pA and the analysed area is 100 x 100 μηη 2 .

[0016] The elongated steel element may be a steel wire or a steel cord. In case of a steel cord, the invention is not limited to a particular type of

construction.

[0017] The terms "adapted for the reinforcement of rubber products" refer to steel wires and steel cords with a suitable wire or filament diameter, a suitable steel composition and a suitable tensile strength. [0018] A suitable steel composition is e.g. a minimum carbon content of 0.65%, a manganese content ranging from 0.10% to 0.70%, a silicon content ranging from 0.05% to 0.50%, a maximum sulphur content of 0.03%, a maximum phosphorus content of 0.03% and even 0.02%, all percentages being percentages by weight. There are only traces of copper, nickel and / or chromium. The remainder is always iron.

[0019] Micro-alloyed steel compositions may also be suitable such as

compositions further comprising one or more of following elements:

- chromium (%Cr): in amounts ranging from 0.10% to 1.0%, e.g. from 0.10 to 0.50%;

- nickel (%Ni): in amounts ranging from 0.05% to 2.0%, e.g. from 0.10% to 0.60%;

- cobalt (%Co): in amounts ranging from 0.05% to 3.0%; e.g. from 0.10% to 0.60%;

- vanadium (%V): in amounts ranging from 0.05% to 1.0%, e.g. from 0.05% to 0.30%;

- molybdenum (%Mo): in amounts ranging from 0.05% to 0.60%, e.g. from 0.10% to 0.30%;

- copper (%Cu): in amounts ranging from 0.10% to 0.40%, e.g. from 0.15% to 0.30%;

- boron (%B): in amounts ranging from 0.001 % to 0.010%, e.g. from

0.002% to 0.006%;

- niobium (%Nb): in amounts ranging from 0.001 % to 0.50%, e.g. from 0.02% to 0.05%;

- titanium (%Ti): in amounts ranging from 0.001 % to 0.50%, e.g. from 0.001 % to 0.010%;

- antimony (%Sb): in amounts ranging from 0.0005% to 0.08%, e.g. from 0.0005% to 0.05%;

- calcium (%Ca): in amounts ranging from 0.001 % to 0.05%, e.g. from 0.0001 % to 0.01 %;

- tungsten (%W): e.g. in an amount of about 0.20%;

- zirconium (%Zr): e.g. in an amount ranging from 0.01 % to 0.10%;

- aluminum (%AI): preferably in amounts lower than 0.035%, e.g. lower than 0.015%, e.g. lower than 0.005%;

- nitrogen (%N): in amounts less than 0.005%;

- rare earth metals (%REM): in amounts ranging from 0.010% to 0.050%.

[0020] Within the context of the present invention low-carbon steel compositions such as disclosed in EP-A-2 268 839 are not excluded. Such a steel composition has a carbon content of less than 0.20 %. An example is a carbon content ranging between 0.04 % and 0.08 %, a silicon content of 0.166 %, a chromium content of 0.042 %, a copper content of 0.173 %, a manganese content of 0.382 %, a molybdenum content of 0.013 %, a nitrogen content of 0.006 %, a nickel content of 0.077 %, a phosphorus content of 0.007 %, a sulphur content of 0.013 %, all percentages being percentages by weight.

[0021] The diameter of individual steel wires or steel filaments of elongated steel elements adapted for reinforcement of rubber products usually ranges from 0.03 mm to 1.20 mm, e.g. from 0.10 mm to 0.80 mm, e.g. from 0.15 mm to 0.60 mm.

[0022] The levels of roughness R a measured on the individual steel wires vary from 0.10 μηη to 2.0 μηη, e.g. from 0.10 μηη to 1.0 μηη, e.g. from 0.10 μηη to 0.30 μηη.

[0023] The tensile strength of elongated steel elements adapted for the

reinforcement of rubber products largely depends upon the diameter and usually ranges from 1500 MPa to 4500 MPa, e.g. from 2000 MPa to 4000 MPa.

[0024] As will be explained hereinafter, the small amounts of phosphorus on the coating together with the absence of triazole residues lead to improved adhesion results at under cure, i.e. when the rubber is vulcanised for about half of the regular curing time. Below 0.3 mg/m 2 little or no effect is being noticed. As the results will show, with amounts of phosphorus above 1 mg/m 2 , lower adhesion performance in under cure is noticed.

[0025] EP-A1 -0 257 667 discloses a brass alloy coating for steel elements for rubber reinforcement, where the brass alloy coating contains small amounts of phosphorus. The phosphorus is described as improving the adhesion between the rubber and the brass. However, the amount of phosphorus is higher than in the present invention.

[0026] According to a second aspect of the present invention, there is provided process for manufacturing an elongated steel element. This process comprising the following steps:

a) coating an elongated steel element with a ternary alloy or quaternary alloy of copper-M-zinc coating, M being one or two metals selected from the group consisting of cobalt, nickel, tin, indium, manganese, iron, bismuth and molybdenum, the copper content inside the coating ranges from 58 weight per cent to 75 weight per cent, the content of the one or two metals inside the coating ranges from 0.5 weight per cent to 10 weight per cent, the remainder is zinc and unavoidable impurities, the one or two metals being present throughout said coating;

b) drawing the thus coated elongated steel element in an aqueous lubricant containing a phosphorus compound, the amount of phosphorus compound being such that phosphorus is present on the coating in an amount of less than 1 milligram per square meter of the coating. The phosphorus amount is measured by means of an Inductively Coupled Plasma technique. The lubricant further lacks compounds that complex with the copper in the coating to form an isoluble film.

The process also lacks other steps of treating the elongated steel element with such compounds.

The lubricant may be an emulsion or a dispersion.

[0027] The thus drawn elongated steel elements may be twisted by means of a double-twister, or by means of a tubular twisting machine. [0028] As mentioned, the relatively small amounts of phosphorus lead to an improved adhesion behaviour in under cure. Since the phosphorus is added to the ternary alloy or quaternary alloy coating by means of the wet wire drawing lubricant, no additional process step is required to achieve this improved adhesion.

[0029] The invention also relates to a rubber product reinforced with an elongated steel element with the features as disclosed hereabove.

Mode(s) for Carrying Out the Invention

[0030] Two sample steel wires with a diameter of 1.98 mm are provided with a ternary alloy coating as follows:

i) pickling in a H2SO 4 solution to clean the surface of the steel wire;

ii) electroplating with copper from a CU2P2O7 solution; solution contains 25 g/l copper and 180 g/l pyrophosphate; current density is 8.6 A/dm 2 or higher for a higher copper content;

iii) electroplating cobalt from a CoSO 4 solution; solution contains 40 g/l cobalt and current density is 22 A/dm 2 ;

iv) electroplating with zinc from a ZnSO 4 solution; solution contains 50 g/l zinc and current density is 8.8 A/dm 2 or lower for a lower zinc content; v) applying a thermal diffusion process to create the ternary alloy Cu-Co- Zn;

vi) removing excess of ZnO formed during diffusion process via a dip in an acid;

vii) rinsing and drying.

[0031] Steel wire 1 has following coating composition: 63.5 wt% Cu, 4.0 wt% Co, the remainder being Zn.

Steel wire 2 has following coating composition: 67.0 wt% Cu, 4.0 wt% Co, the remainder being Zn. [0032] The steel wires are subjected to a final reduction in diameter during a wet wire drawing operation.

Three different lubricants are used: l-X-Y.

[0033] Lubricant I is the lubricant to be used in the context of the present

invention. Lubricant I is an aqueous emulsion containing more than 90% water, an oil, surfactant, soap, phosphorus compound and a pH buffering system. The pH is also partially buffered by working of amines.

More particularly, lubricant I comprises phosphates, sulphates, nitrates, O- containing hydrocarbons and fatty acid residues, N-containing

hydrocarbons. The phosphates may be present as PO2 ~ or as PO3 " ions.

[0034] Reference lubricant X is an aqueous emulsion containing more than 90% water, mineral oil, surfactant, soap, phosphorus compound, extreme pressure additive, corrosion inhibitor of the triazole type, e.g.

benzotriazole, and a pH buffering system. The pH is also partially buffered by working of amines.

More particularly, lubricant X contains phosphates, CN/CNO,

benzotriazole, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and octylphosphate acid.

[0035] Reference lubricant Y is an aqueous emulsion containing more than 90% water, vegetable oil, surfactant, soap, phosphorus compound, extreme pressure additive, corrosion inhibitor of the triazole type, e.g.

benzotriazole, and a pH buffering system. The pH is also partially buffered by working of amines.

More particularly, lubricant Y contains phosphates, CN/CNO,

benzotriazole, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and octylphosphate acid.

[0036] Final steel wire diameter is 0.30 mm. After wet wire drawing the steel wires have been twisted into a 2x0.30 steel cord construction.

[0037] Combining the two steel wires 1 and 2 with the three lubricants I, X and Y, gives six different steel cord samples 1-1, 1-X, 1 -Y, 2-I, 2-X and 2-Y.

These six different steel samples have been vulcanized in a rubber compound. The pull-out force (POF) and the appearance ratio (APR) or bber coverage have been measured on these sam

[0038] Table 1 lists, amongst others, the amount of phosphorus on the surface of the ternary alloy coating.

Table 1

Inv = invention

ref = reference

Ps= amount of phosphorus

Table 2 mentions the results of the pull-out test and of the appearance ratio test in under cure.

Table 2

[0039] The invention samples 1 -1 inv and 2-l-inv clearly perform better both in the pull-out test as in the appearance ratio test. [0040] The adhesion behaviour of invention samples 1 -l-inv and 2-l-inv at regular cure (RC) and after steam aging (SA) are at an acceptable high level, see Table 3 hereafter.

RC is the TC90 time plus 5 minutes and TC90 is the time when the rubber reaches 90% of its maximum torque on a rheometer curve taken at vulcanisation temperature.

SA is steam cooking RC samples at 120 °C for 1 or 2 days.

Table 3

3 refers to an elongated steel element with a more common brass coating copper-zinc.

3-l-ref was drawn in lubricant I and has 63.95 wt% Cu in its coating and 0.81 mg/m 2 phosphorus on or in its coating.

3-X-ref was drawn in lubricant X and has 64.30 wt% Cu in its coating and 1.09 mg/m 2 phosphorus on or in its coating.

3-Y-ref was drawn in lubricant Y and has 64.20 wt% Cu in its coating and 1.28 mg/m 2 phosphorus on or in its coating.

[0041] Table 4 hereunder summarizes the results of a ToF-SIMS analysis carried on steel cord sample 1 -l-inv of the invention.

Table 4

Ion Mass (u) Position 1 Position 2

Elements F 19 3.32 3.57

S 32 45.97 47.44

CI 35 239.10 361.63

Cu 63 100.00 100.00 CuH 2 O 2 97 441.02 470.14

Phosphates, PO 2 63 158.69 643.35 sulfates and POs 79 502.96 1551.88 nitrates SO 2 64 105.64 1 18.68

SOs 80 219.20 222.74

NOs 46 1 1 1.52 263.07

NO 2 62 79.42 164.1 1

O-containing C2H2O2 58 120.42 183.53 hydrocarbons C3H3O2 71 176.96 275.66 and fatty acid C16H31O2 255 13.25 33.91 residues C18H33O2 281 4.75 9.70

C18H35O2 283 12.23 42.70

N-containing CN 26 576.57 732.98 hydrocarbons CNO 42 31 1.18 426.13

Triazole C 6 H 4 N 90 2.58 3.81

C 6 H 4 N 3 1 18 1.75 2.66

According to the present invention, the elongated steel elements lack triazoles on the coating, so they also lack benzotriazoles. Table 4, however, mentions some values for triazoles. However, these values are to be considered as "noise level". Values higher than 5, e.g. higher than 10 are to be considered as above noise level.

The same is valid for imidazoles and for indazoles: explicit measuring these compounds by means of the ToF-SIMS technique would deliver noise values. Table 5 hereunder mentions two possible tire rubber compound

formulations together with its properties where an effective improvement on UC adhesion has been noticed.

Table 5

Ingredient Compound 1 Compound 2

Natural rubber TSR10 100 parts 100 parts ZnO - Zinc oxide 9 phr 9 phr

Stearic acid — 0.7 phr

Carbon black HAFLS N326 65 phr 65 phr

Anti-degradation compound

1.8 phr 1.8 phr

6PPD ( * )

Sulphur source Crystex

6.4 phr 6.4 phr

HSOT20

Accelerator DCBS 0.8 phr —

Cobalt salt Manobond 680C 0.27 phr —

Accelerator TBBS — 0.7 phr

Retarder PVI — 0.25 phr

Properties

Rheometer Cure at 150° C

Tc2 (min) 1.8 3.5

Tc90 (min) 12.0 13.0

M H (dNm) 31.5 30.6

Mooney at 100 °C

Viscosity (MU) 66 70

Shore A Hardness 70 66

Breaking load (N) 336 337

Tensile strength (MPa) 22.5 23.0

Modulus 100% (N/cm 2 ) 4.7 4.7

Modulus 200% (N/cm 2 ) 10.3 1 1.1

Modulus 300% (N/cm 2 ) 16.3 17.9

Elongation at break (%) 421 396

DMTA at 60°C 10 Hz dynamic

strain E' (MPa) 12.61 8.58

E"(MPa) 1.98 0.94

Tan δ (-) 0.157 0.109

DMTA = dynamic mechanical thermal analysis

the Tan δ at 60°C is an indication of the rolling resistance, the higher the value, the higher the rolling resistance.

Next to the ternary alloy compositions mentioned in Table 1 , following compositions have also been tested:

Due to an improved adhesion performance and better rubber compoun an increased tire endurance may be noticed.

In addition, the absence of cobalt in the rubber compound reduces the rubber heat ageing.

Finally a lower rolling resistance of about 2.5 % to 4.0 % or even more may be noticed.