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Title:
EMULSION AND METHOD OF PREPARING SAME
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/232151
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
An emulsion comprises a non-aqueous phase including a solid silicone polyamide copolymer and a silicone fluid, an aqueous phase including water, a chaotrope soluble in the aqueous phase and capable of liquefying the solid silicone polyamide copolymer in the absence of the aqueous phase at a temperature less than 45 C, and an emulsifier. A method of preparing the emulsion is also provided. The method includes combining the solid silicone polyamide copolymer, the silicone fluid, and the chaotrope at a temperature less than 45 C to give a liquid silicone composition. The method also includes combining and shearing the liquid silicone composition, the emulsifier, and water, thereby preparing the emulsion. Personal care products and similar compositions including the emulsion are also provided, along with methods of making and using the same.

Inventors:
LI ZHI (US)
MAXON BART (US)
NGUYEN KIMMAI (US)
SUTHIWANGCHAROEN NISARAPORN (US)
WADDELL EVAN (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2019/034554
Publication Date:
December 05, 2019
Filing Date:
May 30, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
DOW SILICONES CORP (US)
International Classes:
A61K8/06; A61K8/34; A61K8/898
Domestic Patent References:
WO2003013447A22003-02-20
WO2005060922A12005-07-07
Foreign References:
US20070196309A12007-08-23
EP1834629A22007-09-19
US20100020110W2010-01-05
US26975805A2005-11-09
US22889005A2005-09-15
EP2007064259W2007-12-19
EP2007060682W2007-10-09
EP2005013018W2005-10-28
US4352808A1982-10-05
US4985459A1991-01-15
Other References:
DATABASE GNPD [online] MINTEL; 4 February 2008 (2008-02-04), ANONYMOUS: "Silky Foundation", XP055611085, retrieved from www.gnpd.com Database accession no. 844048
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
PECK, Randall J. et al. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. An emulsion, comprising:

a non-aqueous phase comprising a solid silicone polyamide copolymer and a silicone fluid;

an aqueous phase comprising water;

a chaotrope soluble in the aqueous phase and capable of liquefying the solid silicone polyamide copolymer in the absence of the aqueous phase at a temperature less than 45 O; and

an emulsifier.

2. The emulsion of claim 1 , prepared by:

combining the solid silicone polyamide copolymer, the silicone fluid, and the chaotrope at a temperature less than 45 °C to give a liquid silicone composition; and

combining and shearing the liquid silicone composition, the emulsifier, and water, thereby preparing the emulsion.

3. The emulsion of claim 1 or 2, wherein: (i) the solid silicone polyamide copolymer has a melting temperature of greater than 70 °C; (ii) the non-aqueous phase comprises the solid silicone polyamide copolymer in an amount of from greater than 0 to 50 wt.% based on the total weight of the non-aqueous phase; (iii) the emulsion comprises the solid silicone polyamide copolymer in an amount of from greater than 0 to 25 wt.% based on the total weight of the emulsion; or (iv) a combination of (i) to (iii).

4. The emulsion of any one of claims 1 -3, wherein the solid silicone polyamide copolymer comprises a moiety having the following general formula:

where each R7-R10 is an independently selected substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl group; each subscript g is independently from 1 to 700; subscript h is from 1 to 100; and Y is a polyamide moiety.

5. The emulsion of claim 4, wherein the polyamide moiety Y has the following general formula:

-D1-{[-C(0)N(H)-Z1-N(H)C(0)-Z2-]j[-N(H)C(0)-Z3-C(0)N(H)-Z4-]j}k- where is a divalent linking group; each Z^ -Z4 is an independently selected divalent group; subscripts i and j are independently from 0 to 10, with the proviso that subscripts i and j are not simultaneously 0; and subscript k is from 1 to 5.

6. The emulsion of any one of claims 1 -5, wherein: (i) the chaotrope comprises a moiety having the general formula H0XR1 2m-0, where each R1 2 is independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl groups, alkoxy groups, siloxy groups, amino groups, acetoxy groups, and aminoxy groups, X is selected from O and N, subscript o is 1 or 2, and subscript m is the valency of X; (ii) the emulsion comprises the chaotrope in an amount of from greater than 0 to 50 wt.% based on the total weight of the non-aqueous phase; (iii) the emulsion comprises the chaotrope in an amount of from greater than 0 to 5 wt.% based on the total weight of the emulsion; or (iv) a combination of (i) to (iii).

7. The emulsion of any one of claims 1 -6, wherein: (i) the chaotrope comprises an alcohol- functional group; (ii) the chaotrope has a molecular weight less than 1500 g/mol; (iii) the emulsion comprises the chaotrope in the aqueous phase in an amount of greater than 90 wt.% based on the total weight of the chaotrope; (iv) the emulsion comprises the chaotrope in the non-aqueous phase in an amount of less than 10 wt.% based on the total weight of the chaotrope; or (v) a combination of (i) of (iv).

8. The emulsion of any one of claims 1 -7, wherein the emulsion comprises the solid silicone polyamide copolymer and the chaotrope in a wt./wt. ratio of from 1 :0.1 to 1 :2.

9. The emulsion of any one of claims 1 -8, wherein: (i) the emulsion is a water-in-oil emulsion; (ii) the emulsion is a water-in-silicone emulsion; (iii) the emulsifier comprises a non-ionic surfactant; (iv) the emulsion comprises the emulsifier in an amount of from greater than 0 to 10 wt.% based on the total weight of the emulsion; or (v) a combination of (i) to (iv).

10. The emulsion of any one of claims 1 -9, wherein the emulsifier comprises a silicone polyether having:

(i) at least one silicon-bonded polyether having the following general formula: -(CsH2sO)tR1 5,

wherein each subscript s is independently selected from 2 to 4 in each moiety indicated by subscript t; subscript t is from 1 to 100; and each R1 ^ jS independently selected from H and an alkyl group having from 1 to 18 carbon atoms;

(ii) a polyether moiety in a backbone of the silicone polyether having the following general formula:

-D2-0(CsH2s0)t-(D2)u-(Rl 6)v,

wherein each subscript s is independently selected from 2 to 4 in each moiety indicated by subscript t; subscript t is from 1 to 100; each D2 is a silicon-bonded divalent linking group; subscripts u and v are each 0 or 1 with the proviso that u+v=1 ; and R1 6 is an alkyl group having from 1 to 18 carbon atoms or H; or

(iii) both (i) and (ii).

1 1 . The emulsion of any one of claims 1 -10, wherein: (i) the silicone fluid has the general formula (R^ 1 R"* 2sjO)|, where each R^ and R^ 2 js independently selected from H and substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl groups, and subscript I is from 3 to 8; (ii) the emulsion comprises the silicone fluid in an amount of from greater than 0 to 80 wt.% based on the total weight of the non-aqueous phase; (iii) the emulsion comprises the silicone fluid in an amount of from greater than 0 to 20 wt.% based on the total weight of the emulsion; or

(iv) a combination of (i) to (iii).

12. The emulsion of any one of claims 1 -1 1 , further comprising: (i) a rheology modifier; (ii) a polar organic solvent; (iii) a thickener; (iv) an inorganic salt; (v) a personal care active; (vi) a fragrance; or (vii) a combination of (i) to (vi).

13. The emulsion of any one of claims 1 -12, wherein: (i) the emulsion has a viscosity of greater than 1000 Pa-s at 25 °C and shear rate of 0.2/s; (ii) the emulsion has a viscosity of greater than 500 Pa-s at 25 °C and a shear rate of 0.5/s; (iii) the emulsion has a viscosity of greater than 250 Pa-s at 25 °C and a shear rate of 1 /s; (iv) the emulsion has a viscosity of greater than 100 Pa-s at 25 °C and a shear rate of 5/s; (v) the emulsion has a viscosity of from ³ 100 to < 600 Pa*s at 25 °C and a shear rate of from ³ 2/s to < 8/s; or (vi) a combination of (i) to (v).

14. The emulsion of any one of claims 1 -13, wherein: (i) the emulsion has a viscosity of greater than 1000 Pa-s at 25 °C upon application of a shear stress of 10 Pa; (ii) the emulsion has a viscosity of greater than 100 Pa-s at 25 °C upon application of a shear stress of 100 Pa; (iii) the emulsion has a viscosity of greater than 100 Pa-s at 25 °C upon application of a shear stress of 200 Pa; (iv) the emulsion has a viscosity of from ³ 3000 to < 5000 Pa-s at 25 °C upon application of a shear stress of from ³ 0 to < 500 Pa; or (v) a combination of (i) to

(iv).

15. The emulsion of any one of claims 1 -14, wherein: (i) the emulsion is a colloid comprising the aqueous phase as an internal phase and the non-aqueous phase as an external phase; (ii) the emulsion is substantially optically transparent; or (iii) both (i) and (ii).

16. A method of preparing the emulsion of any one of claims 1 -15, said method comprising: combining the solid silicone polyamide copolymer, the silicone fluid, and the chaotrope at a temperature less than 45 °C to give a liquid silicone composition;

combining and shearing the liquid silicone composition, the emulsifier, and water, thereby preparing the emulsion.

Description:
EMULSION AND METHOD OF PREPARING SAME

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims priority to and all advantages of U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/677,938, filed on 30 May 2018, the content of which is incorporated herein by reference.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The present disclosure generally relates to an emulsion and, more specifically, to an emulsion including a solid silicone-polyamide copolymer and methods of making and using the emulsion

DESCRIPTION OF THE RELATED ART

[0003] Compositions are known in the art and utilized for numerous end use applications and uses. Personal care compositions, for example, are utilized to treat hair, skin, and other parts of the human body. Personal care compositions include various components, such as silicone-based emulsions, contingent on a desired end use thereof.

[0004] Silicone polymers may impart desirable properties to a variety of formulations, including personal care compositions, e.g. as rheology modifiers or thickeners. In personal care compositions, silicone polymers are often valued for imparting desirable aesthetics, such as skin feel, to a formulation. They may also be used to deliver actives to a surface.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0005] An emulsion comprises a non-aqueous phase including a solid silicone polyamide copolymer and a silicone fluid, an aqueous phase including water, a chaotrope soluble in the aqueous phase and capable of liquefying the solid silicone polyamide copolymer in the absence of the aqueous phase at a temperature less than 45 °C, and an emulsifier.

[0006] A method of preparing the emulsion comprises combining the solid silicone polyamide copolymer, the silicone fluid, and the chaotrope at a temperature less than 45 °C to give a liquid silicone composition. The method also includes combining and shearing the liquid silicone composition, the emulsifier, and water, thereby preparing the emulsion.

[0007] Personal care products including the emulsion, and methods of making and using the same, are also disclosed.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0008] The present disclosure provides an emulsion. The emulsion comprises various components, which are each described in detail below. The emulsion is suitable for various end-uses and applications, such as in or as coatings, cosmetics (e.g. personal care products), etc. The emulsion may comprise additional components, or may be combined with other components or formulations, depending on an intended use of the emulsion, as will be appreciated from the description below and as understood by one of skill in the art.

[0009] The emulsion comprises a continuous (i.e., non-dispersed, external,) phase and a discontinuous (i.e., dispersed) phase. The continuous phase may be referred to herein as a non-dispersed and/or an external phase. Likewise, the discontinuous phase may be referred to herein as a dispersed and/or internal phase. As understood in the art, the nature of the continuous and/or discontinuous phases may be altered in various ways, such as via addition of, or dilution of a component with, various solvents (e.g. polar, non-polar, aqueous, and non- aqueous solvents), without departing from the scope of this disclosure. In certain embodiments, the emulsion is a water-in-oil emulsion. In such embodiments, the emulsion comprises water in the discontinuous phase. In these or other embodiments, the emulsion is further defined as a silicone emulsion, and may also be defined as a water-in-silicone emulsion. In other embodiments, the emulsion is an oil-in-water and/or a silicone-in-water emulsion, in which case the aqueous phase is the continuous phase of the emulsion.

[0010] The emulsion comprises a solid silicone polyamide copolymer. The term“solid” is used herein with reference to the solid silicone polyamide copolymer to describe such silicone polyamides having a softening and/or melting point above room temperature, such that, at room temperature, the silicone polyamide copolymer is solid or substantially solid. In this fashion, silicone polyamide copolymers suitable for use in the emulsion may present as a solid at temperatures less than 1 10 °C, alternatively less than 100 °C, alternatively less than 80 °C, alternatively less than 60 °C, alternatively less than 40 °C, alternatively less than 30 °C. As such, the solid silicone polyamide copolymer typically comprises a melting temperature of greater than 30 °C. In specific embodiments, the solid silicone polyamide copolymer has a melting temperature greater than 70 °C, alternatively greater than 75 °C, alternatively greater than 80 °C alternatively greater than 85 °C, alternatively greater than 90 °C, alternatively greater than 95 °C. In certain embodiments, the solid silicone polyamide copolymer has a softening (e.g. as determined via ASTM-D1525) of greater than 70 °C, alternatively greater than 80 °C, alternatively greater than 90 °C. These and other characteristics of suitable silicone polyamide copolymers for use as the solid silicone polyamide copolymer of the emulsion will be understood in view of the description below.

[0011] In general, the solid silicone polyamide copolymer comprises a siloxane segment and a polyamide moiety, which are each described in detail below. However, the solid silicone polyamide copolymer may comprise multiple siloxane segments and/or polyamide moieties, which may each be independently selected and which may be present in the solid silicone polyamide copolymer in any form, e.g. alternating, block, randomized, etc. Moreover, each siloxane segment may be the same as or different from any other siloxane segment, and each polyamide moiety may be the same as or different from any other polyamide moiety. As such, reference herein to the“siloxane segment” and the“siloxane segments” may refer equally to any one or more siloxane segment, or all of the siloxane segments, of the solid silicone polyamide copolymer. Likewise, reference herein to the“polyamide moiety” and the “polyamide moieties” may refer equally to any one or more polyamide moiety, or all of the polyamide moieties, of the solid silicone polyamide copolymer. Regarding the solid silicone polyamide copolymer as a whole, the siloxane segment is typically disposed within the backbone of the solid silicone polyamide copolymer, as described in further detail below. The polyamide moiety may also be disposed within the backbone of the solid silicone polyamide copolymer, but may alternatively or additionally be present in the solid silicone polyamide copolymer as a pendant group bonded to a siloxane segment. Regardless of the particular configuration, each polyamide moiety is bonded to at least one siloxane segment directly (e.g. via silicon-oxygen-carbon bonds, silicon-carbon bonds, etc.) or indirectly via an intervening linking group, as will be understood in view of the description below.

[0012] Each siloxane segment may comprise any combination of M, D, T, and Q units, and thus may be independently linear or branched and crosslinked or non-crosslinked. As understood in the art, the symbols M, D, T, and Q each represent structural units of individual functionality present in organopolysiloxanes. More specifically, M represents the monofunctional unit of general formula RgSiO- j ^; D represents the difunctional unit of general formula R 2 SiC>2/2; T represents the trifunctional unit of general formula RS1O3/2; and Q represents the tetrafunctional unit of general formula S1O4/2, as shown by the general structural moieties below:

[0013] In these general structural moieties, each R is independently a monovalent or polyvalent substituent. As understood in the art, specific substituents suitable for each R are not limited, and may be monoatomic or polyatomic, organic or inorganic, linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted, aromatic, aliphatic, saturated or unsaturated, and combinations thereof.

[0014] Typically, each R is an independently selected hydrocarbyl group, and thus the hydrocarbyl group(s) represented by R may be substituted or unsubstituted, and may be aliphatic, aromatic, cyclic, alicyclic, etc. Moreover, the hydrocarbyl group(s) represented by R may include one or more heteroatoms replacing carbon, e.g. N, S, or O may replace C in the hydrocarbyl group(s) represented by R. The term“substituted” as used in relation to a hydrocarbyl group means, unless indicated otherwise, one or more hydrogen atoms in the hydrocarbyl group has been replaced with another substituent. Examples of such substituents include, for example, halogen atoms; halogen atom containing groups; oxygen atoms; oxygen atom containing groups; nitrogen atoms; nitrogen atom containing groups; sulphur atoms; and sulphur atom containing groups.

[0015] Monovalent unsubstituted aliphatic hydrocarbyl groups may independently be linear, branched, and/or cyclic. Cyclic hydrocarbyl groups encompass aryl groups as well as saturated or non-conjugated cyclic groups. Aryl groups may be monocyclic or polycyclic. Linear and branched hydrocarbyl groups may independently be saturated or unsaturated. For example, linear hydrocarbyl groups include alkyl groups, alkenyl groups, alkynyl groups, etc. Alkyl groups are exemplified by methyl, ethyl, propyl, pentyl, octyl, undecyl, and octadecyl groups. Aromatic hydrocarbon groups are exemplified by, but not limited to, phenyl, tolyl, benzyl, styryl, and 2-phenylethyl. Substituted hydrocarbyl groups have one or more hydrogen atoms replaced with another atom or substituent, for example, a halogen atom such as chlorine, fluorine, bromine or iodine, an oxygen atom containing group such as acrylic, methacrylic, alkoxy or carboxyl, a nitrogen atom containing group such as an amino, amido or cyano group, or a sulphur atom containing group such as a mercapto group. Examples of substituted hydrocarbon groups include a propyl group substituted with chlorine or fluorine such as 3,3,3-trifluoropropyl, chlorophenyl, beta-(perfluorobutyl)ethyl or chlorocyclohexyl group. In some embodiments, at least some or all of the R groups are methyl groups.

[0016] The presence and proportion of the M, D, T, and Q units in each siloxane segment is independently selected, as is the particular substituent for each R of each particular siloxy unit. For example, a proportion of T and Q units of or around 0 is typically selected to increase the linearity of the siloxane segment, such as when the siloxane segment is a linear organopolysiloxane. Such organopolysiloxanes are typically linear or substantially linear, but may include some branching attributable to T and/or Q units. Conversely, the proportion of T and/or Q units is selected to be greater than 0 when the siloxane segment is a resin. Accordingly, one of skill in the art will select the composition of the siloxane segments to control the composition of the solid silicone polyamide copolymer, e.g. based on a desired property of a particular siloxane segment, a desired/intended property and/or characteristic (e.g. physical, chemical, aesthetic, etc.) of any of: the solid silicone polyamide copolymer; a particular phase (e.g. a non-aqueous, continuous, and/or silicone phase) of the emulsion; the emulsion itself; a formulation comprising the emulsion; a coating formed from a formulation comprising the emulsion; and combinations thereof. For example, it may be desirable for the solid silicone polyamide copolymer to have a high melting temperature and/or softening point, or for the emulsion or a formulation comprising the emulsion to be in a specific form (e.g. the form of a solid, gel, etc.), and selecting the composition of the siloxane segment of the solid silicone polyamide copolymer allows one of skill in the art to achieve a range of such desirable properties. In general, when linear siloxane segments are utilized, layers or coatings formed from the emulsion in accordance with the present disclosure will typically have improved feel (e.g. comfortable deposit) and flexibility as compared to embodiments where the siloxane segment includes increased branching attributable to T and/or Q units. When resinous siloxane segments are utilized, products formed with the emulsion in accordance with the present disclosure will typically have increased hardness and transfer resistance as compared to embodiments where more linear siloxane segments are utilized.

[0017] In certain embodiments, the siloxane segment has the formula:

[Rl R2R3si0 1 /2 ] a [R4R5si0 2/2 ] b [R6Si0 3/2 ] c [Si04 /2 ] d where: each R 1 -R 6 is an independently selected monovalent group (e.g. H, OH, substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl, alkoxy, siloxy, silyl, amino, amido, acetoxy, and aminoxy groups, etc.), with the proviso that at least one of R 1 -R 6 is a divalent group bonded to the polyamide moiety (e.g. directly or indirectly via an intervening linking group); and subscripts a, b, c, and d are each mole fractions such that a+b+c+d =1 . The selection of each siloxane segment is also contingent on the location of each siloxane segment within the solid silicon polyamide copolymer. For example, the siloxane segment may be part of the backbone of the solid silicone polyamide copolymer, in which case the siloxane segment may consist of only D siloxy units. Alternatively, the siloxane segment may be terminal, in which case the siloxane segment may consist of D siloxy units terminated with an M siloxy unit.

[0018] In some such embodiments, the siloxane segment is an organopolysiloxane comprising repeating D units, i.e., where subscript b>0. In these embodiments, subscript b is typically a value of from 0.3 to 1 (e.g. 0.3 < b < 1 ), such as from 0.3 to 0.9999, alternatively from 0.3 to 0.999, alternatively from 0.3 to 0.99, alternatively from 0.3 to 0.9, alternatively from 0.5 to 0.999, alternatively from 0.6 to 0.999, alternatively from 0.7 to 0.99, alternatively from 0.8 to 0.99, alternatively from 0.85 to 0.99, alternatively from 0.9 to 0.99. Subscript a is typically a value of from 0 to 0.1 (0 < .1 < 0.1 ), such as from 0 to 0.099, alternatively from 0 to 0.09, alternatively from 0 to 0.085, alternatively from 0 to 0.08, alternatively from 0 to 0.075, alternatively from 0 to 0.07, alternatively from 0 to 0.065, alternatively from 0 to 0.06, alternatively from 0 to 0.055, alternatively from 0 to 0.05, alternatively from 0.001 to 0.05, alternatively from 0.002 to 0.05, alternatively from 0.005 to 0.01 . Subscripts c and d are typically each an independently selected value of from 0 to 0.1 (e.g. 0 < c < 0.1 and 0 < d < 0.1 ), such as from 0 to 0.09, alternatively from 0 to 0.075, alternatively from 0 to 0.05, alternatively from 0 to 0.025, alternatively from 0 to 0.009, alternatively from 0 to 0.001 , alternatively from 0 to 0.0001 . In certain embodiments, the solid silicone polyamide copolymer comprises a linear siloxane segment, where subscript b is from 0.9 to 1 , subscript a is from 0 to 0.1 , and subscripts c and d are each 0. When the siloxane segment comprises repeating D units, the number of specific D units (i.e., the degree of polymerization, DP) in any one siloxane segment is not limited. Typically, the siloxane segment comprises from 1 to 700 repeating D units, such as from 2 to 600, alternatively from 2 to 500, alternatively from 5 to 400, alternatively from 5 to 300, alternatively from 10 to 250, alternatively from 10 to 200, alternatively from 15 to 150, alternatively from 15 to 100, alternatively from 15 to 50.

[0019] The polyamide moiety of the solid silicone polyamide copolymer is a polyamide (i.e., comprises at least two amide functional groups). The two amide functional groups may be present in the polyamide moiety in the form of a polyamide block, or may be present in the polyamide moiety as independent amide functional groups formed from the same or different reaction process.

[0020] In some embodiments, the polyamide moiety has the general formula:

A’-B’-C’-B’-A’.

In such embodiments, each A’ is an independently selected substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbon group, with the proviso that at least one A’ is a divalent linking group bonded to the siloxane segment (e.g. directly or indirectly via an intervening linking group). Typically, A’ is a substituted C1 -C30 hydrocarbon group, such as a divalent hydrocarbon group comprising O and/or N substitution. In certain embodiments, A’ is linear hydrocarbon group having from 2 to 20, alternatively from 3 to 18, alternatively from 4 to 16, alternatively from 5 to 16, alternatively from 6 to 15, alternatively from 6 to 14, alternatively from 7 to 14, carbon atoms. Each B’ is an independently selected divalent amide group (e.g. -C(0)N(H)- or - N(H)C(0)-).

[0021] In general, C’ is a divalent linking group. Typically, C’ is selected from divalent substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbon groups, which may optionally be modified or substituted, e.g. with alkoxy, siloxy, silyl, amino, amido, acetoxy, and aminoxy groups. In some embodiments, C’ is a C- | -C20 hydrocarbon group. C’ may be linear or branched. When branched, C’ may optionally be bonded (e.g. cross-linked) to a siloxane segment other than the siloxane segment bonded to at least one of the groups represented by A’ in the general formula above. In certain embodiments, C’ is a divalent organic group comprising at least one polyoxyalkylene moiety having the formula -(C e H2 e O)f- where subscript e is independently 2, 3, or 4 in each moiety represented by subscript f, and subscript f is from 1 to 700. In certain embodiments, subscript f is from 1 to 600, such as from 1 to 500, alternatively from 1 to 400, alternatively from 1 to 300, alternatively from 1 to 200, alternatively from 1 to 100, alternatively from 1 to 50, alternatively from 1 to 20, alternatively from 1 to 10. In specific embodiments, subscript f is at least 2, such that the polyoxyalkylene moiety may comprise one or more oxyalkylene units selected from oxyethylene units (e.g. - (C2H4O)- ), oxypropylene units (e.g. -(C3H0O)- ), and oxybutylene units (e.g. -(C4H3O)-

). When the polyoxyalkylene moiety comprises more than one type of oxyalkylene unit (i.e., is a polyoxyalkylene copolymer), the oxyalkylene units may be arranged in any fashion, such as in block form (e.g. ordered blocks and/or random blocks), randomized form, or combinations thereof. In specific embodiments, the polyoxyalkylene moiety comprises both oxyethylene and oxypropylene units. In some such embodiments, the polyoxyalkylene moiety is an oxyethylene-oxypropylene block copolymer.

[0022] In some embodiments, the polyamide moiety has the general formula:

where A’ is as described above, and B” is a polyamide group. In such embodiments, B” is typically an“A-B” type polyamide group, an“A-A/B-B” type polyamide group, or combinations thereof. A-B type and A-A/B-B type polyamides are known by those of skill in the art, and will be understood to include polyamides comprising any number of carbon atoms in each monomer, and thus also in each repeat unit, if present. General examples of such polyamide groups include the reaction products (e.g. from polymerization, condensation, etc.) of C4-

C12 dicarboxylic acids and C4-C-12 diamines, such as a Nylon 61 1 (e.g. formed from a Cg diamine and a C- | 1 dicarboxylic acid). Other examples of such polyamides include Nylon 6 (e.g. polycaproamide), Nylon 66 (e.g. polyhexamethyleneadipamide), Nylon 46 (e.g. polytetramethyleneadipamide), Nylon 610 (e.g. polyhexamethylenesebacamide), Nylon 612 (e.g. polyhexamethylenedodecamide), polyundecaneamide, polydodecaneamide, Nylon 66/6 (e.g. hexamethyleneadipamide/caproamide copolymer), Nylon 6/6T (e.g. caproamide/hexamethyleneterephthalamide copolymer), Nylon 66/6T (e.g. hexamethyleneadipamide/hexamethyleneterephthalamide copolymer), Nylon 66/6I (e.g. hexamethyleneadipamide/hexamethyleneisophthalamide copolymer), Nylon 66/6I/6 (e.g. hexamethyleneadipamide/hexamethyleneisophthalamide/caproamid e copolymer), Nylon 66/6T/6 (e.g. hexamethyleneadipamide/hexamethylene terephthalamid/carpoamide copolymer), Nylon 6T/6I (e.g. hexamethyleneterephthalamide/hexamethyleneisophthala mide copolymer), Nylon 6T/12 (e.g. hexamethyleneterephthalamide/dodecanamide copolymer), Nylon 66/6T/6I (e.g. hexamethyleneadipamide/hexamethyleneterephthalamide/hexameth yleneisophthalamide copolymer), polyxylyleneadipamide, hexamethyleneterephthalamide/2-methyl pentamethyleneterephthalamide copolymer, Nylon MXD6 (e.g. polymetaxylylenediamineadipamide), Nylon 9T (e.g. polynonamethyleneterephthalamide), and the like, as well as derivatives, modifications, and combinations thereof. One of skill in the art will readily appreciate that specific polyamides, such as those exemplified above, may be formed in various ways and, likewise, that distinct reactions may produce the same polyamide (e.g. when utilizing the same linking groups in the diacid and the diamine). Likewise, one of skill in the art will understand that a specific polyamide group (e.g.“Nylon 61 1”) denotes the nature of a particular structure within the specific polyamide group, but does not describe the substitutions at the ends thereof (e.g. endcaps). It is to be understood that the designations of exemplary polyamide groups above are not limited in endcap structure, and may be independently bonded directly or indirectly (e.g. via a divalent linking group) to each A’ of the polyamide moiety in a manner consistent with the description of the polyamide moiety and the solid silicone polyamide copolymer herein.

[0023] As introduced above, the siloxane segment is typically present in the backbone of the solid silicone polyamide copolymer, and the polyamide moiety may also be present in the backbone of the solid silicone polyamide copolymer. As such, in some embodiments the solid silicone polyamide copolymer is a copolymer having a backbone comprising both the siloxane segment and the polyamide moiety. In some such embodiments, the solid silicone polyamide copolymer is an alternating copolymer comprising repeating units of the siloxane segment and the polyamide moiety. Said differently, the solid silicone polyamide copolymer may be in a block arrangement of segments such as (X’Y’) n ’, X’(Y’ X’) n ’ and Y’(X’Y’) n ’ or a pendant arrangement of segments such as (X’Y’ m ’) n ’ or combinations thereof, wherein each

X’ is an independently selected siloxane segment, each Y’ is an independently selected polyamide moiety, subscript n’ is an integer greater than zero, and subscript m’ is an integer greater than one. For example, in some embodiments the solid silicone polyamide copolymer has a backbone comprising a moiety (the“backbone moiety) having the general formula [X’Y’] n ’, where X’ is the siloxane segment, Y’ is the polyamide moiety, and subscript n’ is from 1 to 500, such as from 1 to 400, alternatively from 1 to 300, alternatively from 1 to 200, alternatively from 1 to 100. In some such embodiments, subscript n’ is 2 or more, such as from 2 to 400, alternatively from 2 to 300, alternatively from 5 to 300, alternatively from 10 to 250, alternatively from 20 to 200, or alternatively from 20 to 150. In specific embodiments, the siloxane segment X’ is an organopolysiloxane comprising repeating D units as described above, such that the backbone moiety of the solid silicone polyamide copolymer has the general formula:

where each R 7 -R10 is an independently selected substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl group; subscript g is from 1 to 700; subscript h is from 1 to 500; and Y is the polyamide moiety. In some such embodiments, subscript h is from 1 to 100, and the polyamide moiety Y has the general formula:

-D 1 -{[-C(0)N(H)-Z 1 -N(H)C(0)-Z 2 -] j [-N(H)C(0)-Z3-C(0)N(H)-Z 4 -]j} k - where D 1 is a divalent linking group; each Z 1 -Z 4 is an independently selected divalent group; subscripts i and j are independently from 0 to 10, with the proviso that subscripts i and j are not simultaneously 0; and subscript k is from 1 to 5. In specific embodiments, the solid silicone polyamide copolymer is a Nylon-61 1/dimethicone copolymer.

[0024] The amount of the solid silicone polyamide copolymer present in the emulsion may vary. In certain embodiments, the emulsion comprises the solid silicone polyamide copolymer in an amount of from greater than 0 to 25 wt.%, alternatively from greater than 0 to 15 wt.%, based on the total weight of the emulsion. In these or other embodiments, the emulsion comprises the solid silicone polyamide copolymer in an amount of from 0.5 to 25 wt.%, alternatively from 0.5 to 20 wt.%, alternatively from 1 to 15 wt.%, alternatively from 5 to 15 wt.%, alternatively from 5 to 10 wt.%, based on the total weight of the emulsion. As described in further detail below, the solid silicone polyamide copolymer may be present in a specific partition/phase of the emulsion, such as the non-aqueous phase. For example, in certain embodiments, the non-aqueous phase of the emulsion comprises the solid silicone polyamide copolymer in an amount of from greater than 0 to 90 wt.%, alternatively from greater than 0 to 75 wt.%, alternatively from greater than 0 to 50 wt.%, based on the total weight of the non-aqueous phase. In some such embodiments, the non-aqueous of the emulsion comprises the solid silicone polyamide copolymer in an amount of from 1 to 80 wt.%, alternatively from 1 to 75 wt.%, alternatively from 5 to 75 wt.%, alternatively from 10 to 75 wt.%, alternatively from 10 to 70 wt.%, alternatively from 15 to 70 wt.%, alternatively from 20 to 70 wt.%, alternatively from 25 to 65 wt.%, based on the total weight of the non-aqueous phase.

[0025] As described above, the solid silicone polyamide copolymer comprises the siloxane segment and the polyamide moiety. The siloxy units of the siloxane segment impart the solid silicone polyamide copolymer with desirable silicone characteristic properties. The amide groups of the polyamide moiety provide hydrogen bonds (e.g. inter-and intramolecular) in the solid silicone polyamide copolymer, which provide the solid silicone polyamide copolymer with gelling characteristics. The silicone fluid compatibility and hydrogen bonding characteristics of the solid silicone polyamide copolymer may be selected, e.g. based on the intended use of the emulsion.

[0026] The emulsion comprises a silicone fluid. The silicone fluid is typically a low viscosity and/or volatile siloxane. In some embodiments, the silicone fluid is a low viscosity organopolysiloxane, a volatile methyl siloxane, a volatile ethyl siloxane, a volatile methyl ethyl siloxane, or the like, or combinations thereof. Typically, the silicone fluid has a viscosity at 25° C in the range of 1 to 1 ,000 mm 2 /sec. In some embodiments, the silicone fluid comprises a silicone having the general formula (R^ 1 2 SiO) | , where each R ! 1 and R^ 2 is independently selected from H and substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl groups, and subscript I is from 3 to 8.

[0027] Specific examples of suitable silicone fluids include hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane, octamethyltrisiloxane, decamethyltetrasiloxane, dodecamethylpentasiloxane, tetradecamethylhexasiloxane, hexadeamethylheptasiloxane, heptamethyl-3-{(trimethylsilyl)oxy)}trisiloxane, hexamethyl-3,3, bis{(trimethylsilyl)oxy}trisiloxane pentamethyl{(trimethylsilyl)oxy}cyclotrisiloxane as well as polydimethylsiloxanes, polyethylsiloxanes, polymethylethylsiloxanes, polymethylphenylsiloxanes, polydiphenylsiloxanes, caprylyl methicone, hexamethyldisiloxane, heptamethyloctyltrisiloxane, hexyltrimethicone, and the like, as well as derivatives, modifications, and combinations thereof.

[0028] In some embodiments, the silicone fluid comprises a non-silicone component, which is typically an organic oil and/or including a volatile and/or semi-volatile hydrocarbon, ester, and/or ether. General examples of such organic fluids include volatile hydrocarbon oils, such as Cg-C-i g alkanes, Cg-C-i g isoalkanes (e.g. isodecane, isododecane, isohexadecane, etc.)

Cg-Ci g branched esters (e.g. isohexyl neopentanoate, isodecyl neopentanoate, etc.), and the like, as well as derivatives, modifications, and combinations thereof. Additional examples of suitable organic fluids include aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols having more than 3 carbon atoms, aldehydes, ketones, amines, esters, ethers, glycols, glycol ethers, alkyl halides and aromatic halides. Hydrocarbons include, isododecane, isohexadecane, Isopar L (C- | -\ -C- | 3), Isopar H (C- | 1 -C- | 2), hydrogentated polydecene. Ethers and esters include, isodecyl neopentanoate, neopentylglycol heptanoate, glycol distearate, dicaprylyl carbonate, diethylhexyl carbonate, propylene glycol n-butyl ether, ethyl-3 ethoxypropionate, propylene glycol methyl ether acetate, tridecyl neopentanoate, propylene glycol methylether acetate (PGMEA), propylene glycol methylether (PGME), octyldodecyl neopentanoate, diisobutyl adipate, diisopropyl adipate, propylene glycol dicaprylate/dicaprate, octyl ether, and octyl palmitate.

[0029] The amount of the silicone fluid in the emulsion may vary. In certain embodiments, the emulsion comprises the silicone fluid in an amount of from greater than 0 to 40 wt.%, alternatively from greater than 0 to 30 wt.%, alternatively from greater than 0 to 20 wt.%, alternatively from greater than 0 to 15 wt.%, based on the total weight of the emulsion. The silicone fluid may be present in a specific partition/phase of the emulsion, such as the non- aqueous phase. For example, in certain embodiments, the non-aqueous phase of the emulsion comprises the silicone fluid in an amount of from greater than 0 to 80 wt.%, alternatively from 5 to 80 wt.%, alternatively from 5 to 70 wt.%, alternatively from 10 to 70 wt.%, alternatively from 10 to 60 wt.%, based on the total weight of the non-aqueous phase.

[0030] The emulsion comprises a chaotrope. As used herein, the term“chaotrope” refers to a compound capable of depressing the melting temperature of the solid silicone polyamide copolymer. In general, the chaotrope is capable of destabilizing, reducing, and/or preventing the hydrogen bonds (e.g. intra- and/or intermolecular) in the solid silicone polyamide copolymer, and thereby liquefy the solid silicone polyamide copolymer at a temperature below the melting temperature of the solid silicone polyamide copolymer. In specific embodiments, the chaotrope is capable of liquefying the solid silicone polyamide copolymer at a temperature less than 45 °C, alternatively less than 40 °C, alternatively less than 35 °C, alternatively less than 30 °C. In some embodiments, the chaotrope is capable of liquefying the solid silicone polyamide copolymer at room temperature. The chaotrope liquefies the solid silicone polyamide copolymer without dissolving the solid silicone polyamide copolymer. One of skill in the art can readily determine suitable chaotropes by combining a potential chaotrope with the solid silicone polyamide copolymer to determine whether satisfactory liquefaction of the solid silicone polyamide copolymer results.

[0031] Typically, the chaotrope is capable of hydrogen bonding with the amide groups of the solid silicone polyamide copolymer, and thus comprises a hydrogen bond donor, acceptor, or both. In certain embodiments, the emulsion comprises a protic chaotrope. For example, in some embodiments, the chaotrope comprises a moiety having, or is a compound having, the general formula H 0 XR 1 2 m-0 , where: each R 1 2 is independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl groups, alkoxy groups, siloxy groups, amino groups, acetoxy groups, and aminoxy groups; X is selected from O and N; subscript o is 1 -3, typically 1 or 2; and subscript m is 2-4, typically the valency of X (i.e., m=2 when X is O, and m=3 when X is N). In these or other embodiments, the chaotrope comprises, alternatively is, a C -C- | o alcohol, exemplified by methanols, ethanols, propanols (e.g. n-propanols and iso propanols), butanols (e.g. n-butanols, sec-butanols, and tert-butanols), linear, branched, and/or cyclic pentanols, hexanols, heptanols, oxtanols, nonanols, and decanols, and the like, as well as derivatives, variations (e.g. polyols, etherols, esterols, amidols, etc.), and combinations thereof. In these or other embodiments, the chaotrope comprises at least one, alternatively two or more, alternatively three or more functional groups selected from alcohols, amines, amides, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, silanols, and the like.

[0032] Typically, protic chaotropes suitable for use in the emulsion have a low molecular weight, e.g. a molecular weight less than 1500, alternatively less than 1250, alternatively less than 100, alternatively less than 750, alternatively less than 500, alternatively less than 250, alternatively less than 200 g/mol. As understood by one of skill in the art, the low molecular weight and the hydrogen bond donor(s) and/or acceptor(s) cooperate to compatibilize such protic chaotropes with water, and thus the aqueous phase of the emulsion. Suitable chaotropes also comprise compatibility with the solid silicone polyamide copolymer and/or the silicone fluid, and thus also comprise an organic and/or silicone compatible moiety. Accordingly, the hydrogen bond donor and/or accepter and the silicone compatible moiety of the chaotrope may be independently selected to tune the affinity and/or compatibility of the chaotrope with the aqueous and/or non-aqueous phase(s) of the emulsion, as will be understood by one of skill in the art. In some embodiments, the chaotrope comprises a higher affinity for the aqueous phase of the emulsion than the non- aqueous phase.

[0033] In some embodiments, the emulsion comprises an aprotic chaotrope, exemplified by ionic liquids, alcohol ethoxylates (e.g. those commercially available under the tradename TERGITOL™ from The Dow Chemical Company of Midland, Ml), PEG-dimethicones, and the like, as well as combinations thereof.

[0034] Examples of ionic liquids include anion-cation combinations compatible with water and the solid silicone polyamide copolymer. Generally, the anion is selected from alkyl sulfate-based anions, tosylate anions, sulfonate-based anions, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anions, bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide anions, hexafluorophosphate anions, tetrafluoroborate anions, and the like, and the cation is selected from imidazolium-based cations, pyrrolidinium-based cations, pyridinium-based cations, lithium cation, and the like. However, combinations of multiple cations and anions may also be utilized in the chaotrope. Specific examples of the ionic liquids typically include 1 -butyl-1 -methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 1 -methyl-1 - propylpyrrolidinium bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 3-methyl-1 -propylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, N-butyl-3-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 1 -methyl-1 -propylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, diallyldimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, methyltrioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 1 -butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 1 ,2-dimethyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 1 -ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 1 -vinylimidazolium.bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 1 - allyl imidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 1 -allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, and the like, as well as derivatives, modifications, and combinations thereof.

[0035] The amount of the chaotrope in the emulsion may vary. In certain embodiments, the emulsion comprises the chaotrope in an amount of from greater than 0 to 5 wt.%, alternatively from greater than 0 to 4 wt.%, alternatively from greater than 0 to 3 wt.%, alternatively from greater than 0 to 2 wt.%, based on the total weight of the emulsion. The chaotrope may be present in a specific partition/phase of the emulsion, such as the aqueous phase and/or non-aqueous phase. For example, as described above, the chaotrope may comprise a higher affinity for the aqueous phase of the emulsion than the non-aqueous phase. As such, in certain embodiments, the emulsion comprises a relative amount of the chaotrope in the aqueous phase of greater than 85, alternatively greater than 90, alternatively greater than 95, alternatively greater than 98 wt.%, based on the total weight of the chaotrope present in the emulsion. Likewise, in some embodiments, the emulsion comprises a relative amount of the chaotrope in the non-aqueous phase of less than 15, alternatively less than 10, alternatively less than 5, alternatively less than 2 wt.%, based on the total weight of the chaotrope present in the emulsion. However, as described below, the chaotrope may be formulated into the non-aqueous phase of the emulsion, and therefore compose a portion of the non-aqueous phase. More specifically, in some embodiments, the emulsion comprises the chaotrope in an amount of from greater than 0 to 50 wt.%, alternatively from 5 to 50 wt.%, alternatively from 5 to 45 wt.%, alternatively from 10 to 45 wt.%, alternatively from 10 to 40 wt.%, based on the total weight of the non-aqueous phase. [0036] As introduced above, the amounts of the solid silicone polyamide copolymer present in the emulsion may vary. In some embodiments, the emulsion comprises the solid silicone polyamide copolymer and the chaotrope in a wt./wt. ratio of from 1 :0.1 to 1 :2, such as from 1 :0.5 to 1 :2, alternatively from 1 :1 to 1 :2, alternatively from 1 :1 .2 to 1 :2, alternatively from 1 :1 .2 to 1 :1 .9, alternatively from 1 :1 .2 to 1 :1 .8, alternatively from 1 :1 .2 to 1 :1 .7, alternatively from 1 :1 .3 to 1 :1 .7.

[0037] The emulsion comprises an emulsifier. Suitable exemplary emulsifiers may be anionic, cationic, or non-ionic, and include organomodified silicones such as dimethicone copolyol; oxyethylenated and/or oxypropylenated ethers of glycerol; oxyethylenated and/or oxypropylenated ethers of fatty alcohols; fatty acid esters of polyethylene glycol, such as PEG-50 stearate and PEG-40 monostearate; saccharide esters and ethers, such as sucrose stearate, sucrose cocoate, and sorbitan stearate; phosphoric esters and salts thereof, such as DEA oleth-10 phosphate; sulphosuccinates, such as disodium PEG-5 citrate lauryl sulphosuccinate and disodium ricinoleamido MEA sulphosuccinate; alkyl ether sulphates, such as sodium lauryl ether sulphate; isethionates; acylglutamates, such as disodium hydrogenated tallow glutamate; alkyl polyglucosides, such as decyl glucosides; betaine derivatives; and the like, as well as derivatives, modifications, and combinations thereof.

[0038] In certain embodiments, the emulsifier comprises a surfactant. In such embodiments, the emulsifier may comprise a nonionic surfactant, an anionic surfactant, a cationic surfactant, or a zwitterionic surfactant. In specific embodiments, the emulsifier comprises a nonionic surfactant. Specific examples of nonionic surfactants include polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers, polyoxyethylene alkylphenol ethers, polyoxyethylene lauryl ethers, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monoleates, polyoxyethylene alkyl esters, polyoxyethylene sorbitan alkyl esters, polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, diethylene glycol, ethoxylated trimethylnonanols, polyoxyalkylene-substituted silicones (rake or AB n types), silicone alkanolamides, silicone esters, silicone glycosides, and mixtures thereof. Additional examples of nonionic surfactants include: condensates of ethylene oxide with long chain fatty alcohols or fatty acids, such as a C- | 2~Ci ø alcohol; condensates of ethylene oxide with an amine or an amide; condensation products of ethylene and propylene oxide; esters of glycerol, sucrose, sorbitol, fatty acid alkylol amides, sucrose esters, and fatty amine oxides; dimethicone copolyols; fatty acid esters of polyols, such as sorbitol or glyceryl mono-, di-, tri- or sesquioleates or stearates, and glyceryl or polyethylene glycol laurates; fatty acid esters of polyethylene glycol, such as polyethylene glycol monostearate or monolaurate; polyoxyethylenated fatty acid esters (e.g. stearate or oleate) of sorbitol; polyoxyethylenated alkyl (e.g. lauryl, cetyl, stearyl or octyl)ethers; polysorbate 80, sorbitan sesquioleate; various fluoro-surfactants; and the like, as well as derivatives, modifications, and combinations thereof.

[0039] In some embodiments, the emulsifier comprises an anionic surfactant. Examples of anionic surfactants include alkali metal soaps of higher fatty acids, alkylaryl sulphonates such as sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate, long chain fatty alcohol sulphates, olefin sulphates and olefin sulphonates, sulphated monoglycerides, sulphated esters, sulphonated ethoxylated alcohols, sulphosuccinates, alkane sulphonates, phosphate esters, alkyl isethionates, alkyl taurates, and alkyl sarcosinates, carboxylates (sodium 2-(2- hydroxyalkyloxy)acetate)), amino acid derivatives (N-acylglutamates, N-acylgly-cinates or acylsarcosinates), alkyl sulfates, alkyl ether sulfates and oxyethylenated derivatives thereof, sulfonates, isethionates and N-acylisethionates, taurates and N-acyl N-methyltaurates, sulfosuccinates, alkylsulfoacetates, phosphates and alkyl phosphates, polypeptides, anionic derivatives of alkyl polyglycoside (acyl-D-galactoside uronate), fatty acid soaps, fatty acid salts (e.g. C0-C3O fatty acid salts, including those derived from amines such as triethanolamine stearate), and the like, as well as derivatives, modifications, and combinations thereof.

[0040] In certain embodiments, the emulsifier comprises an amphoteric and/or zwitterionic surfactant. Examples of amphoteric and/or zwitterionic surfactants include imidazoline compounds, alkylamino acid salts, betaines, N-alkylamidobetaines, proteins, glycine derivatives, sultaines, alkyl polyaminocarboxylates and alkylamphoacetates, N-acylamino acids (e.g. N-alkylaminoacetate and disodium cocoamphodiacetate), amine oxides (e.g. stearamine oxide), amphoteric silicone surfactants (e.g. dimethicone copolyol phosphates), and the like, as well as derivatives, modifications, and combinations thereof.

[0041] In some embodiments, the emulsifier comprises a silicone polyether. Examples of silicone polyethers include polydiorganosiloxane-polyoxyalkylene copolymers, such as those containing at least one polydiorganosiloxane segment and at least one polyoxyalkylene segment. More specifically, the polydiorganosiloxane-polyoxyalkylene copolymer may be in a block arrangement of segments such as (A”B”)p, A”(B”A”)p and B”(A”B”)p or a pendant arrangement of segments such as (A”B”q)p or combinations thereof, wherein each A” is an independently selected polyoxyalkylene segment, each B” is an independently selected polydiorganosiloxane segment, subscript p is an integer greater than zero, and subscript q is an integer greater than one. Moreover, the polyoxyalkylene segment(s) may be bonded to the polydiorganosiloxane segment(s) with silicon-oxygen-carbon bonds and/or with silicon- carbon bonds. Each polydiorganosiloxane segment of the polydiorganosiloxane- polyoxyalkylene copolymer may be independently linear or branched and crosslinked or non- crosslinked, and includes siloxane units having the general formula R 1 4 r SiO(4 -r 2 , wherein subscript r is 0, 1 , 2 or 3; and each R 1 4 is independently methyl, ethyl, vinyl, phenyl, or a polyoxyalkylene-bonded divalent group. Typically, each polyoxyalkylene segment of the polydiorganosiloxane-polyoxyalkylene copolymer includes a polyether moiety having the formula:

-0(C s H 2s 0) r ,

wherein each subscript s is independently selected from 2 to 4 in each moiety indicated by subscript t; and subscript t is from 1 to 100.

[0042] In certain embodiments, the emulsifier comprises a polydiorganosiloxane- polyoxyalkylene copolymer including at least one silicon-bonded polyether substituent having the formula:

-(C s H 2s O) t R 1 5 ,

wherein subscripts s and t are as defined above; and each R 1 ^ j S independently selected from H and an alkyl group having from 1 to 18 carbon atoms. In these or other embodiments, the polydiorganosiloxane-polyoxyalkylene copolymer includes a polyether moiety in a backbone of the silicone polyether having the formula

-D2-0(C s H 2s 0)t-(D2) u -(Rl 6 )v , wherein subscripts s and t are as defined above; each D 2 is an independently selected silicon-bonded divalent linking group; subscripts u and v are each 0 or 1 with the proviso that u+v=1 ; and R^ js an alkyl group having from 1 to 18 carbon atoms or H. In specific embodiments, the emulsifier comprises a polyalkyleneglycol-dimethicone copolymer. In some such embodiments, the emulsifier comprises a PEG/PPG-18/18 dimethicone.

[0043] The amount of the emulsifier in the emulsion may vary. In certain embodiments, the emulsion comprises the emulsifier in an amount of from greater than 0 to 10 wt.%, alternatively from greater than 0 to 9 wt.%, alternatively from greater than 0 to 8 wt.%, alternatively from greater than 0 to 7 wt.%, alternatively from greater than 0 to 6 wt.%, alternatively from greater than 0 to 5 wt.%, based on the total weight of the emulsion. In specific embodiments, the emulsion comprises the emulsifier in an amount of from 1 -10, alternatively from 1 -9, alternatively from 2-9, alternatively from 2-8, alternatively from 3-8 wt.%, based on the total weight of the emulsion.

[0044] In some embodiments, the emulsion comprises one or more additional components, such as a rheology modifier, a polar organic solvent, a thickener, an inorganic salt (e.g. calcium chloride), a personal care active/ingredient, a fragrance, or combinations thereof. Typically, the one or more additional components are selected based on a desired use of the emulsion. For example, in some embodiments the emulsion is formulated for use as a personal care composition and further comprises a personal care ingredient. The specific personal care ingredient, or a mixture of specific personal care ingredients, may be selected based on the type of personal care composition the emulsion is being formulated as. In these embodiments, the personal care ingredient may be a liquid, a solid, an encapsulated liquid, etc. Various examples of the personal care ingredient are described below. Any of these personal care ingredients, or a combination of two or more different personal care ingredients, may be utilized as the personal care ingredient. For clarity and consistency,“the personal care ingredient” encompasses embodiments where the emulsion includes but one or two or more personal care ingredients.

[0045] In specific embodiments, the personal care ingredient is an antiperspirant and/or deodorant (AP/DEO) agent. In these embodiments, the emulsion may be referred to as an antiperspirant and/or deodorant (AP/DEO) composition. Examples of antiperspirant agents and deodorant agents include aluminum chloride, aluminum zirconium tetrachlorohydrex GLY, aluminum zirconium tetrachlorohydrex PEG, aluminum chlorohydrex, aluminum zirconium tetrachlorohydrex PG, aluminum chlorohydrex PEG, aluminum zirconium trichlorohydrate, aluminum chlorohydrex PG, aluminum zirconium trichlorohydrex GLY, hexachlorophene, benzalkonium chloride, aluminum sesquichlorohydrate, sodium bicarbonate, aluminum sesquichlorohydrex PEG, chlorophyllin-copper complex, triclosan, aluminum zirconium octachlorohydrate, zinc ricinoleate, and mixtures thereof.

[0046] In certain embodiments, the personal care ingredient comprises a skin care ingredient. If utilized to prepare the emulsion, the skin care ingredient is typically selected from water phase stabilizing agents, cosmetic biocides, conditioning agents (which may be silicone, cationic, hydrophobic, etc.), emollients, moisturizers, colorants, dyes, ultraviolet (UV) absorbers, sunscreen agents, antioxidants, fragrances, antimicrobial agents, antibacterial agents, antifungal agents, antiaging actives, anti-acne agents, skin-lightening agents, pigments, preservatives, pH controlling agents, electrolytes, chelating agents, plant extracts, botanical extracts, sebum absorbents, sebum control agents, vitamins, waxes, surfactants, detergents, emulsifiers, thickeners, propellant gases, skin protectants, film forming polymers, light scattering agents, and combinations thereof. In some of these embodiments, the emulsion may be referred to as a skin care composition, a cosmetic composition, a sunscreen, a shower gel, a soap, a hydrogel, a cream, a lotion, a balm, foundation, lipstick, eyeliner, a cuticle coat, a blush, etc., based on the particular personal care ingredients utilized. Various species of such skin care ingredients are set forth below, with similar and alternative species known by one of ordinary skill in the art. [0047] Examples of emollients include volatile or non-volatile silicone oils; silicone resins such as polypropylsilsesquioxane and phenyl trimethicone; silicone elastomers such as dimethicone crosspolymer; alkylmethylsiloxanes such as C3Q . 45 alkyl methicone; volatile or non-volatile hydrocarbon compounds, such as squalene, paraffin oils, petrolatum oils and naphthalene oils; hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated polyisobutene; isoeicosane; squalane; isoparaffin; isododecane; isodecane or isohexa-decane; branched Cg-C- | g esters; isohexyl neopentanoate; ester oils such as isononyl isononanoate, cetostearyl octanoate, isopropyl myristate, palmitate derivatives (e.g. dextrin palmitate), stearates derivatives, diisostearyl malate, isostearyl isostearate and the heptanoates, octanoates, decanoates or ricinoleates of alcohols or of polyalcohols, or mixtures thereof; hydrocarbon oils of plant origin, such as wheatgerm, sunflower, grapeseed, castor, shea, avocado, olive, soybean, sweet almond, palm, rapeseed, cotton seed, hazelnut, macadamia, jojoba, blackcurrant, evening primrose; or triglycerides of caprylic/capric acids; higher fatty acids, such as oleic acid, linoleic acid or linolenic acid, and mixtures thereof.

[0048] Examples of waxes include hydrocarbon waxes such as beeswax, lanolin wax, rice wax, carnauba wax, candelilla wax, microcrystalline waxes, paraffins, ozokerite, polyethylene waxes, synthetic wax, ceresin, lanolin, lanolin derivatives, cocoa butter, shellac wax, bran wax, capok wax, sugar cane wax, montan wax, whale wax, bayberry wax, silicone waxes (e.g. polymethylsiloxane alkyls, alkoxys and/or esters, C3Q . 45 alkyldimethylsilyl polypropylsilsesquioxane), stearyl dimethicone, alkylmethylsiloxanes including long-chain alkyl groups in alkylmethylsiloxy units, and mixtures thereof.

[0049] Examples of moisturizers include lower molecular weight aliphatic diols such as propylene glycol and butylene glycol; polyols such as glycerine and sorbitol; and polyoxyethylene polymers such as polyethylene glycol 200; hyaluronic acid and its derivatives, and mixtures thereof.

[0050] Examples of thickeners include acrylamide copolymers, acrylate copolymers and salts thereof (such as sodium polyacrylate), xanthan gum and derivatives, cellulose gum and cellulose derivatives (such as methylcellulose, methylhydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, polypropylhydroxyethylcellulose), starch and starch derivatives (such as hydroxyethylamylose and starch amylase), polyoxyethylene, carbomer, alginates (such as sodium alginate), arabic gum, cassia gum, carob gum, scleroglucan gum, gellan gum, rhamsan gum, karaya gum, carrageenan gum, guar gum and guar gum derivatives, cocamide derivatives (including cocam idopropyl betaine and cocamide MIPA), alkyl alcohols (such as cetearyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol, and other fatty alcohols), gelatin, PEG- derivatives, saccharides (such as fructose, glucose) and saccharides derivatives (such as PEG-120 methyl glucose diolate), and mixtures thereof.

[0051] Examples of water phase stabilizing agents include electrolytes (e.g. alkali metal salts and alkaline earth salts, especially the chloride, borate, citrate, and sulfate salts of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium, as well as aluminum chlorohydrate, and polyelectrolytes, especially hyaluronic acid and sodium hyaluronate), polyols (glycerine, propylene glycol, butylene glycol, and sorbitol), alcohols such as ethyl alcohol, and hydrocolloids, and mixtures thereof.

[0052] Examples of pH controlling agents include any water soluble acid such as a carboxylic acid or a mineral acid such as hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, and phosphoric acid, monocarboxylic acid such as acetic acid and lactic acid, and polycarboxylic acids such as succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, and mixtures thereof.

[0053] Example of preservatives and cosmetic biocides include paraben derivatives (e.g. methylparaben, propylparaben), hydantoin derivatives, chlorhexidine and its derivatives, imidazolidinyl urea, diazolidinyl urea, phenoxyethanol, silver derivatives, salicylate derivatives, triclosan, ciclopirox olamine, hexamidine, oxyquinoline and its derivatives, PVP-iodine, zinc salts and derivatives such as zinc pyrithione, methylchloroisothiazolinone, methylisothiazolinone, and mixtures thereof.

[0054] Examples of sebum absorbants or sebum control agents include silica silylate, silica dimethyl silylate, dimethicone/vinyl dimethicone crosspolymer, polymethyl methacrylate, cross-linked methylmethacrylate, aluminum starch octenylsuccinate, and mixtures thereof.

[0055] Examples of pigments and colorants include surface treated or untreated iron oxides, surface treated or untreated titanium dioxide, surface treated or untreated mica, silver oxide, silicates, chromium oxides, carotenoids, carbon black, ultramarines, chlorophyllin derivatives and yellow ocher. Examples of organic pigments include aromatic types including azo, indigoid, triphenylmethane, anthraquinone, and xanthine dyes which are designated as D&C and FD&C blues, browns, greens, oranges, reds, yellows, etc, and mixtures thereof. Surface treatments include those treatments based on lecithin, silicone, silanes, fluoro compounds, and mixtures thereof.

[0056] Examples of silicone conditioning agents include silicone oils such as dimethicone; silicone gums such as dimethiconol; silicone resins such as trimethylsiloxy silicate, polypropyl silsesquioxane; silicone elastomers; alkylmethylsiloxanes; organomodified silicone oils, such as amodimethicone, aminopropyl phenyl trimethicone, phenyl trimethicone, trimethyl pentaphenyl trisiloxane, silicone quaternium-16/glycidoxy dimethicone crosspolymer, silicone quaternium-16; saccharide functional siloxanes; carbinol functional siloxanes; silicone polyethers; siloxane copolymers (divinyldimethicone/dimethicone copolymer); acrylate or acrylic functional siloxanes; and mixtures or emulsions thereof.

[0057] Examples of cationic conditioning agents include guar derivatives such as hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium derivative of guar gum; cationic cellulose derivatives, cationic starch derivatives; quaternary nitrogen derivatives of cellulose ethers; homopolymers of dimethyldiallyl ammonium chloride; copolymers of acrylamide and dimethyldiallyl ammonium chloride; homopolymers or copolymers derived from acrylic acid or methacrylic acid which contain cationic nitrogen functional groups attached to the polymer by ester or amide linkages; polymeric quaternary ammonium salts of hydroxyethyl cellulose reacted with a fatty alkyl dimethyl ammonium substituted epoxide; polycondensation products of N,N'-bis-(2,3-epoxypropyl)-piperazine or piperazine-bis-acrylamide and piperazine; and copolymers of vinylpyrrolidone and acrylic acid esters with quaternary nitrogen functionality. Specific materials include the various polyquats, e.g. Polyquaternium- 7, Polyquaternium-8, Polyquaternium-10, Polyquaternium-1 1 , and Polyquaternium-23. Other categories of conditioners include cationic surfactants such as cetyl trimethylammonium chloride, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide, stearyltrimethylammonium chloride, and mixtures thereof. In some instances, the cationic conditioning agent is also hydrophobically modified, such as hydrophobically modified quaternized hydroxyethylcellulose polymers; cationic hydrophobically modified galactomannan ether; and mixtures thereof.

[0058] Examples of hydrophobic conditioning agents include guar derivatives; galactomannan gum derivatives; cellulose derivatives; and mixtures thereof.

[0059] UV absorbers and sunscreen agents include those which absorb ultraviolet light between 290-320 nanometers (the UV-B region) and those which absorb ultraviolet light in the range of 320-400 nanometers (the UV-A region).

[0060] Some examples of sunscreen agents are aminobenzoic acid, cinoxate, diethanolamine methoxycinnamate, digalloyl trioleate, dioxybenzone, ethyl 4- [bis(Hydroxypropyl)] aminobenzoate, glyceryl aminobenzoate, homosalate, lawsone with dihydroxyacetone, menthyl anthranilate, octocrylene, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (or octyl methoxycinnamate), octyl salicylate (or ethylhexyl salicylate), oxybenzone, padimate O, phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid, red petrolatum, sulisobenzone, titanium dioxide, trolamine salicylate, and mixtures thereof.

[0061] Some examples of UV absorbers are acetaminosalol, allatoin PABA, benzalphthalide, benzophenone, benzophenone 1 -12, 3-benzylidene camphor, benzylidenecamphor hydrolyzed collagen sulfonamide, benzylidene camphor sulfonic Acid, benzyl salicylate, bornelone, bumetriozole, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, butyl PABA, ceria/silica, ceria/silica talc, cinoxate, DEA-methoxycinnamate, dibenzoxazol naphthalene, di-t-butyl hydroxybenzylidene camphor, digalloyl trioleate, diisopropyl methyl cinnamate, dimethyl PABA ethyl cetearyldimonium tosylate, dioctyl butamido triazone, diphenyl carbomethoxy acetoxy naphthopyran, disodium bisethylphenyl tiamminotriazine stilbenedisulfonate, disodium distyrylbiphenyl triaminotriazine stilbenedisulfonate, disodium distyrylbiphenyl disulfonate, drometrizole, drometrizole trisiloxane, ethyl dihydroxypropyl PABA, ethyl diisopropylcinnamate, ethyl methoxycinnamate, ethyl PABA, ethyl urocanate, etrocrylene ferulic acid, glyceryl octanoate dimethoxycinnamate, glyceryl PABA, glycol salicylate, homosalate, isoamyl p-methoxycinnamate, isopropylbenzyl salicylate, isopropyl dibenzolylmethane, isopropyl methoxycinnamate, octyl methoxycinnamate, menthyl anthranilate, menthyl salicylate, 4-methylbenzylidene, camphor, octocrylene, octrizole, octyl dimethyl PABA, ethyl hexyl methoxycinnamate, octyl salicylate, octyl triazone, PABA, PEG- 25 PABA, pentyl dimethyl PABA, phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid, polyacrylamidomethyl benzylidene camphor, potassium methoxycinnamate, potassium phenylbenzimidazole sulfonate, red petrolatum, sodium phenylbenzimidazole sulfonate, sodium urocanate, TEA- phenylbenzimidazole sulfonate, TEA-salicylate, terephthalylidene dicamphor sulfonic acid, titanium dioxide, triPABA panthenol, urocanic acid,

VA/crotonates/methacryloxybenzophenone-1 copolymer, and mixtures thereof.

[0062] Examples of skin protectants include allantoin, aluminium acetate, aluminium hydroxide, aluminium sulfate, calamine, cocoa butter, cod liver oil, colloidal oatmeal, dimethicone, glycerin, kaolin, lanolin, mineral oil, petrolatum, shark liver oil, sodium bicarbonate, talc, witch hazel, zinc acetate, zinc carbonate, zinc oxide, and mixtures thereof.

[0063] Examples of dyes include 1 -acetoxy-2-methylnaphthalene; acid dyes; 5-amino-4- chloro-o-cresol; 5-amino-2,6-dimethoxy-3-hydroxypyridine; 3-amino-2,6-dimethylphenol; 2- amino-5-ethylphenol HCI; 5-amino-4-fluoro-2-methylphenol sulfate; 2-amino-4- hydroxyethylaminoanisole; 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate; 2-amino-5- nitrophenol; 4-amino-2-nitrophenol; 4-amino-3-nitrophenol; 2-amino-4-nitrophenol sulfate; m-aminophenol HCI; p-aminophenol HCI; m-aminophenol; o-aminophenol; 4,6-bis(2- hydroxyethoxy)-m-phenylenediamine HCI; 2,6-bis(2-hydroxyethoxy)-3,5-pyridinediamine HCI; 2-chloro-6-ethylamino-4-nitrophenol; 2-chloro-5-nitro-N-hydroxyethyl p- phenylenediamine; 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine; 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid; 4,5-diamino-1 - ((4-chlorophenyl)methyl)-1 H-pyrazole-sulfate; 2,3-diaminodihydropyrazolo pyrazolone dimethosulfonate; 2,6-diaminopyridine; 2,6-diamino-3-((pyridin-3-yl)azo)pyridine; dihydroxyindole; dihydroxyindoline; N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine; 2,6-dimethyl-p- phenylenediamine; N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine sulfate; direct dyes; 4-ethoxy-m- phenylenediamine sulfate; 3-ethylamino-p-cresol sulfate; N-ethyl-3-nitro PABA; gluconamidopropyl aminopropyl dimethicone; Haematoxylon brasiletto wood extract; HC dyes; Lawsonia inermis (Henna) extract; hydroxyethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyaniline HCI; hydroxyethyl-2-nitro-p-toluidine; hydroxyethyl-p-phenylenediamine sulfate; 2-hydroxyethyl picramic acid; hydroxypyridinone; hydroxysuccinimidyl C 2 -| -C22 isoalkyl acidate; isatin;

Isatis tinctoria leaf powder; 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine sulfate; 2-methoxy-p- phenylenediamine sulfate ; 6-methoxy-2,3-pyridinediamine HCI; 4-methylbenzyl 4,5-diamino pyrazole sulfate; 2,2'-methylenebis 4-aminophenol; 2,2'-methylenebis-4-aminophenol HCI; 3,4-methylenedioxyaniline; 2-methylresorcinol; methylrosanilinium chloride; 1 ,5- naphthalenediol; 1 ,7-naphthalenediol; 3-nitro-p-Cresol; 2-nitro-5-glyceryl methylaniline; 4- nitroguaiacol; 3-nitro-p-hydroxyethylaminophenol; 2-nitro-N-hydroxyethyl-p-anisidine; nitrophenol; 4-nitrophenyl aminoethylurea; 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride; 2- nitro-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride; 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine HCI; 4-nitro-m- phenylenediamine; 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine; 2-nitro-p-phenylenediamine; 4-nitro-m- phenylenediamine sulfate; 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine sulfate; 2-nitro-p-phenylenediamine sulfate; 6-nitro-2,5-pyridinediamine; 6-nitro-o-toluidine; PEG-3 2,2'-di-p-phenylenediamine; p-phenylenediamine HCI; p-phenylenediamine sulfate; phenyl methyl pyrazolone; N-phenyl- p-phenylenediamine HCI; pigment blue 15:1 ; pigment violet 23; pigment yellow 13; pyrocatechol; pyrogallol; resorcinol; sodium picramate; sodium sulfanilate; solvent yellow 85; solvent yellow 172; tetraaminopyrimidine sulfate; tetrabromophenol blue; 2,5,6-triamino-4- pyrimidinol sulfate; 1 ,2,4-trihydroxybenzene.

[0064] Examples of fragrances include perfume ketones and perfume aldehydes. Illustrative of the perfume ketones are buccoxime; iso jasmone; methyl beta naphthyl ketone; musk indanone; tonalid/musk plus; Alpha-Damascone, Beta-Damascone, Delta-Damascone, Iso- Damascone, Damascenone, Damarose, Methyl-Dihydrojasmonate, Menthone, Carvone, Camphor, Fenchone, Alpha-lonone, Beta-lonone, Gamma-Methyl so-called lonone, Fleuramone, Dihydrojasmone, Cis-Jasmone, Iso-E-Super, Methyl-Cedrenyl-ketone or Methyl-Cedrylone, Acetophenone, Methyl-Acetophenone, Para-Methoxy-Acetophenone, Methyl-Beta-Naphtyl-Ketone, Benzyl-Acetone, Benzophenone, Para-Hydroxy-Phenyl- Butanone, Celery Ketone or Livescone, 6-lsopropyldecahydro-2-naphtone, Dimethyl- Octenone, Freskomenthe, 4-(1 -Ethoxyvinyl)-3,3,5,5,-tetramethyl-Cyclohexanone, Methyl- Heptenone, 2-(2-(4-Methyl-3-cyclohexen-1 -yl)propyl)-cyclopentanone, 1 -(p-Menthen-6(2)- yl)-1 -propanone, 4-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone, 2-Acetyl-3,3-Dimethyl- Norbornane, 6,7-Dihydro-1 ,1 ,2,3,3-Pentamethyl-4(5H)-lndanone, 4-Damascol, Dulcinyl or Cassione, Gelsone, Hexylon, Isocyclemone E, Methyl Cyclocitrone, Methyl-Lavender- Ketone, Orivon, Para-tertiary-Butyl-Cyclohexanone, Verdone, Delphone, Muscone, Neobutenone, Plicatone, Veloutone, 2,4,4,7-Tetramethyl-oct-6-en-3-one, and Tetrameran. The fragrance may be derived or extracted from flowers, seeds, leaves, and/or roots of plants, seaweed, etc. The fragrance may be extracted from an animal, e.g. from a secretion gland, and may be a musk or sperm oil. The fragrance may also be artificially synthesized, e.g. menthol, acetate, vanilla, etc.

[0065] In specific embodiments, the perfume ketones are selected for odor character from Alpha Damascone, Delta Damascone, Iso Damascone, Carvone, Gamma-Methyl-lonone, Iso-E-Super, 2,4,4,7-Tetramethyl-oct-6-en-3-one, Benzyl Acetone, Beta Damascone, Damascenone, methyl dihydrojasmonate, methyl cedrylone, and mixtures thereof.

[0066] In specific embodiments, the perfume aldehyde is selected for odor character from adoxal; anisic aldehyde; cymal; ethyl vanillin; florhydral; helional; heliotropin; hydroxycitronellal; koavone; lauric aldehyde; lyral; methyl nonyl acetaldehyde; P. T. bucinal; phenyl acetaldehyde; undecylenic aldehyde; vanillin; 2,6,10-trimethyl-9-undecenal, 3- dodecen-1 -al, alpha-n-amyl cinnamic aldehyde, 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, benzaldehyde, 3- (4-tert butylphenyl)-propanal, 2-methyl-3-(para-methoxyphenyl propanal, 2-methyl-4-(2,6,6- trimethyl-2(1 )-cyclohexen-1 -yl) butanal, 3-phenyl-2-propenal, cis-/trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6- octadien-1 -al, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1 -al, [(3,7-dimethyl-6-octenyl)oxy]acetaldehyde, 4- isopropylbenzyaldehyde, 1 ,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-8,8-dimethyl-2-naphthaldehyde, 2,4- dimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1 -carboxaldehyde, 2-methyl-3-(isopropylphenyl)propanal, 1 - decanal; decyl aldehyde, 2,6-dimethyl-5-heptenal, 4-(tricyclo[5.2.1 0(2,6)]-decylidene-8)- butanal, octahydro-4,7-methano-1 H-indenecarboxaldehyde, 3-ethoxy-4-hydroxy benzaldehyde, para-ethyl-alpha, alpha-dimethyl hydrocinnamaldehyde, alpha-methyl-3, 4- (methylenedioxy)-hydrocinnamaldehyde, 3,4-methylenedioxybenzaldehyde, alpha-n-hexyl cinnamic aldehyde, m-cymene-7-carboxaldehyde, alpha-methyl phenyl acetaldehyde, 7- hydroxy-3, 7-dimethyl octanal, Undecenal, 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-3-cyclohexene-1 -carboxaldehyde, 4-(3)(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)-3-cyclohexen-carboxaldehyde, 1 -dodecanal, 2,4-dimethyl cyclohexene-3-carboxaldehyde, 4-(4-hydroxy-4-methyl pentyl)-3-cylohexene-1 - carboxaldehyde, 7-methoxy-3,7-dimethyloctan-1 -al, 2-methyl undecanal, 2-methyl decanal, 1 -nonanal, 1 -octanal, 2,6,10-trimethyl-5,9-undecadienal, 2-methyl-3-(4-tertbutyl)propanal, dihydrocinnamic aldehyde, 1 -methyl-4-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)-3-cyclohexene-1 -carbox aldehyde, 5 or 6 methoxy 10 hexahydro-4,7-methanoindan-1 or 2-carboxaldehyde, 3,7- dimethyloctan-1 -al, 1 -undecanal, 10-undecen-1 -al, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde, 1 - methyl-3-(4-methylpentyl)-3-cyclhexenecarboxaldehyde, 7-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-octanal, trans-4-decenal, 2,6-nonadienal, paratolylacetaldehyde; 4-methylphenylacetaldehyde, 2- methyl-4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1 -cyclohexen-1 -yl)-2-butena I, ortho-methoxycinnamic aldehyde, 3,5,6-trimethyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde, 3,7-dimethyl-2-methylene-6-octenal, phenoxyacetaldehyde, 5,9-dimethyl-4,8-decadienal, peony aldehyde (6,10-dimethyl-3-oxa- 5,9-undecadien-1 -al), hexahydro-4,7-methanoindan-1 -carboxaldehyde, 2-methyl octanal, alpha-methyl-4-(1 -methyl ethyl)benzene acetaldehyde, 6,6-dimethyl-2-norpinene-2- propionaldehyde, para methyl phenoxy acetaldehyde, 2-methyl-3-phenyl-2-propen-1 -al, 3,5,5-trimethyl hexanal, Hexahydro-8,8-dimethyl-2-naphthaldehyde, 3-propyl-bicyclo[2.2.1 ]- hept-5-ene-2-carbaldehyde, 9-decenal, 3-methyl-5-phenyl-1 -pentanal, methylnonyl acetaldehyde, hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, 1 -p-menthene-q-carboxaldehyde and mixtures thereof.

[0067] Examples of antioxidants are acetyl cysteine, arbutin, ascorbic acid, ascorbic acid polypeptide, ascorbyl dipalmitate, ascorbyl methylsilanol pectinate, ascorbyl palmitate, ascorbyl stearate, BHA, p-hydroxyanisole, BHT, t-butyl hydroquinone, caffeic acid, Camellia sinensis oil, chitosan ascorbate, chitosan glycolate, chitosan salicylate, chlorogenic acids, cysteine, cysteine HCI, decyl mercaptomethylimidazole, erythorbic acid, diamylhydroquinone, di-t-butylhydroquinone, dicetyl thiodipropionate, dicyclopentadiene/t-butylcresol copolymer, digalloyl trioleate, dilauryl thiodipropionate, dimyristyl thiodipropionate, dioleyl tocopheryl methylsilanol, isoquercitrin, diosmine, disodium ascorbyl sulfate, disodium rutinyl disulfate, distearyl thiodipropionate, ditridecyl thiodipropionate, dodecyl gallate, ethyl ferulate, ferulic acid, hydroquinone, hydroxylamine HCI, hydroxylamine sulfate, isooctyl thioglycolate, kojic acid, madecassicoside, magnesium ascorbate, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate, melatonin, methoxy-PEG-7 rutinyl succinate, methylene di-t-butylcresol, methylsilanol ascorbate, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, octyl gallate, phenylthioglycolic acid, phloroglucinol, potassium ascorbyl tocopheryl phosphate, thiodiglycolamide, potassium sulfite, propyl gallate, rosmarinic acid, rutin, sodium ascorbate, sodium ascorbyl/cholesteryl phosphate, sodium bisulfite, sodium erythorbate, sodium metabisulfide, sodium sulfite, sodium thioglycolate, sorbityl furfural, tea tree (Melaleuca aftemifolia) oil, tocopheryl acetate, tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate, tetrahydrodiferuloylmethane, tocopheryl linoleate/oleate, thiodiglycol, tocopheryl succinate, thiodiglycolic acid, thioglycolic acid, thiolactic acid, thiosalicylic acid, thiotaurine, retinol, tocophereth-5, tocophereth-10, tocophereth-12, tocophereth-18, tocophereth-50, tocopherol, tocophersolan, tocopheryl linoleate, tocopheryl nicotinate, tocoquinone, o-tolyl biguanide, tris(nonylphenyl) phosphite, ubiquinone, zinc dibutyldithiocarbamate, and mixtures thereof.

[0068] Examples of propellant gases include carbon dioxide, nitrogen, nitrous oxide, volatile hydrocarbons such as butane, isobutane, or propane, and chlorinated or fluorinated hydrocarbons such as dichlorodifluoromethane and dichlorotetrafluoroethane or dimethylether; and mixtures thereof. [0069] In a specific embodiment, the emulsion is a sunscreen. In these embodiments, personal care ingredient comprises the sunscreen agent. The sunscreen agent may be, for example, a sunscreen additive, an SPF booster, a photostabilizer, a film-forming polymer, etc. The sunscreen may be also or alternatively be utilized in sunless tanning applications. Specific examples of sunscreen agents are set forth above.

[0070] In other embodiments, the personal care ingredient comprises a hair care ingredient. In these embodiments, the emulsion may be referred to as a hair care composition. If utilized to prepare the emulsion, the hair care ingredient is typically selected from conditioning agents (which may be silicone, cationic, hydrophobic, etc.), colorants, dyes, ultraviolet (UV) absorbers, preservatives, plant extracts, fatty alcohols, vitamins, fragrance, anti-dandruff agents, color care additives, pearlising agents, pH controlling agents, electrolytes, chelating agents, styling agents, ceramides, amino-acid derivatives, suspending agents, surfactants, detergents, emulsifiers, thickeners, oxidizing agents, reducing agents, film-forming polymers, and combinations thereof. With some of these hair care embodiments, the emulsion may be referred to as a shampoo, a rinse-off conditioner, a leave-in conditioner, a gel, a pomade, a serum, a spray, a coloring product, or mascara. Examples of many of these hair care ingredients are set forth above as suitable personal care ingredients.

[0071] Examples of oxidizing agents are ammonium persulfate, calcium peroxide, hydrogen peroxide, magnesium peroxide, melamine peroxide, potassium bromate, potassium caroate, potassium chlorate, potassium persulfate, sodium bromate, sodium carbonate peroxide, sodium chlorate, sodium iodate, sodium perborate, sodium persulfate, strontium dioxide, strontium peroxide, urea peroxide, zinc peroxide, and mixtures thereof.

[0072] Examples of reducing agents are ammonium bisufite, ammonium sulfite, ammonium thioglycolate, ammonium thiolactate, cystemaine HCI, cystein, cysteine HCI, ethanolamine thioglycolate, glutathione, glyceryl thioglycolate, glyceryl thioproprionate, hydroquinone, p- hydroxyanisole, isooctyl thioglycolate, magnesium thioglycolate, mercaptopropionic acid, potassium metabisulfite, potassium sulfite, potassium thioglycolate, sodium bisulfite, sodium hydrosulfite, sodium hydroxymethane sulfonate, sodium metabisulfite, sodium sulfite, sodium thioglycolate, strontium thioglycolate, superoxide dismutase, thioglycerin, thioglycolic acid, thiolactic acid, thiosalicylic acid, zinc formaldehyde sulfoxylate, and mixtures thereof.

[0073] Examples of antidandruff agents include pyridinethione salts, selenium compounds such as selenium disulfide, and soluble antidandruff agents, and mixtures thereof.

[0074] In other embodiments, the personal care ingredient comprises a nail care ingredient. In these embodiments, the emulsion may be referred to as a nail care composition. If utilized to prepare the emulsion, the nail care ingredient may be any ingredient utilized in nail care compositions, e.g. nail polishes, nail gels, nail tips, acrylic finishes, etc. Examples of such nail care ingredients include pigments, resins, solvents, volatile halogenated compounds (e.g. methoxynonafluorobutane and/or ethoxynonafluorobutane), etc.

[0075] More specifically, examples of nail care ingredients include butyl acetate; ethyl acetate; nitrocellulose; acetyl tributyl citrate; isopropyl alcohol; adipic acid/neopentyl glycol/trimelitic anhydride copolymer; stearalkonium bentonite; acrylates copolymer; calcium pantothenate; Cetraria islandica extract; Chondrus crispus; styrene/acrylates copolymer; trimethylpentanediyl dibenzoate-1 ; polyvinyl butyral; N-butyl alcohol; propylene glycol; butylene glycol; mica; silica; tin oxide; calcium borosilicate; synthetic fluorphlogopite; polyethylene terephtalate; sorbitan laurate derivatives; talc; jojoba extract; diamond powder; isobutylphenoxy epoxy resin; silk powder; and mixtures thereof.

[0076] In other embodiments, the personal care ingredient comprises a tooth care ingredient. In these embodiments, the emulsion may be referred to as a tooth care composition. One specific example of such a tooth care composition is toothpaste. Another example of a tooth care composition is a tooth whitening composition. The tooth care ingredient may be any tooth care ingredient suitable for the tooth care composition, such as an abrasive compound (e.g. aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, silica, zeolite), a fluoride compound, a surfactant, a flavorant, a remineralizer, an antibacterial agent, etc.

[0077] In certain embodiments, the personal care ingredient comprises a film-forming polymer, which may be utilized as the personal care ingredient whether the emulsion is utilized for skin care, hair care, etc.“Film-forming polymer,” as used herein, means a polymer or oligomer which is capable of, by itself or optionally in the presence of a film-forming agent, forming a film on a substrate. The film-forming polymer may form the film upon an application of a curing condition, e.g. the application of heat, exposure to atmospheric conditions, etc. Alternatively, the film-forming polymer may form the film upon evaporation of any carrier vehicle in which the film-forming polymer may optionally be disposed. The film-forming polymer may undergo a reaction, e.g. the film-forming polymer may become cross-linked or otherwise include additional bonds, when forming the film. However, the film-forming polymer may form the film in the absence of such a reaction. The film-forming polymer may be a gelling agent. The film-forming polymer is particularly advantageous when the emulsion is the sunscreen, although the personal care ingredient may comprise the film-forming polymer in other compositions as well.

[0078] The substrate on which the film is formed may be any substrate, although the substrate is generally a portion of a mammal, particularly a human, as described in greater detail below with reference to the treatment method. Specific examples of suitable substrates include skin, hair, and nails. [0079] Generally, the film is continuous, although the film may have a varying thickness. By continuous, it is meant that the film does not define any apertures. The film may be referred to as being macroscopically continuous. The film may be supported by the substrate, or may be bonded, e.g. physically and/or chemically, to the substrate. In certain embodiments, the film is optionally removable from the substrate, e.g. the film may be peelable from the substrate. The film may remain intact as a free-standing film upon being separated from the substrate or may be separated through application of shear, which may damage and/or destroy continuity of the film.

[0080] Specific examples of film-forming polymers that are suitable include acrylic polymers, silicone resins (e.g. polypropylsilsesquioxane), polyurethanes, polyurethane-acrylics, polyesters, polyester-polyurethanes, polyether-polyurethanes, polyesteramides, alkyds, polyamides, polyureas, polyurea-polyurethanes, cellulose-based polymers (e.g. nitrocellulose), silicones, acrylic-silicones, polyacrylamides, fluoropolymers, polyisoprenes, and any copolymers or terpolymers thereof or including one of these. The term“silicones,” as used herein with reference to suitable film-forming polymers, includes linear, branched, and resinous silicones, although resinous silicones are generally referred to as silicone resins rather than polymers. The silicone may be modified, e.g. the silicone may be a silicone-grafted acrylic polymer.

[0081] As introduced above, the film-forming polymer may be disposed in a carrier vehicle, which may partially or fully solubilize the film-forming polymer. Depending on a selection of the film-forming polymer, the carrier vehicle may be, for example, an oil, e.g. an organic oil and/or a silicone oil, a solvent, water, etc. The film-forming polymer may be in the form of polymer particles, which are optionally surface-stabilized with at least one stabilizer, and the polymer particles may be present as a dispersion or emulsion.

[0082] The film-forming polymer may be a block polymer, which may be styrene-free. Typically, the block polymer comprises at least one first block and at least one second block, which may be linked together via an intermediate block comprising at least one constituent monomer of the first block and at least one constituent monomer of the second block. Generally, the glass transition temperatures of the first and second blocks are different from one another.

[0083] Monomers that may be utilized to prepare the block polymer include, for example, methyl methacrylate, isobutyl (meth)acrylate and isobornyl (meth)acrylate, methyl acrylate, isobutyl acrylate, n-butyl methacrylate, cyclodecyl acrylate, neopentyl acrylate, isodecylacrylamide 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and mixtures thereof.

[0084] In specific embodiments, the film-forming polymer be obtained or generated via free- radical polymerization. For example, the film-forming polymer may be generated via free- radical polymerization of at least one acrylic monomer and at least one silicone- or hydrocarbon-based macromonomer including a polymerizable end group.

[0085] Specific examples of hydrocarbon-based macromonomers include homopolymers and copolymers of linear or branched Cg-C22 alkyl acrylate or methacrylate. The polymerizable end group may be a vinyl group or a (meth)acrylate group, e.g. poly(2- ethylhexyl acrylate) macromonomers; poly(dodecyl acrylate) or poly(dodecyl methacrylate) macromonomers; poly(stearyl acrylate) or poly(stearyl methacrylate) macromonomers, etc. Such macromonomers generally include one (meth)acrylate group as the polymerizable end group.

[0086] Additional examples of hydrocarbon-based macromonomers include polyolefins containing an ethylenically unsaturated end group (as the polymerizable end group), e.g. a (meth)acrylate end group. Specific examples of such polyolefins include polyethylene macromonomers, polypropylene macromonomers, polyethylene/polypropylene copolymer macromonomers, polyethylene/polybutylene copolymer macromonomers, polyisobutylene macromonomers; polybutadiene macromonomers; polyisoprene macromonomers; polybutadiene macromonomers; and poly (ethylene/butylene)-polyisoprene macromonomers .

[0087] Examples of silicone-based macromonomers include organopolysiloxanes containing the polymerizable end group, e.g. a (meth)acrylate end group. The organopolysiloxane may be linear, branched, partially branched, or resinous. In various embodiments, the organopolysiloxane is linear. In these embodiments, the organopolysiloxane may be polydimethylsiloxane, although hydrocarbon groups other than methyl groups may be present therein along with or in lieu of methyl groups. Typically, the polymerizable end group is terminal, although the polymerizable end group may optionally be pendant. One specific example of a silicone-based macromonomer is a monomethacryloxypropyl polydimethylsiloxane.

[0088] In certain embodiments, the film-forming polymer is an organic film-forming polymer that is soluble in oil as the carrier vehicle. In these embodiments, the film-forming polymer may be referred to as a liposoluble polymer. The liposoluble polymer may be of any type and specific examples thereof include those comprising or formed from olefins, cycloolefins, butadiene, isoprene, styrene, vinyl ethers, vinyl esters, vinyl amides, (meth)acrylic acid esters or amides, etc.

[0089] In one embodiment, the liposoluble polymer is formed from monomers selected from the group consisting of isooctyl (meth)acrylate, isononyl (meth)acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl (meth)acrylate, lauryl (meth)acrylate, isopentyl (meth)acrylate, n-butyl (meth)acrylate, isobutyl (meth)acrylate, methyl (meth)acrylate, tert-butyl (meth)acrylate, tridecyl (meth)acrylate, stearyl (meth)acrylate, and combinations thereof.

[0090] Alternatively still, the liposoluble polymer may be an acrylic-silicone grafted polymer, which typically includes a silicone backbone and acrylic grafts or alternatively includes an acrylic backbone and silicone grafts.

[0091] The film-forming polymer may be halogenated, e.g. the film-forming polymer may include fluorine atoms.

[0092] Alternatively as introduced above, the film-forming polymer may be a cellulose-based polymer, such as nitrocellulose, cellulose acetate, cellulose acetobutyrate, cellulose acetopropionate or ethylcellulose. Alternatively still, the film-forming polymer may comprise a polyurethane, an acrylic polymer, a vinyl polymer, a polyvinyl butyral, an alkyd resin, or resins derived from aldehyde condensation products, such as arylsulfonamide-formaldehyde resins.

[0093] Further, as introduced above, the film-forming polymer may comprise the silicone, which may be linear, branched, or resinous. Resinous silicones generally include at least one T and/or Q unit, as understood in the art. Examples of resinous silicones include silsesquioxanes. The silicone may include any combination of M, D, T, and Q units so long as the silicone constitutes the film-forming polymer.

[0094] When the film-forming polymer comprises the silicone, the film-forming polymer may comprise an amphiphilic silicone. Amphiphilic silicones typically contain a silicone portion which is compatible with a silicone medium, and a hydrophilic portion. The hydrophilic portion may be, for example, the residue of a compound selected from alcohols and polyols, having 1 to 12 hydroxyl groups, and polyoxyalkylenes (e.g. those containing oxypropylene units and/or oxyethylene units).

[0095] The amphiphilic silicone may be an oil with or without gelling activity. Oils of this kind may comprise, for example, dimethicone copolyols, bis-hydroxyethoxypropyl dimethicone, etc.

[0096] In one embodiment, the film-forming polymer comprises a silicone organic elastomer gel. Silicone organic elastomer gels comprise linear organopolysiloxane chains crosslinked via polyoxyalkylenes. The silicone organic elastomer gel may further include hydrophilic polyether functionality pending from the linear organopolysiloxane chains. Specific examples of suitable silicone organic elastomer gels are disclosed in International (PCT) Appln. No. PCT/US2010/0201 10, which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

[0097] Additional examples of cross-linked silicone compounds suitable for use as the film forming polymer are disclosed in U.S. Appln. Ser. Nos. 10/269,758 and 10/228,890, the contents of which are incorporated by reference herein in their respective entireties. Additional examples of other film-forming polymers suitable for the emulsion are disclosed in International (PCT) Serial Nos. PCT/EP2007/064259, PCT/EP2007/060682, and PCT/EP2005/013018, which are each incorporated by reference herein in their respective entireties.

[0098] When the personal care ingredient comprises the film-forming polymer, the film forming polymer may be present in the emulsion in various amounts, e.g. from greater than 0 to less than 100, alternatively from 0.1 to 60, alternatively from 0.1 to 50 percent by weight based on the total weight of the emulsion. Combinations of different types of film-forming polymers may be utilized.

[0099] In various embodiments, the personal care ingredient may comprise or be referred to as a personal care active, a health care active, or combination thereof (collectively“active” or“actives”). As used herein, a“personal care active” means any compound or mixtures of compounds that are known in the art as additives in personal care formulations, typically for providing a cosmetic and/or aesthetic benefit. A“healthcare active” means any compound or mixtures of compounds that are known in the art to provide a pharmaceutical or medical benefit. Thus,“healthcare active” includes materials considered as an active ingredient or active drug ingredient as generally used and defined by the United States Department of Health & Human Services Food and Drug Administration, contained in Title 21 , Chapter I, of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 200-299 and Parts 300-499. Specific personal care actives and health care actives are described below. These personal care actives and health care actives may constitute the personal care ingredient whether the personal care ingredient is utilized to form, for example, the AP/DEO composition, the skin care composition, the hair care composition, the nail care composition, and/or the tooth care composition. For example, in various embodiments, the same personal care ingredient may be utilized to form either the hair care composition or the skin care composition. As understood in the art, at least some of the personal care actives described below are species of certain personal care ingredients introduced above with respect to the skin care composition, the hair care composition, the nail care composition, and the tooth care composition, respectively. For example, numerous species of plant or vegetable extracts are described below, which are exemplary examples of plant extracts set forth above as suitable personal care ingredients. The active ingredients or actives described below may constitute the personal care ingredient of the emulsion or may be utilized in combination therewith.

[00100] Useful active ingredients for use in the emulsion include vitamins and vitamin derivatives, including“pro-vitamins”. Vitamins useful herein include, but are not limited to, Vitamin A1 , retinol, C2-C1 8 esters of retinol, vitamin E, tocopherol, esters of vitamin E, and mixtures thereof. Retinol includes trans-retinol, 1 , 3-cis-retinol, 1 1 -cis-retinol, 9-cis-retinol, and 3,4-didehydro-retinol, Vitamin C and its derivatives, Vitamin B1 , Vitamin B2, Pro Vitamin B5, panthenol, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, niacin, folic acid, biotin, and pantothenic acid. Other suitable vitamins and the INCI names for the vitamins considered included herein are ascorbyl dipalmitate, ascorbyl methylsilanol pectinate, ascorbyl palmitate, ascorbyl stearate, ascorbyl glucocide, sodium ascorbyl phosphate, sodium ascorbate, disodium ascorbyl sulfate, potassium (ascorbyl/tocopheryl) phosphate. In general, retinol, all trans retinoic acid and derivatives, isomers and analogs thereof, are collectively termed "retinoids".

[00101 ] RETINOL, it should be noted, is an International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient Name (INCI) designated by The Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association (CTFA), Washington DC, for vitamin A. Other suitable vitamins and the INCI names for the vitamins considered included herein are RETINYL ACETATE, RETINYL PALMITATE, RETINYL PROPIONATE, oc-TOCOPHEROL, TOCOPHERSOLAN, TOCOPHERYL ACETATE, TOCOPHERYL LINOLEATE, TOCOPHERYL NICOTINATE, and TOCOPHERYL SUCCINATE.

[00102] Some examples of commercially available products suitable for use herein are Vitamin A Acetate and Vitamin C, both products of Fluka Chemie AG, Buchs, Switzerland; COVI-OX T-50, a vitamin E product of Henkel Corporation, La Grange, Illinois; COVI-OX T- 70, another vitamin E product of Henkel Corporation, La Grange, Illinois; and vitamin E Acetate, a product of Roche Vitamins & Fine Chemicals, Nutley, New Jersey.

[00103] The active can be a protein, such as an enzyme. Enzymes include, but are not limited to, commercially available types, improved types, recombinant types, wild types, variants not found in nature, and mixtures thereof. For example, suitable enzymes include hydrolases, cutinases, oxidases, transferases, reductases, hemicellulases, esterases, isomerases, pectinases, lactases, peroxidases, laccases, catalases, and mixtures thereof. Hydrolases include, but are not limited to, proteases (bacterial, fungal, acid, neutral or alkaline), amylases (alpha or beta), lipases, mannanases, cellulases, collagenases, lisozymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and mixtures thereof. Protease include, but are not limited to, trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, pancreatin and other mammalian enzymes; papain, bromelain and other botanical enzymes; subtilisin, epidermin, nisin, naringinase(L- rhammnosidase) urokinase and other bacterial enzymes. Lipase include, but are not limited to, triacyl-glycerol lipases, monoacyl-glycerol lipases, lipoprotein lipases, e.g. steapsin, erepsin, pepsin, other mammalian, botanical, bacterial lipases and purified ones. In a specific embodiment, natural papain is utilized as the enzyme. Further, stimulating hormones, e.g. insulin, can be used together with the enzyme(s) to boost effectiveness. [00104] The active may also be one or more plant or vegetable extract. Examples of these components are as follows: Ashitaba extract, avocado extract, hydrangea extract, Althea extract, Arnica extract, aloe extract, apricot extract, apricot kernel extract, Ginkgo Biloba extract, fennel extract, turmeric[Curciima] extract, oolong tea extract, rose fruit extract, Echinacea extract, Scutellaria root extract, Phellodendro bark extract, Japanese Coptis extract, Barley extract, Hyperium extract, White Nettle extract, Watercress extract, Orange extract, Dehydrated saltwater, seaweed extract, hydrolyzed elastin, hydrolyzed wheat powder, hydrolyzed silk, Chamomile extract, Carrot extract, Artemisia extract, Glycyrrhiza extract, hibiscustea extract, Pyracantha Fortuneana Fruit extract, Kiwi extract, Cinchona extract, cucumber extract, guanocine, Gardenia extract, Sasa Albo-marginata extract, Sophora root extract, Walnut extract, Grapefruit extract, Clematis extract, Chlorella extract, mulberry extract, Gentiana extract, black tea extract, yeast extract, burdock extract, rice bran ferment extract, rice germ oil, comfrey extract, collagen, cowberry extract, Gardenia extract, Asiasarum Root extract, Family of Bupleurum extract, Salvia extract, Saponaria extract, Bamboo extract, Crataegus fruit extract, Zanthoxylum fruit extract, shiitake extract, Rehmannia root extract, gromwell extract, Perilla extract, linden extract, Filipendula extract, peony extract, Calamus Root extract, white birch extract, Horsetail extract, Hedera Helix(lvy) extract, hawthorn extract, Sambucus nigra extract, Achillea millefolium extract, Mentha piperita extract, sage extract, mallow extract, Cnidium officinale Root extract, Japanese green gentian extract, soybean extract, jujube extract, thyme extract, tea extract, clove extract, Gramineae imperata cyrillo extract, Citrus unshiu peel extract Japanese Angellica Root extract, Calendula extract, Peach Kernel extract, Bitter orange peel extract, Houttuyna cordata extract, tomato extract, natto extract, Ginseng extract, Green tea extract (camelliea sinesis), garlic extract, wild rose extract, hibiscus extract, Ophiopogon tuber extract, Nelumbo nucifera extract, parsley extract, honey, hamamelis extract, Parietaria extract, Isodonis herba extract, bisabolol extract, Loquat extract, coltsfoot extract, butterbur extract, Porid cocos wolf extract, extract of butcher's broom, grape extract, propolis extract, luffa extract, safflower extract, peppermint extract, linden tree extract, Paeonia extract, hop extract, pine tree extract, horse chestnut extract, Mizu-bashou [Lysichiton camtschatcese] extract, Mukurossi peel extract, Melissa extract, peach extract, cornflower extract, eucalyptus extract, saxifrage extract, citron extract, coix extract, mugwort extract, lavender extract, apple extract, lettuce extract, lemon extract, Chinese milk vetch extract, rose extract, rosemary extract, Roman Chamomile extract, royal jelly extract, and combinations thereof.

[00105] Representative, non-limiting examples of healthcare actives useful as drugs in the present compositions are described below. One or more of the drugs can be used, either alone or in combination with the actives and/or personal care ingredients described above. [00106] The emulsion may include an antiparasite agent. The antiparasite agent can be of any type. Examples of antiparasite agents include, but are not limited to, hexachlorobenzene, carbamate, naturally occurring pyrethroids, permethrin, allethrin, malathion, piperonyl butoxide, and combinations thereof.

[00107] The emulsion may include an antimicrobial agent, also referred to as germicidal agent. The antimicrobial agent can be of any type. Examples of antimicrobial agents include, but are not limited to, phenols, including cresols and resorcinols. Such compositions may be used to treat infections of the skin. An example of a very common skin infection is acne, which involve infestation of the sebaceous gland with p. acnes, as well as Staphylococus aurus or Pseudomonas. Examples of useful antiacne actives include the keratolytics such as salicylic acid (o-hydroxybenzoic acid), derivatives of salicylic acid such as 5-octanoyl salicylic acid, and resorcinol; retinoids such as retinoic acid and its derivatives (e.g. cis and trans); sulfur-containing D and L amino acids and their derivatives and salts, particularly their N-acetyl derivatives, a preferred example of which is N-acetyl-L-cysteine; lipoic acid; antibiotics and antimicrobials such as benzoyl peroxide, octopirox, tetracycline, 2,4,4'- trichloro-2'-hydroxy diphenyl ether, 3,4,4'-trichlorobanilide, azelaic acid and its derivatives, phenoxyethanol, phenoxypropanol, phenoxyisopropanol, ethyl acetate, clindamycin and meclocycline; sebostats such as flavonoids; and bile salts such as scymnol sulfate and its derivatives, deoxycholate and cholate; parachlorometaxylenol; and combinations thereof.

[00108] Phenols, in concentrations of, for example, 0.2, 1 .0, and 1 .3, % by weight, are generally bacteriostatic, bactericidal, and fungicidal, respectively. Several phenol derivatives are more potent than phenol itself, and the most important among these are the halogenated phenols and bis-phenols, the alkyl-substituted phenols and the resorcinols. Hydrophobic antibacterials include triclosan, triclocarbon, eucalyptol, menthol, methylsalicylate, thymol, and combinations thereof.

[00109] The emulsion may include an antifungal agent. The antifungal agent can be of any type. Examples of antifungal agents include, but are not limited to, azoles, diazoles, triazoles, miconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, itraconazole griseofulvin, ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, Amphotericin B, potassium iodide, flucytosine (5FC) and combinations thereof. U.S. Pat. No. 4,352,808 discloses 3-aralkyloxy-2, 3-dihydro-2-(1 H- imidazolylmethyl)benzo[b]thiophene compounds having antifungal and antibacterial activity, which are incorporated herein by reference.

[00110] The emulsion may include a steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. The steroidal anti inflammatory agent can be of any type. Examples of steroidal anti-inflammatory agents include, but are not limited to, corticosteroids such as hydrocortisone, hydroxyltriamcinolone alphamethyl dexamethasone, dexamethasone-phosphate, beclomethasone dipropionate, clobetasol valerate, desonide, desoxymethasone, desoxycorticosterone acetate, dexamethasone, dichlorisone, diflorasone diacetate, diflucortolone valerate, fluadrenolone, fluclarolone acetonide, fludrocortisone, flumethasone pivalate, fluosinolone acetonide, fluocinonide, flucortine butylester, fluocortolone, fluprednidene (fluprednylidene)acetate, flurandrenolone, halcinonide, hydrocortisone acetate, hydrocortisone butyrate, methylprednisolone, triamcinolone acetonide, cortisone, cortodoxone, flucetonide, fludrocortisone, difluorosone diacetate, fluradrenalone acetonide, medrysone, amc, amcinafide, betamethasone and the balance of its esters, chlorprednisone, chlorprednisone acetate, clocortelone, clescinolone, dichlorisone, difluprednate, flucloronide, flunisolide, fluoromethalone, fluperolone, fluprednisolone, hydrocortisone valerate, hydrocortisone cyclopentylproprionate, hydrocortamate, meprednisone, paramethasone, prednisolone, prednisone, beclomethasone dipropionate, betamethasone dipropionate, triamcinolone, and combinations thereof.

[00111 ] Topical antihistaminic preparations currently available include 1 percent and 2 percent diphenhydramine (Benadryl® and Caladryl®), 5 percent doxepin (Zonalon®) cream, phrilamine maleate, chlorpheniramine and tripelennamine, phenothiazines, promethazine hydrochloride (Phenergan®) and dimethindene maleate. These drugs, as well as additional antihistamines can also be included in the emulsion. Additionally, so-called "natural" anti inflammatory agents may be useful. For example, candelilla wax, alpha bisabolol, aloe vera, Manjistha (extracted from plants in the genus Rubia, particularly Rubia cordifolia), and Guggal (extracted from plants in the genus Commiphora, particularly Commiphora mukul, may be used as an active in the emulsion.

[00112] The emulsion may include a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The NSAID can be of any type. Examples of NSAIDs include, but are not limited to, the following NSAID categories: propionic to acid derivatives; acetic acid derivatives; fenamic acid derivatives; biphenylcarboxylic acid derivatives; and oxicams. Such NSAIDs are described in the U.S. Pat. No. 4,985,459, which is incorporated herein by reference. Further examples include, but are not limited to, acetyl salicylic acid, ibuprofen, naproxen, benoxaprofen, flurbiprofen, fenoprofen, fenbufen, ketoprofen, indoprofen, pirprofen, carprofen, oxaprozin, pranoprofen, mniroprofen, tioxaprofen, suprofen, alminoprofen, tiaprofenic acid, fluprofen, bucloxic acid, and combinations thereof.

[00113] The emulsion may include an antioxidant/radical scavenger. The antioxidant can be of any type. Examples of antioxidants include, but are not limited to, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and its salts, tocopherol (vitamin E), and its derivatives such as tocopherol sorbate, other esters of tocopherol, butylated hydroxy benzoic acids and their salts, 6-hydroxy-2, 5,7,8- tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (commercially available under the trade name Trolox®), gallic acid and its alkyl esters, especially propyl gallate, uric acid and its salts and alkyl esters, sorbic acid and its salts, the ascorbyl esters of fatty acids, amines (e.g. N,N- diethylhydroxylamine, amino-guanidine), sulfhydryl compounds (e.g. glutathione), and dihydroxy fumaric acid and its salts may be used, as well as EDTA, BHT and the like, and combinations thereof.

[00114] The emulsion may include an antibiotic. The antibiotic can be of any type. Examples of antibiotics include, but are not limited to, chloramphenicol, tetracyclines, synthetic and semi-synthesic penicillins, beta-lactames, quinolones, fluoroquinolnes, macrolide antibiotics, peptide antibiotics, cyclosporines, erythromycin, clindamycin, and combinations thereof.

[00115] The emulsion may include a topical anesthetic. The topical anesthetic can be of any type. Examples of topical anesthetics include, but are not limited to, benzocaine, lidocaine, bupivacaine, chlorprocaine, dibucaine, etidocaine, mepivacaine, tetracaine, dyclonine, hexylcaine, procaine, cocaine, ketamine, pramoxine, phenol, pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and combinations thereof.

[00116] The emulsion may include an anti-viral agent. The anti-viral agent can be of any type. Examples of anti-viral agents include, but are not limited to, proteins, polypeptides, peptides, fusion protein antibodies, nucleic acid molecules, organic molecules, inorganic molecules, and small molecules that inhibit or reduce the attachment of a virus to its receptor, the internalization of a virus into a cell, the replication of a virus, or release of virus from a cell. In particular, anti-viral agents include, but are not limited to, nucleoside analogs (e.g. zidovudine, acyclovir, acyclovir prodrugs, famciclovir, gangcyclovir, vidarabine, idoxuridine, trifluridine, and ribavirin), n-docosanoll foscarnet, amantadine, rimantadine, saquinavir, indinavir, ritonavir, idoxuridine alpha-interferons and other interferons, AZT, and combinations thereof.

[00117] Additional examples of actives include analgesic agents and antihypertensive agents. Analgesic agents are known in the art and are colloquially referred to as painkillers. The analgesic agent may be selected from any known analgesic agents, and specific examples thereof include paracetamol (acetaminophen), morphine, codeine, heroine, methadone, thebaine, orpiarine, buprenorphine, morphinans, benzomorphans, acetaminophen, butorphanol, diflunisal, fenoprofen, fentanyl, fentanyl citrate, hydrocodone, aspirin, sodium salicylate, ibuprofen, oxymorphone, pentaxicine, naproxen, nalbuphine, mefenamic acid, meperidine and dihydroergotamine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, such as salicylates, and opioid agents, such as morphine and oxycodone. Antihypertensive agents are known in the art for treating or reducing hypertension, i.e., high blood pressure. The antihypertensive agent may be selected from any known antihypertensive agents, and specific examples thereof include diuretics, adrenergic receptor antagonists (e.g. beta blockers), benzodiazepines, calcium channel blockers, renin inhibitors, etc.

[00118] A typical narcotic antagonist is haloxone. Exemplary antitussive agents include, without limitation, diphenhydramine, guaifenesin, hydromorphone, ephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, theophylline, codeine, noscapine, levopropoxyphene, carbetapentane, chlorpehndianol and benzonatate.

[00119] Among the sedatives which may be utilized are, without limitation, chloral hydrate, butabarbital, alprazolam, amobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, mephobarbital, secobarbital, diphenhydramine, ethinamate, flurazepam, halazepam, haloperidol, prochlorperazine, oxazepam, and talbutal.

[00120] Examples of cardiac drugs are, without limitation, quinidine, propranolol, nifedipine, procaine, dobutamine, digitoxin, phenyloin, sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, verapamil HCI, digoxin, nicardipine HCI, and isosorbide dinitrate.

[00121] Antiemetics are illustrated by, without limitation, thiethylperazine, metoclopramide, cyclizine, meclizine, prochlorperazine, doxylamine succinate, promethazine, triflupromazine, and hydroxyzine.

[00122] A typical dopamine receptor agonist is bromocriptine mesylate. Exemplary amino acid, peptide and protein hormones include, without limitation, thyroxine, growth hormone (GH), interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyrotropic hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) such as leuprolide acetate, vasopressin and their active degradation products Some products may have sufficiently high molecular weights that absorption through the stratum corneum or mucous membranes may be difficult. Therefore, the invention is applicable only to those hormones which have molecular weights and stereo configurations which will allow passage through the skin.

[00123] Female sex hormones that can be used include, without limitations, estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, conjugated estrogens, estrone, norethindrone, medroxyprogesterone, progesterone, and norgestrel.

[00124] Typical male sex hormones that may be utilized may be represented by, without limitation, testosterone, methyltestosterone, and fluoxymesterone.

[00125] The emulsion can include the personal care ingredient in various amounts. One of ordinary skill in the art can readily select an appropriate amount based on want or need. Further, one of ordinary skill in the art readily understands how to select at least one of the personal care ingredients for preparing the emulsion in view of the desired application/function thereof. For example, the relative amounts of the components of the emulsion are contingent on the presence or absence of various optional components, along with the desired properties of the emulsion and its end use. One of skill in the art readily understands how to optimize relative amounts of these components.

[00126] The emulsion may further include a filler. Examples of fillers include talc, micas, kaolin, zinc or titanium oxides, calcium or magnesium carbonates, magnesium hydrogen carbonate, hydroxyapatite, silica, silica silylate, starch, lauroyllysine, titanium dioxide, glass or ceramic beads, polymethylmethacrylate beads, boron nitride, aluminum silicate, aluminum starch octenylsuccinate, bentonite, magnesium aluminum silicate, nylon, silk powder metal soaps derived from carboxylic acids having 8-22 carbon atoms (e.g. zinc stearate, magnesium stearate, lithium stearate, zinc laurate or magnesium myristate), non-expanded synthetic polymer powders (e.g. polyethylene powder, tetrafluoroethylene powder, polyamide powder, PMMA powder, polyurethane powder, etc.), expanded powders and powders from natural organic compounds, such as cereal starches, which may or may not be crosslinked, copolymer microspheres (which may be hollow), polytrap, silicone resin microbeads, and mixtures thereof. The fillers may be surface treated to modify affinity or compatibility with remaining components. The filler may independently have any form, e.g. the filler may independently be platelet-shaped, spherical or oblong, irrespective of the crystallographic form (for example lamellar, cubic, hexagonal, orthorhombic, etc.). The filler may also be considered as and encompasses "fibers".

[00127] A method of preparing the emulsion is also disclosed. The method includes (I) combining the solid silicone polyamide copolymer, the silicone fluid, and the chaotrope to give a liquid silicone composition.

[00128] The solid silicone polyamide copolymer, the silicone fluid, and the chaotrope may be combined in any order, optionally under shear or mixing. In certain embodiments, the chaotrope and the silicone fluid are combined together prior to being combined with the solid silicone polyamide copolymer. In some embodiments, the emulsifier is also combined with the solid silicone polyamide copolymer, the silicone fluid, and the chaotrope to form the liquid silicone composition. Parameters associated with conditions under which these components are combined (e.g. temperature, pressure, etc.) may also be controlled. However, the method may be carried out at ambient conditions. Typically, the solid silicone polyamide copolymer, the silicone fluid, and the chaotrope are combined together at a temperature less than 45 °C (i.e., cold-processed). In some embodiments, the solid silicone polyamide copolymer, the silicone fluid, and the chaotrope are combined together at a temperature less than 40 °C, alternatively less than 35 °C, alternatively less than 30 °C. In specific embodiments, the solid silicone polyamide copolymer, the silicone fluid, and the chaotrope are combined together at ambient temperature. [00129] As described above, the chaotrope is capable of liquefying the solid silicone polyamide copolymer, without solvating the same. As such, the solid silicone polyamide copolymer is typically a solid when combined with the chaotrope, and liquefies during the formation of the liquid silicone composition. Typically, the combination of the solid silicone polyamide copolymer, the silicone fluid, and the chaotrope is mixed to form the liquid silicone composition.

[00130] The method also includes (II) combining and shearing the liquid silicone composition, the emulsifier, and water, thereby preparing the emulsion.

[00131 ] The solid silicone polyamide copolymer, the silicone fluid, and the chaotrope may be combined in any order, optionally under shear or mixing. However, understood by one of skill in the art, the order of addition may influence the nature of the emulsion (e.g. whether an oil/silicone-in-water, or a water-in-oil/silicone emulsion). Typically, the emulsifier and the liquid silicone composition are combined to form a non-aqueous composition, and the water subsequently added to the non-aqueous composition under shear/mixing to prepare the emulsion as a water-in-oil/silicone emulsion. As described above, in certain embodiments, the emulsifier is combined with the other non-aqueous components to form the liquid silicone composition. In such embodiment, the water is added to the liquid silicone composition directly (i.e., the liquid silicone composition takes the place of the non-aqueous composition) to prepare the emulsion.

[00132] Once prepared, the emulsion is typically a colloid comprising the aqueous phase as an internal phase and the non-aqueous phase as an external phase. More specifically, in accordance with the embodiments described above, the solid silicone polyamide copolymer acts as a gellant/structurant in the prepared emulsion. In certain embodiments, the emulsion is a gel. In some such embodiments, the emulsion is substantially optically transparent.

[00133] Typically, the emulsion comprises a high viscosity under static shear. For example, in some embodiments, the emulsion comprises a viscosity of from ³ 100 to < 600 Pa * s at 25 °C and a shear rate of from ³ 2/s to < 8/s. More specifically, in some embodiments, the emulsion comprises a viscosity of greater than 1000, alternatively greater than 1 100, alternatively greater than 1200, alternatively greater than 1300 Pa-s at 25 °C and shear rate of 0.2/s. In these or other embodiments, the emulsion comprises a viscosity of greater than 500, alternatively greater than 600, alternatively greater than 700, alternatively greater than 800, alternatively greater than 900 Pa-s at 25 °C and a shear rate of 0.5/s. In these or other embodiments, the emulsion comprises a viscosity of greater than 250, alternatively greater than 300, alternatively greater than 350, alternatively greater than 400, alternatively greater than 450 Pa-s at 25 °C and a shear rate of 1/s. In these or other embodiments, the emulsion comprises a viscosity of greater than 100, alternatively greater than 125, alternatively greater than 150, alternatively greater than 175, alternatively greater than 200 Pa-s at 25 °C and a shear rate of 5/s.

[00134] The emulsion also comprises a high viscosity under dynamic shear. For example, in some embodiments, the emulsion comprises a viscosity of from³ 3000 to < 5000 Pa-s at 25 °C upon application of a shear stress of from ³ 0 to < 500 Pa. More specifically, in some embodiments, the emulsion comprises a viscosity of greater than 1000, alternatively greater than 2000, alternatively greater than 2500, alternatively greater than 3000, alternatively greater than 3500, alternatively greater than 4000 Pa-s at 25 °C upon application of a shear stress of 10 Pa. In these or other embodiments, the emulsion comprises a viscosity of greater than 100, alternatively greater than 500, alternatively greater than 1000, alternatively greater than 1500, alternatively greater than 2000, alternatively greater than 2500, alternatively greater than 3000, alternatively greater than 3500, alternatively greater than 4000 Pa-s at 25 °C upon application of a shear stress of 100 Pa. In these or other embodiments, the emulsion comprises a viscosity of greater than 100 Pa-s at 25 °C upon application of a shear stress of 200, alternatively 300, alternatively 400, alternatively 500, alternatively 600, alternatively 700, alternatively 800 Pa. In these or other embodiments, the emulsion comprises a viscosity of greater than 1000 Pa-s at 25 °C upon application of a shear stress of 200, alternatively 300, alternatively 400, alternatively 500, alternatively 600 Pa.

[00135] As introduced above, the emulsion may include various additives (e.g. those added during preparation of the emulsion), such that the emulsion itself functions as an end-use composition. However, the emulsion may also be combined with various additional components (e.g. after its preparation), such as those described above, and thus formulated into various end-use compositions, such as a personal care compositions. Such compositions may be of any form, such as a cream, gel, powder, paste, or freely pourable liquid. Compositions comprising or formed from the emulsion of the present disclosure may exhibit improved application and cosmetic properties (including reduced tackiness and stickiness), and improved clarity/low residue properties.

[00136] In some embodiments, the emulsion is itself a personal care composition, or may be formulated into a personal care composition. In such embodiments, the personal care composition may be formulated to be cosmetic, therapeutic, functional with respect to a portion of a body to which the personal care composition is applied, or some combinations thereof. Examples of personal care compositions include antiperspirants and deodorants, skin care creams, skin care lotions, moisturizers, facial treatments (e.g. acne or wrinkle removers), personal and facial cleansers, bath oils, perfumes, colognes, sachets, sunscreens, pre-shave and after-shave lotions, shaving soaps and lathers, shampoos, conditioners, hair colorants, hair relaxants, hair sprays, mousses, hair gels, permanents, depilatories, cuticle coats, make-ups, color cosmetics, foundations, concealers, blushes, lipsticks, eyeliners, mascara, oil removers, color cosmetic removers, and medicament creams, pastes or sprays (e.g. for anti-acnes, dental hygienics, antibiotics, healing promotives, etc.)· In general, the personal care composition comprising the emulsion is formulated with a carrier that permits application in a conventional form, such as a liquid, rinse, lotion, cream, paste, gel, foam, mousse, ointment, spray, aerosol, soap, stick, soft solid, or solid gel, e.g. depending on the intended use. What constitutes a suitable carrier for formulating the personal care composition is readily apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art, and may be selected from those carriers exemplified herein.

[00137] The personal care composition may be in any form, either liquid or non-liquid (semi solid, soft solid, solid, etc.). For example, the personal care composition may be a paste, a solid, a gel, or a cream. Additionally, regardless of how the emulsion was prepared, the personal care composition formed from the emulsion may itself be an emulsion, such as an oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsion, a multiple emulsion, such as an oil-in-water-in-oil emulsion or a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion, or a solid, rigid or supple gel, including anhydrous gels. The personal care composition can also be in a form chosen from a translucent anhydrous gel and a transparent anhydrous gel. The personal care composition may, for example, comprise an external or continuous fatty phase. The personal care composition may be anhydrous. In some instances, the personal care composition can be a molded composition or cast as a stick or a dish. In specific embodiments, the personal care composition comprising the emulsion is a molded poured stick. In such embodiments, the personal care composition (e.g. in stick form) may behave as deformable, flexible elastic solid, having increased elastic softness on application.

[00138] The personal care composition comprising the emulsion can be used by any method, such as via application to a human body (e.g. skin or hair) by hand or with an applicator (e.g. a brush or sprayer). In some embodiments, the personal care composition may be intended to be removed after such application, e.g. by washing, wiping, peeling, and the like, or combinations thereof.

[00139] In some embodiments, the emulsion is a coating composition, or may be formulated into a coating composition. Such coating compositions are typically utilized to provide a continuous protective coating on a substrate by applying the coating composition to a surface of the substrate. Examples of such substrates include organic or inorganic components, and may include household materials such as leathers, papers, woods, metals, plastics, fabrics, paints, and the like. The coating compositions may also be suitable for use in other applications as well, e.g. as a protective and/or decorative coating, as a component in a paint, etc. [00140] It is to be understood that the appended claims are not limited to express and particular compounds, compositions, or methods described in the detailed description, which may vary between particular embodiments which fall within the scope of the appended claims. With respect to any Markush groups relied upon herein for describing particular features or aspects of various embodiments, different, special, and/or unexpected results may be obtained from each member of the respective Markush group independent from all other Markush members. Each member of a Markush group may be relied upon individually and or in combination and provides adequate support for specific embodiments within the scope of the appended claims.

[00141 ] Further, any ranges and subranges relied upon in describing various embodiments of the present invention independently and collectively fall within the scope of the appended claims, and are understood to describe and contemplate all ranges including whole and/or fractional values therein, even if such values are not expressly written herein. One of skill in the art readily recognizes that the enumerated ranges and subranges sufficiently describe and enable various embodiments of the present invention, and such ranges and subranges may be further delineated into relevant halves, thirds, quarters, fifths, and so on. As just one example, a range“of from 0.1 to 0.9” may be further delineated into a lower third, i.e., from 0.1 to 0.3, a middle third, i.e., from 0.4 to 0.6, and an upper third, i.e., from 0.7 to 0.9, which individually and collectively are within the scope of the appended claims, and may be relied upon individually and/or collectively and provide adequate support for specific embodiments within the scope of the appended claims. In addition, with respect to the language which defines or modifies a range, such as“at least,”“greater than,”“less than,”“no more than,” and the like, it is to be understood that such language includes subranges and/or an upper or lower limit. As another example, a range of“at least 10” inherently includes a subrange of from at least 10 to 35, a subrange of from at least 10 to 25, a subrange of from 25 to 35, and so on, and each subrange may be relied upon individually and/or collectively and provides adequate support for specific embodiments within the scope of the appended claims. Finally, an individual number within a disclosed range may be relied upon and provides adequate support for specific embodiments within the scope of the appended claims. For example, a range“of from 1 to 9” includes various individual integers, such as 3, as well as individual numbers including a decimal point (or fraction), such as 4.1 , which may be relied upon and provide adequate support for specific embodiments within the scope of the appended claims.

[00142] The following examples are intended to illustrate the various embodiments of the present disclosure and are not to be viewed in any way as limiting to the scope of the disclosure.

EXAMPLES [00143] Various formulations are analyzed or screened for purposes of preparing emulsions in accordance with the subject disclosure. In particular, different formulations are prepared according to the General Procedure below, with each formulation comprising: a solid silicone polyamide (Si-PA) copolymer; a silicone fluid; a chaotrope; an emulsifier; and water.

[00144] Example 1 : General Procedure

[00145] Cold Processing

[00146] A system is assembled by equipping a mixing vessel (glass beaker) with a mixer (variable-speed overhead mixer) and a cover to minimize loss of volatiles. The mixing vessel is charged with a solid silicone polyamide (Si-PA) copolymer, a silicone fluid, a chaotrope, and an emulsifier at room temperature, and the resulting mixture mixed (150-200 rpm, ca. 15-20 min) to form a homogeneous liquid silicone composition. Optionally, the emulsifier is added subsequent to other components being combined and mixed together in the mixing vessel. A separate container is charged with water and additives to form an aqueous composition. The aqueous composition is then added to the liquid silicone composition at room temperature with mixing (ca. 55 min ramp from 150 rpm to 1000 rpm) to give an emulsion.

[00147] Viscosity Analysis

[00148] A sample of the emulsion is then taken, and the viscosity of the sample analyzed at room temperature using a viscometer (Brookfield DV-II+ (T95) or DV-III Ultra (CPE-52 spindle)) at the shear rate range from 0.1 -10 second. Each sample is analyzed at least 3 times, and the resulting values averaged to give a viscosity (Pa.s) of the emulsion.

[00149] Formulation Examples 1-6

[00150] Table 1 below illustrates the components utilized to prepare 6 different emulsions, along with their respective amounts, according to the General Procedure above.

[00151 ] Table 1 :

I Viscosity (Pa.s): | 2000-3000 | 700-800 | 400-500 | 500-600 | 500-600 | 500-600

[00152] Solid Si-PA Copolymer is a Nylon-6, 6/dimethicone copolymer.

[00153] Silicone Fluid is cyclopentasiloxane (D5).

[00154] Chaotrope 1 is ethanol.

[00155] Chaotrope 2 is n-propanol.

[00156] Chaotrope 3 is iso-propanol.

[00157] Chaotrope 4 is tert-butanol.

[00158] Chaotrope 5 is iso-butanol.

[00159] Chaotrope 6 is sec-butanol.

[00160] Emulsifier is a PEG/PPG-18/18 dimethicone copolymer.

[00161] Additive 1 is aluminum sequichlorohydrate (50% sol).

[00162] Additive 2 is glycerin.

[00163] Additive 3 is calcium chloride dehydrate (CaCI * 2H20).

[00164] Comparative Example 1

[00165] Table 2 below illustrates the components utilized to prepare a comparative formulation, along with their respective amounts, according to the General Procedure above.

[00166] Table 2:

[00167] Solid Si-PA Copolymer is a Nylon-6, 6/dimethicone copolymer.

[00168] Silicone Fluid is cyclopentasiloxane (D5).

[00169] Chaotrope 7 is methanol.

[00170] Emulsifier is a PEG/PPG-18/18 dimethicone copolymer.

[00171] Additive 1 is aluminum sequichlorohydrate (50% sol).

[00172] Additive 2 is glycerin.

[00173] Additive 3 is calcium chloride dehydrate (CaCI * 2Fl20).

[00174] The resulting formulation of Comparative Example 1 is obtained as a thick opaque fluid.

[00175] Practical Examples 1-3 [00176] Table 3 below illustrates the components utilized to prepare 3 different emulsions according to the subject disclosure, along with the respective amount of each component, according to the General Procedure above.

[00177] Table 3:

[00178] Solid Si-PA Copolymer is a Nylon-6, 6/dimethicone copolymer.

[00179] Silicone Fluid is cyclopentasiloxane (D5).

[00180] Chaotrope 1 is ethanol.

[00181 ] Emulsifier is a PEG/PPG-18/18 dimethicone copolymer.

[00182] Additive 1 is aluminum sequichlorohydrate (50% sol).

[00183] Additive 2 is glycerin.

[00184] Additive 3 is calcium chloride dehydrate (CaCI * 2H20).

[00185] Comparative Examples 2 and 3

[00186] Table 4 below illustrates the components utilized to prepare two comparative formulations, along with the respective amount of each component, according to the General Procedure above.

[00187] Table 4:

[00188] Solid Si-PA Copolymer is a Nylon-6, 6/dimethicone Copolymer.

[00189] Silicone Fluid is cyclopentasiloxane (D5). [00190] Chaotrope 1 is ethanol.

[00191 ] Emulsifier is a PEG/PPG-18/18 dimethicone copolymer.

[00192] Additive 1 is aluminum sequichlorohydrate (50% sol).

[00193] Additive 2 is glycerin.

[00194] Additive 3 is calcium chloride dehydrate (CaC 2H20).

[00195] The resulting formulation of Comparative Example 2 is obtained as a white flowable mixture with undissolved gel.

[00196] The resulting formulation of Comparative Example 3 is obtained as a white mixture.

[00197] The embodiments of the present disclosure have been described in an illustrative manner, and it is to be understood that the terminology which has been used is intended to be in the nature of words of description rather than of limitation. Obviously, many modifications and variations of the embodiments of the present disclosure are possible in light of the above teachings. The embodiments of the present disclosure may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.