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Title:
ENCAPSULATION BY ENTRAPMENT WITHIN STARCH MATRIX
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1989/000419
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Chemical biological agents to be encapsulated are dissolved or dispersed in an aqueous dispersion of an amylose-containing, unmodified starch. The dispersion is characterized by completely disrupted starch granules and completely disassociated amylose molecules that are not significantly depolymerized. Subsequent cooling is accompanied by reassociation of the amylose molecules which converts the dispersion into a protective matrix and binds the agents within the interstices of the reassociating starch chains. Rate of release of agents to the environment can be altered by varying the proportion of amylose in the starch. Encapsluation of biologically active compositions provides protection against degradative environmental conditions, improves safety in handling, and slows the release of such compounds to the surrounding medium.

Inventors:
DOANE WILLIAM M (US)
WING ROBERT E (US)
MAITI SUKUMAR (IN)
Application Number:
PCT/US1988/002299
Publication Date:
January 26, 1989
Filing Date:
July 08, 1988
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
DOANE WILLIAM M (US)
WING ROBERT E (US)
International Classes:
A01N25/10; A61K9/16; A61K47/36; C08B30/12; C08L3/12; (IPC1-7): A61K9/16; B01J13/02; C09C3/10
Domestic Patent References:
WO1985004074A11985-09-26
Foreign References:
US4755397A1988-07-05
US4382813A1983-05-10
US4277364A1981-07-07
Other References:
See also references of EP 0329730A4
Download PDF:
Claims:
We claim:
1. A method or the encapsulation of a chemical biological agent comprising the steps: a. providing at elevated temperatures an aqueous amylose containing starch dispersion having an initial solids content of at least about 2Q% by weight, wherein the granules of starch are completely disrupted and the amylose molecules of the starch are substantially completely disassociated from one another without significant depolymerization; b. blending said agent into said dispersion to form a mix¬ ture of the starch dispersion and the agent, wherein the rela¬ tive amount of said solids with respect to the agent is suffic¬ ient to entrap the agent within a matrix of the starch; and c. treating the mixture under dehydrating conditions whereby the amylose components will reassociate with one another and thereby transform said mixture into a continuous insolubil ized matrix having entrapped therein uniformly dispersed, dis¬ continuous domains of the agent.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein said starch is unmodified starch.
3. The method of claim 2 wherein said starch is selected from the group consisting of pearl corn starch, corn flour, wheat starch, wheat flour, potato starch, potato flour, high amylose starch, mixtures thereof, and mixtures thereof with iether waxy starch or the amylose fraction of a starch.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein the initial solids content of the dispersion is in the range of about 2040% by weight.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein said starch dispersion is prepared by steam jet cooking.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein the temperature of cook¬ ing is in the range of about 12Q°135aC,.
7. The method of claim 1 wherein the amylose comprises from about 5% to about 70% of said starch on a dry weight basis.
8. The method of claim 1 and further comprising the step of drying the mixture into a friable mass.
9. The method of claim 1 and further comprising the steps of drying the mixture into a friable mass, particularizing the friable mass into discrete particles, and recovering said par¬ ticles,.
10. The method as described in claim 1 wherein the chemical biological agent is a herbicide, insecticide, fungicide, ne a tocide, bactericide, rodenticide, molluscicide, acaricide, lar vacide, fumigant, animal repellant, plant growth regulator, fer¬ tilizer, phero one, flavor composition, odor composition, vita¬ min, mineral, or medicament.
11. A product produced by the method of claims 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 1Q,.
12. In a method for tailoring the release rate of a chemi¬ cal biological agent encapsulated within a starch matrix, the method comprising: a. selecting a starch or mixture of starches having a ratio of amylose to amylopectin corresponding to a predetermined ratio of amylose and amylopectin needed to impart the desired release properties to said matrix; b. dispersing said starch at elevated temperatures in an aqueous medium at an initial solids content of at least about 20% by weight, wherein the granules of starch are completely disrupted and the amylose molecules of the starch are substan¬ tially completely disassociated from one another without sig¬ nificant depolymerization; c. blending said agent into said dispersion to form a mix¬ ture of the starch dispersion and the agent, wherein the rela¬ tive amount of said solids with respect to the agent is suf¬ ficient to entrap the agent within a matrix of ths starch; and d. dehydrating the mixture under conditions whereby the amylose components will reassociate with one another and there¬ by transform said mixture into a continuous insolubilized matrix having entrapped therein uniformly dispersed, discontinuous do¬ mains of the agent.
13. The method of claim 12 wherein said starch is unmodi¬ fied starch.
14. The method of claim 13 wherein said starch is selected from the group consisting of pearl corn starch, corn flour, wheat starch, wheat flour, potato starch, potato flour, high amylose starch, mixtures thereof, and mixtures thereof with either waxy starch or the amylose fraction of a starch.
15. The method of claim 12 wherein the initial solids con¬ tent of the dispersion is in the range of about 2040% by weight.
16. The method of claim 12 wherein said starch dispersion is prepared by steam jet cooking,.
17. The method of claim 12 wherein the temperature of cooking is in the range of about 120°135°C.
18. The method of claim 12 wherein the amylose comprises from about 5% to about 25% of said starch on a dry weight basis.
19. The method of claim 12 and further comprising the steps of drying the mixture into a friable mass.
20. The method of claim 12 and further comprising the steps of drying the mixture into a friable mass, particularliz ing the friable mass into discrete particles, and recovering said particles.
21. The method as described in claim 12 wherein the chemical biological agent is a herbicide, insecticide, fungi¬ cide, nematocide, bactericide, rodenticide, molluscicide, acari cide, larvacide, fumigant, animal repellant, plant growth regu¬ lator, fertilizer pheromone, flavor composition, odor composi¬ tion, vitamin, mineral, or medicament.
22. A product produced by the method of claims 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 or 21.
Description:
ENCAPSULATION BY ENTRAPMENT WITHIN STARCH MATRIX

This invention relates to a simple, novel method of encapsulating agricultural chemicals, food constituents, medica¬ ments, and otlxer chemical biological agents for controlling their release, and to the compositions prepared thereby.

Various approaches to the controlled release of chemi¬ cal biological agents by means of a sta,rch-based encapsulating material have been disclosed previously. Some of these methods have involved the use of chemical crosslinking reactions. In U.S. Patent No. 4,382,813, Shasha discloses a system for encap¬ sulating certain types of pesticidal agents by the rapid insolu¬ bilization of a starch-containing material alkoxide with a bi¬ valent cation selected from the group of calcium, barium, and strontium. While this system is applicable to water-insoluble agents, it is not particularly syitable for those which are water soluble, nor for substances susceptible to alkali degrada¬ tion.

In U.S. Patent No. 4,439,488, Trimnell et al. dis¬ close a method of encapsulation wherein entrapment is achieved by insolubilization of a polyhydroxy polymer with boric acid or a boric acid derivative at a mildly alkaline pH. This system is applicable to a broader spectrum of active agents than that of Shasha, supra, but is not suitable for products intended for human ingestion.

Controlled release by means of starch-based encapsul¬ ating materials can also be accomplished without the use of chemical crosslinking reactions. In U.S. Patent No. 2,876,160,

Schoch et al., disclose such a method which employs modified, a ylose-free starches at concentrations up to 65% solids for embedding water-insoluble materials.

In PCT Int. Appl. WO 85/04074, Flashinski et al. dis¬ close two methods of preparing a starch gel matrix containing an insecticide. The insecticide is either coextruded with a dilute, aqueous dispersion of starch, or the starch is first

partially cooked in an extruder prior to cold-blending with the insecticide. In either case, the product is .recovered and used as an aqueous, gel.

In U.S, Patent No. 4,230,687, S&i et al. disclose the application of shearing stress, vigorous mechanical working, and heat to distribute a,ctive agent into an enveloping matrix of chemically modified "starches, gums, and proteins in the presence of a limited quantity- of water. Proteins are used for slow- release matrices ? modified starches are used for rapid release.

Similarly, in U.S. Patent No. 3,922,354, Galuzzi et al. disclose the use of higlx-shear mixing to incorporate active agents into low-water, high-solids matrices prepared from par¬ tially gelatinized unmodified starches. Additives such as modi¬ fied dextrins, mixtures of mono- and diglycerides, toasted cereal solids, and coloring agents are used to control the re¬ lease of active agents.

In U.S. Patent No. 3,666,557, Jensen et al. disclose a method of using low-fat atarchy materials to microencapsulate individual beadlets of sensitive materials such as vitamins and vegetable oils. Starches are prepared for encapsulation by heating at 88°C for 30 min followed by passage through a ho og- enizer to effect disruption of granules without degradation of molecules.

We have now unexpectedly discovered a method of achieving substantially complete encapsulation of virtually all types of chemical biological agents in a starch system without the use of chemical crosslinking reagents. The agents are blended into an aqueous dispersion of amylose-containing, un¬ modified starch, in which reassociation of amylose molecule oc¬ curs when the mixture cools. This reassociation forms a contin uous, insolubilized matrix entrapping discontinuous domains of the agent within the interstices of the reassociated chains.

In accordance with this discovery, it is an object of the invention to provide a facile, universal, and industrially acceptable method for encapsulation of core materials.

It is also an objection of the invention that the pri¬ mary matrix-forming material be safe for human ingestion.

t is a further objection of the invention to provide a novel .free-flowing particulate product in which discontinuous domains of biologically active core materials are entrapped by a continuous mat ix of sta,rchy material.

Another object of the invention is to provide a prod¬ uct in which the encapsulated substance is sufficiently pro¬ tected to be safe for handling, controlla,bly released to a wide variety of environments, and resistant to losses by volatiliza¬ tion, leaching, wind transport, air oxidation, digestion, and sunlight decomposition.

Other objects and advantages of this invention will become readily apparent from the ensuing description.

The starting encapsulating material contemplated for use in the invention includes unmodified natural granular starches such as regular cereal, potato, and tapioca starch, and flours containing the same, as well as mixtures of these with waxy starches and high-amylose starches. Full-fat starches, that is, starches which have not had a portion of the bound fat removed, are suitable for use herein.

Starch is a low-cost and abundant natural polymer com¬ posed of amylose and amylopectin. Amylose is essentially a linear polymer having a molecular weight in the range of 100,000-500,000, whereas amylopectin is a highly branched poly¬ mer having a molecular weight of up to several million. When starch is gelatinized in water and cooled, the amylose retro¬ grades to a much greater extent than the amylopectin fraction. Retrogradation is a term applied to the phenomenon whereby starch chains in dispersion associate, become insoluble, and precipitate. The rate and extent of retrogradation depend on properties of dispersion (pH, temperature, concentration) and on the amount of amylose present in the dispersion. While com¬ mon cornstarch (pearl) contains about 25% amylose and 75% amylo¬ pectin, the waxy corn sta,rches contain only amylopectin and those referred to as high-amylose starches contain up to 75% amylose.

The starch is preapred for encapsulation by thorough dispersion in water under conditions that completely disrupt the

starch granules and completely disassociate essentially all the amylose molecules; without significant depolymerization. Such, dispersion is accomplished with sta.rches having amylose contents of up to about 25% when an aqueous slurry of the starch is passed through a steam-injection cooker at a, temperature of about 120 a -135°*C. Starches having greater than about 25% amyl¬ ose require temperatures of about 155°-16Q fi C. Gelatinization at lower temperatures does not ' allow complete granule rupture, while gelatinization at higher temperatures causes some starch depolymerization. Steam-injection cooking is a preferred method of gealtinization because it affords the advantage of providing a continuous process and because disruption of starch granules is accomplished rapidly and completely in one step. Alterna¬ tively, extrusion cooking will effectively achieve the gelatin¬ ization. For purposes of this invention, the starch dispersion is considered to be in the aqueous phase, which will constitute the continuous phase of the encapsulation system. The specifie starches prepared in this manner are effective to achieve en¬ capsulation without the presence of any additional encapsulatin agent.

Chemical biological agents which are suitable for use herein may be any organic or inorganic solids capable of being finely divided or any liquid, provided that the agent does not interfere with the encapsulating process, and does not react with or dissolve the encapsulating matrix. Particularly en¬ visioned are chemicals and chemical formulations which meet the above criteria and which are classified as a known herbicide, insecticide, fungicide, nematocide, bactericide, rodenticide, moluscicide, acaricide, larvacide, fumigant, animal repellant, plant growth regulator, fertilizer, pheromone, flavor composi¬ tion, odor composition, vitamin, mineral, or medicament.

Exemplary agents within the scope of the invention are categorized below: Herbicides:

S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC, "Epta ) , , ςt , α-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-p-toluidine (trifluralin, "Treflan"),

S-ethyl diisobutylthiocarbajηate (butylate, "Sutan") ,

2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile,

1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride,

2,4-dichlorophenoχy acetic acid, sodium 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetate, and ammonium 3-amino-2,5-dichlorobenzoate,

2-chloro-2' ,6'-diethyl-N-( ethoxymethyl) cetanilide

(alachlor, "Lasso"), 2-chloro-N- (2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-JST-(2-methoxy-l- methylethyDacetamide (metolachlor, "Dual").

Nematocide:

1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, Insecticides:

O-ethyl-S-phenylethyl phosphorodithioate,

S- (1, 2-dicarbethoχyethyl)-0,0-dimethyl dithiophosphate, methyl O,0-dimethyl-o,p-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate, l,l,l-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) , and

2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofura,nyl methyl carbamate. Sex lures or attractions: methyl 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, and tertiarylbutyl 4-chloro-2-methyl cyclohexane carboxylate. Pesticides:

For comprehensive lists of pesticide compositions, see 0. Johnson, Chemical Week, pp. 39-64 (June 21, 1972). Fungicide: benomyl[methyl 1- (butyl carbamoyl)-2-benzimidazole carbam¬ ate) ["Banlate"] Water soluble vitajπin: vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Fat soluble vitamins: vitamin A (trans Retinol) , vitamin D- (ergocaiciferol) Attractants:

4-allylguaiacol eugenic acid (eugenol) ,

1,2-dimethoxy-benzene ("Veratrole") , l-methoxy-4-propenyl-benzene ("Anethole") ,

1-benzoJbJpyrrole ("Indole") , a d -tolualdehyde Essential oils: orange oil (linonene) cinnamon oil, and citronella oil Flavorants: almond, menthol, and vanillin Proteins, enzymes, and amino acids: caesin, protease, lysine Nutrients: urea, sulfur Micronutrients: boron ( " as borate) , copper (as copper sulfate) , cobalt (as cobalt sulfate) , iron (as ferrous sulfate) , manganese (as manganese sulfate) . , molybdenum (ammonium molybdate) , and zinc (as zinc sulfate) Vegetable oil: corn oil Antibiotic: aureomycin (chlortetracycline hydrochloride)

Other compositions suitable as core materials for use in ac¬ cordance with the invention will be known to those skilled in the art. Core materials dissolved, emulsified, or otherwise dis¬ persed in solvents or carriers, as well as compatible combina¬ tions of the above types of compositions are also easily encap¬ sulated by the instant method.

The core material to be encapsulated is. blended with the starch dispersion by any conventionai means of obtaining a rela¬ tively uniform distribution. The domains of the agent, which constitute the discontinuous phase of the mixture, should be sufficiently small to render the mixture stable until the amyl¬ ose components reassociate with one another and entrap the core material. It would be within the skill of a, person in the art to determine the maximum level at which a particular agent can be effectively loaded into the system. However, based on the use of butylate (Example 27) , it is clear that as much as 18% active ingredient by weight can be incorporated into the disper¬ sion with 88% encapsulation. For purposes of performance, ef¬ fective amounts of core materials depend entirely on the type and characteristics of the core material, on matrix thickness, and on the intended utility of the product. A very volatile liquid, for instance, would require a thicker structure than a nonvolatile solid, and accordingly should be incorporated at a lower level. Similarly, a volatile liquid to be completely withheld from the enfironment would be incorporated at a lower level than one to be used as a slow-release pesticide. "An ef¬ fective amount of a suitable chemical biological agent" is de¬ fined herein as that amount of core material which will achieve the desired result (e.g., attract, repel, or kill pests; release a detectable aroma, flavor, nutrient, or pharmaceutically active dosage of medicament; or enhance the growth of plants) when the encapsulated composition containing the effective amount of the agent is placed in the proper environment.

Encapsulation is accomplished without the use of any chemical additives or modifiers by the simple and convenient process of dehydrating or drying the starch-agent mixture under conditions that allow the amylose components of the starch to reassociate. The result is a substantially homogeneous mass analagous to the precursiye mixture in which, now, discontinuous domains of a,ctive ingredient are uniformly dispersed throughout a continuous matrix. This process distinguishes from microen- capsulation which yields discrete particles, each comprising a domain of agent enveloped by a film or coating of encapsulating

agent.

The recovery procedure is aimed at converting the ho¬ mogeneous mass o discrete, free-flowing, nσnagglomerating par¬ ticles. In accordance with one ethd of recovery contemplated herein, the starch-agent mixture is placed on trays and dried a 30°C for 16 hr or at 130°C for 90 in. The resultin film is readily ground into small, nonagglomerating particles. In an alternate embodiment, the starch-agent mixture is worked in a sigma-blade mixer under a stream of air until sufficient moistu is lost that crumbling occurs ( . see Examples 46-51, Table XI) . The resulting particles may be easily washed, filtered, dried, and further ground if necessary by any conventional methods. In some cases further grinding is not necessary. Dewatering can also be conducted in an extruder.

The level of encapsulation is affected by the concen¬ tration of amylose in the starch; as the amylose concentration increases above about 1Q%, the percent encapsulation of active agent decreases (Examples 1-7, Table I). This phenomenon is ex plained by the alignment of the linear amylose chains in the retrogradation process. The resulting hydrogen bonding exudes part of the active agent to the gel surface where it evaporates However, the agent that becomes entrapped is released slower in the presence of more amylose beccause of the greater strength o polymer interaction. In contrast, when the amylose content is 5% or less, very little retrogradation occurs and the matrix will disperse almost completely in water. The influence of am¬ ylose concentration is similarly reflected in the amount of swelling of products when submerged in water. It is apparent, therefore, that release characteristics of the starch matrices are controlled simply and conveniently, without the use of chemical treatments or additional processing, by altering the proportion of amylose in the starch. The operable proportion i considered to be within the range of about 2-75% amylose by weight of the starch, with the preferred range being about 10- 24%. This preferred range of amylose concentrations is easily obtained by using different combinations of pearl cornstarch with waxv starch.

The following examples are intended only to further illus¬ trate the invention and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention which is defined by the claims,

Examples I- * -7

A graded series of mixtures of unmodified granular cornstarches, which contained varying proportions of waxy (0% amylose) and pearl cornstarch (25% amylose) calculated to pro¬ vide amylose in the amounts listed in Table I, was used for en¬ capsulation (Examples 1-5) , among with two samples of high-amyl¬ ose starch (Examples 6 and 7) . The general procedure was as follows: 90 g of starch was slurried in 18Q ml of water (33% solids) and passed through a continuous steam-injection cooker at 135°C. The amount of steam allowed to enter the cooker was used to regulate the gelatinization temperature, and the back pressure was kept constant. During gelatinization, pastes be¬ came diluted by as much as 100% because of steam condensation. The gelatinized starch paste was collected in a Dewar flask from the cooker and transferred to a sigma-blade mixer. Ten grams of butylate IS-ethyl bis(2-methyl propyl)carbamomethioate) was added with mixing, and mixing was continued for 30 min at 81 rpm. The mixture was transferred to trays and dried at 30°C for 16 hr. The resulting film was ground in a Waring blender to a free-flowing powder.

The amount of butylate in the ground products was de¬ termined by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and was reported as butylate encapsulated, expressed as percent of the amount init¬ ially added. The ground products were washed with hexane, treated with 2 N HC1 at 10Q°C for 5 min, and extracted with iso- octane. After the resulting products were shaken with excess water for 4 hr, the amount of butylate in the water was compared with that, in the products before shaking and reported as per¬ cent butylate released. The results of these determinations are given in Table I, Also included in the table are measurements of the increasein volume of pulverized products (0,2 g) after submersion in water (4 ml) for 24 hr (matrix volume increase, expressed as percent of initial solid volume) ,

The data in Table I demonstrate that effective encapsula¬ tion and a wide range of release rates ca,n be achieved with the use of anylose contents from about- 5% to about 70 % of the starch weight.

Table I

% Butylate % Butylate % Matrix Example % Amylose encapsulated released volume increase

a "Amylon V" starch, b "Amylon VII" starch.

Examples 8-15 Ninety-gram portions of granular pearl cornstarch each were slurried in a sufficient amount of water to give the starch concentrations listed in Table II and passed through a steam- injection cooker as described in Examples 1-7. All the remain¬ ing procedures of Examples 1-7 for the encapsulation of butylate were repeated. The results of the analytical determinations (Table III show that starch concentrations less than 20% are no¬ ticeably less effective for encapsulation and are, therefore, outside the scope of this invention. Jet cooking at higher solids loa,ding is advantageous economically because less water has to be removed to recover dry product. Higher starch concen¬ trations also give final products that swell less in water be¬ cause retrogradation is enhanced by the lower amount of water

avaible in the cooked starch dispersion and, therefore, less in¬ terference " with th alignment of starch molecules.

Examples 16 2Q Nine.ty-gram portions of granular pearl cornstarch each were slurried in 360 ml of water and passed through a steam- injection cooker at the temperatures listed in Table III. All the remaining procedures of Examples 1-7 for the encapsulation of butylate were repeated. Table III shows that temperatures between 12Q°*-135 0 C allowed the optimum recovery of active agent. Cooking at lower temperatures does not effect complete rupture of granules, while treatment at higher temperatures probably causes some starch depolymerization.

Table II

% Butylate % Butylate % Matrix Example % Starch encapsulated released volume increase

Examples 21-22 Ninety-gram portions of granular pearl cornstarch each were slurried in 360 ml of water and treated according to the proced¬ ure described in Examples 1-7 except that one of the starch- butylate mixtures was dried at 30°C for 16 hr and the other was dried at 130°C for 90 min. The results of the analytical deter¬ minations are given in Table IV.

Examples 23-27 Ninety-gram portions of granular pearl cornstarch each were treated according to the procedures described in Examples 1-7 except that butylate was added in the varying amounts listed in Table V, which also shows the characteristics of the products.

Example 28 A 90-g sampel of corn flour (about 20% amylose) was used in accordance with the general procedure of Examples 1-7. The value for butylate encapsulated was 84%; for butylate released, 37%; and for volume increase, 24Q%, These values are all slightly lower than those for pear corn starch (Example 5) .

Sample 29 A 90-g sample of potato starch (about 25% amylose)

was used in accordance with the general procedure of Examples 1- 7. The value for butylate encapsulated s 9.0%; for butylate released, 56%; and for volume increase, 280%.

Example 30; A 90-g sample of unmodified wheat starch (about 25% amylose) was used in accordance with the general procedure of Examples 1- 7. The value for butylate encapsulated was 95%; for butylate re¬ leased, 85%; and for volume increase, 320%.

E.xamples 31—32 A 9Q-g sample of "Ajnylon V£I" was used in accordance with the general procedure of Examples 1-7 except a 155°C cooking temperature was used.. Part of the sample was- also oven dried at 130°C for 90 min. The results of analytical determinations are given in Table VIt

Example 33 A 90-g sample of "Amylon VII" was used in accordance with the general procedure of Examples 1-7 using "Eptam 7E" as the active agent. The value for "Eptam 7E" encapsulated was 68%; for "Eptam 7E" released, 64%; and for volume increase, 180%. The values are all slightly lower than those for pearl corn¬ starch (Example 62)..

Example 34 A 90-g sample of potato amylose was used in accordance with the general procedure of Examples 1-7 except the cooking temper¬ ature was 157°C. The value for butylate encapsulated was 47%; for butylate released, 63%; and for volume increase, 240%.

Example 35 A 90-g sample of potato amylose (2 g.) and waxy starch (88 g.) was used in accordance with the general procedure of Examples 1-7. The amylose content was 2.4%. The value for butylate en¬ capsulated was 98%; for butylate released, 100%; and for volume increase, dispersed.

Examples 36-37 Ninety-gram portions of cornstarch (18 g pearl and 72 g waxy) representing an amylose content of 5%, each were slurried in a sufficient amount of water to give the starch concentra¬ tions listed in Table VII and passed through a steam-injection cooker as described in Examples 1-7, All the remaining proce¬ dures of Examples 1-7 fo the encapsulation of butylate were re¬ peated. The analytical results are given in Table VII.

Examples 38-40 Ninety-gram portions of granular pearl cornstarch each were used in accordance with the general procedure of Examples 1-7 except the addition of butylate was made at different starch paste temperatures in the sigma mixer. The temperatures and analytical results are given in Table VIII.

Examples 41-43 Ninety-gram portions of pearl cornstarch were used in ac¬ cordance with the general procedure of Examples 1-7 except the pH of the starch slurry was adjusted with hydrochloric acid or 5 N NaOH before cooking. The analytical results are given in Table IX %

Exa ples 44-45 Portions (454 g); of granular pearl cornstarch. each were slurried in water (908 ml) and passed through a steam-injection cooker at 135°C. The gelatinized starch was transferred to a small sigma-blade mixer. Active agents (Table X) were each added and mixing was continued until the mass dehydrated to form a crumb. The results of the analytical determinations of the 20-40 mesh fraction are given in Table X.

Examples 46-51

Portions (2724 g) ' of granular pearl cornstarch each were slurried in water ( ' 5448 g) and passed through a steam-injection cooker at 135°C. The gelatinized starch paste was transferred to a large sigma-blade mixer. Corn oil (120 g) containing an indicator (p-amino azobenzene, 182 mg) was added with mixing.

The mixture was steam-heated for 0-2.5 hr to increase the rate of water removal. The time was recorded when the product became a crumb, and its moisture content was determined. Mixing was continued until the final product was 10% moisture. The in¬ dicator concenetration was determined by ϋV as a measure of sur¬ face and encapsulated corn oil. Results are reported in Table XI.

Table VIII

. Butylate % Matrix released volume increase

34 220 31 240 32 240

Table IX

% Butylate % Butylate % Matrix

Example pH encapsulated released volume increase

41 3.0 97 60 260 42 6.0 89 43 280

43 10.0 91 46 280

Table X

Table XI

% Solids

Crumb Corn oil, %

After At time,

To sigma heating crumb hr Surface Encapsulated

84 89

00 68 I

77 82 84

Examples 52-57 Portions (2724 g) of granular pearl cornstarch each were slurried in water (5448 g) and passed through a steam-injection cooker at 135 β C. The gelatinized starch was transferred to a sigma-blade mixer, Several active agents (Table XII) were each added and mixing was continued until the mass dehydrated to form a crumb. The results of the analytical determinations of the 20- to 40-mesh fractions are given in Table XII.

Example 58

A 5.45-kg sample of pearl cornstarch was slurried in water (18.16 kg), was fed into a Readco twin screw extruder at a rate of 210 ml.min. The screw temperature was 131°C. The gelatin¬ ized starch paste (10 kg, 28% H„0) was trasnferred to a sigma- blade mixer. Corn oil containing indicator was added with mix¬ ing. Mixing was continued until the crumb that formed had a moisture content of 10%. The value for corn oil encapsulated was 81%.

Examples 59-60

A 90-g sample of granular pearl cornstarch was used in ac¬ cordance with the general procedure of Examples 1-7. After analysis (Example 59) , a portion of the sample was stored in a forced air oven at 130°C for 72 hr and then reanalyzed (Example 60) . The results of analytical determinations are given in Table XIII.

Examples 61--67 Ninety-gram portions of granular pearl cornstarch each were used in cco nce with the general procedure of Examples 1-7 except several herbicides were encapsulated. The results of analytical determinations are given in Table XIV.

Example 68

Bioassay Study. "Treflan EC" and the starch-encapsulated sample of "Treflan EC" (Example 65) were evaluated against a control by incorporation and surface application at the rate of

2

1 kg/ha to 10.-cm plastic Petri dishes containing 150 g soil at

16% moisture by weight. The tests were run at 0, 7, 14 days after the herbicide was applied against sorghum seeds. The num¬ ber and weight of plant growth were determined and are reported in Table XV.

Example 69 Glass columns (2 cm) were filled with acid-washed sand (50 g( which resulted in a 12-cm bed. The columns were loaded with "Eptam 7E" (12 mg) , "Lasso 4E" (22 mg) , the product of Example 62 (147 mg) , the products of Example 33 (227 mg) , or the prod¬ uct of Example 64 (137 mg)' . Distilled water was used for leaching and was delivered dropwise to the column from a 1000- ml separatory funnel. The effluent was collected at a rate of

2 ml/min and each fraction consisted of 10-ml volume. The mg of active agent in each fraction was determined by GC analysis, and the analytical results of this leaching study are shown in Table XVI.

Example 70 The product of Example 61 was reanalyzed 7 months after preparation to determine if "Eptam" was lost or if the product retrograded further. The results of analytical determinations are given in Table ΞVH-

Active agent % Matrix

Example (g) volume increase

61 "Eptam 7E," , 14 220

62 "Eptam 7E", 8 200

63 "Eptam 7E", 10 280

64 "Lasso EC" , 22 240

65 "Treflan EC" , 22.5 280

66 "Sutan 6.7E" d , 12 . 260 i 67 "Dual" e , 12 260

I

a Stauffer Chemical Co.; 88% a.i. b Monsanto Chemical Co.; 45% a.i. c Blanco Products Co.; 44% a.i. d SLauf ' fer Chemical Co.; 84% a.i.

IΪ iba-C.eiyy; 84.4% a.i.

.I

Ninety-gra,m portions of cornsta,rch (18 g pearl a.nd 72 g wax l representing an amylose content of 5%, each were used in accordance with the general procedure of Examples 1-7 except other actiye agents were encapsulated. The results as deter¬ mined by GC or nitrogen analysis are given in Table XVIII.

Examples 76-79 Ninety-gram portions of granular pearl cornstarch each were used in accordance with the general procedure of Examples 1-7 except highly water-soluble active agents including nutri¬ ents, micronutrients, algicides, and sweeteners were encapsul¬ ated. The results as determined by atomic absorption or UV spectroscopy are given in Table XIX.

Table XVII

% "Eptam" % "Eptam" % Matrix Example encapsulated released volume increase

61 100 74 220

70 100 78 210

Table XVIII

% Active

a Aldrich Chemical, b Sigma Chemical, c Osmonics, Inc.

Table XIX

% Active Active % Active agent agent % Matrix

Example agent (g) encapsulated released volume increase

76 CuSO .5H 0, 19.65 100

77 urea, 10 100

78 KMnO, , 19.S6 100

4

79 asαartame, 1.0 100

Example 8Q Granular pe^ l cornstarch (9Q gϊ and urea (1Q g) in water (180 " ml) was passe through a ste^rn-injection cooker. The paste was transferred to a sigma-blade mixer and mixed for 30 min be¬ fore air drying. The results of analytical determinations are compared to Example 77 in Table XX,

Example 81 A 90-g sample of cornstarch (18 g pearl and 72 g waxy) rep¬ resenting an amylose content of 5%, was used in accordance with the general procedure of Examples 1-7 except the attractant eugenol (0.75 g) was encapsulated. The value for eugenol en¬ capsulated was 100%; for eugenol released, 86%; and for volume increae, dispersed.

Example 82 A 90-g sample of cornstarch (18 g pearl and 72 g waxy) rep¬ resenting an amylose content of 5%, was used in accordance with the general procedure of Example 1-7 except the insecticide "Sevin" (0.1 g) and the attractant eugenol (0.01 g) were encap¬ sulated at 100% efficiency.

Example 83 A 90-g sample of granular pearl cornstarch was slurried in 360 ml of water and treated according to the procedure described in Examples 1-7 except that "Eptam 7E" (S-ethyl dipropylthio- carbamate) was substituted for butylate. Encapsulation was 100%; release, 72%; and volume increase 280%. Since "Eptam 7E" is more soluble in water, the percent release was much higher than that of butylate.

Example 84 Bioassay Study. The emulsifiable concentrate of EPTC ("Ep¬ tam 7E") and starch encapsulated sajmple of "Eptam 7E" as pre¬ pared above in Example 83 were surface applied at the rate of

2 6.72 kg/ha to 10 cm plastic Petri dishes containing 150 g soil

at 16% moisture. £>γ- weight. The soil was kept at constant mois¬ ture using filter paper under the soil extended into a beaker of water * The Petri Dishes were allowed to remain uncovered for 0 to 288 hr before they were bioassayed using pregerminated oat seeds (24 h,r at 1QQ% humidity) . . The experiment was conducted in the laboratory at 22°C and was replicated four times. Shoot growth was measured 72 h after bioassay was initiated, and data were compared to a standard curve to determine the kg/ha of EPTC remaining. The results are reported in Table XXI.

Example 85 A 90-g sample of cornstarch was used in accordance with the general procedure of Examples 1-7 except the fungicide "Benlate" (2 g) ' was encapsulated. The value for "Benlate" encapsulated was 100%; for "Benlate" released, 15%; and for volume increase, 280%.

Example 86 A 90-g sample of cornstarch was used in accordance with the general procedure of Examples 1-7 except the herbicide "Lasso" (22 g) and the fungicide "Benlate" (2 g) were encapsulated. The value for "Lasso" encapsulated was 96%; for "Lasso" released, 31%; and for volume increase, 240%.

Example 87 A 90-g sample of cornstarch was used in accordance with the general procedure of Examples 1-7 except the herbicide "Eptam 7E" (11 g) and the fungicide "Benlate" (2 g) were encapsulated. The value for"Eptam" encapsulated was 84%; for "Eptam" released, 71%; and for volume increase, 260%.

Example 88 A 9Q-g sampel of pearl cornstarch was used in accordance with the general procedure of Examples 1-7 except aureomycin (chlortetracycline, 3 g) . was encapsulated. The value for aureo¬ mycin encapsulated was 100%; for aureomycin released, 56%; and for folume increase, 320%.

Table XX

% Urea % Urea % Matrix Example encapsulated released volume increase

80 100 82 310

77 100 100 380

Table XXI

% EPTC Remaining

Encapsulated product

Hours EC of Example 83

0

24

48

96

144

192

288

Example 89 A 454-g sample of granular pea l cornstarch was used ip, ac¬ cordance with the .general procedure of Examples 1-7 except corn oil (22 g) . was encapsulated. The paste was mixed until it be¬ came a crumb of 2Q-40 mesh. The results of analytical determin¬ ations are gi en ip, a le XXII.

Example 90 A 9Q-g sample of pearl cornstarch was cooked as described in Example 89 and mixed in a s±gma blade mixer with a 200-g portion of the product of Example 89. Mixing was continued un¬ til the product became a 20- to 40-mesh crumb. The results of analytical determinations are given in Table XXII.

It is understood that the foregoing detailed description is given merely by way of illustration and that modifications and variations may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

Table XXII

% Corn oil % Corn oil Example encapsulated on surface

89 66 34

90 83 17




 
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