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Title:
EPOXIDIZED OIL COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING VEGETABLE WASTE OIL
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2020/091707
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
The present invention relates to an epoxidized oil composition for use as plasticizer. Said epoxidized oil composition is characterized by comprising epoxidized waste oil. The oxirane value of said epoxidized oil composition is 6-8%, acid value thereof is < 1 mgKOH/g and iodine value thereof is < 5 gl2/100 g.

Inventors:
DURMUS SEMIH (TR)
AKBASAK TUGHAN (TR)
ERDEM CEREN (TR)
ERDOGAN SEZGI (TR)
Application Number:
PCT/TR2019/050645
Publication Date:
May 07, 2020
Filing Date:
August 02, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
AK KIM KIMYA SANAYI VE TICARET ANONIM SIRKETI (TR)
International Classes:
C08K5/04; C08L27/06; C08L91/00
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ERDEM KAYA PATENT INC. (TR)
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Claims:
CLAIMS

1. An epoxidized oil composition for use as plasticizer; said epoxidized oil composition is characterized by comprising epoxidized waste oil; wherein the oxirane value of said epoxidized oil composition is 6-8%, acid value thereof is < 1 mgKOH/g and iodine value thereof is < 5 gl2/100 g.

2. The epoxidized oil composition according to claim 1 , wherein said waste oil comprises waste oil obtained from corn oil, cotton oil, flax oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, canola oil, olive oil, pomace oil and/or palm oil.

3. The epoxidized oil composition according to claim 1 or 2, wherein said waste oil comprises waste oil obtained from palm oil, sunflower oil and/or soybean oil.

4. The epoxidized oil composition according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein epoxidized vegetable oil is further provided.

5. The epoxidized oil composition according to claim 4, wherein said vegetable oil is soybean oil.

6. The epoxidized oil composition according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said waste oil comprises waste oil obtained from palm oil with proportion of 60-80% by weight of the total waste oil and here, said epoxidized oil composition comprises 10-20% waste oil by weight of the total composition and soybean oil with proportion of 90-80% by weight.

7. The epoxidized oil composition according to claim 6, wherein said waste oil comprises waste oil obtained from sunflower oil with proportion of 10-20% of the total waste oil by weight.

8. The epoxidized oil composition according to any one of the claims between 1 and 5, wherein said waste oil is formed by waste oil obtained from sunflower oil and here said epoxidized oil composition comprises waste oil with proportion of 50-100% and soybean oil with proportion of 50-0% of the total composition by weight.

9. A method for producing epoxidized oil composition for use as plasticizer, said method is characterized by comprising the step of an oil composition, comprising waste oil, is epoxidized at temperatures which do not exceed 70°C.

10. The method according to claim 8, wherein said method comprises the steps of: i) forming perform ic acid by means of the reaction of formic acid or asetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in reaction medium and ii) epoxidizing the oil composition by means of the formed performic acid.

11. The method according to claim 9, wherein the steps i) and ii) are realized at temperatures not exceeding 70°C.

12. The method according to claim 9 or 10, wherein the epoxidation reaction is ended when the oxirane number is 6-8% and when the iodine value is < 5 gl2/100 g.

13. The method according to any one of the claims between 8 and 1 1 , wherein said method comprises the step of neutralizing the reaction solution by using a suitable base solution after epoxidation.

14. The method according to claim 12, wherein the neutralization step is realized at temperatures between 80 and 90°C.

15. Use of an epoxidized oil composition, according to any one of the claims between 1 and 7, as lubricant in shaping plastics.

16. A plastic product comprising epoxidized oil composition comprising epoxidized waste oil, wherein the oxirane value of said epoxidized oil composition is 6-8%, acid value thereof is < 1 mgKOH/g and iodine value thereof is < 5 gl2/100 g.

17. The plastic product according to claim 15, wherein said plastic product is PVC product.

Description:
EPOXIDIZED OIL COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING VEGETABLE WASTE OIL

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to an epoxidized oil composition comprising vegetable waste oil with increased performance in order to be used in plastic sector, particularly in PVC and a method related to epoxidation of vegetable waste oils.

KNOWN STATE OF THE ART

Epoxidized oils are products obtained as a result of oxidation reaction of double bonds, existing in the structures of unsaturated vegetable oils, in the presence of peroxide. The product known as epoxidized oil in the market and the product which is mostly used is Epoxidized Soybean Oil (ESBO). The plasticizer sector is where ESBO is most widely used and which covers 64% of the market (market and markets, 2014). ESBO can be used as plasticizer in flexible, semi-flexible and rigid PVC components, it binds hydrochloride acid, which is the light and thermal degradation product of the material, to its body thanks to the epoxide groups in its structure, and it prevents the yellowing which may occur in PVC products in time. Since ESBO is obtained from soybean oil and since ESBO is a subtance having high molecular weight, it provides flexibility to the product where it is added, and retards the unfavorable effects like volatility, migration and extraction.

ESBO metal stabilizers are secondary plasticizers which operate in a synergic manner together with the metal soaps, ester waxes and oil acid esters. The other areas, where ESBO can be used as raw material, are UV-curing applications, fuel additives, poliol output, agricultural products and pharmaceutical products, surfactants, adhesives and coatings. Moreover, it is also used as pigment dispersion agent. The demand for use of ESBO in different sectors has a trend to increase. The main reason of this is the increase of request for the PVC components which have low-cost and which are environment-friendly and which do not comprise phythalate. Instead of traditional dioctyl phythalate (DOP), Epoxidized Soybean Oil (ESBO) is preferred in various applications since it is not toxic and since it has a lower cost.

In the known state of the art, various solutions have been disclosed as an alternative to ESBO. For instance, in the patent application with number CN103709125A, the usage of epoxidized oil acid methyl esters, obtained from kitchen wastes, as plasticizer is disclosed. It is disclosed that said epoxidized oil acid methyl esyers have better characteristics when compared with ESBO and that it has similar plasticizer characteristics as dioctyl-phythalate (DOP) and dibuthyl phythalate (DBP). In said document, said kitchen wastes are prepared by being subjected to various pre-processes before epoxidation. Moreover, it is substantially difficult to formulate the obtained epoxide products in a suitable manner to the determined standards.

As a result, because of all of the abovementioned problems and because of the insufficiency of the present solutions about the subject, an improvement is required in the related technical field.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to an epoxidized oil composition which is suitable for use as plasticizer in plastic applications, particularly in PVC applications and a method for the production of said composition, for meeting the above mentioned requirements and for eliminating the above mentioned disadvantages and for bringing new advantages to the related technical field.

The main object of the present invention is to obtain an epoxidized oil composition for use as plasticizer with increased performance.

Another object of the present invention is to obtain an epoxidized oil composition which eliminates the yellowing problem which may occur in PVC products in time.

Another object of the present invention is to obtain an epoxidized oil composition which has low cost, which is environment-friendly and which does not comprise phythalate.

Another object of the present invention is to obtain an epoxidized oil composition which shows improved lubricant effect.

In order to realize the abovementioned objects, the present invention discloses an epoxidized oil composition for use as plasticizer; said epoxidized oil composition comprises epoxidized waste oil; the oxirane value of said epoxidized oil composition is 6-8%, acid value thereof is < 1 mgKOH/g and iodine value thereof is < 5 gl 2 /100 g. In order to realize the objects of the present invention, said waste oil comprises waste oil obtained from corn oil, cotton oil, flax oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, canola oil, olive oil, pomace oil and/or palm oil.

In order to realize the objects of the present invention, said waste oil comprises waste oil obtained from palm oil, sunflower oil and/or soybean oil.

In order to realize the objects of the present invention, said epoxidized oil composition moreover comprises epoxidized vegetable oil.

In order to realize the objects of the present invention, said vegetable oil is soybean oil.

In order to realize the objects of the present invention, said waste oil comprises waste oil obtained from palm oil with proportion of 60-80% by weight of the total waste oil and here, said epoxidized oil composition comprises 10-20% waste oil by weight of the total composition and soybean oil with proportion of 90-80% by weight.

In order to realize the objects of the present invention, said waste oil is formed by waste oil obtained from sunflower oil and here said epoxidized oil composition comprises waste oil with proportion of 50-100% and soybean oil with proportion of 50-0% of the total composition by weight.

In order to realize the abovementioned objects, the present invention moreover discloses a method for producing epoxidized oil composition for use as plasticizer, said method comprises the following step: an oil composition comprising waste oil is epoxidized at temperatures which do not exceed 70°C.

In order to realize the objects of the present invention, said method comprises the following step: i) forming performic acid by means of the reaction of formic acid or asetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in reaction medium and ii) epoxidizing the oil composition by means of the formed performic acid.

In order to realize the objects of the present invention, steps i) and ii) are realized at temperatures not exceeding 70°C.

In order to realize the objects of the present invention, the epoxidation reaction is ended when the oxirane number is 6-8% and when the iodine value is < 5 gl 2 /100 g. In order to realize the objects of the present invention, said method comprises the following step: neutralizing the reaction solution by using a suitable base solution after epoxidation.

In order to realize the objects of the present invention, the neutralization step is realized at temperatures between 80 and 90°C.

In order to realize the objects of the present invention, the present invention discloses the usage of an epoxidized oil composition as lubricant in shaping plastics.

In order to realize the abovementioned objects, the present invention discloses moreover a plastic product and said plastic product comprises epoxidized oil composition comprising epoxidized waste oil, wherein the oxirane number of the epozidized oil composition is 6-8% and iodine value thereof is < 5 gl 2 /100 g.

In order to realize the objects of the present invention, said plastic product is PVC product.

The structural and characteristic properties and all advantages of the present invention will be understood in a more clear manner by means of the below mentioned detailed description and evaluation shall be made by taking into consideration the below mentioned detailed description.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

In this detailed description, the preferred embodiments of the subject matter epoxidized oil composition and of the production method of said composition are explained with references to examples without forming any restrictive effect only in order to make the subject more understandable.

The present invention discloses an epoxidized oil composition obtained by epoxidizing by using the oil mixture, obtained by mixing waste oils and vegetable oils at specific proportions, as raw material. It has been surprisingly found that the subject matter epoxidized oil composition meets the determined specifications which must be met by Epoxidized Soybean Oil (ESBO) sold commercially. Moreover, it has been found that the subject matter epoxidized oil composition functions as a plasticizer with increased performance, in plastic sector, particularly in PVC applications. Moreover, it has been found that the subject matter epoxidized oil composition provides lubricant characteristic to the final product. Particularly in the tests made by means of extrusion systems, when standard ESBO, in other words, when ESBO produced from soybean oil and the subject matter epoxidized oil composition are compared, it has been observed that the subject matter epoxidized oil composition provides lower torque values and lower pressure values inside mould. This essentially mentions that the friction force between the processed product and the machine surface decreases and the processed product flows inside the machine in a more rapid and comfortable manner since the lubricant effect of the subject matter epoxidized oil composition is greater.

In food factories, as a result of the processes, great amounts of vegetable oil wastes occur named as side product and most of them are destroyed very rapidly or they are used for producing low-economy products (animal feed, fertilizer, etc) by using lower-level technologies. Besides, said waste oils can be used for producing bio-diesel. For instance, it is known that 1 .5 million tones of vegetable oil is used for food purposes in Turkey and yearly approximately 350 thousand tones of waste oil occurs through this vegetable oil. The waste oils lead to serious environment and water pollution and threatens human health. The present invention moreover provides prevention of environment pollution and transformation into value-added products by re-using waste oils as raw material for chemistry industry.

Vegetable oils are used in food sector mostly for grilling purposes. As the vegetable oils are used in grilling process, three basic degradation reactions are realized. These are;

(a) hydrolysis formed by water

(b) oxidation and thermal degradation formed by oxygen and heat

(c) polymerization which occurs as a result of said reactions in clauses (a) and (b).

Moreover, other reactions, which lead to formation of degradation products, also occur between the oil and food components. Since all degradation products have polar characteristic, the total polar substance ingredients (TPM) of grilling oils provide realization of healthy evaluations about the amount of degradation reactions which occur. Therefore, TPM values and additionally the values like acid number, hazing point and oxidization ingredient are used as criteria in the delimitation of the usage of grilling oils more than one time, for instance, in the area of food for grilling purposes.

In Turkey, in order to provide the management of vegetable waste oils in a suitable manner, “The Regulation of Control of Vegetable Waste Oils”, prepared by Environment and Forest Ministry has been published in the Official Gazette with date 19.04.2005 and with number 25791 and executed. Within the scope of said regulation, soap-stock, residue in the bottom of the tank and oily soils which are the output of vegetable raw oil rafinery industry, and the used grilling oils, the oils which are the output of oil holders of various plants and the vegetable oils which exceed the expiration date are defined as vegetable waste oil.

In accordance with said regulation, the vegetable waste oils can only be used in production of bio-diesel and bio-gas in a compliant manner to the related technical regulations. Moreover, in Turkey, within the scope of “Notification of Control Criteria of Solid and Liquid Oils Used for Grilling Purposes” (Notification No: 2007/41 ), which has been published in the Official Gazette with date 28.08.2007 and with number 26627 and executed, by the Environment and Forest Ministry, the usage characteristics of liquid and solid oils used in grilling processes more than once have been described. In the notification, the limits of the physical and chemical characteristics of grilling oils are described. In accordance with these limit values, the polar substance existing in waste oils must be smaller than or equal to 25% and the hazing point must be greater than 170°. In other words, the oils which exceed these values and which cannot be further used for grilling are classified as waste oils.

Within the scope of the present invention, the waste oil means vegetable waste oil obtained after usage of vegetable oils once or more than once. Within the scope of the present invention, vegetable waste oils are preferred which are particularly outside of the criteria of polar substance < 25% and hazing point > 170°C. The waste oils obtained by means of the present invention can be filtered for removing only the solid particles which remain inside thereof. The waste oils except these are epoxidized without being subjected to any pre- process and they are used in preparation of the subject matter epoxidized oil composition. Within the scope of the present invention, the vegetable oil means non-waste oil which has not yet been used.

Vegetable oils are structures formed mostly by triglyceride molecules. Triglyceride molecules are also known as tri-acyl-glycerol (TAG). In these structures, long-chained oil acid molecules have been bonded to the gylcerol molecules. The vegetable oils are named as saturated or unsaturated oils according to the number of double bonds of the oil acid molecules. While there is single bond between the C-C atoms in the oil chain in saturated oils, there are different numbers of double bonds in unsaturated oils. The structure of a triglyceride molecule is generally shown by the Formula (I) below.

Formula (I)

The number of carbon in the oil acid chains and the saturation/unsaturation proportions determine the characteristic of said oil. In unsaturated oils, there is oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid. These comprise 1 , 2, 3 double bonds in their structures respectively. The double bonds existing in unsaturated oils are reactive regions. The epoxidization step is realized through double bonds. A part of the unsaturated vegetable oil acids and their structures are shown in Table 1 below.

Table 1

The waste oil is obtained from various vegetable oils. A part of the vegetable oils which are used in food industry and which form the waste oil and the oil acid compositions thereof have been shown in Table 2 below.

Table 2

In the subject matter epoxidized oil composition, preferably waste oils obtained from corn oil, cotton oil, flax oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, canola oil, olive oil, pirina oil and/or palm oil, more preferably, soybean, sunflower and/or palm oil are used. The waste oil obtained from soybean oil provides flexibility to the product where it is added, and retards the unfavorable effects like volatility, migration and extraction which may occur in PVC. Particularly, palmitic acid and oleic acid which exist in palm oil in a plenty manner are used in plastic sector because of their lubricant characteristics in a stand-alone manner or in the form of ester as lubricant.

The number of double bonds of the vegetable oils is determined by means of iodine analysis which is a titrimetric method. The number of double bonds in their structures is associated with the iodine value. Since epoxidization reactions are realized in regions comprising double bonds, the iodine values (in other words, the number of double bonds thereof) of the oils determine the number of epoxide ring numbers which occur as a result of reaction. The epoxide number is determined by means of oxirane analysis which is a titrimetric method and the occurring result is described as oxirane number (%). In oils having high proportion of iodine value, it is expected that the oxirane number is high. The iodine values of some vegetable oils have been given below in Table 3.

Table 3

In food industry, the oils used as grilling oil mostly comprise palm oil. As can be seen in Table 3, the iodine value of the palm oil is substantially low when compared with the soybean oil. Therefore, by using waste palm oil in a stand-alone manner, the desired oxirane number cannot be reached in the final product. On the other hand, the most frequently existing oil in waste oils after palm oil is sunflower oil. As can also be seen in Table 3, the iodine value of sunflower oil is high and it has been found that the desired oxirane value can be reached in the final product by using waste sunflower oil in a stand-alone manner.

Epoxidization is the event where the double bonds, existing in unsaturated oil acids existing in vegetable oils, are transformed into epoxide structure by means of performic acid formed as a result of reaction of formic acid or acetic acid, preferably formic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Performic acid functions as oxygen carrier in the reaction medium. This process is realized in two steps namely, i) formation of performic acid in reaction medium and ii) epoxidation step as shown in Figure 1 .

H 2 0 2 + RL0QH --- RCUOOH + H 0

Figure 1

According to the invention, when the oxirane number and iodine value reach the desired values in the epoxidation step, the epoxidation reaction is ended. The values, which must be met by ESBO which is sold commercially, are shown in Table 4 below.

After the acid phase is separated from the reaction medium, the reaction solution is neutralized by using a suitable base solution. For neutralization, preferably base solutions like sodium carbonate, potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, etc. can be used.

The free oil acid (%, FFA) and the acid number (mgKOH/g) amount of the waste oil taken from the recycle company can be higher than the values in the determined raw material specifications. This increases the acid number (mgKOH/g) in the final product, and leads to exceeding of the final product from the specification. In routine ESBO productions, since the acid number coming from soybean oil raw material in routine ESBO productions is within the specification, 50-60°C is ideal for neutralization. However, it has been determined that this temperature is not sufficient for the mixtures comprising waste oil and that the acid value of the final products produced therefrom occurs to be high. It has been observed that the neutralization of excessive acid is realized in a more effective manner at high temperature. Therefore, in order to overcome said problem, the neutralization step realized after the reaction is realized between 80 and 90°C. Thus, the acid number of the final product can be reduced to the determined limit ranges.

The present invention morever describes a method for producing the oil composition for the epoxide. Said method comprises the steps of forming performic acid by means of the reaction of formic acid or acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide and transforming the double bonds inside the vegetable oil mixture into epoxide structure.

In the performic acid formation reaction, preferably a homogeneous catalyst is used. Among the reasons of preferring a homogeneous catalyst are that the homogeneous catalyst is in liquid phase when compared with the heterogeneous catalyst, it has high selectivity at low temperature, it can be diffused at high proportion, heat transfer can be realized in an easier manner, the active ends can be defined in a better manner and it has a simpler mechanism. For instance, ion change catalysts can be used like organic acids like sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid or p-toluene sulphonic acid, benzene-sulphonic acid, sulphanilic acid, etc or like poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1 -propane-sulphonic acid), sodium polystyrene sulphonate. Or no catalyst may be used.

Both in performic acid formation and in epoxidation reactions, temperature parameter has a critical importance. The temperature must not exceed 70°C. Degradation occurs above this temperature and side product formation is observed. On the other hand, when the temperature is very low, the reaction duration extends excessively. Epoxidation reaction is preferably realized at temperatures between 55°C and 70°C.

There are determined specifications which must be met by ESBO which is sold commercially. Accordingly, the specifications which are desired to be provided by the subject matter epoxidized oil composition are given in Table 4.

Table 4

As the oxirane value is within the ranges mentioned in Table 4, less HCI gas output is provided during processing of the final product, for instance, during processing of the PVC product.

When the iodine value is lower than the mentioned value, the secondary reacting probability of the material reduces.

Since the acid value is lower than the mentioned value, the pH of the medium and the acidic medium do not give damage to the mechanical parts, and formation of inhomogeneous mixtures because of acidic medium is prevented.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the oxirane value of said epoxidized oil composition is 6-8%, acid value is <1 , iodine value is <5. Said composition is moreover in light yellow transparent liquid form.

The subject matter epoxidized oil composition is suitable primarily for PVC and for the plastic sector, UV-curing applications, poliol production, pigment dispersion applications, lubricant and mould separating applications.

Lubricants are additive substances which facilitate lubricant characteristics of polymeric substances in solid and melt form and which prevent adhesion of melt polymers to different places of the machines and which facilitate processing of plastics. The amount of saturated oil acid of the palm oil in the waste oil is greater than the amount of unsaturated oil acid. In Table 2, the oil acid ingredients of soybean oil and palm oil have been given. Since palm oil is generally used in food industry, the palm proportion in waste oil is great. Preferably, waste oil comprises approximately 60-80% palm oil by weight. In order to easily reach the desired specifications, the waste oil more preferably comprises palm oil with proportion of approximately 60-80% by weight, sunflower oil with proportion of approximately 10-30% by weight, the other oils with proportion of approximately 5-10% by weight.

Normally, in palm oil, in accordance with Table 2, there is 50% saturated oil acid and there is 50% unsaturated oil acid. Particularly, palmitic acid and oleic acid which exist in a plenty manner in palm oil are used as lubricant in a stand-alone manner or in ester form in plastic sector because of its lubricant characteristics. Therefore, the subject matter epoxidized oil composition has more“lubricant” effect when compared with ESBO produced only from soybean oil. By means of this, while the epoxide groups of the subject matter epoxidized oil composition realize plasticizer function during processing of PVC products, the palmitic acid and oleic acid groups coming from palm oil provide lubricant function.

By means of its lubricant characteristic, the subject matter epoxidized oil composition leads to consuming less time of PVC products in the mould and leads to damaging less both in thermal perspective and chemical perspective in molecular level. Thus, PVC product can preserve its thermal, mechanical and physical properties for a longer time. For instance, by means of the subject matter epoxidized oil composition, a produced PVC product has higher light sensitivity when compared with the equivalent produced from standard ESBO and the yellowing duration of the product under sunlight is much longer. At the same time, this characteristic provides all mechanical characteristics of the final product like drawing, breaking and roping to be higher.

EXAMPLES

Example 1

In the epoxidation studies realized in the laboratory, soybean oil and two different waste oils have been used. a) Soybean oil: From an oil company

b) Waste oil: From Recycle company (approximately 80% palm oil and 20% others by weight)

c) Waste oil: From cafeteria of a company (100% sunflower oil)

In Table 5, the analysis results of raw materials used in studies have been shown. The rafined soybean oil is the processed and filtered soybean oil. The soybean oil has not been subjected to any process.

Table 5

Example 2:

Epoxidation step

200 grams of oil (1 -4 oil samples in Table 6 and 1 -6 oil samples in Table 7) have been put to a 1 liter reaction balloon which has three necks and which comprises thermometer, stirrer and feeding inlet. 12.4 grams of formic acid has been added to this at 55°C and stirred for specific duration. At another location, 0.42 grams of HEDP (Hydroxy-ethylene diphosphonic acid) and 0.08 grams of sulpuric acid have been added and stirred inside 80 grams of 50% hydrogen peroxide. This solution has been fed to the reaction balloon at 60°C. The reaction has been realized at 60-70°C. Since the reaction is exothermic and since the temperature must not exceed 70°C, cooling is applied when required. After feeding is finished, sample has been taken at specific intervals and oxirane number and iodine value have been monitored. The reaction is ended approximately 1 1 hours later. The separation of acid phase has been waited. After the acid phase at the bottom is removed, it has been washed with water 2 times and the washing phases have been separated. It has been neutralized by means of 2% sodium carbonate solution. The neutralization phase has been separated and washed 2 times with water. After the aqueous phase is taken, the water which remains in the product has been evaporated. The humidity amount: < 0.05. The abovementioned processes have been realized for each sample.

Example 3:

Results of the experiment made by using waste oil 2

Table 6

As can be seen in Table 6, since waste oil is used in a stand-alone manner in the trials realized with waste oil taken from the recycle company, the final product cannot provide the 5 desired spefications. However, in the trials where 10% and 20% waste oil is added to soybean oil, it has been observed that the final product is within the specification.

Results of the test made by using waste oil (3)

Table 7

As can be seen in Table 7, in the experiments made by using waste oil, taken from a company cafeteria and which is 100% sunflower oil, in a stand-alone manner as a raw 5 material and in the experiments made by mixing to the soybean oil with proportions of 10%, 20%, 30%, 50% respectively, the final products have stayed within the specification.

Result

10 Since the ingredient of waste oil will affect the final product specifications, studies have been made by means of the waste oils obtained from the recycle company and from the cafeteria. Specific proportions of waste oil have been added to soybean oil used as raw material in the production of epoxidized soybean oil. While the waste oil comprising 100% sunflower oil and obtained from the cafeteria can be used as raw material in a stand-alone manner, waste oil 15 comprising 80% palm oil and obtained from the recycle company cannot be used as raw material in a stand-alone manner and when it is mixed with soybean oil with proportion of maximum 20%, product with the desired specifications can be obtained.