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Title:
FABRICATION PROCESS AND LAYOUT FOR MAGNETIC SENSOR ARRAYS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2012/106357
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A magnetic sensor includes a plurality of groups, each group comprising a plurality of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices having a plurality of conductors configured to couple the MTJ devices within one group in parallel and the groups in series enabling independent optimization of the material resistance area (RA) of the MTJ and setting total device resistance so that the total bridge resistance is not so high that Johnson noise becomes a signal limiting concern, and yet not so low that CMOS elements may diminish the read signal. Alternatively, the magnetic tunnel junction devices within each of at least two groups in series and the at least two groups in parallel resulting in the individual configuration of the electrical connection path and the magnetic reference direction of the reference layer, leading to independent optimization of both functions, and more freedom in device design and layout. The X and Y pitch of the sense elements are arranged such that the line segment that stabilizes, for example, the right side of one sense element; also stabilizes the left side of the adjacent sense element.

Inventors:
MATHER PHILLIP (US)
SLAUGHTER JON (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2012/023363
Publication Date:
August 09, 2012
Filing Date:
January 31, 2012
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
EVERSPIN TECHNOLOGIES INC (US)
MATHER PHILLIP (US)
SLAUGHTER JON (US)
International Classes:
G11B5/33
Foreign References:
US20090279212A12009-11-12
US20030169620A12003-09-11
US20030031046A12003-02-13
US20100277971A12010-11-04
US20100013035A12010-01-21
Other References:
See also references of EP 2671224A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
KOCH, William E. (P.C.7010 E. Cochise Roa, Scottsdale Arizona, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

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i?omsisf; Se tsmssel ½smfflt l¾^erj fe&sf s im½i iisraagl. me s¾fesaaes iaj asd.&e electasde ®f &s ssfemc elemsiife 1mm s sitisl eledxkal e«3sme£&m; a:& sad

i½3E£LBg Sat a&mmi®&K&mi&-gfasa bjr af s sdaetags ¾s com lete &s -ei-e bieal comiKi &iHei.

Description:
&B K tm ESEGCE5S AND L&YOUT FOiL MAG 1 1C ARRAYS

Has sEK &siisE. eldsjs bsasfi; ®f OJL Ap^katk^ M©..13/21 Oil Sesl sgast IS, 2011, ¾¾½£ξί- m b^shz s && hew* af .S. F.m½s)BBal p li^tss. Mo. l SS B? Sl&i Jansaiy 51, 2011.

TE ISCAL. FIELD

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:msg3ssisgleefe«mk de¾½e¾ ssd ssssse i Azairbr to CMOS mit ifele -mjg e&sd dxsme

& as-ssss KSSSI to ssssss aaagEs e: fields.

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BUEf DESC IP1IOM OF IKE B1A IMGS

SISI l¾e pseseni rnvsmi s. will. l-enEsmfter ¾e des- ibesi m. ee^s amk i s && i sm^ag. Aawmg Sgsses* Ike wwm s &ε∞ή e ekmssfe.

P@IIJ FIG:. I i&sfestes tsm s&i 's seas* lEssing msissfeatisms thai 3_3gted sqrfy m iS iked&s §mm a pianed ia^r fat will tfeSeci m xc^onse an mtes-a y aplied magSEgtk: SsM ass rniids as raslpoi signs! -slates! © fee crass Hsggsi ef Use i sefk: fe fat is aligs&i ft. &e -a--ig &ss$ ffif&e assed .fe

P§13 FIG. I ilimissies as dsdj's&ie csmass s$ms a∑¾ w&iek ¾t¾es «SSksB.ial s¾3_s¾ss: fbraaed &a tare biislge sfeaeissss i& ¾ra*JsigMed I J se&sssx, alssg &e -diss-ii: ssi at fo sadk ½isge :s)a¾chir«c OiJi FIG.3 is ¾ .<amp¾¾p sd^ssmaik f^s sd!kse ¾_½w «s a ¾¾safefene ½i½s dreas* . wifeidk ses^s-^ssaecied M J s !Si&s sis aligned, to* hsvm sii&smt magssfea&ss. fcsc&t-ss

P@MJi FIG:.4 s a pst&sl s bgasa!is; pesspecfce ¾« fat asd SSSMJSJ MTJ sessass ¾¾id-2, iselai e a mag etc field gBusa&sr sfeseka® far &a∑½g. w sibfimig Sse sssse Isj ior a os: d rng sense opiessstksss:: fS§ls FIG, 5 is -a aiiial ams-se &SEai ½w of as lagjaSsit msmt m s sk fee fet sad MO <$®smi m FIG, 4 « swed ts sm zs * k m differed

P$i§l FIG. i is a sso- E&ed sdsems!lic fep plaa ¾½ of a iB&ele l¾"¾3¾ s½m½ig cadif-Bs a lsestefeBs fcsisige eireast msfk 3 wagpsgkn Ss g^es^oar stesl e cssitisssed isiatKm *s-

FIGS.7 asJ S ass a psEstial cmss sc£&m and. a 'to \w, s¾s es ¾ : sly 5 of a fesi sssies of ste s i&^se pi ^s s f sEimsg a &s¾ msas si smlsi^msBi SIIi FIGS. P ssd 1 : ass a pssissl SEBSSS sedfesm aad a sf a sesssad ss½s of se s m tise ptoeess sf fens-sg a &_t measisiy i§Mf I FIGS. II and 12 a« a partial

seres: ®f steps miiss paseess &s ss3s-Hi ls∑y n&S, 13 asxd 14 sa¾ a F a* mm <m efa™& of s¾e s mfiss ¾j«ess ei&s mg. a seeesdi sssia tsrj *wfafaw»i;

FIGS, I S mi, IS ase a partsal sas¾ss md a fep ar, i®spesfesl¾ of a sessoss sesies o ste s is His sseess of f msiiag c s ess-a-plary smbosS-Bsst;

FIG.17 is a ssgMK&^e ¾sew «f me seeas-d eses-a lasy eaaabsdioamt:

|§ 2¾ FIGS.. IS sad 19 sa¾ a partial warn sedi d a

sds of ste s ½ 3¾e psoesss af l½siBg ses-OEst sse glksrp wshe&swB t f Si2 § FIG. IP is s. top afw ©f Use m½si

1902*1 IG 21 wxm eflse tis esHBssfa*; ssfcfcss as*

|S$ ¾1 FIG 22 is a few eEai af fee Hrfi<ssl m sce ssisstee witk fee essm l-aj

DEIAiLED BESC FII0M

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sf ise msienaE^Jstmce sa ieAc* (HA) rffcl!TJ f best ei k™se asd } aimg total de¾½e insistence te fes total ½idigs s^skiasee & s» k &at Idhsasssi assise isesssmes a sigsal fasifeig ecBcera, may ji -sraisi. me read sgnal At least esse csmeat .fee is dis ose; seas eaek s smg efesg-st, 3» rfcdi C&sia&ee' between m dessssiy) »£ fhe sense ee-sessts is asiaBged so Htai ·ϋβ sssssaiaal saaEsriEac&sralik sssse lessssii spaces axe mssiamsdi {~· Θ,Ι. ναε^. sod. sassex-i !isss seax fee sesse ess-esfe may adjjaias, yidi ½g a siegis sfebfeaiksB strp fa* iasras s &e asxa .. A cajsent wsat s es a si¾½iiz3.fe& sssaea-i to i-be at leas ass CJHMI 1½ ami weasBsmg esyesiky is Ma les! fe a ssB isg elesiksst m&gMt ferssi-iai Ibr : easHi½g &s SKS¾SS-£ sad detmrn ssg fee s-tesgil. of se issgsefe Held A sdea mg. pdbe may ½ ajsp&eil to fee esHXS-f Is tsee siig ead. m¾3sas¾i.3asi s car si a feed ar ^g^# s ¾ r abisnssBs

!SfiSSf Is st-sAssr totadime&i, aife fee p½i- g sfeep si_3sEi aaaBgwa& me lefee-sse yer in ssmsdisnse to is sfea e is £aa-fi- - fes ssfssgnss layes:' may ¾e

jsraefdsig j50£i½ss isst esn. sp«sdligdi ^sss s asss^s. m ms aaia Amig fee msmdfe tssmg ms-fesd ta prsitoss fes stusclmie stiselssssd; a¾e¾¾.. ¾ top d dR&db is ssfesqssesiy ¾rs½33.

seg-ssEs s¾F oos^edssig i osie of sose e-lsssess is ssaies. ' Utese gims ss may be srasfs . m sesies p sllsL Ik tfeis omEB-, &e dedxkal cffissKd^QO. pa& a&d fee maEg3¾iic refesee ifec sm ef mfmse layaast A. to eodaes a mosre precisely e^sisolei. j&oal desisstl s½m« 5¾ ist3Ese, A iieeaaly,, Out. ef!est of SE loaar ze^tance ekmssai fee feial ¾ϊϊ¾ε © 'st &i may be «¾T¾½½.l-¾d &amsii»EB eim^raffi ½ fe e^est as a xaea eF ©fa fsoal a as it wsraid <3κκί oat to: aisllel se -sest If §m snis® is esmnssitssi as ssifeed 3½^, a sssgle Saw sg-_½kDE£ elesssei-t ssesey iBS-ksies &8 graa Fedstesies m. s iasiiHSiM ^ atkm fe me fetal sxamhss: si a_3¾y xaEBs as. K.EEsli y ast^mgaag. in feis ssiiss %s& m½E¾g: ^ &sa ss aees me impad. of & smier ½tei.«2-s¾efe- ess-aBecfeig &e grasps fegs&er CKB. &S S-SSS psraaiefes- — sg ekmHti,

lisE-iisdi to tss© asses o ilss sfcafe is-a&s- Esse} af esdk SS-ESS dLessssi. Tibs 3 aid, Y pisl. ©·£ sse seEse eJemssiis si¾ anaaged sack flssi &g line segsaaasi fiaaf sisMiseS j i¾r sEasss s, fc¾ sig sisig ef rase sesse ds-iaeai; also stabilses 'i e left side e &s adjacest scsase elemcxiL I s -®oxdtgma&m. alls s Sartise Iksst i^ m &e sn sfessa-t ¾£ sensa *k sti& i lhi . a ss sa- $& fai fee sslaiis eaissitstisms ¾s£wess sessss d sefesesse 3S-s«slrs¾5if axes -say be Trnmlammw wHs wasoax sag. fise jsadkisg sBsitis & && ses.se die-meats. IMs. alisnss a larger nnaase.: of s-β «½ntsb io Ί» slsialisjei wift a fixed Sse length; or «BBS*iseiy a fesd WMBBI s MIiasfes lose .xskfeztse, aid. a a ^issiS ly MgBer padkisg <£ss<¾ smdk &ai fte miser sf sense efasssfe ma be ssoe ased wfaik fee fessip½i aftfae sessor asay be recce .

Use sense asay is ©p&msi!y sized §x feifbiesi passible sigE l-s-i-eise {SMI} laile ewmg i e available dksge st y s s&isissK t s seasssirs wiib. ri&c tke ssssEe&t ste-sg ¾.« wexsme i&fc p ase. ¾B» or iss-re esjsper ESS (SHT sEsBs-I em-sseted sss½s of iiss segments age rosled adjacfii-i ssck sssss-e ele-iami fo «ra»»fca«t &e

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m ¾™pJ» ^^fe faiW inay e fsMesieil ¾ bora as &Qenvs. Ik fikacaism «f ' integrated sksih,

S nses, mkm elecim s-ssclsasieal dsmees, .aod d d es: is sh &s czeaiksa. of sgis&rsl layss af maiiaials. fei mtexaci is. ssms ¾s½ism. Qsss «*· ss s o &ese laeis may be fattcsxsed. SQ vasi-sss isgisms of iae k ei' laave

¾!gd_5½3i «r s&a e¾iSEas:gds cs : . whid. may be is-isEmnEscisd sSim SUK layer or o o^er ¾e rsafet bf selsefeelj r ar wsssmimg vaaaxsm ma&s&ih ¾ aftsms fat define sh. re isss are -SHES. prscessss. Fear exampe', a. laya: ¾s£ ffcss esisl maefial is- s lie . srats s wt&ifywg a wife ss^kaia. A. piksis mask (c temmg. ds&s aod s¾sa¾T3s asms is wtd. to g e- feis e&s sssssi material by a im sf &.$½% S^K^L as mfeam©Ie£ Jig : . eJecfesssiE,. or K-rays. EiiisEF fea lsi© rssisi amai expose*! te &¾ .aslis&ss, or fat BO! iKs csesi to &e Use ss fcAm of a

Ά& sidh. may fc-s fee applied io 4be layer set ssieeeS by maamng iss i saaJ. m½¾_a && seski is we m&L. ifa la s¾ lyisg fee ssfe&aie is paHeme . lkEss.feelj 1 ', SE adifee js oess εο¾Μ also ¾e ¾ssd,. s.g., ssassoi; s&setsaps. As essss te.. sse car rass¾ lidtadsic, fe'ssmss ss e asd/ <ar- coa baciys layers amy be dsossed j paSmssd and. etded ΐ-smg m¾H kn eelmiej ES,. skmg fe <xx *8xsteg al bad&sd sscsssiiBg fpst ds cfesti), iy aeslly i smsfests of sml.t ¾ls fe¾ls of in¾ES¾QSEieei &ai ass ssesi t-a corniest fee ses&sox stocfeies is. a dssirisi maimer ac s Use d sssst of sieps used t» scasopli-te fee: falmcaissHi. af ise sesasar sfesstess may ¾asry s G© ϋκ scsss a&sl es£ _.

|S0M| Use fcdL©se« falmcaiss; gssoeess may s & in im s majg e&e fied seassoi- from wo &-¾£¾ESai ssasas: cssfi ^tk s fa s s½gLs ss½ sss^sssse, wiS. sssly a smgts tmssil dksc&t-s. Ess two ssss L Y) EsagEsik lieM i¾<^os∑se, ihe smsss: essliy iwa slist½si iisn g a_se wisese essh ditfegsi&sl sesss«r is t½_sied BSSB.2 fesidge stt¾ct^¾s wills. mtsMe¾ * d isi¾g∑rf£ temsgl (MX J) smse . i½ a is (Z). s s i¾msl wErng dlisstkm is∑s¾ms¾d. Ik d½&L¾d: ½ES½f axes isiay ¾e ofe-ssd ¾smi; dbs s

2.H_esI rsKess, ox h sBBBg tsro fcimci pdsssisig l¾ s- -wiskk see s^sa kly se ssd. asaseslesi. h*. a gnres. daS½e>i_iEai sessss' agcme in MFJ se e awsaedtei, m 2 ½i g dfeai sl e

f fee p½zsei la ,. sssm le, at BsgsfkiH 45 sisgFess asd. p sfes 45 ctegEess. is t½s: £«miSg3SE3.fcsL. ass xlc &si ms½ies a scm s-sseS lsai is <adbogB®a£ to Sis passtsig: siiasctos will. d £Bge fee magsEefeza&ss. sf &e ittiB&Bek seas® ¾fes asd as a. of ' Siss &M eQ-abs sr Isdsnsr asd sfcmally ab^e sssh MTI SS-ESS_¾F m¾f be- used fe ¾3 ¾ Γ a iSeM pslse slOEg fes easy sais af *b.e sesse layers fc -s ai¾ !&g SEESE® 1 f r s^as smes-fc, aisi 3. snasBsF eansss* ' s sa I½e &s xeasssr dks-&g we®s &BiB& if ' dasaeresL

¾¾ ases lss»- adise sense eiemsELt t pes ¾ 30 aasd a -sassi layer 10 is ss-&s&s-e 333.

-tasral -ss steie &M. _s de dsd, &e magss^^&m dsaeliom 21,.3 esf fee «ϋ¾« sesse ekmeiiis 213, 3i are as-g!sd easily audi . dHeissS: iitrseiissss from, me watgpa&zafi& fcsetos ssf ' a asse ¾e fem_sd. ss fe&t sisap. efeadt se&se ekmeai k e ated m&e fecfaa af fee dfessesd

feat ekmesL Tbis a∞e c ofe ¾ Si∞e fee* sfepe aB ofeapy te cnate imagse&zstkss- sfcsdi¾ms &s are sjffiai Stem sm&d layer 1 . For exasgjla, &e first sasse el-emeni 20 msy fee fsisftd so fat its pssfssied is aoged. a - 13S degrees fin &s magsi&feafesss. dkeda B. of fee ime . lays* IS, asad wife, ike secossd sffisse alismea¾ 3® s® feat its s¾£eH¾d saiglsd; at 135 a sss Sa dsreeissa me psmsei I¾ a¾si-¾gl- ©fees * ef&ef sssgles may be loseeL i l Be— fee rnta. a » gfeaed sad p»d ky - e en s <m fee eossme ¾f Sifee asgls et een fee- sesse lem&Ei assd fee assed layer, fea easifejdassce of fts sessea- stosaias* cam. ¾e dhsE-gei &y appjyisg am extenasi stagsetic: £ssM ¾ wlaidk deile fe ss SeM i=^) to s SBH^CK ste-ctisg L H esa ms sig&siiim dissc&H!s 21, 31. sf me sssss sless-S-ts ¾ 30 n smefaE¾s f is s¾ difessee feetweea me &e SEA sad ses∞&. t ss ssmesfe 20 3 M if m sstesnal &M H is ^pisdt® s ^sor stiw*∞ 2 I zi ½ dssced sfasg Se will sieSsei ¾sr -s^e se H-sgs¾tic muMBHste 22 f 32 rfiie sessos: dsiEffis s .2S, 3δ eqssltjr, i¾sialteg ½ es -dsetssiee dhssgss isaar --eaek SEEISS e!eH-s , sssd. iststse w» dsasoge s &«k daj^srasse. fee

≠ ei layer li, &s ss^lk msmezfa 23, 33 fa sack sssss slsmss ¾ SO sse dszsged ■SifesH i-3 i¾s >¾ms€ ta &s 3|s l&d Se . Far eas-fife, ises sie ea rasia S.8 H -shew Fid, I. is- drected fes- < &e ogfci, &s masla t^cs © tite &st s«tse dfenaeiii 26 ½ iBsss-asied, ¾¾ le me ccsadssdaraee ef &e seco-sd sessse elsEsas-l 30 is x»½se . x«stiiimg s a IMBBSEBSS: sigaal ssi is isisfei ta i&e S&gM. isfeesglk Iks. fcs ws^, t-s -8ag &e£. zxaas ®ss£msi

½ it Wtx low assf Is «SE»EB asnii mdfii &s . stxksr terms, is alid aasi His irexstsness ill slss vasy m a Iraaar itk mis sstsscs. F«r mgie sfe &*M stogfe dsfefes.) it k ffeid fe ssifc a cte

■&½eS j but sws A dsftsding Isslf ½i¾s dm½s fepslagy to msmta½ a. ss¾s∑« faesr isspessse.

|ϋ££?1 FIG. I s a s firs* a&d ssssmi sessBss 211 Ssr delesfeg fee essspsmssi da¾di©H≥ «£ sa af kd feM alaag a fkst js-aaas &ds I) assd a ses&ad ynssss ( xis 2), .ssgeidi fy. As ds¾»efeBd, ess.li srnssar is. fcasssed i& ssfeslEed sssss els-senis fea$ 23¾ cea ss d. m. s ½i^p ©GKtSgmalicai. l¾ss f fee first sesssoi .201 is fefmed fesm &e sasssHsdbkas. d^seasse eements 292-205 s a fenslge ess_¾ai'3iiim ©¾sa- a smsd ¾ < «s- 2¾ feat ae e«ss£ss≤¾¾m of sssse alsE-ssils 312-215 m. a ½idgje p½_aed la er 2 &t is. is fee jm -s&za&sa direcfos ssi fee jmed laye? 2©£L Is &s de ieei. ¾iid§8 eese&gssa&m 281, fee s ss ele-Besis 2Q¾. 24 sss fmmed fes¾¾ a fei wsgp&az&tkm. d½ec£gm 1h& ssEse elemeafe 203, Φ5 ate fsmssd fee a mad magiefizatkia &ΕΚ Η, fee &st aod sasmd ma -efe&m dkeslwm asd axe s¾s3_feed te d£J¾Br eq ally :fi¾ta¾ lbs a^eti-arisa dk^&m. of fee pmssed. layeE 206.. As fa fee seemd bridge st i - ta .211, iss set.se elsssssents 212, 214 fas a fissi mageaiasa&g . dfaesfess; fesi is EsftagossaJ semad JEcn fes sense diea-ssis 213, 215 so feat se &si aad

¾¾cfeoa of fee f½e>e laj 216.. la. &s de eisd SEETHES 201.211, ffisss ½ wo> s eMiDg; ∞ΒΕΒΒχά f tie sesse eleaisats, sar ase aaf special le&esce lsssssts we^ si. Is. as. esaas Ee assstefcssst &is is sstea md hj s¾feess½g eaefa activs s-esss slsmes* (e,g^ 202, 2C ) aoo&s active isesss diee«sstt (e-g f 2CS¾ sssisg stape aas o&spi teelmi^sss- t-Q est^&k S» sa ^gs^: aa^ 3» A™l™ to ½ Jefefed fern *∞k sfee 8© degrees..

|¾381 By

wfe ¾e isifeetgsmal ssass s ssiSEi. sdassta&ess m SKSSCS ¾e½g deffclsd sqnially fesi fee ssssas: 's pissing fexectssL, fee s^sor s csn i!sieei fee ccMs osssa ilnes&iSis■©£ aa ¾¾j]asd.

Se sl 3¾ &s fcsf am ssesmd asm. Has is illmsfeaiesi m HG.2 w& fee d^kied -dasisS: fes swe&a&td bridge e¾i ¾at 2©7 S

217 is a §∞ &m ^a« a®≠ei fisM s∑sgfe £sr ss e «^H^S wife am askate Seld ©f li

0¾, ssf W@%- vs fee sessse elesEsea switeibes foia as. sats- sis el -statB te a paxalk. state. ' ¾ sjsmbte. Isidee ©si afe; ess. ¾s

IS ssssii ·&» imkpely ieifiiy si-j mkesfa&i , si &s allied, exismsl Held. W ess-ss te, a fic fa k W H A a 0 deg?« fie e <e,g, emtLug *V∞ fat it ½ ώ ώ & y- ss½ or Asis 2) will g@E.«ra.e a fesidigs oaipsii sfO B ¥ feom me fei sssssr 21, asd sii gs_&erat»3 ½i¾s∞$g¾trflS aaVV iratsallss secessd sessssr .211. Cssssessely,. a Held &sf is applied m, && gj osite Sxe&cm, (e.g., p¾-sfe-g **«kHss** so &si it is aisled iik a i!S bgrse Held sage) ml geBessie a ferislge a¾i s.t «f ' S m¾ .ism as &si 's s ΙδΙ,. aad will gfflserais a sst ut ¾ -10 m¥^ fk®m fte seesssl sasse 21 L

m As s« W &e a SeM ~r «j fce & nned W

{iflexexdsai se&ssss 201, 211 fek «se siaeded ssss* ds-asais 22-20;S, 212-215 mtmectei m a iaidge eos-i s &iss mm: issgsecti e pt&raed layssrs 0^, 216 to defect fts jsBsseee and d½®£¾iaa of a ffesl mag3&e&: fse . Wi& ftis ©sA2¾ ! isf Essssisssi maigssiae wssasBta& ses si m. maj^sasl-C sIseisE-asg »r NiFe fates, m&a2strai™ 5 s¾dk as Esssst m kali devices is sl-mma£eiiL z& . me msj -fi&s field ssH rovides good sad a ss- mndes ftsm e tes e¾m £ma&-f psspgEties «£ a ½idige mdl srafeos. By e&csEaa&g &s mead fee ikm magse&e: st-½Ids3g layers, fts imaEss&fesiisg esH-sptesty ami cost is seduced aad Sis ssze ©f fta sessssa skssrtms is. ds easesi (as. teams ©f elm½s½g &e silicon seal esiats sxs o e fea fssm sasty s ieidiag. layejs). H-SES ase lss a-fessssse Isassssfe is ss½g ra^ eiied sease eteaasEts smce fee magsrfs gwBTOjBpg ^slssm is ei½¾¾R¾e<i ¾y i¾mG¾½g me magseis s eki½g aasd fess. gsisliag I^ess .

mm lG-S ^ss^ii^dselM

i½3ssed ¾" f ssr M semoss ¾L 311.. J21. ; 331 is a ¾eafsfetae &a ses-es-sssiseefeii MTI -sesssaxs l s 111,, 321„ 331 se farmed. wi& smt Islets SOS., 312, 322, 332 lsai ase alased %B sve ittiB&Eak wmgss&ixs&BB. diiissiisss ie &e Ess -sfes&s. d½es$½s dF me isssed ¾ «ε^ 3@4, 314.324 5 334. Use -d^p^sied sesis&r 30 ½ irael ii MO sss^ss Ml * 3 I1 ;; 321 5 331 to any be massfsd^i ss pai rfa. ss½img M AM matrftdtei-a¾ rcsssss Sk saaly warns: adjas-tesss-is 4B sssBfeol fe& arifisisi&ii of && Is. pasrtksiiar, eaids MTJ 5M 301, 11 L.321, 331 ½c½des a fei≠swi sfedimie 3S S 31 , 321334, a mm!sfcg: fems-fiSei dieEdsc layer 3S3 ;: 313 ? 121, 333, ssd a sessss ssse 3¾2„ S¾ 322, : 332. Use p½Esi aad :ssm« sktaks :m fe My mx atki wated&^ fa' esasxspk,. and afesifcii ·¾» ¾s MiFs, CdFs. Fe, CdFsB smd &e Hks f «r SQC^B gEBSs iB ,.

:mated.db wlsose ssa is&afcHs. can ½ coSesfeely aJ-SsetL Examles ©f s¾ii3¾le jeksteode a&&&o &$£® random a-ccess ms es (¾f-L M| ds^ess, wlid. ass well kss i. is Ht sat sad sss ais, s ossg. «Asr -ssgs, £g ¾magssefc raaiessls Tbe -mesi an smss dledsodes may ¾s lasmed ·&» 1 S¾ SSSHJSE-I ooerc e f½M is ½sssaly &e n of &M feat s to nraxse fee magpet from sse <faefi«m t-s- sa te atsr sa& tisss, TeEtsMeaiiy,, ifc is me m5ga¾& fkld rnqgrnaiL is Am. &S: a&se&as&iii of fee ta ΕΒΪΟ after it Ess Isem sa& a&ed. ¥ ¾sQEBa i &e Reused d e&odes 304..314, 324., 334 may ¾e fbsmed sfl. as. Sim ea½^e c ptei s a i½i¾miagi_ek lm fe &. & gjk cses:d¾¾ fie s i&at &ΕΪΓ :msfss&-Ea.t£ss sdeaia es. canbe jsBssI so ss- te fee sBh-fesa&a-J sssileetest ¾y niunt of a* rtmJ F afpfed B&L eoni si, fee sense efeMss 302.3I¾ 322.332 maj be fa i& a ma iefaiy sri mafetiat W ax*:- Mag a fees ss mat && QieBtsssm sf ms s-mse ■dsetexls §E m½fe¾i' d&e BOS. it s Λ§ Β¾ may ½· aitesd % saoveiBesEt ¾fm es&emally applies! ms ¾& field. Ik selected smbedssssEfe, &κ coercive field f " the passed elected is to ate efmaptsiule .bager fa. &ai -of sense elected sltkmgk dSersEi sasra may be itsed % a#is&sg fee spee&ve rasene Se¾ ©f&e elsdssdes ssisg; welk&owE tsdhsiqsses is vasy feek ssssspsssstioii ss ks m rng sfe-emgfe.

|¾ 1i As stsswB is flG.3, fee p½sed ekdfsdss 304, 314, 324 5 334 m. fee MFJ seasssss as* &sa∞d ta a fesf smsefepy ssis a¾g)s¾«w!it m. &e alaae of fee passed elscirads layess 3M„ 3I } 324, the 6o sf &e dsswiag of F1G-.3) . As ^esoibesi isseis, ssiseirs^y ssas ali smesi fsr &e imssd sfeirod s 3S4 a 3I4, : 324, 334 may be d^aebed sssig sisspe aBtsa&s of &e : ssed elecliCN-lgS j . m w sk cass fee d ss of&e miasidi sieemiies; 3S4, 3i4. : 3 ? 334 w sM «OE¾ ¾e ksseer is tlse dis etssm alms * ¾s 9 * ¥^sr &r » s½gle Is p½aiad lEaa n&ti slack. & 3 Jdiisa «sr is slimsafoe, se 304, 3I.4 f 324, 334 be sfeisssd by fsssi&g orae oar masE m3gss£& iaj^ss isj. S_e eseoce a£ a sstes&g magpa&s: Se fc is a&d .isea cooieii sa- fa &e isM «f ΐ½ imed ! y^ ½ set m fte fct m af satea&g magaeli.c e . As- s ¾s apfsseeistssL. §Bswaig »f ¾.e asassfinsfr asds- sis smm fisr fes imsal elefiSssAs 3IM 5 314,. 324 5 334 ΒΗ&Ι ½e mcsasEiied -wx^k as fshseat-OE st^s mud i© §axm assg ss&sr SeM se&sess iei ½MC½oe &sied eecfiodes- ka^issg & slktEstd: aai-sotespy asm alspaafieat, weE as asy fakmakst steps ssssJ, t© x asy 82J lie β ι&<ά lie sesss©r 5QS also i-sslssdes FJ seosass 3 L 321 m kek scaE.se slecira&s 302..3222s¾ iosmed to fas as «xjes.¾¾la∑y asmsi&s y stxk

sistmf vss&sr SIKSWS &at is e!isct fisa ssisstes iy ask of fee amsd dledmdes ¾y a. fkst gieSec&Ki ssgis. & .addaiksi* the ¾i-e ££t smsa 308 iadlssdiss M I sess-seis 311.,, 331 to w» sesss afecfessfcs 312, 132 ¾ fm is have t exsm !asy ask Ct&sti&d % 4* iigkt Mssg elo* aoows) feat is &o the aimofcopy asas «fS»

SB-Bed ekcfeades by a s-sssmd Meetim g* » is o al b®t « pesEte to fes fet i kesSm. ssgls. ¾t a jmliesslsr e ¾©i&Eaes£ ; iisa angle is es @t{½»lsr to lbs secessd drffcrfca angle fcsi .ara etaap^ ssk ©ί Use SSESS e_¾cii¾«l*s 302, 322 is. Kxtate 13S dhgsses & sus ect is &s asassstey asss rf fee assed eke tiss, sssi so &ai asis&fesp ask of^se sssse eieeS∑s- es 312, 332 s i¾*s d -segsfes 135 isg sss iik rasped- to fts 3E-½teap ask sf ik« snssd slsdssadfes, f9&43J s mill be agapsdis-tod, fibs MTJ seEESsrs 301, Si l a 321,.331 may ¾e i ratai. to iare* &H&al stoastoes fat sue cesmedei sUsssm m seres ¾y metal iss isssmaesiii Es is .a sSassds^ keaistosss ¾n½e c essi cssSgmskss m<i<& ½sfe ^ es- sopply tesssmak i s 343 and wakpott -sj -sl temsBais 342 s 344 £br ilss ½id¾s ckesk ¾e½sg -shm . j coasseciktg m sades Sss ttiralsre ed ΜΓΙ c½cmt, fes S* ™r 3« ½™ fcti^ to i^t m HG.3) eo^poo^ ¾ f tesfej issmtog SK X-ams fe½£. 3k adiemkf , a

Iscexsaaoissl &E ciK-sgfsss-a-i wsssM 382, 322 ES¾¾I &HB ills ss&ctisss sif &s electoa es.312, 32 s w& &&-. ksiiiSGssal &M ^stm osiegBl Hss sgl.. set slsawss, a -sms sasssssf feige <sssew& usay alss fee &msd m^fe msladckd Mil »s«s sss dei m a ¾¾es 3BS fe¾s want soEfsg a&si.. &osgk &e amisaies^ ask ssf &s ms&d s-fee.ti¾dies && Y-ssis :ssEse-i- ½3ie½e £½¾sit msM ¾g paspsss-Scslsr to Use a sokaepf asis se pssaed «kcfeaties 3® , 3I4 r 324, 334 m, ae S-ssas sessc^ ¾sidjge,. Each ©£ fcse SSESSSS (ear ¾siiige legs) 3Si r 311, 321, 331 may essxaslt as a∑np? ofsEssse efeoesis vswitemg m ®am&xk to sicresse ise GWBA PS44J ILzm BsM. magnetic s ss stx sm^ ffile to Maatlsk s ssise, gpeea ki die- ^½g, j5m_ s sf M ewrmaigas&g:- d -aaisss msN wg fke H&SE k rsgkais m fee -ns - c sassse s gMy -Sffes-ESr ms tsdi&sm- &i&ek local m3gse& o sBi ira weak Jssali-sed! magp a&c . tssiBg: csase by estge soaglia-ess ear ss-sll fecal. -sJ-B-m sgs-se-iiES in &e sesse layer,, or a X£t ½£ f ssfeis: sosESces. S¾sA assise: em ke&Bgat smss m sese j&s!k exsmwg me sE sIsr sf me Esrm' s msg&e&e Jisl L Wtsesa a & is 3f§sEa£- fess i-a s-ssasg-sstk domss-s saa^ s esss is a sss sE&I fsslskm m lies. «£lse ssissst es&ssss-i Fotagum ¾s sease efetssst J½½r -¾££K is ta sdidbess ssdb. seise Jsas* sss&i a Itssdi xBagsetk- bias Is^esc is. Hie sssse Is exs ·$& p½ ise easls of lite devise. H*»s¾¾¾si jsaxd bias lay-ers can nss-isce §¾£ smsifmiy «£ fee SSESKE,. wd iia¾* scM isal. fafesEfeges of leqeBisg .an as i si processing Isjes:, efek step a&d amieai sfctgi

|9Q S| o ddhesa -½ Bas -SKs-eE, xte e K>MeEa. a s&ag&eik &M stay be seiecfeely agpfat a!ssEg Hse ss&y sss tf tfcs assise esmssi pier 4s perJanatsg a msssmsBsaEi. is. selected smMm^ts, fee magptisz Ss k s^ed as a riei fie slss i& is ssSSexsi ½ e&om -sss^sefis state a &s sssss fr¾wrc¾re ajai i«Da&\¾ mkm-magEtelsc: &sm3½s ksf :may baxs appeared as &e _¾s¾3 af a sste to a sfe¾sg fcM a :SE isildeme&fe&ssL,. a field psslse is applied t& a se es to xeseoo^e sset¾sta e paused isg¾3_ss m. Utee sense els-sasi, whese me feM pulse h -a feaslssld Ss sfe¾a^_. e -l- 5 a¾e¾¾

sms3>3e¾.a--ife. By sg hisf -sock a fis afes id. a. pssisd («.£.., 161¾ as ins red &sr a enaapass a pk-ai sa j &e iH¾l½®: field aise lias as. tsslmaei loaar #siy aMiSsm* y Isms-SEaiiEi fee fie shft ήβε is m s& aisioii j fegis is so ski sppliad to &e SSES® efasas-l ½m| wts xew k, msMss m HtaxU ssisfe .

may be ajsglied fcss¾gl 3ie sassse jpesa l½e st½g- ssasw measmesBSstit, m fy mqsa i g. &.<& s si&iit , hat asceatxagssg deas. £ Aei¾Ei sofa «m of &E sease elcsaBsS:

|¾€|i To iiissbse example of o a. fisLsi puis® may be ajs iieEl i a sssss sessssBi, xsfeisace is mm wa s o f y.4, wMdb. $bg $ a. paxi l sdbema^ speci½e ¾ie s first sad 'ssescwi Mil s sx 4I0 f 42 ck each. H-dsds s asa^etk: SeM gesssrate simEfeaas:

414.424 fbar sssel½g ssr &¾.¾ϋ--∑½§ ffes; sense la sr 411, 421 rio sar dssoisg sasss: fee w gpe&£ s s&3®. see Ι¾ΈΕ fee adesisikm of !&E magsetii: feld gessssta 411, 421, a r layer 41. 423 s asd a «1 er lays* 412, 22 feta iss- IJS B ienrasagseik layers,. In $ss exasape, is itf ear 31 may be £ sxBC«i i© 3 tojdtoess is range IS to I&SS© ¾gs¾¾ is t asmd n selected stobs aisasEte to iise rai-gg 10 to as&d fcEfifisns as a sease fe αε free m¾-is& layer bes^ssss its* di-cectkai ¾f its sasgnais-Eslisn e . ¾e d sdsil by iiss ps&esee ef SE esiemsi sot* as ma sefe M. As fi» & r fe™^^: layer 413,

423.. it may be ftsaed to .a ¾fe½ares m 3» zassg 10 ts 2SG Angstras£s f and is selected etoboeiiraeBis is. Use range IS to 10€ : iigskosas, and. Ssssdtoss .as a Sssd srptoseci agjaeik Isyer m½si diiactesm its mssi m < & sfeee&si- #saf fees s* sbasge jmgssetic cmmta&m &ecii«sE. sb_i½sg aggmal operating wm tem. As dfesesifced. atom, fee fest ass* seemd MTJ sensws 41¾ 42S wxf be used to ransfrat* a diite&l se∞t by

cAogsEsl to fee diees&m 425 is is e seoss ayer 421 so fat ss fcd½ss 415, 415 ass tmwkei. to equal a opposite &es&ism fes

1¾ ?1 To isstee &= Qi-gmal ssss seSssiiEm of tte v er ssssse ia srs 411 421 l&at cass.be fctsstiedi by mf .eito iamato sirsstae, H&.4 dfepkis 3 -sssg eiic fi& gses tas' sfcnaeiai* 414.424 Ibmtei below «adk semsx ' . In seLesto-i s-BbsdassssHSs.. &s ssagiseik field ggrasator sfescisss 414,.424 is i½med ss 3 csm&cteg casmst i-ss is wgs&ed to create a. sssf3sat£« SsM ais« &kk siigss- magaHsim-kM ίϋεκ&α& 4iS, 415 is. ss ap^«r iayer 41 I s 411.. F«r ezss5¾ils ¾ lsse-a a. &e : magBggsc :fisM geusEaiss: stesctee 414 feeksm' fee &st MTI sessss^ 410 iss. &e s rssiss; to^ka ei. by Use am 41 j a SsM pslse is eafesd &s is sligsssl tSt i s «Ks axis: 41,5 of ike seme: dwnmt 41.1 to. '6se S t ' MTJ se&se? 41 . .Hanse K, stooe Use sec&Hsd.. O ' se-^or 42© !tas a s^se ¾ r sr 421 ml a. img^tHjtaikm feecfos 425, USE tssgoeik SeU. fssssEstsr S^E£|EB»

424 is «six£to so> &3.t a. Held psnse is cfeafed fat is sli sei walls. &e ts^y -asks- 425 of &s ssssft &πκ& 421 ½ tke sassmsl MTJ ss™ 420 ^kes a ™& lls s srss i &e :msg3sefc Ss raeator stastee 424 to fee feseiss. ax ts 42 i.

|CS S1 Usas axis fesefeES ma :also ¾e sees. to. FIG.5, ¾e¾ ^ds a aofbl emss~seefcs-si i½w e as. -S-to stedi drasit ds-^es in ladk i_e fast a&d semad MTJ seassas sbssws to FIGF.4 ate farmed ss bave seass ta^eas

IS 41 L 421 ftis. < &®Β& wsgpi&ik&tx . iks &i sL is. 3i&sslsr, : fese w^- sSax d v&m < fee left s asws fee fe* MTI tg&stos 410 sees. ½B fee erspeefee w SA m FIG.4 S . w le fee es&ss-sest-i sl ¾½w as fa :iig sfc s ¾s seessai MTI ssssF 420 ss. seen fiimt sse esspec&se \½ SB ½ FIG., 4. H» &st jmit seccs-d .MO seoss 410,.423 are eadb. f msed ssvsar a sdbs&ate 430, 44§ dfe, may hsi sefes cscsii 431 s 44 issmbes ed fesEsm.. Cte, fes smhs&s&e, esse m s ¾½aai¾ layess 432,.442 may be I wed ¾sf½s f½iaiitf: ½sn¾at½g sj 433 5 445 ½ Mds a et dtadxse line 414.424 is gn-isdifcd i& f ms. a. :msg3ss-& field fsss-aiisr siimdssrs. As d erera m WIG., .5. fee esmfodfee as 414 HI fee fes Mil seas 41.8 is SSSSHJK. fes casr crasso! m &e fcedfom atsxamg. sai of plassg af fee fe¾¾½g ®£FIG, S- ile me cssdssfoe ties 24 is fee ssesmd Mil sesssr 420 is $sswe& is <a«y erases* ms½g rif -fe-eil sm &e <fa¾½g. Ov &e embsfel ^fcfe® Ik**,, fes fct ^™i MTI a∞ fcri m m msdb&g layer 43¾ 445. & jrcfotrfar, fee &si MO oast fee fest- MTJ sensor 410 j&dbies ¾ -¾s ssissdsssfes I½e 434 at least $a £aliy &ieffl&ii m fee 4.3S, a Jswer i-sssd ia ear 413, a tasmel ¾3EE½r la s? 412„ as, sa er sease fasssmsgseiie s ag-aeSassatssa fcecfes 415 feat is ansnisd ssgbt-s-leiL. and -a esosd &miaa & liase 456 over lskii is fcrssesl as. addi ¾l feekcinc layer 437. He first cssfeid½e 434 k s eM fe a ½te mstaet ¾?er 43S Ufatwuagji & siradme 419. Ik addiism, tie sesess MO case s ifc secisssd. ¾ITJ sassGff 42¾ : iaclaiies 2 fe* sxm&weln -. BS 444 si kasi srfii¾r emfeidedi m I e msEilstog j S r a hmec imed iHsoss-s satis la^er 423 r s tsssael basraer lays." 422, mk Qiiptar ssEEss fei¾s-ss _ei.s: layer 421 itmisg a ma -s&a&is &sd:½ss.425 fesi is issie-iied issfe fee lssie: <s£ me ifam½¾ e£ FIG. . a sessmd cssrAsfoie Irae 446 o¾ is fsmssd SEi a&ffle ai &s£¾½ Ja^ 447. Ts essmsei &e fet sad seesss MTJ SSSSSES 41% 42% fis &sf «3¾-¾ίϊϊεί2ΐ¾ fcosga 3 sfesEteis (sat fc s ½a^093a «m»ct layer (ssi vhsmsfy m se saajfi less! as fee smbss ea lime 4!4 5 tets. m fees smseeiea em« er mass sad ciHidsefee -3 fefefi sKsaics^di lK 43i fismib i¾st Iffl se™ 41S. Wife fee ¾3dsd s,¾m½fee £&e 414 ml ia¾sls: 3 wagpeki fcM s e 417 ¾¾½cH s 415 o &e -ssmm esissi- 411 :! . arad xmsmi aises fcsagfa &e e-^ses sdi cosdaetes Ims 424 will CTS3.fe 3. wagpa&c i»M oise in &s re gkss. of Ik* smste eLeaseat 421 pst s es s) ¾¾cli is sl^ -sd wife &e sas¾ r axis 425 ®f ' fee sense el^ossi 42L f i§ § 1 Use Is er ravmisg assst ame fentemapseiic ¾y¾ss 413, 423 fe atasqik, m&em ^i ss^ F ki™ maagrae, cobak mm, a&aM mm i ;; m * m * ws&ss B ,, aai&e liks 5 or SET eambmxfeos teeof. Use tmmel loader !a sss 4 2, 23 may ¾e as isssisteEg iLmissial, ihar sj ss-ffe, a½m£it& ssiile ox Ί¾& s er sense feiragsefc iayess 41 I, 421 may be a fa™gsse& msfeiaL £¼ esaosnte. sadiisi assss. sstelt m , oaksUfc. L, m&fisiism, tifm &2 ke. Tks msgsssfe fisM geusfaias: s&¾efeii¾s 414, 424 assay ¾e ssgspssr, ta.aia¾aa, tss&sls-m fei8½m J fsss-imsi. mtosls ϋ» Kks, ^Ms csadscii fees m ggs&aral may be, far

An!!iimTm £ gps feEssai, iiiiaisium. ssis de -car &e like..

|S®SS| l¾s Frst audi se&aod. MTJ sesssexs 4IS 5 420 aaay s !bfadc&i&d toj desf ¾m .a msssoii ie miegrated _∑κ»_ϊϊ as- part of a sensor by feasais-g sesse layers 41 i s 421. isasviasg siti-ssgss-sl msgas&g. oshe bSae &ai esdi es a!Iy fsm ike ma sefe dsEBcikm. ssf tke -msd kysss 413, 423. Ik ata exam le sssess Ss ,. Use firs* slep is fabdsatks-i prossess is is gtxsreiie diesi dip setestasiB miieb ½ sm%Ees by a. fciecfee: base sj {sett S!KS BJL Ch¾r &e &_feciri£ base la s, field §eos-stor stettstees 414, 42 ase Sx sBsdi as sm gi si lnes of csmda tee malenai ssisg bn 3e&B®&ts , psteoisg -asssi eicMsg iseess s ss fat £se las -stk Held gsEHa-aisir siradtestes 414.424 ase a!igBied as , p¾si&m¾& belss tits ssessssss 41% 42B sad &^&&ά&ά m, SE.

lise 434χ. «se oc mase Is esr fsmsmagsefc Layet (fc 5e ¾¾ sfis etelns-g; as fee Iswer passed. §emMBagB£&s; ¾<ar 413¾ & mam ifcfefee kyats (to SE_R« sS r etdbi&g

^ sg as vqppex ssss¾ ikx magae&s: isj-ei 411)., a&ai a seesmsl osjssa nre layer (© seras

fiS^Ii WMtei &s Tiwea i tMms&e&z la^^srs 3E&tay sash, e depssssd xot . asasd m fi-a eclms ss sbo fee istsed t» ache e &e su iEed zaagaeojc rajEHta&ms fa &e *& && & a se^aESSse sf jss^en&ecl sk:k -aciessss is dsfeie Utee sa¾ . sod sesse layests m. fee M J 410-.4m Iffi a Sisf siidk ss assm, fee si^es of fee & s& -≠∞mg layes 4iS s . a. fia"si srfees2&d fesrd ssadk. asi 'tl ea safeimmg a setecfee. efck psoisess- {©.g.. seasfee. scs feissiiagsslk: Jaysr(s ; ). ¾ si-a es of fee efcksd m fessmsa jatk: et s ssi&d. so fesi esdi jsn-ssii laye has smsefca , 3s_5s∑j¾mg m a pi¾fsai¾sdi ma uatig; arifisisikm :skmg QSH of i& aaa . IS. additkss fc ¾ei¾ jSbsme as Issg a&i narrassr x apes, sdidi&msl xlbo -iig rf Use sssi «f ss&ed &a£ eacli si i e smed srSsmis moss li-fce s ssf le ma iefe: raaki. Us g slsape s^^sg^, fee sisspsd f §@S3J At -figs; p«i ra £.e Ia¼½alieEi process, fee ¾ jser feramm sein: iayss<(s) il ¾©sa i_s$e &¾Iy eishad is leas* s ressmas^ orfkss. sader fts first s sme Issrd :_s&sk s¾ fea ae ¾¾ss-r si! m&i §e ms2gpie&& kye*(s.) Jssve fts saaas stts e.. M«iree$m, i e fmal :skaps sf Hie !sssse layers m . he -sssaier fas i e sBKier ½g pinsssi laysss, ssdi is 3 s «_ r a sescaa*! teh s^assce ½· sseslfc defise iise fesl slsapes ssf fee -diffees-i sense layers 41 L 421 feam fee massaEt ertiss-s ©ffee τψρεε §& sag& : Ik fee seeossi skis sgq¾e∑Ks, aa-ss ser teks¾sisf a&em is mssd *a f sm a pstisissgai lias! mask a¾¾ar is parls s£ tim :ies£S2B.i ss jssar ' §ss ma^s^se layerf-s) Isjw feai w ism tSe nse laysrs. Use paitem is. selected to deime aspect raSo sss ss Suae fee sesss j rgras wfcm a selsciive ¾tes process- l«.g- r sea fosv is ssed to laj'e fass irai ½e¾¾¾B¾¾ fes steh 423 s &ssg is -®&

sha ed, passed ISJPESS 4I3„ 423. ¾e gis s^sesi iio slis es i½ ss seme lajsi>3 sre sdsssteJ 5» fe.t &s ssssase 411 ze ka^gar iss, ss fcsgssiim a ^sksd

-sssgs-st-zaifeQs.415 fesE &ej' ass B¾, ^ Ie &s -gems h^ms, 421 aace loEger in && iaiBBiB of fee magsefeaiaas 425 i ey a»- sdk. Ik ss&er resk, fe¾ mg ssis f&i aesseli sesse iliise&ia 1m -a single sense feyer: ½..addstks. %n beissg. f jsieii as faug sad Bst ffiw sliapss. ssEs& Iz s &rfesns-s msss Hie s smgii& -wEtgas&s, dssEtss. Wm 93ε3® $& > &e ssisss wa hs sss e , Ία las¾¾ asted, -mis isa ta er s fee cones smdiBg &ssi½Bs &i &si_¾d easy sxis SHE SS seass laysas. Cfe.es ifce ^sspsd s sse Isgrexs SERE fssiissii.. fea ¾fes2se4 easy sds wagps£fc tmBS&&B msj ½ ½d¾seii &csm H-ek iska s smssfat&p? hj lasty ssseslissg: ss (e.:g.. si as aessai banspesatMe wisj^m wsi&lj 250 degr^s C. is &e 3¾s€B£s of-a ssjagssii-c fisM to emeim males ¾ fes

IS 5S£s¾ layers 41 L 421 sl-i.. iSs, «£ 8S¾ Is m 'a&al ilefo aest the magBfitie Ss gesssraefcor smd ss 44, 424 ais farased Iram sass-e lajer fet b S^SSSSEJ ® i&eseems&e t fee ¾rislgs legs, aaai JseBse £i¾ates ss© se&msl secsxssg steps. Is ae &ioB*. sadk af ½s ms setie ffcicl gess ta- sfesEteiss 414, 424 may s eosstaefel fisss. a sisgis msAsii eisaae-if fisat is. pass tsied t® ¾gBiesm ast Μ Ι sessor m k ike ap ¾ ia$e tliessiby sreafisg field d ss tteMgksoEi tie cli w¾ a s.agt« ^smsst aise. Wails m a pracfeal de -s^mmi esel. bsslge leg will lOGS- ose. sssays of s&sse ^essesis f s? k¾ssst ¾p.al to Ifcss fefc (SS¾) f a ½ $¾$¾ΗΙ «X2B¾J.« a smgte sense eJemss-t wspie BBia iii ½ ilfe&atei si FIG. δ wlaidk amifes a siiB liSed op or plaa. v∑essr rf a τ«&½ laywai As isg

H «0 fcs s& a hrfiy ef MTJ s s % 62i s €22,.

S¾€2 sedS Ked m 3 ¾¾Bs.¾sksss drssit &k s sraj H c field gsssaHa&ss s¾mt-Hs psstismgii m. isk&ss is se MTJ ze tm. Use depidted dJIergsiisI sgssss- md ies fe^ isisfisi i .5 < ers <§D1 5 iSS, ®3 ; 6£ wl h sacis ks fee -same mafsstsstkm d¾ecikm (¾,g., a tmsssl axis ½ &B as sbossjss. · &e isrgs ¾etar JBW ea k pimsssi fe .. biie fc passed kysrs 601, 6H2 ; 684 may ¾e $emtes£ ¾s½Eg &ek slsa e a&k-ste y (as 2S£-icsSsd in FIG..6), : flssy may a a ¾s iosmei. ¾£s½§ s i^d-ismai fke r& &L ^ sss,

|8eS4 FIG, i slscs fei tw© sf &e Mil ssnsora -or sc oK arrays, S21.€24 iss. fes .S ¾Eisl «» sffi fesrf w¾& ssEse ¾¾t^ 611,€1 !ka sg a msgisefe&s fecfcs. 61 L i!4.

H» ssi-s-r t s ¾I J sssBSGSs 602, i¾5 sa¾ famed sesse .^ess 612, 615 is^mg a magsstisa&^. dkedkm. toi ½ -aaiasilgd si 135 dg ¾es fem viesical,. as h . m &e s^se la sas 612.613. ls w$ es½sd le&½B½K« msj be ssed. f©ms ike sease ibye^s lim½g.

^s&^ felm^ to skz ®*™ dHBHste «l 3 §14 tee 3 msiefc ¾¾c3½a (sr easy sxb) fai is s eaissi at -ssdeissisiHesi dss^^issaa :3isgle fisrn ^sst-esi, aad I» siiape Sse sesse efeasiiis SI2 f 613 a mag&i£&a& <&sdaii (or easy asds.) feai is sds-sfeed iis sciissEi sasgls hem vsrfeaL In isis- sy 3 . &e- smgs-st-zs&i-. sx dum s sesse s amsEis.6i i f €14 and tils mspsetizstks., Sa stti . «>f ™ ill, 613

dmss&m of " fea tsmed la eis έ@„ ϋ3 : . lS04.

If Urates feidk is f smssi ¾eBga& &.e MTJ SSBSQ&S §21.622,. #23,.€24 ss a te byers.61.1 j 612, 613, 614. Ik se ctesi e3sa cid_½a-&_&, t&e ims ssEs. i¾M ge-Bsraias: sir tas: 623 is f rme . as a sisgle cc &iefee I½e wlstds is aiTsssgsd is cany C S-SEEES: ' he a&. && sg£s¾ Isyess 611, 612,. §13. ill m a d&Bds&H. isai is fc &s ssesy ask ½s £sm s fee ss_a¾e so fct iise κρ^ε &M er&ai&i Uss rasses-i ½ ali -&d wii, &e easy ask. Hm, &e emsdsd^e Ime 629 is feaasssed iselow &e i-ssrik MTJ sesssoi- £04 to- o¾aSs a zBagQe&e SeM &st is s!t sed $tn& easy axis efii sesse skssmi 614.. ΪΕ aiditem, &s of &s eeasliieijy* UsELe 626 below t&s sesoad ss &½l MO s-ssssss-

622, 623 essatss 3 wasgp l&E. SsM fa£ is sJignesI s& &β sss xsis of s* sesse ieiaass-ts 612, 6*13. ifee cisssissiti Ime SB is §as ei sm &s iksi MTJ SSS G? ll a¾-ate a motets? SsM fet is siigssfi wi . fee sssy 3sk off &s sEsse eiemes& 611.

mm a taiakaSm fes i an kpot* i fe og ft* s fe bed sssssst-s 41% 420 ( IG:.4) KESI tise magse&e Held gesESEsa½r.s£raEiEU«s 414, 24, 620 m. fees array is d¾s i¾edi m, FIGS. ?-2L A sAsfesfe (se sisswn . is. i-kk fts &m we& d«so,¾ed below see isfeegsaei sssy ¾e iss-ilessseatesi as a sJk sifam s¾¾sfcai£, smgle

s^^a^. Si, S^, ¾ SGeC Ge, GaAs, !IIF s «d S d» ΈΜ¥

®ΒΒψαϋΜ& s&a ®aB£wdbaas ©τ am- coasa safea i¾sE«ef sad; may s¾^s&3¾r ¾s §®ESB&1 as fea ¾Α kssslSsg ss&f. Ik &e sm sfe-sfee aaajr ¾e mplemeiiisd ss fc 6o

» r sm: ckemt demeBts may a $BKWB& is. &s sAstaie.. la actios, s ¾s¾e i et&ser mn iwst Asswi. is interned hj se ssitm^ jpo tig. a di«Lss:k£: sslicsm

fALD), km. seam i- ssiHm jfsenaait sss&iim, of 3½«v&.

S emEig is fes esam- sse&sai idsw ¾£ FIG.7 aiai iie c^ ir½ FIG:. S,

F^xasaagssie: isj , a sysfeeiie: 3-3.-e∑io -agss&: -skudmce AFj 7@i„ «as« cr jsasas il¾esfee brfes ?0S i» sesrs¾, aSss: e^osg, '^e ttsssdt baiiis.- layer, sae ar a«se ^ er

2S laysss 710 fef sm¾ s afe atdkissg, as ibe ¾ er sense jm ra^s &c layer.

Esdb «£ lbs Ja ess sE&ay fee fetasske $Β£&ά&!& *a a &kbagss s£s½g nm ieslmk sS j sh as CVD, FECVD. FVD S ALB. ; IBB., as: esaafema&sss ^esec^. tet 1-bis mas?, sse siadk ef sensor layers solera &s ®2&e wafer s® &ask &e sisdk b. Jbomei in &e "Sensor asaa mUsem a fest % e of setss <e.g^ x-^sis se sxm) wSl be i¾™i aisi. is famd ½ SHE ^S Bsss 2 W araa isese a sesissi fyjss ssf sessssr y-sms ssssofs ajseate ¾ e ^ Wfc I") W. Isadora. fc™r stx* ^kW a aseas m¾«E¾ a smssE bavisg assy ssresi mesfefes. m!b f osssd f l SIl lbs slecirssife 702 is ssy ee&_&_d$s?e !msta al mcb as & AL &t ssksfely is fa, Ta .a camstmx-iiac. tbereo£ ¾ p½3½g 7S4, selsrafely is FS SSL ¾ SAF 786 may be two isroeBag&e e layers ^EC* shows.) sep s-afsdi b§ f a BQS^ sssagssfeiE as&&j&m agBa&£. csssplmg spsi-et" (pal skews) as is -weS kao^m by fesse sMlifesl m s joi. ' Use iffimsl bik 7H

m As will be SAF Mmss,. as m SAF 706. ^opdafe gntty ad mafercals feat

js mmg. eps: aaay ss-t be &ss:e¾y jsmnk&ig a ssspier fs½ies¾oE psocess mft cast savssgs-. Fear esass ie,. a dg iy fltMafflfed SAF {ES£ -shm ^ hxvmg. isso c l¾½g ferawa« g ra¾ g -- layets sepassisd by a SLa&sjism sgMHsear la er, -raisers fts i imma .e& layers above axe. Wsw &e n mE! Isj s <iMi&nsek -magrc< » fe mo ss^s. ΈΆΒ; ba&. &e fcErssmagasfc assay ¾e issmed & Cl¾ (Co alt ie

Samsi) «r ssy dss3i¾_ §e ∞sagask: sB©j- sr esss-pls, &Fe ma e ssed i½ Hie Ism a sf mii FB may s used ist' t&s u si ¾f¾ is ass sssEa le f&sko&ai k. At esiiam &Esi&Eessss «f ' ss Esf&csskms s as-ie laj , fc two- $BimasgB t Is as 'ws be mdfesE-ge Esya lsdi s© ilsat Use 3B - esaU*_i sfeie is &s Iss :esserg stafe As a isssi! ae st lsis es^Eople SAF sfesdasse. a isE se maaaE^: ap be -sx a sd wbisi., ¾dl sespsssgi a fay l¾jgs dwEsal aj^s sd maera^ie. & ¾sd½s &e SAF ½ ssass via a . iess i Taba« asssal. Fior a xe&sasce Is s: i½med wi¾. a. S_¾F fai bas i&imai. scale femsmsES (e.g. : ei ftas sp rassfely 0.5 am aksig &e stei ssis SBJ. a Mgk ssped: :£ai& ¾i esfe ik sfeaat 3} :; &e wzgpe&Etis i ti h alip.. ^s&passllel akssg fes sisssi ssis mstead of along &e tes JS5. faiee &e s&si a¾sk se¾s &s Ϊ½Β½Ι I s :iessis Ssmn &s £a r il-st itbe lss s¾t sa^g stafe is fa &e t o hy&s lsss 3iei" m j satic fes sl©Eg ibe sbssi is wmummnt {e.g.„ afe:€se setissg. fc is Te atw&, fee isagssEc wame a k targes* massed lap; («-Ι-, ke hemes ismed : «£ , 7 m ikLs exam le) slgss so tks£ it is akssg & s srt sss me SAF is. &e dmss&m Hat kas .2 po&tfc* ssjscfem ·Θ·Ε#<3 ike ss&¾ SaM asgle (sea O.S.. _½&S-# ¾Mimtea 2$δ8:¾2 !ί2Γ2, assgned lo &e assignee ef tie j^esesi ½Χ¾Ε&5Ϊ$. CosissEsel ,. ifce Eoa setk mgmesi -si ike SEBSIIEE mcsmeisi layer tike Bgppear feed as- reieesice layer m. S s esssss lie) 3¾ES in Hke ss ssfe dsscfes Ha sfes ssed kysar,. @$8| I¾e desassi sjniig dixeciktB. fa & : rs&s&ee kyers may he m^ sd ¾y Srsk Jsestmg IBS n mg fee wsfe' Isafe 3k« ksse ksssifesii iesspersfaie >sf fee FfMss. ½ &g: isss-see cfa sste&sisi Heidi fat ½ adjEEitei feei ess. fee ^mM ss af&e ififeessse kfffits 70S. 1-ba semmsto&m fes gkt sbs s fts piase tes-sssisss la s'. Is. s sero ΟΪ small easaej-saiit-g ma siefes Seldi, Ike EjagEsie mssisfesm cf 3*e reiemsce Isyes- is aljsssd arflal is me si&oii ssds ¾f si&SEBi d; Eessissik ι¾£ε£¾35£δ Isyes.

ves&es e s&s s sf&e i¾&∑«_ee lapses 7S6 fso idbs skagM*

udsSs. & eoospeosaiag field! csmes ike ms -sfastissB si sac mleis&ee k as- fc jeiss: asd p½ aksig: a desired Sj&d m. Tims,. &e smgs -sikss of 3sfe¾ssc« layer 7SS fc& s ¾■ skspe ikak ii is skjsed parallel to &s steii axis, sf tEke attes d ska e. Ifei. sessES" sleme s 3 - | GS.9 χε&, 10) sra ska sel Iksm the ssrsso-r hig 710 fey 2 s«ad½e s s. ©r stefe ιψβ ΐΒε sish. §er gKSEBgsle. hi. tkss secssdi eileli sas g-soe..aaol-ac jiso^s^sskst: pstlsim is ased e S»m s. pa¾emsisl aid mask ass &ie ss•of &e f^ssataj: ^per feisoiaag-seie. ½ « K{S5 ^es feat <H!i]i £msx &e ssse deffieafe MS. "Ife sfes is se½£¾ed o &we f ss sei ts si pas fa &s sessse 9W s*ss a seleefes efck prscsss (kg., ssafe km « mig) is ssed to- all raasied I« msaAmB &e «mrabd

-sppe? kmsmagseie la sf 710. Is. sdsefesl eEB¾sd½5ss.Ss;., !tke seecliiS <E £L rocess may leave iislsct se iassifalyi¾g: sta edi iassed IsEyess 756 5 .©i3gk ½ sAes"

selsefos «ick esss sis© ¾telses ss m-smasfced. ©∑fesss κί tibe sksped imiad la«£ES 7Q&, Use <£&£msed i-i i aspect sstso ska es fsar fee se-ss¾ rfmjesfe SiO we wet i. &a* &sy ai¾ isa^ar ½ &e (faai½ of&s- dteed magsefe£«m &aa ka^ sse id . la Ass ords... ike Isssg asis fbr sask sesss elesssEL 919 ½ ika assig &e dbsised ss^s^mEtks. daisei&sa &r s daagle fe sss ieti. smw- k ar. & addit-sss to bdaag i½msd as losg asd samsHf s¾¾pes, adciikiassl sks -Eg: af -&e eEils of smsa ele-S-ssi majp- ¾e- smded se fcst mask o is ssss skmssis ns&mts iaoaae Mka a si-sgle m giHilk: 'dssss<sfZL F©x ssxmple, ii sesss: dbEBsate sssy ½ skapsd is smted ends tot taper m ikv&ms ίάΜ * y Ctee sfaped = e sfe at* feme*,, iss- dessisd eas axis raagsseisc arisE isms aaay b© iad ssil &o .e½ s&se ssissSmjisf ½3β¾' assssalisg i¾s wafer {e-g., a¾ ass ansseal ismgexai s of ¾ rss½ts§Hly 25B de ees ). iss. Htm sbssa-ice sf 3 mngseic :fi«H, fe m &ve m&ierisl & ¾3½_-3.. U m mctisg, && sa½sis&ms of SBBSE $*x&. Has. brief amseal msj be ½_k.¾¾_d as past af tlas

afer $®o&-ss½g atach as a p¾-CMP ffis pssr aujseal :ist' ¾_fiper ½&-££K»mecf lapses.,

M A pfaal <£∞Β&Β α∞ I Ml, 1142 SES {FDG5.11 assd 1 ¾ 35s ®A m¾ sck ©ft a gi¾¾ s o seasse efei.3e.ite 11 f II i? :r il&eassy csB|sL½-g fee isjagssetk Issmel Eoc&ra de¾½es 11 IS w bix. s j ¾^3 m parallel ¾ets¾e-i ie emafcstas 1141- 14 asd. fts

P§ 2| Uses* parallel cossplsd sesse d.«Eaesite 116 ms$ be ssspledi m s«ses i& fee grsf^ss 1117 fey tstmSxs i 1151. .. iHNBl l¾

iss- e½£ss¾ies s a s mg noise a^saa iag at ifcs deviee Is t b«$i¾¾sE. &s ssssc f mpssH, sxeasmg ise SlflL. SHHK sssMiftle semt eleHsesis ars stacked *κ_ a sis¾le slserssle.. i&sj' aaay ¾e padksd miscE. ssssss B5B$S&? as umaM. he o&er tse: p©sss¾&6 @sm ss dssigs raias fer sasss¾ glsssss-t mer -slfisfe iis ssraslsy sad lower ekes&Qicte s ading.

§W&$J Iks a secernd «st¾oit¾a8iPBf, _¾fej½g bads. £0 E1GS.7-l¾ 3 dise-iiicsl dsdk is 1®S, : tise SAF asd at least is ss fhmmg jm 7M, *e ^eate am ^e^g 7Ϊ4 (FIG.1} 5 ½it s« ld ¾e ps«r Sse pmsisg ls$& Ίΰ&.. l¾e p½s_esil Eefs-ies-se lj ?i ½ -½m_eii sii 3. s 3¾Le jsaifesesl fes ssa ssiss. layer d½ ditm 783 {FIG..8) tiaa sl is 4¾ ΐ½ sto™ ef &e pa smrf Tfce s ifefc ssfi-

Use ssssi asm «f Sag paiifeEssd ssfeesss-e ls ¾s}. Is a fesi «¾ε¾. ssiissesse, itss ssspes e£&&

pDssiBg larj 784 mt deibed ½ ss½g jsstlemsd; &stosesst i½ss a fesf atteisssd. haasi. mask: a&d Siea ; s£¾is-ig a selecfes ^ssk sooess (e^g... ssa^ve iass. efcMsg sil ssmss&ssi !aress -skHsss. to s-sd. ¾6s -asaiiMsfces-i la s: fsms-Jia^jek: £ sesadtaig sfcspes of iise efe sd hm : Jaysss :ase aramied &a£ esei- p½a«al layer &ss sisa e aas½s£E@gs , issssstis-sg m a p¾£eas$gd agpekk: ^je- kss. alaiig ; of if s asses.

|SftS®i Use sess Eg shapes- of &e sidssi Iswer lesrama ssbc teeES ass cas-SEted ss- $i isecessai to sssenys fee tiigi. as ect ia$£e> of i&e ρί_∑Ε_β<Ι i-sagseie. I33¾r sisce fee sESfsat- iiss. is ss loDgs See is mom As && issed larger d lower sLsciE&ia sis© sas^e ss fc electees! mfess -mse&s; aik, wben assfc ess desst-SES ©fife agssetk ½Ι¾ί3¾½ϊ&· asa ifa m d™ fa^ th* v≠m «* d™s a d «* rfenmEce asy ¾e realised.. lssss &S amsel jem -tosss sue feritsEt' se arated isfe ^ss s ss½se¾ sE-S: aJtesssEg rf fe lo s eledxode, T?HEy close is iise Meal dss&iesl pattern assd padsrajg- slsssiiks msj alss be slas . T½ skspe depe&dlmt msgsketk ims&m to defeomise sensor leasee a&ge ef&e h ekeimd

P§«1 Ussffi sukset eni is &e sense eksueaJs JiQafid

define sessse slemesi sliapes, a Isrf-er d-ssssicsi sids fFIGS.13-143 & ®E&s-s¾i Use SAF ss p½!¾½g yesr 7©4. aa_i &s Isswer elesl3e«le Ίο eiesie a esii¾s 1314 and gF0fl¾S5 (Figuss I5-I.6) fa ideal e ec&seal erifemssEes by ksterssssaaeEfos τκϋϋ. ©pi©E-aI vsas. 1544 ass as. s_f sr tsc^ islsesmEssst layer 1542. A lsaaJiSy sf sd sSsis 15 1-I5SE a ioscsaesd cisslas. «f &e senssar ds-aseafe essii l-sg. a SSESS sLssesi femi me mi¾5l¾¾ s sesse slesssm 91© ½ ISli a. sesss eLemest flO s sabg.'esp 153 ' !. His simctme «a^»ks fa ss3£¾ i&tE; !ssse! jtaasikss ias. sdg s^^ I531„ 1532,.1.533·.. 153 ½ ssieSy a&d » sB ^sps- 153S, iS f 1537, 1S3S is seses. Haese sess cc^ied

15S1-I53S may tissn. be cjoef etl ias. paislM ½y &e e«msias4cif 1571. FagHse 17 d-is s a gis fseis¾¾ '^iew «s &a: sfs t- efemesi assay. CMSTl 11 aasst If , 3 isSsbilssfes lasies sis f msed asear fee SI©. As ism .mmJsefes st3¾fesfai I ss IWl ¾ se-ferably l¾m-ssl s. t © £¾¾sssesi sife ©I " like sasss elsEsssits sl: ssay bs fsasssdi -e-s. OB¾r «Hse side. Te- rs sne &t deme s &e field meas enaeEii as. adjesfesg Sie psse is applied slssg ibe s& Siza&s pa$i. This reset s fce eiissfe, ptrssssle *ad. only «∞r wben a* error∞idi&» mfc&ig s-^ s-issta s. ; , faeas fef CSOXHES, «r gi- ssise smsS amfy is vBeawaf eaiL As &¾ sBdissfoal sesss eesatstf a-sk^mpy is ksge «eosg»a£ed. ¾. Use sisbilsssfom fieM fci xsast be allied £&κ liaise i? ½aissisiB, issi ss. issme ardtr as fce field sei sssd Ί» fKsssi ite sesse: is mum laa¾er than &sl a fisd dtmn-g; sseasstFessejai psiE^a lum ca abilitj^ .a wswa&fa&y expose.* fe a age fisld may £«ΒΙ fts :magsss&2stis!S: of &e sesse lsmsEfc; ½. a psst¾" &$eaB3-½e state:. Sabse ss-t ie fee ; ¾jjsr£im lssse (sj lea&t.- ©f Use ^ iisstes csnaesit. si liise sefmests mMss :a ½i e «r sesse assis are esmssssfed is SESSBS.. SEJ staM-ss&is vmsm^. is s plsd » &ess ssgEses-is

Hss sssssbmsikm dp series ssd a IM wimag rides me g&es sense ekraeaai: fiaal issstase i^ssvid* SP&HKI e s-s-sa&siE tf s½¾ics aEaasefcsES ssscli as ½¾asiaE£e i½ m½ ¾¾l -gt zsmsw^ ,. l© Jsimsjem. and slset BSSSS, aa ¾est CMOS im edasice m h g. The ioner series W3i½g is fer&er feisl m feat a fe SE^jaacE sesse deme®* MII ssit ms-feibafe fa® gjsaiiy s Sue is rsll fe½a sesstasse -as its is si is is sh&i. &g ©fa sssaes essmsefei S¾s^ is w fc TSA i∞

FIGS, 20 sE-i 2 Sssfeie & isrf essfs kr ^B^XI&SSSA itd sssm. &a smagBgfeg. tetsel Jmte&tits 2SM seat p©s½ssed b¾t s«- e si½i £¥8 l½es 2H0G- 2E&.2§42 sss fe&

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