Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
FABRICS INCLUDING A SINGLE-PLY YARN AND/OR HAVING LOW PICKS PER INCH OR LOW COURSES PER INCH
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/236872
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Fabrics including a single-ply yarn are described herein along with fabrics that have low picks per inch or low courses per inch. The fabrics may comprise modacrylic fibers, meta-aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and optionally para-aramid fibers, and the fabrics may comprise: about 10% or 20% to about 60% or 80% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 20% or 40% to about 80% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric.

Inventors:
ALBERTO, Mia Rauston (US)
MARTIN, Christopher Brent (US)
EARHART, Robert Charles (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2021/033308
Publication Date:
November 25, 2021
Filing Date:
May 20, 2021
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
GLEN RAVEN, INC. (US)
International Classes:
A41D31/04; D01F6/40; D02G3/04; D02G3/32; D02G3/44; D03D15/513
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BOBAY, Erin Regel (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
THAT WHICH IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A fabric comprising: a plurality of yarns, wherein each yarn of the plurality of yarns comprises modacrylic fibers, meta-aramid fibers, optionally anti-static fibers, and optionally para-aramid fibers, wherein the fabric comprises: about 10% or 20% to about 60%, 70%, 80%, or 90% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% to about 80% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0% or 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0% or 0.1% to about 15% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; and wherein the fabric comprises single-ply yarns, optionally wherein the plurality of yarns comprises single-ply yarns.

2. The fabric of claim 1, wherein the fabric comprises less than 74% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric, optionally wherein the fabric comprises less than 74% solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric.

3. The fabric of claim 1 or 2, wherein the fabric comprises greater than 20% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric, optionally wherein the fabric comprises greater than 20% solution-dyed modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric.

4. The fabric of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the fabric comprises about 30% to about 50% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 45% to about 65% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 1% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric.

5. The fabric of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the fabric comprises about 55% to about 74%, 80%, or 85% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 10% to about 30% meta- aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 1% to about 15% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric.

6. The fabric of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the fabric comprises about 60% to about 80% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 10% to about 20% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 1% to about 15% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric.

7. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric comprises about 10% or 20% to about 60%, 70%, 80%, or 90% fiber dyed modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric, optionally wherein the fiber dyed modacrylic fibers are solution-dyed modacrylic fibers.

8. A fabric comprising: a plurality of yarns, wherein each yarn of the plurality of yarns comprises fiber dyed modacrylic fibers blended with para-aramid fibers and/or anti-static fibers, wherein the fabric comprises: about 90% to about 99% fiber dyed modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and wherein the fabric comprises single-ply yarns, optionally wherein the plurality of yarns comprises single-ply yams.

9. The fabric of claim 8, wherein the fabric comprises para-aramid fibers, optionally wherein the para-aramid fibers are fiber dyed para-aramid fibers.

10. The fabric of claim 8 or 9, wherein the fabric comprises anti-static fibers, optionally wherein the anti-static fibers are fiber dyed anti-static fibers.

11. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric comprises about 10% to about 60% single-ply yams by weight of the fabric.

12. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric comprises warp yams and fill yarns or machine direction yarns and cross-machine direction yarns, and the fill yams or cross-machine direction yarns comprise single-ply yams, optionally wherein the fill yams or cross-machine direction yarns consist of single-ply yams.

13. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the plurality of yarns comprises one or more yarns having a yarn size of about 12/1 or 15/1 to about 20/1, 24/1, 30/1, or 40/1, optionally wherein the plurality of yarns comprises one or more yarns having a yarn size of 12/1, 15/1, 17/1, 18/1, 20/1, 24/1, 30/1, and/or 40/1.

14. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the plurality of yarns comprises one or more yams having a yam size of 30/2 and/or 40/2.

15. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric comprises warp yams and fill yarns or machine direction yarns and cross-machine direction yarns, and the warp yarns or machine direction yams have a yarn size of 30/2 or 40/2 and the fill yams or cross-machine direction yams have a yam size of 12/1, 15/1, 17/1, 18/1, 20/1, 24/1, 30/1, or 40/1.

16. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric is woven, optionally wherein the fabric has a plain weave, twill weave, or basketweave.

17. The fabric of any one of claims 1-15, wherein the fabric is a knit, optionally wherein the fabric is an interlock knit, single jersey knit, double jersey knit, warp knit, rib knit, pique knit, and/or modified welt knit.

18. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the meta-aramid fibers, para-aramid fibers, and/or anti-static fibers are fiber dyed fibers (e.g., solution-dyed fibers), optionally wherein the meta-aramid fibers, para-aramid fibers, and anti-static fibers are solution-dyed fibers.

19. The fabric of any one of claims 1-7 or 11-18, wherein the modacrylic fibers are fiber dyed modacrylic fibers.

20. The fabric of any one of claims 8-19, wherein the fiber dyed modacrylic fibers solution-dyed fibers.

21. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric comprises about 75% or more fiber dyed fibers (e.g., solution-dyed fibers) by weight of the fabric, optionally wherein the fabric comprises greater than 80% fiber dyed fibers (e.g., solution-dyed fibers) by weight of the fabric.

22. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric comprises about 75% or more solution-dyed fibers by weight of the fabric, optionally wherein the fabric comprises greater than 80% solution-dyed fibers by weight of the fabric.

23. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein 100% of the meta-aramid fibers, modacrylic fibers, anti-static fibers, and/or para-aramid fibers present in the fabric are fiber dyed fibers (e.g., solution-dyed fibers), optionally wherein 100% of the meta-aramid fibers, modacrylic fibers, anti-static fibers, and/or para-aramid fibers present in the fabric are solution-dyed fibers.

24. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the modacrylic fibers comprise an antimony oxide, optionally wherein the modacrylic fibers comprises antimony pentoxide.

25. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the modacrylic fibers are formed from and/or comprises a polymer comprising acrylonitrile units and vinylidene chloride units.

26. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the modacrylic fibers have a degree of crystallinity of at least 35%, optionally wherein the modacrylic fibers have a degree of crystallinity of at least 35% to about 40%, 41%, 42%, 43%, 44%, or 45%.

27. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the meta-aramid fibers have a degree of crystallinity of less than 20% and/or are amorphous.

28. The fabric of any one of claims 1-7 or 11-27, wherein the modacrylic fibers and meta- aramid fibers are present in the fabric in a weight ratio of about 1 :2 to about 10:1 (modacrylic fibers : meta-aramid fibers), optionally wherein the weight ratio is about 1:2 to about 1:1, about 2:1 to about 10:1, about 2.5:1 to about 8:1, or about 3:1 to about 6:1 (modacrylic fibers

: meta-aramid fibers).

29. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has a basis weight of about 2 or 4.5 ounces per square yard (osy) to about 10 osy or 15.

30. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has about 30 or 52 to about 70 picks per inch (PPI) or courses per inch (CPI).

31. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has improved flame resistance compared to a control fabric, optionally wherein the control fabric consists of two-ply yarns comprising modacrylic fibers, meta-aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and/or para-aramid fibers.

32. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric is flame resistant.

33. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric is UL compliant and/or the fabric meets or exceeds the requirements set forth in ASTM D6413, NFPA 70E, NGRA 2112, ASTM F1506, NFPA 1975, NFPA 1977, Canadian Standard CGSB 155.20, and/or Canadian Standard CGSB 155.22.

34. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has an arc rating that is substantially the same as (e.g., within about +/- 10% of) or improved compared to an arc rating for a control fabric, optionally wherein the control fabric consists of two-ply yarns comprising modacrylic fibers, meta-aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and optionally para- aramid fibers.

35. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has a color, strength (e.g., tear strength and/or tensile strength), seam slippage, crock, size, flame resistance, and/or arc-flash resistance after about 50 or 100 launderings or more that is substantially the same as (e.g., within about +/- 10% of) the color, strength (e.g., tear strength and/or tensile strength), seam slippage, crock, size, flame resistance, and/or arc-flash resistance of the fabric prior to laundering.

36. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric passes TM ASTM D4966 abrasion testing after about 100,000 or 200,000 cycles of fabric abrasion testing as measured in accordance with TM ASTM D4966.

37. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has minimal or no discoloration after about 50 or 100 launderings or more compared to the color of the fabric prior to launderingand/or compared to a control fabric (e.g., a control fabric consisting of two-ply yarns comprising modacrylic fibers, meta-aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and optionally para-aramid fibers).

38. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has a CIE Delta E of less than about 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, or 1 at about 3, 6, 9, or 12 months or more (e.g., 3, 6, 9, or 12 months or more of outdoor exposure) and/or after exposure to 880, 1320, or 2200 kJ in accordance with AATCC 169 Option 3.

39. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has increased and/or improved strength (e.g., tear strength and/or tensile strength), shrinkage, seam slippage, crock, shade consistency, color fastness, arc-flash resistance, and/or laundering properties compared to strength (e.g., tear strength and/or tensile strength), shrinkage, seam slippage, crock, shade consistency, color fastness, arc-flash resistance, and/or laundering properties for a control fabric, optionally wherein the control fabric consists of two-ply yarns comprising modacrylic fibers, meta-aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and optionally para-aramid fibers.

40. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the plurality of yarns comprise stapl e fibers, optionally wherein at least a portion of the staple fibers have a length of about 50 mm to about 55 mm, a linear density of about 1.5 dtex to about 2.0 dtex, and/or a limiting oxygen index (LOI) of at least about 28%.

41. A fabric comprising: a plurality of yarns, wherein each yarn of the plurality of yarns comprises modacrylic fibers, meta-aramid fibers, optionally anti-static fibers, and optionally para-aramid fibers, wherein the fabric comprises: about 10% or 20% to about 60%, 70%, 80%, or 90% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% to about 80% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0% or 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0% or 0.1% to about 15% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; and wherein the fabric has about 30 to about 60 picks per inch (PPI).

42. The fabric of claim 41, wherein the fabric comprises less than 74% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric, optionally wherein the fabric comprises less than 74% solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric.

43. The fabric of claim 41 or 42, wherein the fabric comprises greater than 20% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric, optionally wherein the fabric comprises greater than 20% solution-dyed modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric.

44. The fabric of any one of claims 41-43, wherein the fabric comprises about 30% to about 50% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 45% to about 65% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 1% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric.

45. The fabric of any one of claims 41-44, wherein the fabric comprises about 55% to about 74%, 80%, or 85% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 10% to about 30% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 1% to about 15% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric.

46. The fabric of any one of claims 41-45, wherein the fabric comprises about 60% to about 80% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 10% to about 20% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 1% to about 15% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric.

47. The fabric of any one of claims 41-46, wherein the fabric comprises about 10% or 20% to about 60%, 70%, 80%, or 90% fiber dyed modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric, optionally wherein the fiber dyed modacrylic fibers are solution-dyed modacrylic fibers.

48. A fabric comprising: a plurality of yarns, wherein each yarn of the plurality of yarns comprises fiber dyed modacrylic fibers blended with para-aramid fibers and/or anti-static fibers, wherein the fabric comprises: about 90% to about 99% fiber dyed modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and wherein the fabric comprises single-ply yarns, optionally wherein the plurality of yarns comprises single-ply yams.

49. The fabric of claim 48, wherein the fabric comprises para-aramid fibers, optionally wherein the para-aramid fibers are fiber dyed para-aramid fibers.

50. The fabric of claim 48 or 49, wherein the fabric comprises anti-static fibers, optionally wherein the anti-static fibers are fiber dyed anti-static fibers.

51. The fabric of any one of claims 41-50, wherein the fabric comprises about 10% to about 60% single-ply yams by weight of the fabric.

52. The fabric of any one of claims 41-51, wherein the fabric comprises warp yarns and fill yarns or machine direction yarns and cross-machine direction yams and the fill yarns or cross-machine direction yarns comprise single-ply yams, optionally wherein the fill yams or cross-machine direction yarns consist of single-ply yams.

53. The fabric of any one of claims 41-52, wherein the plurality of yarns comprises one or more yarns having a yam size of 12/1 or 15/1 to about 20/1, 24/1, 30/1, or 40/1, optionally wherein the plurality of yarns comprises one or more yarns having a yarn size of 12/1, 15/1, 17/1, 18/1, 20/1, 24/1, 30/1, and/or 40/1.

54. The fabric of any one of claims 41-53, wherein the plurality of yarns comprises one or more yams having a yam size of 30/2 and/or 40/2.

55. The fabric of any one of claims 41-54, wherein the fabric has about 30 to about 51 picks per inch (PPI) or courses per inch (CPI).

56. The fabric of any one of claims 41-55, wherein the fabric is woven, optionally wherein the fabric has a plain weave, twill weave, or basketweave.

57. The fabric of any one of claims 41-56, wherein the meta-aramid fibers, para-aramid fibers, and/or anti-static fibers are fiber dyed fibers (e.g., solution-dyed fibers), optionally wherein the meta-aramid fibers, para-aramid fibers, and anti-static fibers are solution-dyed fibers.

58. The fabric of any one of claims 41-47 or 51-57, wherein the modacrylic fibers are fiber dyed modacrylic fibers.

59. The fabric of any one of claims 48-58, wherein the fiber dyed modacrylic fibers are solution-dyed fibers.

60. The fabric of any one of claims 41-59, wherein the fabric comprises about 75% or more fiber dyed fibers (e.g., solution-dyed fibers) by weight of the fabric, optionally wherein the fabric comprises greater than 80% fiber dyed fibers (e.g., solution-dyed fibers) by weight of the fabric.

61. The fabric of any one of claims 41-60, wherein the fabric comprises about 75% or more solution-dyed fibers by weight of the fabric, optionally wherein the fabric comprises greater than 80% solution-dyed fibers by weight of the fabric, further optionally wherein 100% of the meta-aramid fibers, modacrylic fibers, anti-static fibers, and/or para-aramid fibers present in the fabric are solution-dyed fibers.

62. The fabric of any one of claims 41-61, wherein 100% of the meta-aramid fibers, modacrylic fibers, anti-static fibers, and/or para-aramid fibers present in the fabric are fiber dyed fibers (e.g., solution-dyed fibers), optionally wherein 100% of the meta-aramid fibers, modacrylic fibers, anti-static fibers, and/or para-aramid fibers present in the fabric are solution-dyed fibers.

63. The fabric of any one of claims 41-62, wherein the modacrylic fibers comprise an antimony oxide, optionally wherein the modacrylic fibers comprises antimony pentoxide.

64. The fabric of any one of claims 41-63, wherein the modacrylic fibers are formed from and/or comprises a polymer comprising acrylonitrile units and vinylidene chloride units.

65. The fabric of any one of claims 41-64, wherein the modacrylic fibers have a degree of crystallinity of at least 35%, optionally wherein the modacrylic fibers have a degree of crystallinity of at least 35% to about 40%, 41%, 42%, 43%, 44%, or 45%.

66. The fabric of any one of claims 41-65, wherein the meta-aramid fibers have a degree of crystallinity of less than 20% and/or are amorphous.

67. The fabric of any one of claims 41-47 or 51-66, wherein the modacrylic fibers and meta-aramid fibers are present in the fabric in a weight ratio of about 1 :2 to about 10:1 (modacrylic fibers : meta-aramid fibers), optionally wherein the weight ratio is about 1:2 to about 1:1, about 2:1 to about 10:1, about 2.5:1 to about 8:1, or about 3:1 to about 6:1 (modacrylic fibers : meta-aramid fibers).

68. The fabric of any one of claims 41-67, wherein the fabric has a basis weight of about 2 or 4.5 ounces per square yard (osy) to about 10 or 15 osy.

69. The fabric of any one of claims 41-68, wherein the fabric has improved flame resistance compared to a control fabric, optionally wherein the control fabric comprises about 10% to about 80% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 20% to about 80% meta- aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric and has about 52-70 PPI.

70. The fabric of any one of claims 41-69, wherein the fabric is flame resistant.

71. The fabric of any one of claims 41-70, wherein the fabric is UL compliant.

72. The fabric of any one of claims 41-71, wherein the fabric has an arc rating that is substantially the same as (e.g., within about +/- 10% of) or improved compared to an arc rating for a control fabric, optionally wherein the control fabric comprises about 10% to about 80% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 20% to about 80% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric and has about 52- 70 PPL

73. The fabric of any one of claims 41-72, wherein the fabric has a color, strength (e.g., tear strength and/or tensile strength), seam slippage, crock, size, flame resistance, and/or arc- flash resistance after about 50 or 100 launderings or more that is substantially the same as (e.g., within about +/- 10% of) the color, strength (e.g., tear strength and/or tensile strength), seam slippage, crock, size, flame resistance, and/or arc-flash resistance of the fabric prior to laundering.

74. The fabric of any one of claims 41-73, wherein the fabric passes TM ASTM D4966 abrasion testing after about 100,000 or 200,000 cycles of fabric abrasion testing as measured in accordance with TM ASTM D4966.

75. The fabric of any one of claims 41-74, wherein the fabric meets or exceeds the requirements set forth in ASTM D6413, NFPA 70E, NFPA 2112, ASTM F1506, NFPA 1975, NFPA 1977, Canadian Standard CGSB 155.20, and/or Canadian Standard CGSB 155.22.

76. The fabric of any one of claims 41-75, wherein the fabric has minimal or no discoloration after about 50 or 100 launderings or more compared to the color of the fabric prior to laundering and/or compared to a control fabric (e.g., a control fabric comprising about 20% to about 60% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 40% to about 80% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric and has about 52-70 PPI).

77. The fabric of any one of claims 41-76, wherein the fabric has a CIE Delta E of less than about 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, or 1 at about 3, 6, 9, or 12 months or more (e.g., 3, 6, 9, or 12 months or more of outdoor exposure) and/or after exposure to 880, 1320, or 2200 kJ in accordance with AATCC 169 Option 3.

78. The fabric of any one of claims 41-77, wherein the fabric has increased and/or improved strength (e.g., tear strength and/or tensile strength), shrinkage, seam slippage, crock, shade consistency, color fastness, arc-flash resistance, and/or laundering properties compared to strength (e.g., tear strength and/or tensile strength), shrinkage, seam slippage, crock, shade consistency, color fastness, arc-flash resistance, and/or laundering properties for a control fabric, optionally wherein the control fabric comprises about 20% to about 60% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 40% to about 80% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric and has about 52-70 PPI.

79. The fabric of any one of claims 41-78, wherein the plurality of yarns comprise staple fibers, optionally at least a portion of the staple fibers have a length of about 50 mm to about 55 mm, a linear density of about 1.5 dtex to about 2.0 dtex, and/or a limiting oxygen index (LOI) of at least about 28%.

80. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has a seam slippage in the warp and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction of greater than 50 lbf, as measured in accordance with ASTM D434.

81. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has a shrinkage in length and/or width direction after 25 launderings of less than about 3%, as measured in accordance with TM AATCC 135, Method 3, IV or TM AATCC 135, Method 3, V , A, iii.

82. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has a tear strength in the warp direction and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction of at least about 6.5 lbf, as measured in accordance with ASTM D2261.

83. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has a tensile strength in the warp direction and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction of at least about 85 lbf, as measured in accordance with ASTM D5034.

84. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric does not melt or drip, has an after-flame of less than 2 seconds, and has a char length of less than 6 inches, as tested in accordance with ASTM FI 506 and/or ASTM D6413.

85. The fabric of claim 84, wherein the fabric, after 25 launderings, does not melt or drip, has an after-flame of less than 2 seconds, and has a char length of less than 6 inches, as tested in accordance with ASTM test method D6413.

86. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has a laundering rating of at least 4, as measured in accordance with TM AATCC 61 2A.

87. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has a protection to weight ratio of about 1 or more (arc rating (cal/cm2) as measured in accordance with NFPA 70E : weight of the fabric).

88. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric is devoid of cellulosic fibers and/or nylon fibers that are not anti -static fibers.

89. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric is not treated with a coloring agent (e.g., a dye) and/or wherein each yam of the plurality of yarns is devoid of a post- formation dye.

90. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric meets or exceeds the requirements set forth in ANSI/ISEA 107 - 2020, ISO 20471:2013, ASTM El 164-17, AATCC 61-2013 (e.g., AATCC 61-2013 -2 A, AATCC 61-2013-3A, AATCC 61-2013-4A, AATCC 61-2013-

5 A) optionally as carried out at 105°F and/or 145°F, AATCC 132-2013, AATCC 133-2013 as carried out at 230°F, 302°F, and/or 392°F, AATCC 8-2016, AATCC 15-2013, ASTM D1424-09 (2019), ASTM D3787-07 (2016), ASTM D6797-07 (2015), AATCC 135-2018, AATCC 96-2012, and/or AATCC 107-2013.

91. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric, after laundering in accordance with AATCC 61-2013 as carried out at about 105°F, has a grade of 4-5 or 5 for color change, optionally wherein the fabric, after laundering in accordance with AATCC 61-2013 as carried out at about 120°F, has a grade of at least 4-5 or 5 for color change.

92. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric, after laundering in accordance with AATCC 61-2013 as carried out at about 105°F, has a grade of 4, 4-5, or 5 for staining of acetate, staining of cotton, staining of nylon, staining of polyester, staining of acrylic, and/or staining of wool, optionally wherein the fabric, after laundering in accordance with AATCC 61-2013 as carried out at about 120°F, has a grade of 4, 4-5, or 5 for staining of acetate, staining of cotton, staining of nylon, staining of polyester, staining of acrylic, and/or staining of wool.

93. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric, after laundering in accordance with AATCC 61-2013 as carried out at about 105°F, has a grade of 5 for color change and a grade of 5 for staining of acetate, staining of cotton, staining of nylon, staining of polyester, staining of acrylic, and/or staining of wool, optionally wherein the fabric, after laundering in accordance with AATCC 61-2013 as carried out at about 120°F, has a grade of 5 for color change and a grade of 5 for staining of acetate, staining of cotton, staining of nylon, staining of polyester, staining of acrylic, and/or staining of wool.

94. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric, after laundering in accordance with AATCC 61-2013 as carried out at about 105°F, has an improvement in grade for staining of one or more of acetate, cotton, nylon, polyester, acrylic, and wool compared to a control fabric devoid of a fiber dyed modacrylic fiber, optionally wherein the fabric, after laundering in accordance with AATCC 61-2013 as carried out at about 145°F, has an improvement in grade for color change and/or grade for staining of one or more of acetate, cotton, nylon, polyester, acrylic, and wool compared to a control fabric devoid of a fiber dyed modacrylic fiber.

95. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has a color, prior to an exposure test (e.g., prior to a xenon exposure test), having chromaticity coordinates as defined by ANSI/ISEA 107-2020 that fall within the chromaticity coordinates for fluorescent yellow-green, fluorescent orange-red, or fluorescent red, optionally wherein the color is measured in accordance with AATCC 16.3-2014.

96. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has a luminance factor, prior to an exposure test (e.g., prior to a xenon exposure test), of at least 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, or 95%, optionally wherein the luminance factor is measured in accordance with ASTM

El 164-17.

97. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has a color, after an exposure test (e.g., a xenon exposure test), having chromaticity coordinates as defined by ANSI/ISEA 107-2020 that fall within the chromaticity coordinates for fluorescent yellow-green, fluorescent orange-red, or fluorescent red, optionally wherein the color is measured in accordance with AATCC 16.3-2014.

98. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has a luminance factor, after an exposure test (e.g., a xenon exposure test), of at least 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, or 95%, optionally wherein the luminance factor is measured in accordance with ASTM El 164-17.

99. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has a colorfastness to crocking, wet and/or dry, having a grade of at least 3.0 or 4.0 by the Gray Scale for Staining when measured in accordance with AATCC 8-2016.

100. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has a colorfastness to perspiration having a grade of at least 4.0 for color change by the Gray Scale for Color Change and/or a grade of at least 3.0 or 4.0 for staining by the Gray Scale for Staining when measured in accordance with AATCC 15-2013.

101. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein, after laundering, the fabric has a dimensional change in the warp direction and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction that is within ± 7%, ± 6%, ± 5%, ± 4%, or ± 3%, as measured in accordance with AATCC 135-2018 (3) (III) (A) (iii), AATCC 158-2016 and/or AATCC 96- 2012 (IIIc) (A) and/or (E) carried out at a temperature of about 105°F to about 140°F, optionally wherein the laundering is performed in accordance with AATCC 135-2018 (3)

(III) (A) (iii), AATCC 158-2016 (dry cleaning) and/or AATCC 96-2012 (commercial laundry) (IIIc) (A) and/or (E) at a temperature of about 120°F to about 140°F.

102. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein, after laundering, the fabric has a dimensional change in the warp direction and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction that is reduced compared to dimensional change in the warp direction and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction for a control fabric that is devoid of fiber dyed modacrylic fibers after the same laundering as measured in accordance with AATCC 135-2018 (3) (III) (A) (iii), AATCC 158-2016 and/or AATCC 96-2012 (IIIc) (A) and/or (E) carried out at a temperature of about 105°F or 120°F to about 140°F.

103. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein the fabric has a tear strength in the warp and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction of about 2.5, 3, 4, or 5 pound-force (lbf) to about 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, or 15 lbf, optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D1424.

104. The fabric of any preceding claim, wherein, after exposure to 500°F for 5 minutes, the fabric has a shrinkage in the length and/or width direction of less than 10%, optionally as measured in accordance with Section 8.4 of NFPA 2112-2018 and/or ASTM F2894.

105. A method of forming a garment (e.g., a shirt, pant, etc.), the method comprising: providing the fabric of any one of claims 1-104.

106. Use of the fabric of any one of claims 1-104 in forming a garment (e.g., a shirt, pant, etc.).

Description:
FABRICS INCLUDING A SINGLE-PLY YARN AND/OR HAVING LOW PICKS PER INCH OR LOW COURSES PER INCH

Field

[0001] The present invention relates to fabrics that include a single-ply yam and to fabrics that have low picks per inch or courses per inch.

Summary

[0002] A first aspect of the present invention is directed to a fabric comprising: a plurality of yarns, wherein each yarn of the plurality of yams comprises modacrylic fibers, meta-aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and optionally para-aramid fibers, wherein the fabric comprises: about 10% or 20% to about 60% or 80% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 20% or 40% to about 80% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0.1% to about 2% anti static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; and wherein the fabric comprises single-ply yams. In some embodiments, the plurality of yarns comprises single-ply yams.

[0003] Another aspect of the present invention is directed to a fabric comprising: a plurality of yarns, wherein each yarn of the plurality of yarns comprises modacrylic fibers, meta-aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and optionally para-aramid fibers, wherein the fabric comprises: about 10% or 20% to about 60% or 80% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 20% or 40% to about 80% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0.1% to about 2% anti static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; and wherein the fabric has about 30 to about 60 picks per inch (PPI) or courses per inch (CPI).

[0004] A further aspect of the present invention is directed to a fabric comprising: a plurality of yarns, wherein each yarn of the plurality of yarns comprises modacrylic fibers, meta-aramid fibers, optionally anti-static fibers, and optionally para-aramid fibers, wherein the fabric comprises: about 10% or 20% to about 60%, 70%, 80%, or 90% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 10% to about 80% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0% or 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0% to about 15% para- aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; and wherein the fabric comprises single-ply yams. In some embodiments, the plurality of yarns comprises single-ply yams.

[0005] A further aspect of the present invention is directed to a fabric comprising: a plurality of yarns, wherein each yarn of the plurality of yarns comprises modacrylic fibers, meta-aramid fibers, optionally anti-static fibers, and optionally para-aramid fibers, wherein the fabric comprises: about 10% or 20% to about 60%, 70%, 80%, or 90% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 10% to about 80% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0% or 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0% to about 15% para- aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; and wherein the fabric has about 30 to about 60 PPI or CPI.

[0006] Another aspect of the present invention is directed to a fabric comprising: a plurality of yams, wherein each yam of the plurality of yams comprises fiber dyed modacrylic fibers blended with para-aramid fibers and/or anti-static fibers, wherein the fabric comprises: about 90% to about 99% fiber dyed modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and wherein the fabric comprises single-ply yams. In some embodiments, the plurality of yarns comprises single-ply yams.

[0007] Another aspect of the present invention is directed to a fabric comprising: a plurality of yams, wherein each yam of the plurality of yams comprises fiber dyed modacrylic fibers blended with para-aramid fibers and/or anti-static fibers, wherein the fabric comprises: about 90% to about 99% fiber dyed modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and wherein the fabric has about 30 to about 60 PPI or CPI.

[0008] Another aspect of the present invention is directed to use of a fabric as described herein in forming a garment (e.g., a shirt, pant, etc.).

[0009] It is noted that aspects of the invention described with respect to one embodiment, may be incorporated in a different embodiment although not specifically described relative thereto. That is, all embodiments and/or features of any embodiment can be combined in any way and/or combination. Applicant reserves the right to change any originally filed claim and/or file any new claim accordingly, including the right to be able to amend any originally filed claim to depend from and/or incorporate any feature of any other claim or claims although not originally claimed in that manner. These and other objects and/or aspects of the present invention are explained in detail in the specification set forth below. Further features, advantages and details of the present invention will be appreciated by those of ordinary skill in the art from a reading of the figures and the detailed description of the preferred embodiments that follow, such description being merely illustrative of the present invention. Detailed Description of Example Embodiments

[0010] The present invention is now described more fully hereinafter in which embodiments of the invention are described. This invention may, however, be embodied in many different forms and should not be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein; rather these embodiments are provided so that this disclosure will be thorough and complete and will fully convey the scope of the invention to those skilled in the art.

[0011] The terminology used in the description of the invention herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of the invention. As used in the description of the invention and the appended claims, the singular forms "a," "an" and "the" are intended to include the plural forms as well, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.

[0012] Unless otherwise defined, all terms (including technical and scientific terms) used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. It will be further understood that terms, such as those defined in commonly used dictionaries, should be interpreted as having a meaning that is consistent with their meaning in the context of the present application and relevant art and should not be interpreted in an idealized or overly formal sense unless expressly so defined herein. The terminology used in the description of the invention herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of the invention. All publications, patent applications, patents and other references mentioned herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety. In case of a conflict in terminology, the present specification is controlling.

[0013] Also as used herein, "and/or" refers to and encompasses any and all possible combinations of one or more of the associated listed items, as well as the lack of combinations when interpreted in the alternative ("or").

[0014] Unless the context indicates otherwise, it is specifically intended that the various features of the invention described herein can be used in any combination. Moreover, the present invention also contemplates that in some embodiments of the invention, any feature or combination of features set forth herein can be excluded or omitted. To illustrate, if the specification states that a complex comprises components A, B and C, it is specifically intended that any of A, B or C, or a combination thereof, can be omitted and disclaimed.

[0015] As used herein, the transitional phrase "consisting essentially of' (and grammatical variants) is to be interpreted as encompassing the recited materials or steps "and those that do not materially affect the basic and novel characteristic(s)" of the claimed invention. See, In re Herz, 537 F.2d 549, 551-52, 190 U.S.P.Q. 461, 463 (CCPA 1976) (emphasis in the original); see also MPEP § 2111.03. Thus, the term "consisting essentially of' as used herein should not be interpreted as equivalent to "comprising."

[0016] The term "about," as used herein when referring to a measurable value such as an amount or concentration and the like, is meant to encompass variations of ± 10%, ± 5%, ± 1%, ± 0.5%, or even ± 0.1% of the specified value as well as the specified value. For example, "about X" where X is the measurable value, is meant to include X as well as variations of ± 10%, ± 5%, ± 1%, ± 0.5%, or even ± 0.1% of X. A range provided herein for a measurable value may include any other range and/or individual value therein.

[0017] As used herein, the terms "increase," "increases," "increased," "increasing," and similar terms indicate an elevation in the specified parameter or value of at least about 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 100%, 150%, 200%, 300%, 400%, 500% or more such as compared to another measurable property or quantity (e.g., a control value).

[0018] As used herein, the terms "reduce," "reduces," "reduced," "reduction," "inhibit," and similar terms refer to a decrease in the specified parameter or value of at least about 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 97%, or 100% such as compared to another measurable property or quantity (e.g., a control value).

[0019] Provided according to embodiments of the present invention are fabrics that include single-ply yarns and/or have about 30 to about 60 picks per inch (PPI) or courses per inch (CPI). The fabrics can have one or more improved properties. It was discovered that a fabric of the present invention could be achieved and still provide the fabric with sufficient strength (e.g., tear and/or tensile strength), seam slip, flame resistance, arc resistance, and/or other performance characteristics.

[0020] In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention includes a yarn that comprises a blend of modacrylic fibers, meta-aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and optionally para-aramid fibers. In some embodiments, the blend of fibers comprises: about 10% or 20% to about 80% or 90% modacrylic fibers by weight of the yarn; about 10% or 20% to about 80% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn; about 0% or 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the yarn; and about 0% to about 10% or 15% para-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention includes a yarn that comprises a blend of fibers, the blend of fibers comprising: greater than 20% modacrylic fibers by weight of the yarn; about 20% to about 80% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn; about 0.1% to about 2% anti- static fibers by weight of the yarn; and about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn. The yarn may comprise less than 74% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn and/or the yarn may comprise greater than 20% to about 60% or 80% modacrylic fibers by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the blend of fibers comprises: about 40% to about 60% modacrylic fibers by weight of the yarn; about 30% to about 60% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the yarn; and about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the blend of fibers comprises: about 60% to about 80% modacrylic fibers by weight of the yarn; about 20% to about 40% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn; about 0.1% to about 2% anti static fibers by weight of the yarn; and about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the blend of fibers comprises: about 10% to about 60% modacrylic fibers by weight of the yarn; about 30% to about 80% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the yarn; and about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the blend of fibers comprises: about 30% to about 50% modacrylic fibers by weight of the yarn; about 45% to about 65% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the yam; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the yarn; and about 1% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the blend of fibers comprises: about 55% to about 74%, 80%, or 85% modacrylic fibers by weight of the yarn; about 10% to about 30% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the yarn; and about 1% to about 15% para-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the blend of fibers comprises: about 60% to about 80% modacrylic fibers by weight of the yarn; about 10% to about 20% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the yam; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the yarn; and about 1% to about 15% para-aramid fibers by weight of the yam. [0021] In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention includes a yarn that comprises a blend of fibers, the blend of fibers comprising: about 90% to about 99% fiber dyed modacrylic fibers by weight of the yarn; about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn; and about 0% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the yam, wherein at least one of para- aramid fibers and anti-static fibers is present in the yarn.

[0022] A fabric of the present invention may comprise a yarn that is devoid of cellulosic fibers (e.g., cotton, rayon, acetate, triacetate, and/or lyocell fibers). In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention comprises a yarn that is devoid of nylon fibers (e.g., fibers made from aliphatic polyamide polymers such as polyhexamethylene adipamide (nylon 66), polycaprolactam (nylon 6), polybutyrolactam (nylon 4), poly(9-aminononanoic acid) (nylon 9), polyenantholactam (nylon 7), polycapryllactam (nylon 8), and/or polyhexamethylene sebacamide (nylon 6, 10)) that are not anti-static fibers. Nylon fibers that are not anti-static fibers are devoid of a conductive additive.

[0023] In some embodiments, a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention may include one or more pigmented fiber(s). A fiber (e.g., a modacrylic fiber, meta-aramid fiber, anti-static fiber, and/or para-aramid fiber) may be pigmented using techniques known to those of skill in the art. Exemplary pigmenting techniques include, but are not limited to, spun dyeing (e.g., solution dyeing or melt dyeing), gel dyeing, spray dyeing, package dyeing, pressure dyeing, skein dyeing, space dyeing, thermal fixation, and/or stock dyeing.

[0024] In some embodiments, a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention comprises one or more (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or more) fiber dyed fibers. “Fiber dyed” as used herein refers to a fiber that includes a coloring agent that was present during formation of the fiber itself. “Coloring agent” as used herein refers to a dye (e.g., an insoluble dye), pigment (e.g., an insoluble pigment), and/or additive that modifies the color and/or shade of a fiber to which the coloring agent is contacted and/or present in and/or on compared to the color and/or shade of the fiber in the absence of the coloring agent. A fiber including a coloring agent may also be referred to interchangeably herein as a pigmented fiber. A coloring agent may be included in a composition including a fiber forming polymer that is used to form a fiber to thereby provide a fiber dyed fiber. Thus, a fiber dyed fiber is a fiber that is dyed prior to and/or during the formation of the fiber itself. A fiber dyed fiber is also dyed prior to preparing a yarn or fabric using the fiber and is distinguished from fibers that are dyed when already in the form of a fiber (such as stock fibers), yam or fabric. As another example, a fiber dyed anti-static fiber may refer to an anti-static fiber that includes during the anti-static fiber forming process a coloring agent that modifies the natural black, gray, or white color of the anti-static fiber to another color and/or shade. Exemplary fiber dyed fibers are solution dyed fibers and/or gel dyed fibers. In some embodiments, a fiber (e.g., a modacrylic fiber, meta-aramid fiber, anti-static fiber, and/or para-aramid fiber) in a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention is solution dyed. In some embodiments, a fiber (e.g., a modacrylic fiber, meta-aramid fiber, anti-static fiber, and/or para-aramid fiber) in a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention is stock dyed. In some embodiments, a fiber (e.g., a modacrylic fiber, meta-aramid fiber, anti-static fiber, and/or para- aramid fiber) in a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention is gel dyed.

[0025] In some embodiments, a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention can provide and/or is configured to provided high visibility. A yarn and/or fabric of the present invention may meet the requirements of ANSI/ISEA 107-2020 entitled "American National Standard for High- Visibility Safety Apparel."

[0026] A yarn and/or fabric of the present invention may comprise a natural fiber. A “natural fiber” as used herein refers to a fiber (e.g., a modacrylic fiber, meta-aramid fiber, para-aramid fiber, or anti-static fiber) that is devoid of a coloring agent and/or is a fiber that is not dyed. In some embodiments, a natural fiber may be ecru. As one of skill in the art will understand, a “natural anti-static fiber” includes a fiber forming polymer and a conductive additive and the conductive additive may provide the fiber with a color of white, gray, or black. Thus, a natural anti-static fiber may be white, gray, or black, but is devoid of a coloring agent other than the conductive additive that modifies its color and/or shade. Accordingly, a natural anti-static fiber is deemed to be a pigmented fiber as used herein if the conductive additive provides the fiber with a color of white, gray, or black. In some embodiments, a natural anti-static fiber may be prepared by including the conductive additive in the composition used to form the anti-static fiber and thus the conductive additive may be present during the anti-static fiber forming process, thereby the natural anti-static fiber may be a solution-dyed anti-static fiber even in its natural state. A solution-dyed anti-static fiber may also be a natural anti-static fiber (i.e., a natural, solution-dyed anti-static fiber) if the conductive additive was present during the anti static fiber forming process (e.g., present in the polymer solution or dope prior to extrusion of the fiber) and the anti-static fiber is white, gray, or black and is devoid a coloring agent other than the conductive additive.

[0027] Modacrylic fibers may be present in the yam in an amount of about 10% by weight of the yarn or more. In some embodiments, modacrylic fibers are present in the yam in an amount that is greater than 20% by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, modacrylic fibers are present in the yam in an amount of about 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, 15%, 16%,

17%, 18%, 19%, 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%, 32%,

33%, 34%, 35%, 36%, 37%, 38%, 39%, 40%, 41%, 42%, 43%, 44%, 45%, 46%, 47%, 48%,

49%, 50%, 51%, 52%, 53%, 54%, 55%, 56%, 57%, 58%, 59%, 60%, 61%, 62%, 63%, 64%,

65%, 66%, 67%, 68%, 69%, 70%, 71%, 72%, 73%, 74%, 75%, 76%, 77%, 78%, 79%, 80%,

81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%,

97%, 98%, or 99% by weight of the yarn or more. In some embodiments, the yarn comprises about 10% to about 99% modacrylic fibers by weight of the yarn such as about 10% to about 90%, about 10% to about 99%, about 10% to about 80%, about 10% to about 70%, about 10% to about 60%, about 10% to about 50%, about 10% to about 40%, about 10% to about 30%, about 10% to about 25%, about 10% to about 20%, greater than 20% to about 60%, greater than 20% to about 80%, about 25% to about 80%, about 25% to about 70%, about 25% to about 60%, about 30% to about 60%, about 40% to about 60%, about 50% to about 60%, greater than about 20% to about 50%, about 25% to about 50%, about 25% to about 40%, about 25% to about 30%, about 30% to about 50%, about 30% to about 45%, about 30% to about 40%, about 35% to about 50%, about 35% to about 45%, about 40% to about 60%, about 40% to about 50%, about 50% to about 60%, about 30% to about 70%, about 40% to about 70%, about 50% to about 70%, about 60% to about 70%, about 50% to about 75%, about 30% to about 80%, about 40% to about 80%, about 50% to about 80%, about 60% to about 80%, about 70% to about 80%, about 40% to about 80%, about 50% to about 80%, about 60% to about 80%, about 70% to about 80%, about 50% to about 90%, about 50% to about 85%, about 55% to about 90%, about 55% to about 85%, about 55% to about 80%, about 55% to about 75%, about 55% to about 70%, about 60% to about 75%, about 60% to about 85%, about 60% to about 90%, about 65% to about 90%, about 65% to about 85%, about 65% to about 75%, about 65% to about 74%, about 70% to about 74%, about 65% to about 74%, about 60% to about 74%, about 55% to about 74%, about 50% to about 74%, about 45% to about 74%, about 40% to about 74%, about 35% to about 74%, about 30% to about 74%, about 90% to about 99%, about 90% to about 98%, about 90% to about 95%, about 93% to about 99%, about 93% to about 98%, about 93% to about 95%, about 95% to about 99%, or about 95% to about 98% by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the yam comprises greater than 30% modacrylic fibers, such as about 35% or 40% to about 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 73%, 75%, 80%, 85%, or 90% by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the yarn comprises greater than 70% modacrylic fibers, such as about 71% to about 73%, 75%, 80%, 85%, or 90% by weight of the yarn.

[0028] In some embodiments, the modacrylic fibers are fiber dyed modacrylic fibers. In some embodiments, the modacrylic fibers are solution-dyed modacrylic fibers. In some embodiments, the modacrylic fibers are stock dyed modacrylic fibers. In some embodiments, the modacrylic fibers are gel dyed modacrylic fibers. In some embodiments, the modacrylic fibers are devoid of a coloring agent (i.e., natural modacrylic fibers). A fabric of the present invention may include a yarn that comprises stock dyed modacrylic fibers, solution-dyed modacrylic fibers, gel dyed modacrylic fibers, and/or natural modacrylic fibers. In some embodiments, it was discovered that modacrylic fibers could be fiber dyed such as solution- dyed and incorporated into a yam and/or fabric of the present invention without adversely affecting one or more properties (e.g., strength, flame resistance, arc resistance, color fastness, etc.) of the yarn and/or fabric. In some embodiments, by incorporating solution-dyed modacrylic fibers into a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention the amount of modacrylic fibers can be increased and/or one or more properties of the fabric and/or yarn may be improved. While modacrylic fibers are inherently flame retardant, modacrylic fibers do not possess the same strength and physical performance characteristics as other fibers such as aramid fibers (e.g., para-aramid and meta-aramid fibers), which can also be inherently flame retardant. Accordingly, in some embodiments, it was discovered that a fiber blend having a high modacrylic content (e.g., greater than 20% modacrylic fibers by weight of the yarn or fabric) could be achieved and still provide the yarn and/or fabric with sufficient strength (e.g., tear and/or tensile strength), seam slip, flame resistance, arc resistance, and/or other performance characteristics. In some embodiments, a yarn in a fabric of the present invention comprises a fiber blend including modacrylic fibers in an amount of about 20% by weight of the yam or less, optionally wherein the modacrylic fibers are solution-dyed modacrylic fibers. “Inherently flame retardant” as used herein in reference to a fiber means that the fiber has flame resistance built into its chemical structure and the fiber itself is not flammable. In some embodiments, a modacrylic fiber is self-extinguishing and does not melt or drip when exposed to a flame, optionally when exposed to a flame as performed and/or measured in accordance with ASTM FI 506. In some embodiments, a modacrylic fiber does not melt or drip, has an after-flame of less than 2 seconds, and has a char length of less than 6 inches when exposed to a flame as performed and/or measured in accordance with ASTM FI 506. In some embodiments, a modacrylic fiber (e.g., a fiber dyed modacrylic fiber) has a limiting oxygen index (LOI) of about 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%, 32%, 33%, 34%, 35%, or more. In some embodiments, a modacrylic fiber (e.g., a fiber dyed modacrylic fiber) has a LOI of about 32% or more. In some embodiments, a modacrylic fiber (e.g., a fiber dyed modacrylic fiber) has a LOI of about 34% or more.

[0029] Modacrylic fibers comprise a polymer that includes 35% to 85% acrylonitrile monomer units by weight of the polymer. In some embodiments, a modacrylic fiber (e.g., a fiber dyed modacrylic fiber) comprises 35% to 85% acrylonitrile monomer units by weight of the polymer, such as about 35% to about 60%, about 40% to about 80%, about 40% to about 70%, about 40% to about 60%, about 40% to about 50%, about 50% to about 85%, about 50% to about 80%, about 50% to about 70%, about 50% to about 60%, about 60% to about 80%, about 60% to about 70%, or about 70% to about 80% acrylonitrile monomer units by weight of the polymer. The polymer of a modacrylic fiber comprises one or more (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or more) comonomer unit(s) (e.g., a neutral and/or acid comonomer unit). A comonomer may be present in the polymer of a modacrylic fiber in an amount of about 0.1% to about 65% by weight of the polymer such as about 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60% or 65% by weight of the polymer. Exemplary comonomer units include, but are not limited to, vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride, dichloromethane, and/or vinyl bromide. As those skilled in the art will understand, a polymer of a modacrylic fiber may be obtained by polymerizing an acrylonitrile monomer, optionally in the presence of one or more comonomers.

[0030] A modacrylic fiber (e.g., a fiber dyed modacrylic fiber) may have a halogen (e.g., chlorine and/or bromine) content in an amount of about 10% to about 50% by weight of the modacrylic fiber, such as about 10%, 15%, or 20% to about 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, or 50% by weight of the modacrylic fiber. A modacrylic fiber (e.g., a fiber dyed modacrylic fiber) may comprise a synergist. Exemplary synergists that may be present in a modacrylic fiber include, but are not limited to, antimony oxides such as antimony trioxide and/or antimony pentoxide. A synergist may be present in an amount of about 5% or 10% to about 50% by weight of the modacrylic fiber, such as about 5%, 10%, 15%, or 20% to about 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, or 50% by weight of the fiber. In some embodiments, modacrylic fibers (e.g., fiber dyed modacrylic fibers) present in a yarn in a fabric of the present invention are annealed modacrylic fibers, which may have reduced or no irregularities (e.g., internal fissures, fractures, pitting, etc.), deformities and/or internal stresses compared to modacrylic fibers that are not annealed such as quenched modacrylic fibers. Annealed modacrylic fibers may be achieved by a process that comprises gradually cooling the extruded modacrylic fibers optionally through a series of convective ovens/rollers. In contrast, quenched modacrylic fibers can be prepared by a process in which filaments are rapidly cooled from their melt temperature to a temperature below their glass transition phase by way of air blasts, water/chemical baths, and/or the like. The quenching process is often done in the shortest time frame and corresponding distance possible to eliminate die swell and other changes in filament size, shape and orientation. A modacrylic fiber (e.g., a fiber dyed modacrylic fiber) of the present invention may be Prop 65 compliant.

[0031] A modacrylic fiber (e.g., a fiber dyed modacrylic fiber such as a solution-dyed fiber) may have a degree of crystallinity of at least 35%. In some embodiments, a modacrylic fiber (e.g., a fiber dyed modacrylic fiber) has a degree of crystallinity of about 35%, 36%, 37%, 38%, 39%, 40%, 41%, 42%, 43%, 44%, 45%, 46%, 47%, 48%, 49%, or 50% or more. In some embodiments, a modacrylic fiber (e.g., a fiber dyed modacrylic fiber) has a degree of crystallinity of about 36% to about 50%, about 36% to about 45%, about 36% to about 42%, about 36% to about 40%, about 38% to about 45%, about 38% to about 42%, about 38% to about 41%, about 38% to about 48%, about 39% to about 45%, about 39% to about 43%, or about 39% to about 41%. In some embodiments, a modacrylic fiber (e.g., a fiber dyed modacrylic fiber) has a degree of crystallinity of at least 38% to about 45% or at least 38% to about 40%.

[0032] Meta-aramid fibers may be present in the yarn in an amount of about 10% to about 80% by weight of the yarn such as about 10% to about 70%, about 10% to about 60%, about 10% to about 50%, about 10% to about 40%, about 10% to about 30%, about 10% to about 25%, about 10% to about 20%, about 10% to about 15%, about 15% to about 30%, about 15% to about 25%, about 15% to about 20%, about 20% to about 80%, about 20% to about 70%, about 20% to about 60%, about 20% to about 50%, about 20% to about 40%, about 20% to about 30%, about 30% to about 80%, about 30% to about 70%, about 30% to about 60%, about 30% to about 50%, about 30% to about 40%, about 40% to about 80%, about 40% to about 70%, about 40% to about 60%, about 40% to about 50%, about 45% to about 80%, about 45% to about 70%, about 45% to about 65%, about 45% to about 60%, about 45% to about 55%, about 45% to about 50%, about 50% to about 80%, about 50% to about 70%, about 50% to about 65%, about 50% to about 60%, about 50% to about 55%, about 60% to about 80%, about 60% to about 70%, or about 70% to about 80% by weight of the yam. In some embodiments, meta-aramid fibers are present in the yarn in an amount of about 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, 15%, 16%, 17%, 18%, 19%, 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, 30%,

31%, 32%, 33%, 34%, 35%, 36%, 37%, 38%, 39%, 40%, 41%, 42%, 43%, 44%, 45%, 46%,

47%, 48%, 49%, 50%, 51%, 52%, 53%, 54%, 55%, 56%, 57%, 58%, 59%, 60%, 61%, 62%,

63%, 64%, 65%, 66%, 67%, 68%, 69%, 70%, 71%, 72%, 73%, 74%, 75%, 76%, 77%, 78%,

79%, or 80% by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the yarn comprises less than 74% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the yam such as about 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% to about 73% by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the yarn comprises greater than 40% meta- aramid fibers, such as about 41% to about 50%, 60%, 70%, 73% or 80% by weight of the yam. In some embodiments, the yarn comprises less than 50% meta-aramid fibers, such as about 10% or 15% to about 20%, 25%, 30%, 40%, 45% or 49% by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the meta-aramid fibers are fiber dyed meta-aramid fibers. In some embodiments, the meta-aramid fibers are solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers. In some embodiments, the meta-aramid fibers are gel dyed meta-aramid fibers. In some embodiments, the meta-aramid fibers are stock dyed meta-aramid fibers. In some embodiments, the meta- aramid fibers are devoid of a coloring agent (i.e., natural meta-aramid fibers). A yarn in a fabric of the present invention may comprise stock dyed meta-aramid fibers, solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers, gel dyed meta-aramid fibers, and/or natural meta-aramid fibers. In some embodiments, a meta-aramid fiber (e.g., a fiber dyed meta-aramid fiber) has a LOI of about 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%, 32%, 33%, 34%, 35%, or more. In some embodiments, a meta-aramid fiber (e.g., a fiber dyed meta-aramid fiber) has a degree of crystallinity of less than 20% (e.g., of 19%, 15%, 10%, 5% or less) and/or are amorphous.

[0033] Anti-static fibers may be present in the yam in an amount of about 0.01% or 0.1% to about 2% by weight of the yam such as about 0.01% to about 2%, about 0.1% to about 2%, about 0.1% to about 1.5%, about 0.1% to about 1%, about 0.1% to about 0.5%, about 0.5% to about 2%, about 0.5% to about 1.5%, about 0.5% to about 1%, about 0.5% to about 0.75%, about 1% to about 2%, about 1% to about 1.5%, or about 1.5% to 2% by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, anti-static fibers are present in the yarn in an amount of about 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%, 1%, 1.1%, 1.2%, 1.3%, 1.4%, 1.5%, 1.6%, 1.7%, 1.8%, 1.9%, or 2% by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the anti static fibers are fiber dyed anti-static fibers. In some embodiments, the anti-static fibers are solution-dyed anti-static fibers. In some embodiments, the anti-static fibers are stock dyed anti static fibers. In some embodiments, the anti-static fibers are gel dyed anti-static fibers. In some embodiments, the anti-static fibers are natural anti-static fibers. In some embodiments, the anti-static fibers are natural, solution-dyed anti-static fibers. A yarn in a fabric of the present invention may comprise solution-dyed anti-static fibers, stock dyed anti-static fibers, gel dyed anti-static fibers, and/or natural anti-static fibers. In some embodiments, a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention is devoid of anti-static fibers (i.e., there are 0% anti-static fibers by weight of the yarn and/or fabric, respectively).

[0034] Para-aramid fibers may be present in the yam in an amount of about 0% or 0.01% to about 15% by weight of the yam such as about 0.01% to about 15%, about 0.1% to about 15%, about 0.5% to about 15%, about 0.5% to about 10%, about 0.5% to about 9%, about 0.5% to about 8%, about 0.5% to about 7%, about 0.5% to about 6%, about 0.5% to about 5%, about 0.5% to about 4%, about 0.5% to about 3%, about 0.5% to about 2%, about 0.5% to about 1%, about 1% to about 15%, about 1% to about 14%, about 1% to about 13%, about 1% to about 12%, about 1% to about 11%, about 1% to about 10%, about 1% to about 9%, about 1% to about 8%, about 1% to about 7%, about 1% to about 6%, about 1% to about 5%, about 1% to about 4%, about 1% to about 3%, about 1% to about 2%, about 2% to about 15%, about 2% to about 14%, about 2% to about 13%, about 2% to about 12%, about 2% to about 11%, about 2% to about 10%, about 2% to about 9%, about 2% to about 8%, about 2% to about 7%, about 2% to about 6%, about 2% to about 5%, about 2% to about 4%, about 2% to about 3%, about 3% to about 15%, about 3% to about 34%, about 3% to about 13%, about 3% to about 12%, about 3% to about 11%, about 3% to about 10%, about 3% to about 9%, about 3% to about 8%, about 3% to about 7%, about 3% to about 6%, about 3% to about 5%, about 4% to about 15%, about 4% to about 10%, about 5% to about 15%, about 5% to about 10%, or about 6% to about 10% by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, para-aramid fibers are present in the yarn in an amount of about 0%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4%, 4.5%, 5%, 5.5%, 6%, 6.5%, 7%, 7.5%, 8%, 8.5%, 9%, 9.5%, 10%, 10.5%, 11%, 11.5%, 12%, 12.5%, 13%, 13.5%, 14%, 14.5%, or 15% by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, para-aramid fibers are not present in the yarn (i.e., there are 0% para-aramid fibers by weight of the yam). In some embodiments, the para- aramid fibers are fiber dyed para-aramid fibers. In some embodiments, the para-aramid fibers are solution-dyed para-aramid fibers. In some embodiments, the para-aramid fibers are stock dyed para-aramid fibers. In some embodiments, the para-aramid fibers are gel dyed para- aramid fibers. In some embodiments, the para-aramid fibers are devoid of a coloring agent (i.e., natural para-aramid fibers). A yarn in a fabric of the present invention may comprise stock dyed para-aramid fibers, solution-dyed para-aramid fibers, gel dyed para-aramid fibers, and/or natural para-aramid fibers.

[0035] A yam and/or fabric of the present invention may comprise one or more (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or more) different types of fibers that are fiber dyed fibers. In some embodiments, the yarn and/or fabric comprises fiber dyed modacrylic fibers and fiber dyed meta-aramid fibers. In some embodiments, the yam and/or fabric invention comprises fiber dyed modacrylic fibers and para-aramid fibers and/or anti-static fibers, optionally wherein the anti-static fibers and/or para-aramid fibers are fiber dyed. In some embodiments, the yarn and/or fabric comprises fiber dyed modacrylic fibers, fiber dyed meta-aramid fibers, natural para-aramid fibers, and natural anti-static fibers. In some embodiments, the yarn and/or fabric comprises fiber dyed modacrylic fibers, fiber dyed meta-aramid fibers, fiber dyed para-aramid fibers, and fiber dyed anti-static fibers. A yarn of the present invention may comprise fiber dyed fibers in an amount of about 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, or 95% to about 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% by weight of the yam such as in an amount of about 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% by weight of the yam. In some embodiments, a yarn of the present invention comprises fiber dyed fibers in an amount of greater than 95% by weight of the yarn. Once formed, a yarn of the present invention may not be treated and/or contacted with a coloring agent (e.g., dye) and/or the yarn is devoid of a post-formation dye. A “post-formation dye” as used herein refers to a coloring agent (e.g., a dye) that is contacted to a yam or fabric itself (i.e., contacted to a yam or fabric after it is formed). In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention is not piece dyed and/or the fabric is devoid of a coloring agent (e.g., a dye) added by piece dyeing. A fabric of the present invention may be devoid of a post-formation dye.

[0036] A fabric of the present invention may comprise fiber dyed fibers in an amount of about 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, or 95% to about 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% by weight of the fabric such as in an amount of about 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention comprises fiber dyed fibers in an amount of greater than 95% by weight of the fabric. Once formed, a fabric of the present invention may not be treated and/or contacted with a coloring agent (e.g., a dye) and/or the fabric is devoid of a post-formation dye.

[0037] In some embodiments, a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention may comprise a weight ratio of modacrylic fibers to meta-aramid fibers of about 1 :2 to about 10:1 such as about 1:2 to about 1:1, about 2:l to about 10:1, about 2.5:l to about 8:l, or about 3:l to about 6:l. In some embodiments, a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention may comprise a weight ratio of modacrylic fibers to meta-aramid fibers of about 1:2, 1:1.5, 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1, 2.5:1, 3:1, 3.5:1, 4:1, 4.5:1, 5:1, 5.5:1, 6:1, 6.5:1, 7:1, 7.5:1, 8:1, 8.5:1, 9:1, 9.5:1, or 10:1.

[0038] In some embodiments, it was discovered by the inventors of the present invention that a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention including fiber dyed modacrylic fibers can provide sufficient color and/or properties without needing to be piece dyed and/or dyed after formation of the yarn and/or fabric. For example, a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention (e.g., comprising fiber dyed modacrylic fibers, optionally fiber dyed meta-aramid fibers, and natural para-aramid fibers and/or natural anti-static fibers) that is devoid of a post-formation dye (e.g., has not been piece dyed) can meet the requirements of ANSI/ISEA 107-2020. In some embodiments, the natural anti-static fibers are black fibers, gray fibers, and/or white fibers. Additionally, a yam and/or fabric of the present invention may have improved color, laundering and/or performance compared to a yarn and/or fabric not in accordance with the present invention (e.g., a yarn and/or fabric devoid of fiber dyed modacrylic fibers and/or a yam and/or fabric including a post-formation dye). For example, a fabric of the present invention (e.g., comprising fiber dyed modacrylic fibers, optionally fiber dyed meta-aramid fibers, and natural para-aramid fibers and/or natural anti-static fibers) that is devoid of a post-formation dye (e.g., has not been piece dyed) can meet the requirements of ANSI/ISEA 107-2020 after an exposure test performed in accordance with AATCC 16.3-2014 and/or after laundering performed in accordance with AATCC 61-2013 at a temperature of about 105°F to about 140°F, optionally at a temperature of about 120°F to about 140°F.

[0039] A yarn in a fabric of the present invention may comprise one or more (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or more) different types of fibers that are solution-dyed. In contrast to stock dyed fibers, solution-dyed fibers are dyed/pigmented during the spinning process of the fibers such as by introducing a coloring agent (e.g., a pigment and/or dye (e.g., insoluble dye)) into the polymer solution or dope prior to extrusion. Stock dyed fibers are dyed/pigmented after extrusion. In some embodiments, a yarn comprises solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers, solution-dyed para- aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and/or solution-dyed modacrylic fibers. The anti-static fibers in the yam may be solution-dyed anti-static fibers. The yam may comprise solution-dyed meta- aramid fibers, solution-dyed modacrylic fibers, and anti-static fibers. The yarn may comprise solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers, solution-dyed modacrylic fibers, and solution-dyed anti static fibers. In some embodiments, the yam comprises solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers, solution-dyed para-aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and solution-dyed modacrylic fibers. In some embodiments, the yarn comprises solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers, solution-dyed para- aramid fibers, solution-dyed anti-static fibers, and solution-dyed modacrylic fibers. In some embodiments, the yarn comprises about 20% or more solution-dyed modacrylic fibers by weight of the yam. In some embodiments, the yam comprises about 20% to about 60%, 70%, 80%, or 90% solution-dyed modacrylic fibers by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the yam comprises greater than 20% solution-dyed modacrylic fibers by weight of the yam. In some embodiments, the yarn comprises less than 74% solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn.

[0040] In some embodiments, a yam of the present invention comprises about 0% to about 15% stock dyed fibers by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, a yarn of the present invention is devoid of stock dyed fibers. In some embodiments, a yarn of the present invention comprises stock dyed fibers in an amount of about 0%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4%, 4.5%, 5%, 5.5%, 6%, 6.5%, 7%, 7.5%, 8%, 8.5%, 9%, 9.5%, 10%, 10.5%, 11%, 11.5%, 12%, 12.5%, 13%, 13.5%, 14%, 14.5%, 15%, 15.5%, 16%, 16.5%, 17%, 17.5%, 18%, 18.5%, 19%, 19.5%, or 20% by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, a yarn of the present invention comprises stock dyed fibers in an amount of about 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, or 1% to about 2%, 5%, 10%, 15%, or 20% or about 10% or 15% to about 20% by weight of the yam. In some embodiments, a yam of the present invention comprises less than 15% stock dyed fibers by weight of the yam. [0041] In some embodiments, a yarn of the present invention has a carbon content in an amount greater than 3% by weight of the yarn such as a carbon content of about 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, or 15% or more by weight of the yarn (e.g., about 4% or 5% to about 10% or 15% by weight of the yarn). In some embodiments, a yarn of the present invention is devoid of discrete carbon particles (e.g., carbon particles having an average particle size of about 10 micrometers or less). In some embodiments, a yam of the present invention comprises discrete carbon particles (e.g., carbon particles having an average particle size of about 10 micrometers or less) in an amount of greater than 3% by weight of the yarn such as discrete carbon particles in an amount of about 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, or 15% or more by weight of the yarn (e.g., about 4% or 5% to about 10% or 15% by weight of the yarn). In some embodiments, modacrylic fibers, anti-static fibers, para- aramid fibers, and/or meta-aramid fibers of the present invention are devoid of discrete carbon particles or comprise discrete carbon particles in an amount of less than 0.5% by weight of the fiber or in an amount greater than 20% by weight of the fiber. In some embodiments, all of the para-aramid fibers and/or meta-aramid fibers present in a yarn of the present invention have the same or within ± 10% carbon content and/or amount of discrete carbon particles.

[0042] In some embodiments, a yarn in a fabric of the present invention comprises about 75% or more solution-dyed fibers by weight of the yam. The yam may comprise about 75%, 76%, 77%, 78%, 79%, 80%, 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% solution-dyed fibers by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the yarn comprises about 75% to about 100%, about 80% to about 100%, about 85% to about 100%, about 90% to about 100%, about 90% to about 98%, about 95% to about 99%, or about 95% to about 100% solution-dyed fibers by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the yarn comprises greater than 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 98%, or 99% solution-dyed fibers by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the yam comprises 100% solution-dyed fibers by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, greater than 80%, such as about 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% of the meta-aramid fibers, para-aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and/or modacrylic fibers present in the yarn are solution-dyed. In some embodiments, about 80% to about 100%, about 85% to about 100%, about 90% to about 100%, about 90% to about 98%, about 95% to about 99%, or about 95% to about 100% of the meta-aramid fibers, para- aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and/or modacrylic fibers present in the yam are solution-dyed. In some embodiments, about 100% of the meta-aramid fibers, para-aramid fibers, and modacrylic fibers present in the yarn are solution-dyed. A yarn in a fabric of the present invention may comprise a plurality of fibers and the plurality of fibers may consist of anti-static fibers and solution-dyed fibers. In some embodiments, a yam in a fabric of the present invention may consist of solution-dyed fibers (e.g., solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers, solution- dyed para-aramid fibers, solution-dyed anti-static fibers, and/or solution-dyed modacrylic fibers). In some embodiments, a yam in a fabric of the present invention comprises pigmented fibers and 100% of the pigmented fibers are solution-dyed fibers (e.g., solution-dyed meta- aramid fibers, solution-dyed para-aramid fibers, solution-dyed anti-static fibers, and/or solution-dyed modacrylic fibers).

[0043] A yarn in a fabric of the present invention may be a single-ply yam or a plied yarn (e.g., a multi-ply yarn). The yam may be a single-ply yam having a size of about 12/1 to about 40/1. The yam may be plied yarn having a size of about 12/2 to about 40/2. In some embodiments the yarn is a 12/1, 15/1, 17/1, 18/1, 20/1, 24/1, 30/1, or 40/1 yam. In some embodiments, the yarn is a 30/2 or 40/2 yarn.

[0044] A yarn in a fabric of the present invention may comprise one or more (e.g., 1, 2, 3 or more) fibers in different forms. For example, a fiber present in the yarn may be a staple, tow, filament, or monofilament fiber. The yam may comprise staple fibers. In some embodiments, one or more different types of fibers in the yarn are staple fibers. In some embodiments, all fibers present in the yarn are staple fibers. Typically, a staple fiber has a length in a range from about 0.75 inches to about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, or 18 inches, and a filament fiber has any suitable length (e.g., greater than 18 inches to about 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 100, 200, 1,000, 10,000, or 20,000, 30,000 yards or infinite length). In some embodiments, a yarn in a fabric of the present invention comprises staple fibers having a length of about 10 mm to about 100 mm, about 20 mm to about 80 mm, about 30 mm to about 60 mm, about 40 mm to about 70 mm, about 40 mm to about 60 mm, or about 25 mm to about 60 mm. In some embodiments, the yarn comprises staple fibers having a length of about 50 mm to about 55 mm.

[0045] A yam in a fabric of the present invention may comprise fibers (e.g., staple fibers) having a linear density (dtex) of about 1 dtex or more such as about 1 to about 3, about 1.5 to about 2, about 1 to about 2, about 1.5 to about 2.5, or about 2 to about 3 dtex. In some embodiments, the yarn comprises fibers having a linear density of about 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, or 4 dtex or more. In some embodiments, the yarn comprises fibers (e.g., staple fibers such as those having a length of about 50 mm to about 55 mm) having a linear density of about 1.5 to about 2 dtex. [0046] A yarn in a fabric of the present invention may comprise one or more (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, or more) different fibers having a LOI of 20% or more, optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D2863, ISO 4589-2, and/or NES 714. In some embodiments, the yam comprises fibers having a LOI of about 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%, 32%, 33%, 34%, 35%, or more. In some embodiments, the yarn comprises one or more fibers having a LOI of 22% or more. In some embodiments, the yam comprises one or more fibers having a LOI of 25% or more. In some embodiments, the yarn comprises one or more fibers having a LOI of 28% or more. In some embodiments, the yarn comprises at least 1 or 2 different types of fibers that have a LOI of 28% or more. In some embodiments, the yarn comprises modacrylic fibers and meta-aramid fibers that each have a LOI of 28% or more.

[0047] A yam comprising a blend of fibers as described herein may be prepared using methods known to those of skill in the art. A “blend of fibers” as used herein refers to a plurality of two or more different types of fibers. In some embodiments, one or more different types of fibers are provided in a given weight percentage, blended, combed, and/or formed into a yam that is used in a fabric of the present invention. Methods of forming a yarn are known to those of skill in the art and include, but are not limited to, carding, drawing, drafting, spinning, and/or twisting fibers into a sliver and/or yam. A yam in a fabric of the present invention may be spun using methods known to those of skill in the art such as, but not limited to, ring spinning, vortex spinning, core spinning, air jet spinning and/or texturizing. In some embodiments, a yarn present in a fabric of the present invention may be ring spun or vortex spun. Fibers present in a yarn in a fabric of the present invention (e.g., modacrylic fibers, meta-aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and/or para-aramid fibers) may be uniformly entangled and/or respective fibers present in the yam may be arranged parallel to one or more different fibers in the yam along the Z and or X axis/helix of the yam. In some embodiments, a yarn in a fabric of the present invention may be plied or twisted, which may increase the strength of the yam compared to the strength of the yarn prior to plying or twisting.

[0048] A yarn in a fabric of the present invention may have a denier of about 200 or more such as about 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500 or more. The yarn may have a Z twist of about 20 to about 26 and/or a S twist of about 13 to about 19, each optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D1423. In some embodiments, a yarn in a fabric of the present invention has a Z twist of about 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, or 26 and/or a S twist of about 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, or 19, each optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D1423. A yarn in a fabric of the present invention may have a break strength of about 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5,

1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, or 3 lbs/breaking force, optionally on average, and/or an elongation of about 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, 15%, 16%, 17%, 18%, 19%, 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, or 30%, optionally on average, each optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D2256. In some embodiments, the yarn has a break strength of about 1, 1.2, 1.4, or 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6,

2.7, 2.8, 2.9, or 3 lbs/breaking force, optionally on average, and/or an elongation of about 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, 15%, 16%, 17%, 18%, 19%, 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, or 30%, optionally on average, each optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D2256. A yam in a fabric of the present invention may have a shrinkage of about 2% or less, such as about 1.9%, 1.8%, 1.7%, 1.6%, 1.5%, 1.4%, 1.3%, 1.2%, 1.1%, 1%, 0.9%, 0.8%, 0.7%, 0.6%, 0.5%, 0.4%, 0.3%, 0.2%, 0.1% or less, optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D2259.

[0049] One or more yam(s) as described herein may be used to form a fabric of the present invention. In some embodiments, a yarn as described herein is woven or knit to form a fabric and/or a garment (e.g., a shirt, pant, etc.) of the present invention. A fabric of the present invention may be a woven fabric. Woven fabrics are known to those of skill in the art and include, but are not limited to, a plain weave, twill weave (e.g., right hand twill), broken twill weave, ripstop weave, satin weave, or basketweave fabric. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention may be a knit. Knit fabrics are known to those of skill in the art and include, but are not limited to, interlock, single jersey, double jersey, warp, rib, and/or modified welt knits. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention is a mesh. A fabric and/or garment of the present invention may be a single layer (e.g., a single knit or woven layer) or may comprise multiple (e.g., 2 or more) layers.

[0050] In some embodiments, a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention is used in safety apparel and/or the garment is safety apparel. In some embodiments, the garment is a shirt (e.g., a T-shirt), vest (e.g., safety vest), jacket, pant, and/or rainwear. A fabric and/or garment may meet the conspicuity requirements set forth in ANSI/ISEA 107-2020 and may be a Class 2 or Class 3 as defined by ANSI/ISEA 107-2020. In some embodiments, a fabric and/or garment of the present invention is a dual hazard garment or textile. A “dual hazard garment or textile” as used herein refers to a garment or textile that satisfies the minimum requirements of ASTM F1930 and ASTM F1959 and has a category 2 rating as defined by ASTM F1959.

[0051] In some embodiments, a garment of the present invention comprises a first fabric meeting the requirements of ANSEISEA 107-2020 and a second fabric that does not meet the requirements of ANSI/ISEA 107-2020 and optionally the second fabric is a light color (e.g., white, ecru, light tan, etc.), wherein the first fabric is immediately adjacent to the second fabric. The second fabric may be an acetate, cotton, nylon, polyester, acrylic, and/or wool. In some embodiments, the first fabric does not bleed onto and/or stain the second fabric, optionally after laundering (e.g., laundering performed in accordance with AATCC 61-2013 at a temperature of about 105°F to about 140°F). In some embodiments, a yam and/or fabric of the present invention meets the conspicuity requirements set forth in ANSI/ISEA 107-2020 and/or is a Class 2 or Class 3 as defined by ANSI/ISEA 107-2020 and the yarn and/or fabric comprises, by weight of the yarn and/or fabric, respectively, about 60% to about 80% modacrylic fibers; about 10% to about 20% meta-aramid fibers; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers; and about 1% to about 15% para-aramid fibers, or the yarn and/or fabric comprises about 90% to about 99% fiber dyed modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0% to about 10% para- aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, the fabric may be a right hand twill weave optionally having about 50 to about 70 PPI. In some embodiments, the fabric may be a circular knit (pique). In some embodiments, the fabric is woven with a plain weave. In some embodiments, the fabric is a warp knit mesh.

[0052] A yam and/or fabric of the present invention may have a color that is fluorescent yellow-green, fluorescent orange-red, or fluorescent red, as defined by ANSI/ISEA 107-2020. In some embodiments, color may be measured in accordance with ASTM El 164-17 and/or using a spectrophotometer at a wavelength in a range of 400 nm to 700 nm and at intervals of 10 nm as well as illumination D65 and 45/0 or 0/45 geometry with 2° standard observer and a black underlay with a reflectance of less than 0.04. In some embodiments, a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention may have a color, prior to an exposure test (e.g., prior to a xenon exposure test), having chromaticity coordinates that fall within the chromaticity coordinates as defined by ANSI/ISEA 107-2020 for fluorescent yellow-green, fluorescent orange-red, or fluorescent red. Exemplary exposure tests include, but are not limited to, xenon exposure tests such as those carried out in accordance with AATCC 16.3-2014 entitled “Colorfastness to Light Xenon Arc.” A xenon exposure test may expose a fabric to 40 AATCC fading units (170 kJ/m2@420nm). Color may be measured (optionally in accordance with AATCC 16.3-2014 and/or with chromaticity coordinates as defined by ANSI/ISEA 107-2020) before and after an exposure test. In some embodiments, a yarn and/or fabric has a color, after an exposure test (e.g., after a xenon exposure test), having chromaticity coordinates as defined by ANSI/ISEA 107-2020 that fall within the chromaticity coordinates for fluorescent yellow-green, fluorescent orange-red, or fluorescent red, optionally as measured in accordance with AATCC 16.3-2014. In some embodiments, a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention has a color, before and after an exposure test (e.g., as carried out in accordance with AATCC 16.3-2014), that is fluorescent yellow-green, fluorescent orange-red, or fluorescent red (e.g., has chromaticity coordinates as defined by ANSI/ISEA 107-2020 for fluorescent yellow-green, fluorescent orange-red, or fluorescent red). In some embodiments, a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention may have a color, chromaticity coordinates, and/or luminance factor as shown in Table 1.

[0053] Table 1: Exemplary color, chromaticity coordinates, and luminance factors.

[0054] In some embodiments, a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention has a luminance factor, prior to an exposure test (e.g., prior to a xenon exposure test optionally in accordance with AATCC 16.3-2014), of at least 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, or 95%, optionally wherein the luminance factor is measured in accordance with ASTM El 164-17. After an exposure test (e.g., after a xenon exposure test optionally in accordance with AATCC 16.3-2014), a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention may have a luminance factor of at least 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, or 95%, optionally wherein the luminance factor is measured in accordance with ASTM El 164-17. In some embodiments, before and/or after an exposure test (e.g., a xenon exposure test optionally in accordance with AATCC 16.3-2014), a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention may have a luminance factor of at least 70% such as about 71%, 72%, 73%, 74%, 75%, 76%, 77%, 78%, 79%, 80%, 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100%, wherein the luminance factor may be measured in accordance with ASTM El 164-17. [0055] In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention comprises one or more yam(s) as described herein in an amount of about 80%, 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention comprises one or more yarn(s) as described herein in an amount of about 80%, 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% of the total amount of yarns present in the fabric. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises a yarn as described herein in the warp direction and/or fill (i.e., weft) direction or length direction (e.g., machine direction) and/or width direction (e.g., cross-machine direction). In some embodiments, the fabric comprises one or more single-ply yarn(s) in the fill direction or cross-machine direction. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises one or more single-ply yam(s) in the warp direction or machine direction. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises a single-ply yarn as described herein in every pick, every other pick, or every 2, 3, 4, 5, or more picks in the fill direction or cross-machine direction. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises a single-ply yarn as described herein as every yarn, every other yam, or every 2, 3, 4, 5, or more yarns in the fill direction and/or in the warp direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction. A plurality of yams of the present invention may be arranged in a random manner in a fabric of the present invention or a pattern. For example, in some embodiments, a plurality of yams of the present invention are woven together such as in a plain weave, twill weave (e.g., right hand twill), ripstop weave, satin weave, or basketweave, or are knit together via a consecutive series of courses and wales.

[0056] According to some embodiments of the present invention, provided is a fabric comprising a single-ply yarn. The single-ply yarn may comprise modacrylic fibers, meta- aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and optionally para-aramid fibers. In some embodiments, the single-ply yarn comprises about 10% to about 80% or 90% modacrylic fibers by weight of the yarn; about 10% to about 80% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn; about 0% or 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the yarn; and about 0% to about 15% para-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises a yam comprising a blend of fibers, the blend of fibers comprising: greater than 20% modacrylic fibers by weight of the yarn; about 20% to about 80% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the yarn; and about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the fabric comprise a yarn comprising less than 74% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn and/or greater than 20% to about 60% or 80% modacrylic fibers by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the single-ply yarn comprises about 30% to about 50% modacrylic fibers by weight of the yarn; about 45% to about 65% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the yam; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the yarn; and about 1% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the single-ply yam comprises about 55% to about 74%, 80%, or 85% modacrylic fibers by weight of the yarn; about 10% to about 30% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the yarn; and about 1% to about 15% para-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the single-ply yarn comprises about 60% to about 80% modacrylic fibers by weight of the yarn; about 10% to about 20% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the yam; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the yarn; and about 1% to about 15% para-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn. In some embodiments, the single-ply yarn comprises fiber dyed modacrylic fibers and para- aramid fibers and/or anti-static fibers. In some embodiments, the single-ply yarn comprises about 90% to about 99% fiber dyed modacrylic fibers by weight of the yam; about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn; and about 0% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the yam, wherein at least one of para-aramid fibers and anti-static fibers is present in the yarn.

[0057] A fabric of the present invention may comprise one or more single-ply yarn(s) and may comprise about 10% or 20% to about 60%, 70%, 80%, or 90% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% to about 80% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0% or 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0% to about 15% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention has a PPI or CPI of about 30 to about 60 and comprises about 10% or 20% to about 60%, 70%, 80%, or 90% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% to about 80% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0% or 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0% or 0.1% to about 10% or 15% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric. A fabric of the present invention including single- ply yarns and/or having 30 to about 60 PPI or CPI can provide a fabric having sufficient strength (e.g., tear and/or tensile strength), seam slip, flame resistance, arc resistance, and/or other performance characteristics of the fabric. A fabric of the present invention may be devoid of cellulosic fibers (e.g., cotton, rayon, acetate, triacetate, and/or lyocell fibers). In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention may be devoid of nylon fibers (e.g., fibers made from aliphatic polyamide polymers such as polyhexamethylene adipamide (nylon 66), polycaprolactam (nylon 6), polybutyrolactam (nylon 4), poly(9-aminononanoic acid) (nylon 9), polyenantholactam (nylon 7), polycapryllactam (nylon 8), and/or polyhexamethylene sebacamide (nylon 6, 10)) that are not anti-static fibers.

[0058] In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention comprises: a plurality of yarns, wherein each yarn of the plurality of yams comprises modacrylic fibers, meta-aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and optionally para-aramid fibers, and the fabric comprises: greater than 20% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 20% to about 80% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric. One or more yarns in the plurality of yarns may be a single-ply yarn. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises: about 40% to about 60% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 30% to about 60% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises: about 60% to about 80% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 20% to about 40% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric.

[0059] In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention comprises: a plurality of yarns, wherein each yarn of the plurality of yams comprises modacrylic fibers, meta-aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and para-aramid fibers, and one or more yarns in the plurality of yams may be a single-ply yarn. The fabric may comprise about 30% to about 50% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 45% to about 65% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 1% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises: about 55% to about 74%, 80%, or 85% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 10% to about 30% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 1% to about 15% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises: about 60% to about 80% modacrylic fibers by weight of the yarn; about 10% to about 20% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn; about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the yarn; and about 1% to about 15% para-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn.

[0060] In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention comprises: a plurality of yarns, wherein each yam of the plurality of yams comprises fiber dyed modacrylic fibers and para-aramid fibers and/or anti-static fibers, and one or more yarns in the plurality of yarns may be a single-ply yam. The fabric may comprise about 90% to about 99% fiber dyed modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric.

[0061] Modacrylic fibers may be present in the fabric in an amount of about 10% by weight of the fabric or more. In some embodiments, modacrylic fibers are present in the fabric in an amount that is greater than 20% by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, modacrylic fibers are present in the fabric in an amount of about 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, 15%, 16%, 17%, 18%, 19%, 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%, 32%,

33%, 34%, 35%, 36%, 37%, 38%, 39%, 40%, 41%, 42%, 43%, 44%, 45%, 46%, 47%, 48%,

49%, 50%, 51%, 52%, 53%, 54%, 55%, 56%, 57%, 58%, 59%, 60%, 61%, 62%, 63%, 64%,

65%, 66%, 67%, 68%, 69%, 70%, 71%, 72%, 73%, 74%, 75%, 76%, 77%, 78%, 79%, 80%,

81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%,

97%, 98%, or 99% by weight of the fabric or more. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises about 10% to about 90% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric such as about 10% to about 70%, about 10% to about 60%, about 10% to about 50%, about 10% to about 40%, about 10% to about 30%, about 10% to about 25%, about 10% to about 20%, greater than 20% to about 60%, greater than 20% to about 80%, about 20% to about 50%, 25% to about 80%, about 25% to about 70%, about 25% to about 60%, about 30% to about 50%, about 30% to about 60%, about 30% to about 45%, about 35% to about 50%, about 35% to about 45%, about 40% to about 60%, about 50% to about 60%, greater than about 20% to about 50%, about 25% to about 50%, about 25% to about 40%, about 25% to about 30%, about 30% to about 50%, about 30% to about 40%, about 40% to about 60%, about 40% to about 50%, about 50% to about 60%, about 30% to about 70%, about 40% to about 70%, about 50% to about 70%, about 60% to about 70%, about 50% to about 75%, about 30% to about 80%, about 40% to about 80%, about 50% to about 80%, about 60% to about 80%, about 70% to about 80%, about 40% to about 80%, about 50% to about 80%, about 60% to about 80%, about 70% to about 80%, about 50% to about 90%, about 50% to about 85%, about 55% to about 90%, about 55% to about 85%, about 55% to about 80%, about 55% to about 75%, about 55% to about 70%, about 60% to about 75%, about 60% to about 85%, about 60% to about 90%, about 65% to about 90%, about 65% to about 85%, about 65% to about 75%, about 65% to about 74%, about 70% to about 74%, about 65% to about 74%, about 60% to about 74%, about 55% to about 74%, about 50% to about 74%, about 45% to about 74%, about 40% to about 74%, about 35% to about 74%, about 30% to about 74%, about 90% to about 99%, about 90% to about 98%, about 90% to about 95%, about 93% to about 99%, about 93% to about 98%, about 93% to about 95%, about 95% to about 99%, or about 95% to about 98% by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises greater than 30% modacrylic fibers, such as about 35% or 40% to about 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 73%, 75%, 80%, 85%, or 90% by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises greater than 70% modacrylic fibers, such as about 71% to about 73%, 75%, 80%, 85%, or 90% by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, the modacrylic fibers in the fabric comprise fiber dyed modacrylic fibers. In some embodiments, the modacrylic fibers in the fabric comprise solution-dyed modacrylic fibers. In some embodiments, the modacrylic fibers in the fabric comprise gel dyed modacrylic fibers. In some embodiments, the modacrylic fibers in the fabric comprise stock dyed modacrylic fibers. In some embodiments, the modacrylic fibers in the fabric comprise natural modacrylic fibers. A fabric of the present invention may comprise stock dyed modacrylic fibers, solution-dyed modacrylic fibers, gel dyed modacrylic fibers, and/or natural modacrylic fibers. Modacrylic fibers as described herein may be included in a fabric of the present invention. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises a modacrylic fiber (e.g., a fiber dyed modacrylic fiber) having a LOI of about 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%, 32%, 33%, 34%, 35%, or more. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises a modacrylic fiber that has a LOI of about 34% or more. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises a modacrylic fiber (e.g., a fiber dyed modacrylic fiber) having a degree of crystallinity of at least 35% and, in some embodiments, a degree of crystallinity of at least 38% to about 45% or at least 38% to about 40%.

[0062] Meta-aramid fibers may be present in the fabric in an amount of about 10% to about 80% by weight of the fabric such as about 10% to about 70%, about 10% to about 60%, about 10% to about 50%, about 10% to about 40%, about 10% to about 30%, about 10% to about 25%, about 10% to about 20%, about 10% to about 15%, about 15% to about 30%, about 15% to about 25%, about 15% to about 20%, about 20% to about 80%, about 20% to about 70%, about 20% to about 60%, about 20% to about 50%, about 20% to about 40%, about 20% to about 30%, about 30% to about 80%, about 30% to about 70%, about 30% to about 60%, about 30% to about 50%, about 30% to about 40%, about 40% to about 80%, about 40% to about 70%, about 40% to about 60%, about 40% to about 50%, about 45% to about 80%, about 45% to about 70%, about 45% to about 65%, about 45% to about 60%, about 45% to about 55%, about 45% to about 50%, about 50% to about 80%, about 50% to about 70%, about 50% to about 65%, about 50% to about 60%, about 50% to about 55%, about 60% to about 80%, about 60% to about 70%, or about 70% to about 80% by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, meta-aramid fibers are present in the fabric in an amount of about 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, 15%, 16%, 17%, 18%, 19%, 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%, 32%, 33%, 34%, 35%, 36%, 37%, 38%, 39%, 40%, 41%, 42%, 43%, 44%, 45%, 46%, 47%, 48%, 49%, 50%, 51%, 52%, 53%, 54%, 55%, 56%, 57%, 58%, 59%, 60%, 61%, 62%, 63%, 64%, 65%, 66%, 67%, 68%, 69%, 70%, 71%, 72%, 73%, 74%, 75%, 76%, 77%, 78%, 79%, or 80% by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises less than 74% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric such as about 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% to about 73% by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises greater than 40% meta-aramid fibers, such as about 41% to about 50%, 60%, 70%, 73% or 80% by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises less than 50% meta-aramid fibers, such as about 10% or 15% to about 20%, 25%, 30%, 40%, 45% or 49% by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, the meta-aramid fibers in the fabric comprise fiber dyed meta-aramid fibers. In some embodiments, the meta-aramid fibers in the fabric comprise solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers. In some embodiments, the meta-aramid fibers in the fabric comprise gel dyed meta-aramid fibers. In some embodiments, the meta-aramid fibers in the fabric are stock dyed meta-aramid fibers. In some embodiments, the meta-aramid fibers in the fabric are natural meta-aramid fibers. A fabric of the present invention may comprise stock dyed meta-aramid fibers, solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers, gel dyed meta-aramid fibers, and/or natural meta- aramid fibers. In some embodiments, a meta-aramid fiber (e.g., a fiber dyed meta-aramid fiber) has a LOI of about 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%, 32%, 33%, 34%, 35%, or more. Meta-aramid fibers as described herein may be included in a fabric of the present invention. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises a meta-aramid fiber (e.g., a fiber dyed meta-aramid fiber) having a degree of crystallinity of less than 20% (e.g., of 19%, 15%, 10%, 5% or less) and/or that is amorphous. [0063] Anti-static fibers may be present in the fabric in an amount of about 0.01% or 0.1% to about 2% by weight of the fabric such as about 0.01% to about 2%, about 0.1% to about 2%, about 0.1% to about 1.5%, about 0.1% to about 1%, about 0.1% to about 0.5%, about 0.5% to about 2%, about 0.5% to about 1.5%, about 0.5% to about 1%, about 0.5% to about 0.75%, about 1% to about 2%, about 1% to about 1.5%, or about 1.5% to about 2% by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, anti-static fibers are present in the fabric in an amount of about 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%, 1%, 1.1%, 1.2%, 1.3%, 1.4%, 1.5%, 1.6%, 1.7%, 1.8%, 1.9%, or 2% by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, the anti-static fibers in the fabric comprise fiber dyed anti-static fibers. In some embodiments, the anti-static fibers in the fabric comprise solution-dyed anti-static fibers. In some embodiments, the anti-static fibers in the fabric comprise gel dyed anti-static fibers. In some embodiments, the anti-static fibers present in the fabric are stock dyed anti-static fibers. In some embodiments, the anti-static fibers present in the fabric are natural anti-static fibers. In some embodiments, the anti-static fibers present in the fabric are natural, solution-dyed anti- static fibers. A fabric of the present invention may comprise solution-dyed anti-static fibers, stock dyed anti-static fibers, gel dyed anti-static fibers, and/or natural anti-static fibers. Anti static fibers as described herein may be included in a fabric of the present invention. In some embodiments, a yam comprising anti-static fibers is incorporated in a fabric about every two centimeters in the warp direction and/or weft direction or in the length direction and/or width direction, and may form a grid of overlapping yarns comprising anti-static fibers.

[0064] Para-aramid fibers may be present in the fabric in an amount of about 0% or 0.01% to about 15% by weight of the fabric such as about 0.01% to about 15%, about 0.1% to about 15%, about 0.5% to about 15%, about 0.5% to about 10%, about 0.5% to about 9%, about 0.5% to about 8%, about 0.5% to about 7%, about 0.5% to about 6%, about 0.5% to about 5%, about 0.5% to about 4%, about 0.5% to about 3%, about 0.5% to about 2%, about 0.5% to about 1%, about 1% to about 15%, about 1% to about 14%, about 1% to about 13%, about 1% to about 12%, about 1% to about 11%, about 1% to about 10%, about 1% to about 9%, about 1% to about 8%, about 1% to about 7%, about 1% to about 6%, about 1% to about 5%, about 1% to about 4%, about 1% to about 3%, about 1% to about 2%, about 2% to about 15%, about 2% to about 14%, about 2% to about 13%, about 2% to about 12%, about 2% to about 11%, about 2% to about 10%, about 2% to about 9%, about 2% to about 8%, about 2% to about 7%, about 2% to about 6%, about 2% to about 5%, about 2% to about 4%, about 2% to about 3%, about 3% to about 15%, about 3% to about 34%, about 3% to about 13%, about 3% to about 12%, about 3% to about 11%, about 3% to about 10%, about 3% to about 9%, about 3% to about 8%, about 3% to about 7%, about 3% to about 6%, about 3% to about 5%, about 4% to about 15%, about 4% to about 10%, about 5% to about 15%, about 5% to about 10%, or about 6% to about 10% by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, para-aramid fibers are present in the fabric in an amount of about 0%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4%, 4.5%, 5%, 5.5%, 6%, 6.5%, 7%, 7.5%, 8%, 8.5%, 9%, 9.5%, 10%, 10.5%, 11%, 11.5%, 12%, 12.5%, 13%, 13.5%, 14%, 14.5%, or 15% by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, para-aramid fibers are not present in the fabric (i.e., there are 0% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric). In some embodiments, the para-aramid fibers in the fabric comprise fiber dyed para-aramid fibers. In some embodiments, the para-aramid fibers in the fabric comprise solution-dyed para-aramid fibers. In some embodiments, the para-aramid fibers in the fabric are stock dyed para-aramid fibers. In some embodiments, the para-aramid fibers in the fabric comprise gel dyed para-aramid fibers. In some embodiments, the para-aramid fibers in the fabric are natural para-aramid fibers. A fabric of the present invention may comprise stock dyed para-aramid fibers, solution- dyed para-aramid fibers, gel dyed para-aramid fibers, and/or natural para-aramid fibers. Para- aramid fibers as described herein may be included in a fabric of the present invention.

[0065] The fabric may comprise one or more (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or more) different types of fibers that are solution-dyed. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises solution-dyed meta- aramid fibers, solution-dyed para-aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and/or solution-dyed modacrylic fibers. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers, solution-dyed para-aramid fibers, solution-dyed anti-static fibers, and/or solution-dyed modacrylic fibers. The fabric may comprise solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers, solution-dyed modacrylic fibers, and anti-static fibers. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises solution- dyed meta-aramid fibers, solution-dyed para-aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and solution-dyed modacrylic fibers. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises about 20% or more solution- dyed modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises about 20% to about 60% or 80% solution-dyed modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises greater than 20% solution-dyed modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises less than 74% solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises about 30% to about 50% solution-dyed modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 45% to about 65% solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0.1% to about 2% solution-dyed anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 1% to about 10% solution- dyed para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises about 55% to about 74%, 80%, or 85% solution-dyed modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 10% to about 30% solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0.1% to about 2% solution-dyed anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 1% to about 15% solution-dyed para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric.

[0066] In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention comprises about 75% or more solution-dyed fibers by weight of the fabric. The fabric may comprise about 75%, 76%, 77%, 78%, 79%, 80%, 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% solution-dyed fibers by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises about 75% to about 100%, about 80% to about 100%, about 85% to about 100%, about 90% to about 100%, about 90% to about 98%, about 95% to about 99%, or about 95% to about 100% solution-dyed fibers by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises greater than 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 98%, or 99% solution- dyed fibers by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises 100% solution- dyed fibers by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, greater than 80%, such as about 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% of the meta-aramid fibers, para-aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and/or modacrylic fibers present in the fabric are solution-dyed. In some embodiments, about 80% to about 100%, about 85% to about 100%, about 90% to about 100%, about 90% to about 98%, about 95% to about 99%, or about 95% to about 100% of the meta-aramid fibers, para- aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and/or modacrylic fibers present in the fabric are solution-dyed. In some embodiments, about 100% of the meta-aramid fibers, para-aramid fibers, and modacrylic fibers present in the fabric are solution-dyed. In some embodiments, about 100% of the meta-aramid fibers, para-aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and modacrylic fibers present in the fabric are solution-dyed. A fabric of the present invention may comprise a plurality of fibers and the plurality of fibers may consist of anti-static fibers and solution-dyed fibers. A fabric of the present invention may comprise a plurality of fibers and the plurality of fibers may consist of solution-dyed fibers (e.g., solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers, solution-dyed para- aramid fibers, solution-dyed anti-static fibers, and/or solution-dyed modacrylic fibers). In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention comprises pigmented fibers and 100% of the pigmented fibers are solution-dyed fibers (e.g., solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers, solution- dyed para-aramid fibers, solution-dyed anti-static fibers, and/or solution-dyed modacrylic fibers).

[0067] In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention comprises about 0% to about 15% stock dyed fibers by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention is devoid of stock dyed fibers. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention comprises stock dyed fibers in an amount of about 0%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4%, 4.5%, 5%, 5.5%, 6%, 6.5%, 7%, 7.5%, 8%, 8.5%, 9%, 9.5%, 10%, 10.5%, 11%, 11.5%, 12%, 12.5%, 13%, 13.5%, 14%, 14.5%, 15%, 15.5%, 16%, 16.5%, 17%, 17.5%, 18%, 18.5%, 19%, 19.5%, or 20% by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention comprises stock dyed fibers in an amount of about 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, or 1% to about 2%, 5%, 10%, 15%, or 20% or about 10% or 15% to about 20% by weight of the fabric. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention comprises less than 15% stock dyed fibers by weight of the fabric.

[0068] In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention has a carbon content in an amount greater than 3% by weight of the fabric such as a carbon content of about 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, or 15% or more by weight of the fabric (e.g., about 4% or 5% to about 10% or 15% by weight of the fabric). In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention is devoid of discrete carbon particles (e.g., carbon particles having an average particle size of about 10 micrometers or less). In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention comprises discrete carbon particles (e.g., carbon particles having an average particle size of about 10 micrometers or less) in an amount of greater than 3% by weight of the fabric such as discrete carbon particles in an amount of about 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, or 15% or more by weight of the fabric (e.g., about 4% or 5% to about 10% or 15% by weight of the fabric). In some embodiments, modacrylic fibers, anti-static fibers, para-aramid fibers, and/or meta-aramid fibers present in a fabric of the present invention are devoid of discrete carbon particles or comprise discrete carbon particles in an amount of less than 0.5% by weight of the fiber or in an amount greater than 20% by weight of the fiber. In some embodiments, all of the para-aramid fibers and/or meta-aramid fibers present in a fabric of the present invention have the same or within ± 10% carbon content and/or amount of discrete carbon particles.

[0069] A fabric of the present invention may comprise one or more single-ply yarn(s) and/or one or more plied yarn(s) (e.g., one or more multi-ply yarn(s)). The fabric may comprise a single-ply yam having a size of about 12/1 to about 40/1. The fabric may comprise a plied yarn having a size of about 12/2 to about 40/2. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises a 12/1, 15/1, 17/1, 18/1, 20/1, 24/1, 30/1, and/or 40/1 yarn. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises a 30/2 and/or 40/2 yarn. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises 30/2 yarns in the warp direction and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises 40/2 yams in the warp direction and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction.

[0070] In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention comprises about 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, or 45% to about 50%, 60%, or 70% single-ply yarns by weight of the fabric. The fabric may comprise single-ply yams in an amount of about 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, 15%, 16%, 17%, 18%, 19%, 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%,

32%, 33%, 34%, 35%, 36%, 37%, 38%, 39%, 40%, 41%, 42%, 43%, 44%, 45%, 46%, 47%,

48%, 49%, 50%, 51%, 52%, 53%, 54%, 55%, 56%, 57%, 58%, 59%, 60%, 61%, 62%, 63%,

64%, 65%, 66%, 67%, 68%, 69%, or 70% of the total amount of yarns present in the fabric.

[0071] A fabric of the present invention may comprise one or more single-ply yams that are interwoven (e.g., knit and/or woven) with one or more plied yams. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises a single-ply weft yarn that is interwoven with a warp yam (e.g., a plied yarn such as a 2-ply yarn) and the single-ply weft yarn is larger in size than the warp yarn. The one or more plied yarns may have the same fiber blend as one or more of the single-ply yarns and/or may have a different fiber blend. In some embodiments, the single-ply yarns and plied yarns (e.g., 2-ply yarns) comprise modacrylic fibers, meta-aramid fibers, anti-static fibers, and/or para-aramid fibers, optionally about 10% to about 90% modacrylic fibers by weight of the yam; optionally about 10% to about 80% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the yarn; optionally about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the yarn; and/or about 0% to about 15% para- aramid fibers by weight of the yam. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention comprises a single-ply yarn in the fill direction or cross-machine direction interwoven with a single-ply yam or plied yam in the warp direction or machine direction.

[0072] In some embodiments, the fabric comprises a single-ply yam in the warp direction and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction and the single-ply yarn is interwoven with a plied yarn (e.g., a 2-plied yarn) having substantially the same size as the single-ply yarn. For example, the fabric may comprise a 15/1 yarn in the warp and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction that is interwoven with a 30/2 yarn. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises a single-ply yarn in the warp and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction and the single-ply yam is interwoven with a plied yarn having a different size than the single-ply yarn. For example, the fabric may comprise a 15/1 yarn in the warp and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction that is interwoven with a 40/2 yarn. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises a 20/1, 18/1, 15/1, or 12/1 yam in the warp and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction that is interwoven with 30/2 or 40/2 yarn. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises a 20/1, 18/1, 15/1, or 12/1 yarn in the fill direction or cross machine direction that is interwoven with a 30/2 or 40/2 yarn in the warp direction or machine direction. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises a 20/1, 18/1, 15/1, or 12/1 yam in the warp direction or machine direction that is interwoven with a 30/2 or 40/2 yam in the fill direction or cross-machine direction.

[0073] In some embodiments, the fabric comprises a single-ply yam in the warp and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises single-ply yams in the warp direction or machine direction in an amount of about 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, 15%, 16%, 17%, 18%, 19%, 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%, 32%,

33%, 34%, 35%, 36%, 37%, 38%, 39%, 40%, 41%, 42%, 43%, 44%, 45%, 46%, 47%, 48%,

49%, 50%, 51%, 52%, 53%, 54%, 55%, 56%, 57%, 58%, 59%, 60%, 61%, 62%, 63%, 64%,

65%, 66%, 67%, 68%, 69%, 70%, 71%, 72%, 73%, 74%, 75%, 76%, 77%, 78%, 79%, 80%,

81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% of the total amount of yarns present in the warp direction or machine direction of the fabric. In some embodiments, the warp yarns or machine direction yams consist of single-ply yams. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises single-ply yams in the fill direction or cross-machine direction in an amount of about 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, 15%, 16%, 17%, 18%, 19%, 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%, 32%, 33%, 34%, 35%, 36%, 37%, 38%, 39%,

40%, 41%, 42%, 43%, 44%, 45%, 46%, 47%, 48%, 49%, 50%, 51%, 52%, 53%, 54%, 55%,

56%, 57%, 58%, 59%, 60%, 61%, 62%, 63%, 64%, 65%, 66%, 67%, 68%, 69%, 70%, 71%,

72%, 73%, 74%, 75%, 76%, 77%, 78%, 79%, 80%, 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%,

88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% of the total amount of yams present in the fill direction or cross-machine direction of the fabric. In some embodiments, the fill yams or cross-machine direction yarns consist of single-ply yarns. In some embodiments, the fabric comprises a yarn as described herein and the yam is a single- ply yarn in the warp direction and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction of the fabric.

[0074] In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention may have a basis weight in a range of about 2 ounces per square yard (osy) to about 15 osy such as about 2 to about 12, about 4 to about 12, about 6 to about 12, about 10 to about 12, about 4 to about 10, or about 8 to about 10 osy. In some embodiments, the fabric has a basis weight of about 4.5 osy to about 10 osy. In some embodiments, the fabric has a basis weight of about 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, 7.5, 8, 8.5, 9, 9.5, 10, 10.5, 11, 11.5, 12, 12.5, 13, 13.5, 14, 14.5, or 15 osy or more. In some embodiments, the fabric has a basis weight of about 5.3 osy to about 5.7 osy, about 6.4 osy to about 6.6 osy, or about 7.5 osy to about 8.1 osy. In some embodiments, the fabric has a basis weight of about 4.5, 4.7, 5.3, 5.5, 5.7, 6.0, 6.2, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 7.0, 7.5, 7.7, 8.0, or 8.1 osy.

[0075] A fabric of the present invention may have an improved and/or increased protection to weight ratio compared to a fabric not in accordance with the present invention (e.g., a control fabric). For example, in some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention may have a protection to weight ratio of about 1 or more (arc rating (cal/cm 2 ) as measured in accordance with NFPA 70E : weight of the fabric). In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention may have a protection to weight ratio of about 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2, or more (arc rating (cal/cm 2 ) as measured in accordance with NFPA 70E : weight of the fabric). In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention may have a protection to weight ratio of about 1.5 or more such as about 1.5 to about 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, or 2 (arc rating (cal/cm 2 ) as measured in accordance with NFPA 70E : weight of the fabric). It is difficult to provide a light weight fabric having the necessary flame resistance and/or arc resistance. A light weight fabric having a high protection rating can have the advantage of increased user compliance. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention has a basis weight of about 2 or 4.5 ounces per square yard (osy) to about 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, 7.5, or 8 osy and is a category 2 fabric (i.e., has an arc rating that satisfies the arc rating requirement for PPE in category 2 (e.g., has an arc rating of at least 8.0 cal/cm 2 as measured in accordance with ASTM F1959 and/or ASTM F1506)). In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention has a basis weight of about 6.6 osy or less and is a category 2 fabric. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention has a basis weight of about 4 osy to about 6.6 or 10 osy and is a category 2 fabric. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention has a basis weight of about 5.3 osy to about 6.6 osy and is a category 2 fabric. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention has a basis weight of about 5 osy to about 7 osy and is a category 1 fabric (i.e., has an arc rating that satisfies the arc rating requirement for PPE in category 1. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention has a basis weight of about 6.6 osy or less and is a category 1 fabric. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention has a basis weight of about 5.3 osy to about 6.6 osy and is a category 1 fabric.

[0076] In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention may have a total denier in the warp and/or weft direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction of about 100 to about 500, about 150 to about 400, or about 300 to about 400. In some embodiments, the fabric has a total denier in the warp and/or weft direction or machine direction and/or cross machine direction of about 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, or 500.

[0077] A fabric of the present invention may have about 20 to about 80 picks per inch (PPI) or courses per inch (CPI) such as about 20 to about 50, about 20 to about 60, about 20 to about 40 about 30 to about 60, about 30 to about 50, about 30 to about 40, about 40 to about 70, about 40 to about 60, about 40 to about 50, about 50 to about 70, about 50 to about 60, about 60 to about 80, about 60 to about 70, about 70 to about 80, about 55 to about 70, or about 55 to about 65 PPI or CPI. In some embodiments, the fabric has a PPI or CPI of about 20, 21, 22, 23, 24,

25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74,

75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80 or more. In some embodiments, the fabric has about 52 to about 70 PPI or CPI. In some embodiments, the fabric has about 30 to about 60 PPI or CPI. In some embodiments, the fabric has about 30 to about 51 PPI. In some embodiments, the fabric has about 20 to about 40 PPI or CPI. As one of skill in the textile industry would understand, picks per inch, or PPI, is the number of weft yams per inch of the fabric and is measured in the warp direction of the fabric. In some embodiments, a knit fabric of the present invention may have about 20 or 25 to about 35 or 40 wales and/or about 30 or 35 to about 40, 45, or 50 courses. [0078] In some embodiments, a fabric having a low PPI or CPI (e.g., less than 52 PPI or CPI) may be achieved by modifying the weave pattern of the yarns in the fabric and/or by modifying the yams (e.g., fill and/or warp yams or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction yarns) in the fabric. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention comprises fill yarns and warp yams or machine direction yarns and cross-machine direction yarns that are interwoven and the fill yarns or cross-machine direction yarns have a larger size than the warp yarns or machine direction yams, and the fabric may have a PPI or CPI of about 20 or 30 to about 51 or 80. For example, the fill yarns or cross-machine direction yarns may be a 15/1 yarn and the warp yarn or machine direction yam may be a 40/2 yarn. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention may have a lower PPI or CPI than a control fabric and one or more properties of the fabric of the present invention may be substantially the same as a property of the control fabric. For example, a fabric comprising 15/1 yarns in the fill direction or cross-machine direction and 40/2 yams in the warp direction or machine direction having the same weight as a control fabric having 40/2 yams in the fill and warp direction or machine direction and cross-machine direction may be able to achieve have a lower PPI or CPI compared to the control fabric and/or have one or more performance properties that are substantially the same as a property of the control fabric.

[0079] A fabric of the present invention may be heat set with standard textile techniques, optionally with or without a chemical. A fabric of the present invention may comprise a finish on at least one surface of the fabric. A finish may be present on and/or in a fabric of the present invention in an amount of up to 3% of the total weight of the finished fabric. In some embodiments, a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention is devoid of a flame retardant that is added to a surface of the yarn and/or fabric. In some embodiments, a yarn and/or fabric of the present invention is devoid of a flame retardant that is added to a yarn and/or fabric after formation and/or production of the yarn and/or fabric such as devoid of a flame retardant that is added topically to a formed yarn and/or fabric.

[0080] A fabric of the present invention may have one or more (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, or more) improved properties compared to a control fabric. A “control fabric” as used herein refers to a current commercial fabric and/or a fabric in the same form as a fabric of the present invention that it is being compared to, but that is different in a certain manner (e.g., the control fabric is devoid of a single-ply yarn). An exemplary control fabric may be a fabric that is devoid of single-ply yarns and has the same weight and/or fiber blend as a fabric to which it is being compared. In some embodiments, a control fabric may be devoid of single-ply yams and/or may comprise about 10% to about 80% modacrylic fibers by weight of the fabric; about 20% to about 80% meta-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; about 0% to about 10% para-aramid fibers by weight of the fabric; and about 0.1% to about 2% anti-static fibers by weight of the fabric. Another exemplary control fabric is one that is devoid of fiber dyed modacrylic fibers such as a fabric that is devoid of fiber dyed modacrylic fibers, but the control fabric comprises modacrylic fibers that are not fiber dyed; optionally fiber dyed meta-aramid fibers; anti-static fibers; and optionally fiber dyed para-aramid fibers. A further exemplary control fabric may be one that is devoid of single-ply yarns and/or solution-dyed modacrylic fibers, but the control fabric comprises modacrylic fibers that are not solution-dyed; solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers; anti-static fibers; and optionally solution-dyed para-aramid fibers. A still further control fabric is one that is devoid of a post-formation dye. In some embodiments, a control fabric is devoid of fiber dyed modacrylic fibers and is devoid of a post-formation dye. In some embodiments, the control fabric comprises modacrylic fibers that are not solution-dyed; solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers; solution-dyed anti-static fibers; and optionally solution-dyed para-aramid fibers.

[0081] A yarn and/or fabric of the present invention may be flame-resistant. “Flame- resistant” as used herein in reference to a yam or fabric refers to a yarn or fabric that, upon exposure to an external source of ignition (e.g., a flame or electric arc flash), burns slowly or self-extinguishes after removal of the external source of ignition. In some embodiments, a flame-resistant yarn or fabric does not melt or drip, has an after-flame of less than 2 seconds, and has a char length of less than 6 inches when tested in accordance with ASTM F1506 and/or ASTM D6413 and/or does not melt or drip, has an after-flame of less than 2 seconds, and has a char length of less than 6 inches after 25 launderings as tested in accordance with ASTM D6413. In some embodiments, the fabric is flame-resistant and the fabric meets or exceeds the requirements set forth in ASTM D6413. In some embodiments, the fabric is UL compliant and/or the fabric meets or exceeds the requirements set forth in ASTM D6413, NFPA 70E, NFPA 2112, ASTM F1506, NFPA 1977, NFPA 1979, Canadian Standard CGSB 155.20, and/or Canadian Standard CGSB 155.22/22. In some embodiments, the fabric meets or exceeds the requirements set forth in NFPA 1977, NFPA 1979 and Canadian Standard CGSB 155.22. [0082] In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention has improved flame resistance compared to a control fabric. Flame resistance may be measured in accordance with ASTM D6413, ASTM FI 506, ASTMD2261, and/or ASTM D5034. In some embodiments, the fabric, when tested in accordance with ASTM D6413 and/or ASTM FI 506, has a char length of less than about 6, 5.5, 5, 4.5, 4, 3.5, 3, 2.5, 2, 1.75, 1.5, 1.25, 1, 0.75, or 0.5 inches. In some embodiments, the fabric after 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, or more launderings (e.g., industrial launderings and/or wash cycles), when tested in accordance with AATCC 135, Method 3, V, A, iii, ASTM D6413, and/or ASTM F1506, has a char length of less than about 6, 5.5, 5, 4.5, 4, 3.5, 3, 2.5, 2, 1.5, 1, or 0.5 inches. In some embodiments, the fabric, when tested in accordance with AATCC 135, Method 3, V, A, iii, ASTM D6413, and/or ASTM F1506, has a char length about 0.5, 1, or 1.5 inches to about 2, 2.25, 2.5, or 3 inches, optionally after 25 launderings. In some embodiments, the fabric, when tested in accordance with ASTM D6413 and/or ASTM FI 506, has an after-flame and/or self-extinguishes within less than about 2, 1.9, 1.8, 1.7, 1.6, 1.5, 1.4, 1.3, 1.2, 1.1, 1, 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6, or 0.5 seconds. In some embodiments, the fabric after 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, or more launderings, when tested in accordance with AATCC 135, Method 3, V, A, iii, ASTM D6413, and/or ASTM F1506, has an after-flame and/or self-extinguishes within less than about 2, 1.9, 1.8, 1.7, 1.6, 1.5, 1.4, 1.3, 1.2, 1.1, 1, 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 seconds. In some embodiments, the fabric, when tested in accordance with AATCC 135, Method 3, V, A, iii, ASTM D6413, and/or ASTM F1506, has an after-flame and/or self-extinguishes of about 0 or 0.5 seconds to about 1 or 1.5 seconds, optionally after 25 launderings. The fabric, when tested in accordance with AATCC 135, Method 3, V, A, iii, ASTM D6413, and/or ASTM F1506, may have a char length of less than about 6 inches and may self-extinguish in less than about 2 seconds, optionally after 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, or more launderings.

[0083] In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention has an improved arc rating compared to a control fabric. Arc rating for a fabric may be measured in accordance with ASTM FI 959 and/or ASTM FI 506. In some embodiments, the fabric has an arc rating of about 4, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 cal/cm 2 or more, optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM FI 959 and/or ASTM FI 506. In some embodiments, the fabric has an arc rating of at least about 9.5, 10, 10.5, 11, 11.5, 12, 12.5, or 13 cal/cm 2 , optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM FI 959 and/or ASTM FI 506. In some embodiments, the fabric has an arc rating that satisfies the arc rating requirement for personal protective equipment (PPE) in category 1 (e.g., has an arc rating of at least 4.0 cal/cm 2 as measured in accordance with ASTM FI 959 and/or ASTM FI 506). In some embodiments, the fabric has an arc rating that satisfies the arc rating requirement for PPE in category 2 (e.g., has an arc rating of at least 8.0 cal/cm 2 as measured in accordance with ASTM FI 959 and/or ASTM FI 506). In some embodiments, the fabric has an arc rating that satisfies the arc rating requirement for PPE in category 3 (e.g., has an arc rating of at least 25 cal/cm 2 as measured in accordance with ASTM FI 959 and/or ASTM FI 506). In some embodiments, the fabric has an arc rating that satisfies the arc rating requirement for PPE in category 4 (e.g., has an arc rating of at least 40 cal/cm 2 as measured in accordance with ASTM FI 959 and/or ASTM FI 506). In some embodiments, the fabric is a category 1, 2, 3, or 4 PPE fabric as measured in accordance with ASTM F1959 and/or ASTM FI 506.

[0084] A fabric of the present invention may meet or exceed the requirements set forth in ANSI/ISEA 107 - 2020, ISO 20471 :2013, ASTM El 164-17, AATCC 61-2013 (e.g., AATCC 61-2013 -2 A, AATCC 61-2013-3A, AATCC 61-2013-4A, AATCC 61-2013-5A) optionally as carried out at 105°F and/or 145°F, AATCC 132-2013, AATCC 133-2013 as carried out at 230°F, 302°F, and/or 392°F, AATCC 8-2016, AATCC 15-2013, ASTM D1424-09 2019, ASTM D3787-07 (2016), ASTM D6797-07 (2015), AATCC 135-2018, AATCC 96-2012, and/or AATCC 107-2013.

[0085] A fabric of the present invention may have one or more improvements in regard to laundering compared to a control fabric and/or may have a desired laundering characteristic. In some embodiments, after laundering, a fabric of the present invention has a grade of at least 4-5 or 5 for color change. Laundering may be carried out in accordance with AATCC 61-2013 at a temperature in a range of about 105°F to about 140°F such as about 105, 110, 115, 120, 125, 130, 135, or 140°F. For example, a fabric of the present invention, after laundering in accordance with AATCC 61-2013 as carried out at about 105°F, may have a grade of 4-5 or 5 for color change and/or, after laundering in accordance with AATCC 61-2013 as carried out at about 120°F, may have a grade of at least 4-5 or 5 for color change.

[0086] In some embodiments, after laundering in accordance with AATCC 61-2013 at a temperature in a range of 105°F to about 140°F (e.g., at about 105°F), a fabric of the present invention has a grade of 4, 4-5, or 5 for staining of acetate, staining of cotton, staining of nylon, staining of polyester, staining of acrylic, and/or staining of wool. In some embodiments, the fabric has a grade of 5 for staining of acetate, staining of cotton, staining of nylon, staining of polyester, staining of acrylic, and staining of wool after laundering in accordance with AATCC 61-2013 as carried out at about 105°F. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention, after laundering in accordance with AATCC 61-2013 as carried out at about 120°F, has a grade of 4, 4-5, or 5 for staining of acetate, staining of cotton, staining of nylon, staining of polyester, staining of acrylic, and/or staining of wool. The fabric may have a grade of 4-5 or 5 for staining of acetate, staining of cotton, staining of nylon, staining of polyester, staining of acrylic, and staining of wool after laundering in accordance with AATCC 61-2013 as carried out at about 120°F.

[0087] A fabric of the present invention, after laundering in accordance with AATCC 61- 2013 as carried out at about 105°F, may have a grade of 5 for color change and a grade of 5 for staining of acetate, staining of cotton, staining of nylon, staining of polyester, staining of acrylic, and/or staining of wool. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention, after laundering in accordance with AATCC 61-2013 as carried out at about 120°F, has a grade of 5 for color change and a grade of 5 for staining of acetate, staining of cotton, staining of nylon, staining of polyester, staining of acrylic, and/or staining of wool. The fabric may have a grade of 5 for staining of acetate, staining of cotton, staining of nylon, staining of polyester, staining of acrylic, and staining of wool, optionally for staining of acetate, staining of cotton, staining of nylon, and staining of acrylic.

[0088] In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention, after laundering in accordance with AATCC 61-2013 (e.g., as carried out at about 105°F), has an improvement in grade for staining of one or more of acetate, cotton, nylon, polyester, acrylic, and wool compared to a control fabric (e.g., a fabric devoid of a fiber dyed modacrylic fiber). In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention, after laundering in accordance with AATCC 61-2013 as carried out at about 145°F, has an improvement in grade for color change and/or grade for staining of one or more of acetate, cotton, nylon, polyester, acrylic, and wool compared to a control fabric (e.g., a fabric devoid of a fiber dyed modacrylic fiber).

[0089] A fabric of the present invention may have one or more improvements in regard to colorfastness compared to a control fabric and/or may have a desired colorfastness characteristic. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention has a colorfastness to crocking, wet and/or dry, having a grade of at least 3.0 or 4.0 by the Gray Scale for Staining when measured in accordance with AATCC 8-2016. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention has a colorfastness to crocking, wet and/or dry, having a grade of 3.0, 4.0, or 5.0 by the Gray Scale for Staining when measured in accordance with AATCC 8-2016. The fabric, wet and dry, may have a grade of 4.0 or 5.0 by the Gray Scale for Staining when measured in accordance with AATCC 8-2016.

[0090] In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention may have a colorfastness to perspiration having a grade of at least 4.0 for color change by the Gray Scale for Color Change and/or a grade of at least 3.0 or 4.0 for staining by the Gray Scale for Staining when measured in accordance with AATCC 15-2013. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention may have a colorfastness to perspiration having a grade of 4.0 or 5.0 for color change by the Gray Scale for Color Change and/or a grade of 4.0 or 5.0 for staining by the Gray Scale for Staining when measured in accordance with AATCC 15-2013.

[0091] A fabric of the present invention may have one or more (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7) colorfastness characteristics as defined in Table 2.

Table 2: Exemplary colorfastness characteristics.

[0092] A fabric of the present invention, after laundering, may have a dimensional change in the warp direction and/or fill direction or in the length direction and/or width direction (e.g., machine direction and/or cross-machine direction) that is within ± 7%, ± 6%, ± 5%, ± 4%, or ± 3%, as measured in accordance with AATCC 135-2018 (3) (III) (A) (iii), AATCC 158-2016 and/or AATCC 96-2012 (IIIc) (A) and/or (E) carried out at a temperature of about 105°F to about 140°F. In some embodiments, the laundering is performed in accordance with AATCC 135-2018 (3) (III) (A) (iii), AATCC 158-2016 (dry cleaning) and/or AATCC 96-2012 (commercial laundry) (IIIc) (A) and/or (E) at a temperature of about 120°F to about 140°F. In some embodiments, the dimensional change in the warp direction and fill direction or in the length direction and width direction is within ± 7%, optionally within ± 6%, ± 5%, ± 4%, or ± 3%, and the laundering may optionally be carried out in accordance with AATCC 135-2018 (3) (III) (A) (iii), AATCC 158-2016 (dry cleaning) and/or AATCC 96-2012 (commercial laundry) (IIIc) (A) and/or (E) at a temperature of about 120°F to about 140°F. In some embodiments, the dimensional change in the warp direction and fill direction for a woven fabric is less than 4% or less than 3%. In some embodiments, the dimensional change in the length direction and width direction for a knit fabric is less than 7%.

[0093] In some embodiments, after laundering, a fabric of the present invention has a dimensional change in the warp and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction that is reduced compared to dimensional change in the warp direction and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction for a control fabric (e.g., a fabric that is devoid of fiber dyed modacrylic fibers) after the same laundering as measured in accordance with AATCC 135-2018 (3) (III) (A) (iii), AATCC 158-2016 and/or AATCC 96- 2012 (IIIc) (A) and/or (E) carried out at a temperature of about 105°F or 120°F to about 140°F. [0094] A fabric of the present invention may have a color, strength (e.g., tear strength and/or tensile strength), seam slippage, crock, size, flame resistance, and/or arc-flash resistance after about 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 160, 200, or more launderings that is substantially the same as (e.g., within +/- 10% of) the color, strength, seam slippage, crock, size, flame resistance, and/or arc-flash resistance of the fabric prior to laundering.

[0095] Color or color fastness of the fabric may be measured in accordance with TM AATCC 16E. In some embodiments, the fabric may have a rating of 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, or 5 as measured in accordance with TM AATCC 16E. A fabric having a dark shade (e.g., navy, black, etc.) may have a rating of at least 3 as measured in accordance with TM AATCC 16E. A fabric having a light shade (e.g., tan, ecru, light gray, etc.) may have a rating of at least 4 as measured in accordance with TM AATCC 16E. The fabric may have a laundering rating of at least 4 as measured in accordance with TM AATCC 61 2 A. In some embodiments, the fabric has a laundering rating of about 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, or 6 as measured in accordance with TM AATCC 61 2A. In some embodiments, the fabric may have a crocking rating of at least 4 as measured in accordance with TM AATCC 8. In some embodiments, the fabric has a crocking rating of about 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, or 6, as measured in accordance with TM AATCC 8.

[0096] In some embodiments, the fabric may shrink in length and/or width direction after a laundering (e.g., after 1, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 160, 200, or more launderings) by less than about 3%, 2.5%, 2%, 1.5%, 1%, or 0.5%, optionally as measured in accordance with TM AATCC 135, Method 3, IV or TM AATCC 135, method 3, V, A, iii. In some embodiments, the fabric may shrink in length and/or width direction after 10 or 25 launderings (e.g., wash cycles) by less than about 3%, 2.75%, 2.5%, 2.25%, 2%, 1.75%, 1.5%, 1.25%, 1%, 0.7%, or 0.5% as measured in accordance with TM AATCC 135, Method 3, IV or TM AATCC 135, method 3, V, A, iii. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention has improved shrinkage in the length and/or width direction compared to the shrinkage in the length and/or width direction of a control fabric. For example, in some embodiments, the fabric has reduced (e.g., reduced by about 2%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, or more) shrinkage in the length and/or width direction of the fabric compared to the shrinkage of a control fabric in length and/or width direction. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention, after exposure to 500°F for 5 minutes, has a shrinkage in the length and/or width direction of less than 10%, optionally as measured in accordance with Section 8.4 of NFPA 2112-2018 and/or ASTM F2894.

[0097] A fabric of the present invention may have a seam slippage in the warp and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction of greater than 50 pound-force (lbf) such as about 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, or 85 lbf, or more, optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D434. In some embodiments, the fabric has a seam slippage in the warp direction or machine direction of about 62 lbf or more such as about 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, or 85 lbf, or more, optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D434. In some embodiments, the fabric has a seam slippage in the fill direction or cross-machine direction of about 51 lbf or more such as about

51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75

76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, or 85 lbf, or more, optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D434. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention has a seam slippage in the warp and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction that is improved and/or increased (e.g., by at least about 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, or more) compared to the seam slippage of a control fabric.

[0098] A fabric of the present invention may have tear strength in the warp direction and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction of about 6.5 or 7 lbf or more, optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D2261. In some embodiments, the fabric may have a tear strength in the warp and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross machine direction of about 7.5, 8, 8.5, 9, 9.5, 10, 10.5, 11, 11.5, 12, 12.5, 13, 13.5, 14, 14.5, 15, 15.5, 16, 16.5, 17, 17.5, 18, 18.5, 19, 19.5, or 20 lbf or more, optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D2261. In some embodiments, the fabric may have a tear strength in the fill direction or cross-machine direction of about 8 or 10 lbf to about 12, 14, 16, 18, or 20 lbf, optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D2261. In some embodiments, the fabric may have a tear strength in the warp direction or machine direction of about 8, 10, 12, or 14 lbf to about 16, 18, or 20 lbf, optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D2261. A fabric of the present invention may have tear strength in the warp direction and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction of about 2.5 lbf or more, optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D1424. In some embodiments, the fabric may have a tear strength in the warp direction and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction of about 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, 7.5, 8, 8.5, 9, 9.5, 10, 10.5, 11, 11.5, 12, 12.5, 13, 13.5, 14, 14.5, 15, 15.5, 16, 16.5, 17, 17.5, 18, 18.5, 19, 19.5, or 20 lbf or more, optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D1424. In some embodiments, the fabric may have a tear strength in the warp direction and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction of about 2.5, 3, 3.5, or 4 lbf to about 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or 20 lbf, optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D1424. In some embodiments, the fabric has a tear strength in the warp direction and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction of at least about 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12 as measured in accordance with ASTM D1424. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention may have tear strength in the warp direction and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction of about 8 lbf or more, optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D 1424, such as about 8.5, 9, 9.5, 10, 10.5, 11, 11.5, 12 lbf or more.

[0099] A fabric of the present invention may have tensile strength in the warp direction and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction of about 85 lbf or more, optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D5034. In some embodiments, the fabric may have a tensile strength in the warp direction and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction of about 85, 90, 95, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240, or 250 lbf or more, optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D5034. In some embodiments, the fabric may have a tensile strength in the fill direction or cross-machine direction of about 85, 90, 95, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, or 160 to about 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240, or 250 lbf, optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D5034. In some embodiments, the fabric may have a tensile strength in the warp direction or machine direction of about 85, 90, 95, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, or 180 lbf to about 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240, or 250 lbf, optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D5034. In some embodiments, the fabric may have a tensile strength in the fill direction or cross-machine direction of about 140 lbf or more (e.g., about 140 to about 180, 200, or 250 lbf), optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D5034. In some embodiments, the fabric may have a tensile strength in the warp direction or machine direction of about 165 lbf or more (e.g., about 165 to about 200 or 250 lbf), optionally as measured in accordance with ASTM D5034. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention has a tensile strength in the warp direction and/or fill direction or machine direction and/or cross-machine direction that is improved and/or increased (e.g., by at least about 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, or more) compared to the tensile strength of a control fabric. [00100] In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention passes TM ASTM D4966 abrasion testing after about 100,000 or 200,000 cycles of fabric abrasion testing as measured in accordance with TM ASTM D4966 (Martindale Abrasion).

[00101] In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention has minimal or no discoloration after about 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 160, 200, or more launderings compared to the color of the fabric prior to laundering and/or compared to a control fabric. Discoloration may be determined upon visual comparison with the human eye. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention after about 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 160, 200, or more launderings exhibits no visually perceptive color change compared to the color of the fabric prior to laundering.

[00102] A fabric of the present invention may have a CIE Delta E of less than about 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, or 1 at about 3, 6, 9, or 12 months or more (e.g., 3, 6, 9, or 12 months or more of outdoor exposure) and/or after exposure to 880, 1320, or 2200 kJ in accordance with AATCC 169 Option 3. A fabric of the present invention may have a CIE Delta E of less than about 1 after about 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, or 100 industrial launderings at a washing temperature of about 140°F ± 5°F and at a drying temperature of about 150°F ± 5°F. [00103] In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention has increased and/or improved strength (e.g., tear strength and/or tensile strength), shrinkage, seam slippage, crock, shade consistency, color fastness, arc-flash resistance, and/or laundering properties compared to the strength (e.g., tear strength and/or tensile strength), shrinkage, seam slippage, crock, shade consistency, color fastness, arc-flash resistance, and/or laundering properties for a control fabric. In some embodiments, a fabric of the present invention may have a strength (e.g., tear strength and/or tensile strength), shrinkage, seam slippage, crock, shade consistency, color fastness, arc-flash resistance, and/or laundering properties that is/are substantially the same as (e.g., within +/- 10% of) the strength (e.g., tear strength and/or tensile strength), shrinkage, seam slippage, crock, shade consistency, color fastness, arc-flash resistance, and/or laundering properties for a control fabric.

[00104] A fabric of the present invention may be used to form a garment using methods known to those of skill in the art. Exemplary garments include, but are not limited to, shirts, pants, pullovers, jackets, coveralls, vests, gloves, and headwear.

[00105] The present invention is explained in greater detail in the following non-limiting examples.

Examples

[00106] Example 1

[00107] A fabric including both single-ply yams and plied yams was prepared (i.e., Fabric 1). Fabric 1 was a finished right hand twill woven 50 PPI fabric using standard textile techniques and had 40/2 yams in the warp direction and 15/1 yams in the fill direction. The warp and fill yarns each included solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers in an amount of 74% by weight of the yarn, solution-dyed modacrylic fibers in an amount of 20% by weight of the yarn, solution- dyed para-aramid fibers in an amount of 5% by weight of the yam and natural (black), solution- dyed anti-static fibers in an amount of 1% by weight of the yam.

[00108] A control fabric (i.e., Control Fabric) was also prepared and was a finished right hand twill woven 70 PPI fabric using standard textile techniques and had 40/2 yams in the warp direction and fill direction. The warp and fill yams each included solution-dyed meta-aramid fibers in an amount of 74% by weight of the yam, solution-dyed modacrylic fibers in an amount of 20% by weight of the yam, solution-dyed para-aramid fibers in an amount of 5% by weight of the yarn and solution-dyed anti-static fibers in an amount of 1% by weight of the yarn. [00109] Each of the fabrics was tested for flame and arc resistance and each fabric passed the following tests ASTM D6413; AATCC 61; ASTM D3776; ASTM D434; AATCC 135, Method 3, V, A, iii; ASTMD2261; and ASTMD5034. The results for Fabric 1 and the Control Fabric are provided in Tables 3 and 4, respectively.

Table 3: Tests results for Fabric 1.

Table 4: Tests results for Control Fabric.

[00110] As can be seen from Tables 3 and 4, Fabric 1 including a single-ply weft yarn, was able to provide a stronger fabric (as evidenced by tear strength) than the Control Fabric. As the skilled artisan would understand, tear strength is often more indicative of fabric performance in regard to woven fabrics. Further, Fabric 1 has sufficient strength with a single- ply yarn, which was unexpected. As demonstrated by these results, by using a singles yarn in the fill direction in a fabric, the fabric, even at a lower pick count, can be comparable if not higher performing than a similar fabric (e.g., control fabric) lacking single-ply yarns. [00111] The foregoing is illustrative of the present invention and is not to be construed as limiting thereof. Although exemplary embodiments of this invention have been described, those skilled in the art will readily appreciate that many modifications are possible in the exemplary embodiments without materially departing from the novel teachings and advantages of this invention. Accordingly, all such modifications are intended to be included within the scope of this invention as defined in the claims. The invention is defined by the following claims, with equivalents of the claims to be included therein.