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Title:
FRAMELESS SUPPLEMENTAL WINDOW FOR FENESTRATION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/222467
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A supplemental window apparatus includes a foot and a first constraint element attached to the foot. The foot and the first constraint element are configured to be detachably coupled to a window pane of an existing window through a mating constraint element. A spacer is coupled to the foot and is configured to extend at least partially in a direction perpendicular to the window pane when installed on the existing window. A substantially non porous sheet is coupled to the spacer and has a sheet area substantially similar to a window pane area defined by the interior surfaces of the first window element holding the window pane. The spacer substantially defines a gap between the sheet and the window pane when installed on the existing window. The foot extends outward from the spacer toward the interior surfaces of the first window element.

Inventors:
WEXLER RONALD (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2018/034183
Publication Date:
December 06, 2018
Filing Date:
May 23, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
WEXENERGY LLC (US)
International Classes:
E06B3/28; E06B1/60; E06B3/26; E06B3/30; E06B9/24; F16B5/06
Domestic Patent References:
WO2012078249A22012-06-14
WO2014152485A12014-09-25
WO2014123936A12014-08-14
WO2014144136A12014-09-18
Foreign References:
US20160348418A12016-12-01
US4210191A1980-07-01
US20090250576A12009-10-08
US2053186A1936-09-01
US4867222A1989-09-19
US4453585A1984-06-12
US201762512476P2017-05-30
US201762540606P2017-08-03
US9230339B22016-01-05
US9208851B22015-12-08
US9691163B22017-06-27
US9842397B22017-12-12
US201414320973A2014-07-01
US8206631B12012-06-26
US8398909B12013-03-19
US20120319320A12012-12-20
US20120328822A12012-12-27
US20130251937A12013-09-26
US7618349B12009-11-17
US201615232680A2016-08-09
US9663983B22017-05-30
Other References:
See also references of EP 3631136A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SMITH, Brian C. et al. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A supplemental window apparatus comprising:

a foot and a first constraint element attached to the foot, wherein the foot and the first constraint element are configured to be detachably coupled to a window pane of an existing window through a mating constraint element attached at a perimeter location of the window pane defined by interior surfaces a window element holding the window pane when installed, such that the foot extends substantially parallel to the window pane when installed on the existing window;

a spacer coupled to the foot and configured to extend at least partially in a direction perpendicular to the window pane when installed on the existing window; and

a substantially non porous sheet coupled to the spacer and having a sheet area substantially similar to a window pane area defined by the interior surfaces of the first window element holding the window pane, wherein the spacer substantially defines a gap between the sheet and the window pane when installed on the existing window, and wherein the foot extends outward from the spacer toward the interior surfaces of the first window element.

2. The supplemental window apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the mating constraint element has a low-profile dimension perpendicular to the window pane.

3. The supplemental window apparatus according to claim 2, wherein the low- profile dimension is less than about 0.25 inch.

4 The supplemental window apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the first constraint element attached to the foot and the mating constraint element attached to the windowpane are detachably coupled through an interpenetrating engagement.

5. The supplemental window apparatus according to claim 1 further comprising a seal attached along each of edge of the substantially non porous sheet material, wherein the seal along each edge is configured to be compressed against the window pane when the first constraint element is coupled to the mating constraint element.

6. The supplemental window apparatus according to claim 5, wherein the seals on two adjacent edges of the substantially non porous sheet material form a corner opening between the seals at a corner area of the window pane.

7. The supplemental window apparatus according to claim 1, wherein at least one surface of the spacer is configured to be located closer to the window pane than the first constraint element when the first constraint element is coupled to the mating constraint element.

8. The supplemental window apparatus according to claim 1 further comprising a spacer extension surface coupled to the spacer, wherein the spacer extension surface is configured to be located closer to the window pane than the first constraint element when the first constraint element is coupled to the mating constraint element.

9. A supplemental window apparatus, a portion of which is configured to be detachably coupled to a window pane of an existing window, the supplemental window apparatus comprising:

a spacer coupled to a foot having a first constraint element located thereon, a substantially non porous sheet coupled to the spacer, and a seal attached along each edge of the substantially non porous sheet;

a mating fastener element located on the window pane inward in a direction toward a center of the window pane from at least one feature of the existing window when the supplemental window apparatus is mounted, the mating fastener element is attached to a perimeter area of the window pane, wherein the mating fastener element comprises an interlocking feature configured to engage in an interpenetrating engagement with the first constraint element of the foot

10. The apparatus according to claim 9, wherein the seal along each edge is configured to be compressed against the window pane when the first constraint element is coupled to the mating constraint element.

1 1. The apparatus according to claim 9, further comprising a prop configured to rest between a sill of the existing window and the non-porous sheet when the first constraint element of the foot is released from the engagement with the mating fastener element.

12. The apparatus according to claim 9 further comprising a fastener disengagement mechanism for removing the first constraint element of the foot from the engagement with the mating fastener element.

13. The apparatus according to claim 12, wherein the disengagement mechanism is configured to allow a user to apply a peel force to the first constraint element.

14. The apparatus according to claim 13, wherein the disengagement mechanism is coupled to the foot.

15. The apparatus according to Claim 14, wherein the disengagement mechanism is located closer to the perimeter of the window pane than the spacer.

16. The apparatus according to claim 9, wherein the mating fastener element is located closer to the perimeter of the window pane than spacer.

17. The apparatus according to claim 9, wherein at least one surface of the spacer is configured to be located closer to the window pane than the first constraint element when the first constraint element is coupled to the mating constraint element.

18. The supplemental window apparatus according to claim 9 further comprising a spacer extension surface coupled to the spacer, wherein the spacer extension surface is configured to be located closer to the window pane than the first constraint element when the first constraint element is coupled to the mating constraint element

19. The apparatus according to claim 9, comprising four first constraint elements and four mating fastener elements.

20. The apparatus according to claim 19, wherein each first constraint element and each mating fastener element has a two-dimensional array of interlocking features.

21. The apparatus according to claim 19, wherein two of the first constraint elements have an array of a first orientation and two other of the first constraint elements have an array of a second orientation.

22. The apparatus according to claim 19, wherein two of the first constraint elements have an array of a first density and two other of the first constraint elements have an array of a second density.

23. The apparatus according to claim 9, wherein the seal contacts the spacer when the seal is compressed against the windowpane when the supplemental window apparatus is mounted on the window pane.

24. The apparatus according to claim 9, wherein the seal does not contact the attachment of the first constraint element to the window pane when the seal is compressed against the windowpane when the supplemental window apparatus is mounted on the window pane.

25. The apparatus according to claim 9, wherein the at least one feature of the window comprises one of a sash, a frame, a rail, or a stile.

26. A supplemental window apparatus, a portion of which is configured to be detachably coupled to a window pane of an existing window, comprising:

a spacer, a substantially non porous sheet coupled to the spacer, and an edge seal coupled to the substantially non porous sheet;

a constraint located on the window pane inward in a direction toward a center of the window pane from at least one feature of the existing window when the supplemental window apparatus is mounted, the constraint attached to a perimeter area of the window pane, wherein the constraint comprises a magnet, and a flap attached to the non porous sheet has a magnet for coupling to the constraint magnet.

Description:
FRAMELESS SUPPLEMENTAL WINDOW FOR FENESTRATION

[0001] This application claims the benefit of U. S. Provisional Patent Applications Serial No. 62/512,476 filed May 30, 2017 and 62/540,606 filed August 3, 2017, which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

FIELD

[0002] The present invention relates generally to fenestration and in particular to a frameless supplemental window and related method of construction and mounting for use with existing windows.

BACKGROUND

[0003] In recognition of the ecological and cost impact of fossil fuels and other conventional energy sources, significant effort has been expended in developing methods for more efficient use of such energy sources. An important area of energy use for which greater energy efficiency is needed is the heating and cooling of spaces in which human activity is desired. Many approaches have been developed to decrease the amount heat transfer through the shell of such spaces. One of the most active and important areas of activity is the transfer of energy through fenestration where the activity has included use of window films or inserts, increasing the number of glazings per opening, and window treatments such as drapes, blinds, etc. While these approaches have shown considerable improvement in building energy efficiency, significant problems prevent more widespread and effective utilization.

[0004] Several problems exist in the approaches to minimizing heat transfer through fenestration. In particular for existing windows, it is desirable to maintain undistorted optical transparency, operation of the window treatments and windows and the aesthetics of the interior view of the window while providing thermal insulation. Furthermore, reuse of the insulating materials is highly desirable so that new materials do not need to be purchased each season, while also making the mounting and dismounting of the insulating materials easy and accessible for the end user. Supplemental windows known in the art either require the end user to customize one or more supplemental windows features to the dimensions of each window at the site of installation or are designed in ways that make size customization difficult in

manufacturing. Simultaneously solving all of these problems provides multiple advantages and the most desired outcome.

[0005] When adding supplemental window features such as films, film support elements and window treatments, ease of installation (including measurement and fabrication), reusability and storage and aesthetics during and after use are very important while obtaining the thermal and radiation insulation desired. With window film insulation kits intended for creating an additional "dead air" insulating layer adjacent to the window as well as window treatments, the dimension of the "dead air" space perpendicular to the window pane is subject to the film attachment areas that are generally dictated by existing features of the window and/or frame. In addition, such window films often must be mounted in such a way that inhibits the operability of non-fixed windows. Further, such window films are generally made for use only on the interior side of the window pane. For sliding or hung windows, many designs have very small clearance between a movable sash and the stationary window pane. Thus, maintaining operability with an optimal "dead air" insulation layer on the interior side of the stationary pane is problematic. Other window films, such as tints, infrared or ultraviolet reflective, or low-e films, generally adhere directly to the window pane and do not allow for simultaneous formation of an insulating layer.

[0006] Another problem with existing solutions is that most do not have any features designed to eliminate or reduce air flow or leakage around various elements of the window while maintaining operability of the window and associated window treatments with the supplemental window remaining in place. For example, it is common in sliding windows to have air leakage through the gaps between the jamb and the window frame, between the upper and lower sashes, between the sashes and the parts of the window frame that are in contact with them when in a closed state. While solutions to these problems have been found by contacting frame elements of the window, many of these solutions significantly mar the frame elements often leading to costly or time consuming repair and repainting. This can be avoided by mounting a window attachment to the window pane. However, such mounting places high demands on the attachment mechanism to the window pane due to the weight of the window attachment. In addition, while it can be highly beneficial to be able to easily remove and remount a window attachment, because the top of a window may be difficult for the average person to reach, for some windows remounting may be difficult.

[0007] There is thus a need for a reduced cost frameless supplemental window that overcomes the disadvantages of prior art supplemental windows and that is effective at minimizing heat loss, retaining transparency through as much of the window as possible and minimizing refractive index changes in the non-perimeter area of the window pane, is relatively simple to manufacture, prevents or minimizes air leakage between window elements, is easy to install and remove and does not impede the operability of the existing window. In addition, with the popularity of do-it-yourself projects, there is a need for relatively simple ways in which consumers may fabricate such a supplemental window in addition to having a fully assembled custom made supplemental window supplied. SUMMARY

[0008] The present invention is a frameless supplemental window for fenestration suitable for use with existing windows. The supplemental window, in one embodiment, comprises sheet material with an edging seal at the perimeter of the sheet material. In several embodiments, corner braces add rigidity and strength to corners in several embodiments. In other

embodiments, corner braces also provide a portion of the corner closure of the edging seal. An attachment mechanism secured either to the sheet material or the edging functions to fasten and/or seal the supplemental window to an existing window. The edging, or edge seal, functions to substantially enclose (i.e. , trap) a volume of air between the window pane and the plastic sheet material. The supplemental window is configured such that the layer of trapped air is of an optimum thickness within a preferred range of 0.15 to 0.75 inches to maximize thermal insulation properties and mechanical stability of the supplemental window when mounted.

[0009] Several advantages of the supplemental window include (1) frameless designs that significantly reduce material use and cost; (2) decreased heat transfer through the window pane area to which it is mounted; (3) retaining undistorted visual transparency through the window; (4) decreased heat transfer through the various window elements other than the window pane by the use of infiltration blockers; (5) having a reduced cost of manufacture; (6) ease of mounting and dismounting; (7) designable so as to not impede the operability of the existing window or associated window treatments; (8) self-adjusting dimensions to fit the window with tolerance for measurement error; (9) large window coverage and higher weight bearing capability of the support; (10) compressibly independent seals to accommodate measurement errors and mounting alignment offset; and (11) capability to capture condensation at its perimeter when mounted.

[0010] The aesthetics of the fenestration during and after use of the supplemental window can be maintained. This relates to maintaining the appearance of the interior view of the fenestration and its immediate surrounding as well as the ability to see through the fenestration when desired. Also, it relates to the ability to return the fenestration to its original state when the supplemental element is not being used without the need to repair mounting areas.

[0011] Operability of the fenestration and associated treatment during use of the

supplemental window can be maintained without the need to demount the entire supplemental window. Since the fenestration is often designed for opening and closing, it is beneficial to maintain this capability while the supplemental window is in place or to design the supplemental window to be very easily dismounted and remounted. This would allow for temporarily bringing fresh air into the space adjacent to the fenestration. This can be particularly useful during periods of moderate temperatures within a heating or cooling season. [0012] The supplemental window also provides the ability to gain energy efficiency improvement during both heating and cooling seasons. The advent of spectrally selective, infrared reflective and low-emissivity coatings or laminates for window films provides for additional energy savings. Incorporation of such coatings or films in the sheet, infiltration blocker and/or edging provides an opportunity for combining these additional energy saving technologies with the insulating properties provided by the substantially enclosed air volume provided by the present invention. Optimal placement of such films, however, requires the ability to move such films to either keep heat in during the heating season or keep heat out in the cooling season. In addition, such films may be incorporated between the sheet and exposure to sunlight to protect the sheet from degradation, such as that caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun.

[0013] There is thus provided in accordance with the invention, a supplemental window apparatus, comprising a substantially non porous sheet material having dimensions defining a perimeter area of a window pane, a spacer and attachment mechanism operative to releasably attach at least a portion of the supplemental window apparatus the supplemental window apparatus (or a portion of the supplemental window apparatus) to the window pane area , wherein the spacer and attachment mechanism determine the distance between the window pane and the sheet material when the supplemental window apparatus is attached to the window pane area, a releasable coupling between a portion of the sheet material and a constraint adhered to the window pane area when the supplemental window apparatus is installed and wherein the sheet material is positioned substantially parallel to the window pane. The releasable coupling may comprise a magnetic coupling or a releasable mechanical coupling with interpenetrating features such as hook and loop coupling, mushroom head coupling, or a mechanical coupling in which an extended portion of the sheet material (e.g., a foot, a projecting portion of a foot, or other extension of the sheet material) engages an opening in a corner piece (e.g., a constraint) or a portion of a corner piece feeds through an extended portion of the sheet material.

[0014] There is also provided in accordance with the invention, a supplemental window apparatus, comprising a substantially non porous sheet material having dimensions defining a perimeter area of a window pane, a spacer and first attachment mechanism operative to attach the supplemental window apparatus to the window pane, a second attachment mechanism to releasably attach the sheet material to the spacer, a longitudinally rolled, curled, or spiraled seal attached along one of its longitudinal edges to the sheet material.

[0015] There is further provided in accordance with the invention, a supplemental window apparatus for improving the thermal insulating properties of an existing sliding or hung window having a checkrail or meeting stile, comprising a substantially non porous sheet material having dimensions defining a perimeter area of a window pane, an edge seal attached to the sheet material and operative to substantially enclose a volume of air between the window pane and the sheet material, two constraints positioned in each of two corners of the stationary window pane nearest the checkrail or meeting stile wherein the depth of the constraint is smaller than the clearance between the window pane and the moveable sash of the sliding or hung window, and wherein the sheet material is positioned substantially parallel to the window pane when mounted on the window pane.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0016] The invention is herein described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein:

[0017] Fig. 1 is a front view of a first example frameless supplemental window.

[0018] Fig. 2 is a front view of a second example frameless supplemental window.

[0019] Fig. 3 is a side sectional view A-A' of the example window of Figure 2.

[0020] Figs. 4A-4C are perspective views of embodiments of the frameless supplemental window.

[0021] Figs. 5A-D are examples of the corner brace.

[0022] Figs. 6A-F are examples of the spring mechanism.

[0023] Figs. 7A-7F are examples of the corner sealing mechanism.

[0024] Figs. 8A-8C are examples of the attachment mechanism that pierces the sheet material.

[0025] Figs. 9A-9D are examples of the attachment mechanism that does not pierce the sheet material.

[0026] Fig. 1 OA is a side sectional view of an example frameless supplemental window; and Fig. 10B is a side sectional view of an example frameless supplemental window incorporating two enclosed air layers.

[0027] Figs. 1 lA-1 IE are perspective views of example bullnose corners.

[0028] Figs. 12A-12C are perspective views of embodiments of the frameless supplemental window.

[0029] Fig. 13 A is a perspective view of an additional embodiment of the frameless supplemental window; Fig. 13B is a side sectional view B-B' of the example window of Figure 13A; and Fig. 13C is an exploded view of the example window of Figure 13A.

[0030] Fig. 14 is a front view of a first example frameless supplemental window

incorporating infiltration blockers.

[0031] Fig. 15 is a side sectional view C-C of the example window of Figure 14 incorporating a first example infiltration blocker. [0032] Fig. 16 is a side sectional view C-C of the example window of Figure 14 incorporating a second example infiltration blocker.

[0033] Fig. 17 is a side sectional view C-C of the example window of Figure 14 incorporating a third example infiltration blocker.

[0034] Fig. 18 is a side sectional view C-C of the example window of Figure 14 incorporating a fourth example infiltration blocker.

[0035] Fig. 19 is a side sectional view D-D' of the example window of Figure 14.

[0036] Fig. 20 is a perspective view of a corner portion of the example frameless supplemental window of Figure 14 with infiltration blockers.

[0037] Fig. 21 A is a top perspective view of a corner portion of an example supplemental window incorporating a reverse bullnose seal; Fig. 21B is a bottom perspective view of a corner portion of an example supplemental window incorporating a reverse bullnose seal; Fig. 21C is a transparent isometric view of an exemplary frameless supplemental window apparatus when installed in an existing window, with a corner of a sash/frame of the existing window cut away for clarity; Fig. 2 ID is a side cross-sectional view of the exemplary frameless supplemental window apparatus when installed in an existing window as shown in Fig. 21C; Fig. 2 IE illustrates is a top view (omitting tab 880) of the exemplary frameless supplemental window apparatus when installed in an existing window as shown in Fig. 21C; Fig. 21F is a side cross- sectional view of an exemplary configuration of an edge seal for use with the frameless supplemental window apparatus when installed in an existing window as shown in Fig. 21C; Fig. 21G is a side cross-sectional view of an exemplary configuration of an edge seal when interacting with a tab extending away from the window pane when the frameless supplemental window apparatus is installed; Fig. 21H is a side cross-sectional view of another exemplary configuration of an edge seal when interacting with a tab extending away from the window pane when the frameless supplemental window apparatus is installed; Fig. 211 is a side cross- sectional view of an exemplary configuration of an edge seal when interacting with a tab extending toward the window pane when the frameless supplemental window apparatus is installed; Fig. 21J is a side cross-sectional view of another exemplary configuration of an edge seal when interacting with a tab extending toward the window pane when the frameless supplemental window apparatus is installed; Fig. 21K is a side cross-sectional view of another exemplary configuration of an edge seal interacting with a sealing material when the frameless supplemental window apparatus is installed; Fig. 21L is a side cross-sectional view of another exemplary configuration of an edge seal interacting with a weight support mechanism at a top corner when the frameless supplemental window apparatus is installed; Fig. 21M is a plan view of top corner portion of a window with a supplemental window apparatus mounted with a weight support mechanism; Fig. 21N is an isometric view of the top corner portion of Figure 21M; Fig. 210 is a side view of a spacer with a weight support mechanism; Fig. 21P is a side cross- sectional view of another exemplary configuration of an edge seal interacting with a weight support mechanism at a top corner when the frameless supplemental window apparatus is installed; Fig. 21Q is a plan view and two cross-sectional views of a top corner with a mechanically engaged constraint and foot; Fig. 21R is a plan view and two cross-sectional views of a top corner with a mechanically engaged constraint and foot; and Fig. 21 S is a plan view and two cross-sectional views of a top corner with a mechanically engaged seal and constraint.

[0038] Fig. 22 is a top view of an example awning type window with a frameless supplemental installed therein.

[0039] Fig. 23 is an isometric view of a corner portion of the window of Figure 22.

[0040] Fig. 24 is a side sectional view E-E' of the window of Figure 22.

[0041] Fig. 25 is an isometric view of a corner portion of a window with a frameless supplemental window where attachment is via the infiltration blockers.

[0042] Fig. 26 is a side sectional view of the window of Figure 25.

[0043] Fig. 27 is a perspective view of an example of a supplemental window with infiltration blocker in the area of the check rail and jamb.

[0044] Fig. 28 is a first example of a frameless supplemental without a bullnose seal and incorporating infiltration blockers.

[0045] Fig. 29 is a second example of a frameless supplemental without a bullnose seal and incorporating infiltration blockers overlapping in corner areas.

[0046] Fig. 30 is a side sectional view in the region of the check rail of a third example of a frameless supplemental without a bullnose seal and incorporating infiltration blockers.

[0047] Fig. 31 is a side sectional view of a fourth example frameless supplemental without a bullnose seal and incorporating infiltration blockers.

[0048] Fig. 32A is a transparent isometric view of a window corner with a supplemental window apparatus mounted with a reclosable fastener; Fig. 32B is a side sectional view at plane F-F' of the window of Figure 32A during attachment of a reclosable fastener; Fig. 32C is a side sectional view at plane F-F' of the window of Figure 32A during detachment of a reclosable fastener; Fig. 32D is a side sectional view at plane F-F' of the window of Figure 32A; Fig. 32E is a side sectional view at plane F-F' of the window of Figure 32A; and Fig. 32F is a side sectional view at plane F-F' of the window of Figure 32A.

[0049] Fig. 33 is a front view of a sliding window with a supplemental window apparatus mounted on each pane and a side sectional view at plane G-G' of the plan view of Figure 33. [0050] Fig. 34 is a front view of a sliding window with supplemental window apparatus of Figure 33 dismounted from each pane and a side sectional view at plane H-FT of the front view of Figure 34.

[0051] Fig. 35 is a front view of an open sliding window with a supplemental window apparatus on each pane and a side sectional view at plane Ι-Γ of the front view of Figure 35.

[0052] Fig. 36 is a front view of a sliding window with a supplemental window apparatus mounted on each pane with a prop on the movable pane and a side sectional view at plane J-J' of the front view of Figure 36.

[0053] Fig. 37 is a front view of an open sliding window with a supplemental window apparatus on each pane with a prop on the movable pane and a side sectional view at plane K-K' of the front view of Figure 37.

[0054] Fig. 38 is a side view of an exemplary configuration to provide closure between a window pane and a spacer.

[0055] Fig. 39 is a side view of another exemplary configuration to provide closure between a window pane and a spacer.

[0056] Fig. 40 is a front view of a sliding window with a supplemental window apparatus mounted on each pane and a top view at plane J-J' of the front view.

[0057] Fig. 41 is a side view of a self-touching spiral seal that may be utilized with a sliding window with a mounted supplemental window apparatus.

[0058] Fig. 42 is a perspective view of a corner of an existing window with a protection near the interface of an adhesive layer and the windowpane from condensation.

[0059] Fig. 43 is a perspective view of a corder of an existing window with a portion removed to show a mechanism to initiate disengagement at an edge or corner of the engagement area so that a peel force provides disengagement.

[0060] Fig. 44A is front view of a sliding window with a supplemental window apparatus mounted on each pane with a prop rotatable about a vertical axis to improve the stability of the partially released supplemental window apparatus portion when the prop rests on the sill; Fig.

44B is a view along K-K' at N-N' of Fig. 44 A; and Fig. 44C is a view along N-N' of K-K' of

Fig. 44A.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0061] The invention is described below, with reference to detailed illustrative embodiments. It will be apparent that the invention can be embodied in a wide variety of forms, some of which may be quite different from those of the disclosed embodiments. Consequently, the specific structural and functional details disclosed herein are merely representative and do not limit the scope of the invention. [0062] The present invention provides for several embodiments for mounting of sheet material in or over fenestration and substantially enclosing or trapping a volume of gas in or adjacent to the fenestration. The term "frameless supplemental window" in the present invention refers to a supplemental window that lacks a substantially rigid or non-flexible structure completely surrounding an area that is approximately the same size as the window pane on which the supplemental window is to be mounted.

[0063] In the present invention, in one embodiment, sheet material, a spacer or post of predetermined dimension perpendicular to the sheet material, a bullnose edge seal, a corner brace, spring mechanism, and infiltration blocker are combined together to provide a frameless supplemental window unit that substantially encloses and traps a volume of gas (typically air but not limited to air). Optionally, the sheet material (typically clear but may be tinted or coated) may function as a portion of the edge seal. In one embodiment, the post may contact or attach to the window pane of the fenestration. The sheet material can be any desired type of material such as, but not limited to, clear, non-opaque, translucent, low emissivity, semi-transparent, opaque, visible light transmitting, infrared reflecting or absorbing, ultraviolet reflecting or absorbing, or a material having minimal refractive distortion when viewed from the interior side of the window, etc. The extent of visible light transmission properties of the sheet material is not critical to the insulation aspect of the invention, although it is preferred to maintain as much as much undistorted optical clarity as possible to maintain the function of the window for viewing through the fenestration.

[0064] Note that such embodiments may be specified using manual measurement of the fenestration or portions thereof or, specified and delivered using the methods described in U.S. Patent No. 8,923,650 to Wexler cited supra and U. S. Patent Nos. 9,230,339, 9.208,851, 9,691, 163, and U.S. 9,842,397, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety . In addition to these measurement methods, the methods described in U.S.

Application Serial No. 14/320,973 may be used to confirm the accuracy of manual

measurements taken by the user that are provided to the service provider or fabricator as well as to provide feedback to the manual measurement taker regarding such accuracy, optionally including a request for re-measurement is the measurements do not pass certain criteria.

[0065] Various terms are used in the art to describe aspects of fenestration and windows in particular. In describing the present invention, "window" may refer to window components within a single frame that includes one light or multiple lights that are not separated by a mullion or transom. In describing the present invention, the terms "interior" and "exterior" are used to describe the indoor side and outdoor side, respectively, relative to a perimeter wall in which the fenestration resides. "Inward" and "outward" refers to location in a direction closer to and further from, respectively, the center of the fenestration. The term "window element" refers to any window part including but not limited to the window pane, frame, sash, rail, style, muntin, track, check rail, jamb, or parts thereof.

[0066] Note that various people or entities may perform different aspects of the present invention. An "end user" refers to a person or entity or their designee, that specifies, orders, installs or uses the supplemental parts of the present invention and may perform digital image capture, supply metadata and/or confirmation of design steps of the process of the present invention. A "service provider" refers to a person or entity performing a service that is part of the method of the present invention such as reviewing and accepting or confirming orders from an end user, providing image processing capability, designing (as a "designer"), fabricating (as a "fabricator") or installing (as an "installer") parts, or providing support for installation of such parts.

[0067] Each supplemental window embodiment creates a substantially "dead air" space or layer of substantially enclosed or trapped air adjacent to a window pane, preferably having a dimension between the window pane and clear sheet in the range of approximately 0.15 to 0.75 inches that provides insulating properties and preferably inhibits the formation of convective loops. A dimension less than about 0.15 inches will likely impact insulating properties and a dimension greater than about 0.75 inches will likely lead to undesirable convective heat transfer. Such "dead air" spaces optionally may have a desiccant material contacting the "dead air" space to keep the humidity of the space low and decrease the possibility of condensation forming in the space, particularly when one side of the space is a window pane in direct contact with the outdoors.

[0068] To allow for actuation of window or window treatment operating elements with the supplemental parts mounted, the plastic sheet may be mounted such that the entire supplemental window unit, or a portion thereof is mounted so as not to interfere with movement or actuation of any window treatment, window treatment operating elements or moveable portions of the window. One aspect of the current invention that enables opening and closing of the window, especially for vertical or horizontal sliding windows, is the capability for easy mounting and dismounting of part of the custom supplemental window apparatus.

[0069] A front interior view of a first example of a frameless supplemental window is shown in Figure 1. The window, generally referenced 10, comprises an existing window frame or sash 12, a frameless supplemental window 1 1 mounted on the existing window and window pane (not in view) exterior to the supplemental window 1 1. Note that the supplemental window may be mounted to the exterior side of the window pane such that the window pane faces the interior side of the supplemental window. The supplemental window comprises sheet material 14, a bullnose edge or seal 16, corner brace 22, post 20 with attachment mechanism 18 (e.g., suction cup), spring 24 and seals 26 and 28 (e.g., pile, O-ring, gel, dry adhesive material, foam, etc.). Note that the sheet material defines a perimeter area that extends between the edge of the sheet projected onto the window pane and the nearest edge of the window pane. Also, note that while the seal 16 of this embodiment and seal embodiments described infra show a bullnose shape and a spiral shape, other shapes that seal to the sheet and form an enclosed space with the window pane are contemplated by and may be used in the current invention. Such other shapes may include, but are not limited to, "[" shape, "<" shape or "~" shape edge or seal. When attaching a seal to a planar sheet, it may be beneficial to form a cross-sectional seal shape having a planar portion for attaching to the sheet and a corner that is bent or formed to aid in conforming to a corner brace or closure such as described infra.

[0070] The sheet material may comprise, for example, a polymer plastic material such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PET-G), copolyester or polypropylene (UV stabilized preferred) or thin flexible glass such as is known in the art. When using polymer plastic material such as PET or a copolyester such as PET to which cyclohexane dimethanol has been introduced, the recommended thickness is in the range from about 3 to about 20 mil. For example, copolyesters such as TritanTM, SpectarTM or other copolyesters manufactured by Eastman Chemical Company may be used for the sheet material. When forming the spacer and the foot from the sheet material such that all are formed from a single continuous piece of material, 10 to 20 mil thickness is preferred to minimize optical distortions and keep such distortions localized to the perimeter area. Also, this preferred thickness range provides for 1) a thin slot dimension and smaller constraint step when a constraint is used so that less material use is required; 2) improved user handling compared to smaller thicknesses; 3) maintaining a light weight; and 4) ease of forming the spacer and foot. Note that polymer plastic sheets thicker than approximately 60 mil may lead to pane attachment failure and more difficult handling for the user. Sheets thinner than about 3 mil may lead to handling difficulty in manufacture, ease of out of plane deformation/deflection when mounted and reduced durability. The factors used in determining the thickness include ease of handling by the user, weight constraint for reduced cost, the mounting integrity and the size of the attachment (i.e., higher weight may necessitate larger attachment area to the window pane. For example, to stay within a standard "mini" size suction cup total rating of about 2 pounds for four suction cups, a sheet thickness less than about 70 mil is required for PET material or less than about 40 mil for flexible glass for a sheet area of about two square feet). When using other attachment mechanisms, however, such as dry adhesive or 3MTM VHBTM acrylic adhesive mechanisms describe infra, thicker sheet material may be used as a result of high load capability and larger attachment surface area. The combination of thermally shaped seal beam strength and sheet thickness provides ease of handling. For PET, a sum of the edging seal and sheet thicknesses is preferably greater than about 6 mil for ease of handling.

[0071] A front view of a second example of a frameless supplemental window is shown in Figure 2. The vertical sliding window (e.g., double hung window), generally referenced 30, comprises an existing window frame 38 such as found in vertical sliding (single or double hung) windows having a bottom sash that is moveable. The upper and lower window sashes each have a frameless supplemental window installed on the upper and lower window panes 31, respectively. The sheet material 32 of the lower and upper supplemental windows is partially shown for illustration purposes and normally covers all or nearly all of the window pane. The window 30 comprises an existing window frame 38, upper and lower sash 34 holding the window panes 31, upper and lower frameless supplemental window 37, window treatment (e.g., blind) including header 40, retracted blind 42, lift cord 48 and wand 35. Each supplemental window 37 comprises sheet material 32, a bullnose edge or seal 36, corner brace 46, post 33 with attachment mechanism 44 (e.g., suction cup), spring 43 and seal (e.g., pile, O- ring, gel, dry adhesive material, foam, etc.) 45.

[0072] A side sectional view A-A' of the example window of Figure 2 is shown in Figure 3. The window, generally referenced 30, comprises lower and upper existing window frame and sill 38, window treatment (e.g., blind) including header 40, retracted blind 42, upper and lower window pane 31, upper and lower sash rails 34 of the upper and lower windows and upper and lower supplemental windows 37. Both upper and lower supplemental windows 37 comprise sheet material 32, corner brace 46, post 33 with attachment mechanism 44 (e.g., suction cup), bullnose edge or seal 36, seal (e.g., pile, O-ring, gel, foam, etc.) 45 creating substantially enclosed (or trapped) space (e.g., air) 52 between the plastic sheet and window pane.

[0073] In the window 30 of Figures 2 and 3, the attachment mechanism and viewable area through the plastic sheet are predominantly within the pane viewable area. For interior or exterior mounting, the supplemental window unit spacing and thickness dimensions

perpendicular to the pane 31 that would reside within the sash-to-sash interface during opening and closing operation of the window may beneficially be made smaller than the spacing and thickness dimensions of the supplemental window unit perpendicular to the pane 31 that would not reside in the sash-to- sash interface during operation of the window. As is also shown in Figures 2 and 3, the supplemental window unit on the top sash is exterior to the movement path of the bottom sash so that the window remains operable with the supplemental window unit in place. [0074] In the case of vertical or horizontal sliding windows, the supplemental window sheet to pane spacing dimension over the stationary portion may beneficially be made smaller (e.g., to as small as about 0.15 inch) than the supplemental window sheet to pane spacing dimension over the sliding portion to allow the custom supplemental window unit to remain in place when opening the window by sliding the sliding portion. In such a case, the supplemental window members for mounting the plastic sheet should also have a dimension perpendicular to the attached sheet of less than about 0.25 inch. A similar mounting arrangement may be used for horizontal sliding windows to allow operability of the window. Alternatively, operability of the sliding portions of windows may be achieved by dismounting the supplemental parts on the stationary sash prior to opening the window and remounting after closing the window. In such cases, the supplemental window unit spacing dimension on the non-moving sash may be made larger than the distance between the non-moving sash pane and movable sash.

[0075] A perspective view of one embodiment of the frameless supplemental window is shown in Figure 4A. The window, generally referenced 60, comprises the window frame or sash 62, window glass pane 64, sheet material 66, bullnose edge seal 68, corner brace 74, O-ring or pile seal 76, post 70, attachment mechanism 72 and springs 78, 79. While two springs are shown, either one alone may be used or both may be used together. The sheet material is only partially shown to allow the corner area of the supplemental window to be shown. In one embodiment, sheet material 66 is a part separate from but bonded to the bullnose edge seal part 68. They may comprise the same or different materials and/or the same material but different thicknesses. Alternatively, sheet 66 and edging 68 may be fabricated from the same single sheet of material as a unitary element.

[0076] While edging 68 is shown in a preferred attaching configuration to the surface of sheet 66 that is closer to pane 64, this attachment may alternatively be made to the surface of sheet 66 that is further from pane 64. The bullnose edge can be formed by forcing the edge into an arced shape and heat treating the material while in such arced shape such that the material retains an approximate 'U' shape after the heat source is removed. The arc generated by the bullnose edge compresses upon mounting, contacts the pane near its perimeter substantially enclosing the air space and aids in keeping the sheet material from sagging toward the window pane. Suitable materials for use as the bullnose edge include polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene terephthalate glycol-modified (PETG), polypropylene, or polyethylene, e.g., about 2 mil to about 10 mil thick, preferably about 2 mil to about 6 mil thick PET commercially available under a variety of trade names. When using PET, PETG, polyethylene or

polypropylene, an ultraviolet stabilizer may be incorporated in the material to improve the lifetime of the supplemental window. [0077] The edge material may be optically clear, semi-transparent, translucent or opaque, and may contain UV stabilizers such as found in MelinexTM TCH22UV, TCH24UV,

STCH22UV or STCH24UV. Non- limiting examples of non-clear materials include plastic materials comprising gas or air micro- voids or high index materials, such as an inorganic oxide or sulfate materials, such as may be found in commercially available materials such as the well known MelinexTM or HostaphanTM line of film products such as manufactured by Mitsubishi Polyester Film, Inc., Mitsubishi Plastics, Inc., Greer, South Carolina, USA. While the edge material embodiments described show the edge material to comprise an open arc, the edge material may comprise a closed arc such as would be formed using, for example, extruded tubing having a wall thickness similar to that described for the open arc.

[0078] The post 70 pierces and is fastened to the sheet material via any suitable mechanism such as a screw 70 and nut 71. The attachment mechanism 72 is fastened to the portion of the post adjacent to the pane 64. In this example, the attachment mechanism is a suction cup.

Additional options for the attachment mechanism are described in more detail infra. The spring mechanism in this example comprises a relatively flat plastic or metal band 78 fastened to a circular shaped element 79. Resting against the post, the function of the spring mechanism is to apply an outward force against the corner brace 74 to maintain its position against the corner of the window frame or sash 62. Alterative options for the spring mechanism are described in more detail infra.

[0079] The corner brace 74 may be fabricated from any suitable material such as a solid plastic or a closed cell foam and functions to (1) provide structural rigidity to the corner portions of the supplemental window, (2) provide a platform for one or more seals 76 to prevent the leakage of air into or out of the trapped air layer 61 formed between the sheet material 66 and the window pane 64, or (3) provide a mechanism for preventing such leakage in instances when the corner is not otherwise sealed. Alternative options for the corner brace and sealing mechanisms are described in more detail infra.

[0080] Note that in this embodiment, the combination of the post and attachment mechanism not only provides the means of attaching the supplemental window to the window pane but also sets the optimum spacing between the window pane and the sheet material. Alternatively, these functions may be provided by independent elements, e.g., a separate discreet offset spacer may be inserted between the window pane and the sheet material, the spacer function is provided by a spacer mechanism (e.g., post, etc.) or any other suitable means for providing this function. In these alternative embodiments, the attachment mechanism is not required to perform any spacing function and thus there is no spacing related constraint on the dimensions of this element. [0081] Note that the spacing function can be achieved in numerous ways with the actual implementation not critical to the invention. In one embodiment, the spacing function can be provided by a discrete spacer part (not shown). In another embodiment, the spacer function can be incorporated into the attachment mechanism (i.e. the post or mounting mechanism) can be made a specific length to provide the proper spacing between the window pane and plastic sheet. In yet another embodiment, the spacer function can be provided by a stiff bullnose edge material or a closed corner comprised of a contiguous or welded bullnose edge material constructed using any suitable means such as thermoforming. Alternatively, the spacing function can be incorporated into the corner brace via a projection or other means where the thickness of the corner brace and any proj ection is set to a length that provides the proper spacing between the window pane and plastic sheet.

[0082] A perspective view of another embodiment of the frameless supplemental window is shown in Figure 4B. The window, generally referenced 80, comprises the window frame or sash 82, window glass pane 84, sheet material 86, bullnose edge seal 88, corner brace 90, optional O- ring or pile seal (not shown), spring mechanism 92 and fastener 94. The sheet material is only partially shown to allow the corner area of the supplemental window to be shown. In one embodiment, sheet material 86 is separate from but bonded to the bullnose edge seal 88. They may comprise the same or different materials and/or the same material but different thicknesses. Alternatively, they made be fabricated from the same single sheet of material as a unitary element. The bullnose edge can be formed by forcing the edge into an arced shape and heat treating the material while in such arced shape such that the material retains an approximate 'U' shape after the heat source is removed.

[0083] In this embodiment, the spring mechanism 92 comprises a 'LP shaped piece of plastic or metal fastened to the sheet material via any suitable means 94 such as a screw, rivet, adhesive, etc., which may or may not pierce the sheet material. The function of the spring mechanism is to apply force against the corner brace 90 to maintain the position of the corner brace in the corner of the window frame 82. The spring mechanism may or may not also function to determine the optimal spacing 81 for the trapped air layer between the sheet material 86 and the window pane 84. Spring mechanism 92 may be used in conjunction with attachment mechanisms described both supra and infra.

[0084] A perspective view of an additional embodiment of the frameless supplemental window is shown in Figure 4C. This example embodiment is not only frameless but also lacks a corner brace and spring unlike the embodiments of Figures 4A and 4B described supra. The window, generally referenced 100, comprises the window frame or sash 102, window glass pane 104, sheet material 106 and bullnose edge seal 108. The sheet material is only partially shown to allow the comer area of the supplemental window to be shown. The sheet material 106 can be separate from but bonded to the bullnose edge seal 108 as described supra, or as shown in this embodiment, they may be constructed from the same material as a single integrated entity. They may comprise the same or different materials and/or the same material but different thicknesses. Alternatively, they made be fabricated from the same single sheet of material as a unitary element. The bullnose edge can be formed by forcing the edge into an arced shape and heat treating the material while in such arced shape such that the material retains an approximate 'U' shape after the heat source is removed.

[0085] In this embodiment, the corners of the bullnose edge are mitered and bonded using any suitable means, such as gluing, heat welding, laser welding, ultrasonic welding, solvent welding, stapling, etc. Regardless of the actual mechanism used to form the mitered corners, it is important that the bond be substantially air tight so as to prevent leaks of air into or out of the enclosed or trapped air layer 101. The portion of such bullnose edge corner that is perpendicular to sheet 106, shown as corner 109, may be a contiguous piece of bullnose edge material or may be a joint formed by separate bullnose edge 108 pieces bonded using any of the suitable means described supra.

[0086] In addition, the bottom portion of the bullnose edge seal 108 optionally comprises a strip 105 of sealing material substantially along the entire perimeter defined by the bullnose edge seal adjacent to pane 104. This sealing material may comprise any suitable material such as an oil coating, grease coating, gel, dry adhesive material, foam, rubber, etc. Examples of suitable dry adhesive materials include double sided tape, nanosuction adhesive material EverSTIK Nanosuction material sold by UM! Brands, Chino, California, USA, materials and methods such as those described in U.S. Patent Nos. 8,206,631; 8,398,909; and U. S. Publication Nos.

2012/0319320; 2012/0328822; and 2013/0251937 or GeckskinTM materials and structures. Preferably, the properties of the material are sufficient to provide functions of both (1) sealing the enclosed air layer; and (2) affixing (i.e. adhering) the supplemental window to the window pane. These functions may be achieved by a single strip 103 or 105 of material placed, respectively, at the side of the bullnose edge contacting the window frame or sash 102, or at the bottom (near the pane 104) of the bullnose edge. Alternatively, they may be achieved utilizing two separate strips of materials: (1) a first strip 105 on the bottom of the bullnose edge for sealing the trapped air layer; and (2) a second strip 103 on the side of the bullnose edge for contacting the supplemental window to the window frame or sash. Alternatively, the functions of the strips may be reversed with the strip on the side of the bullnose edge providing sealing and the strip on the bottom of the bullnose edge providing adhesion to the window pane. [0087] In the embodiment of Figure 4C, the bullnose edge seal along edges or at corners such as in Figure 11 A described infra provide the desired optimum sheet to pane spacing. While the bullnose edge seal embodiments described supra show the open portion of the 'U' shape to the inward side of the bullnose edge seal, those skilled in the art will recognize that the bullnose edge seal may alternatively be open in the outward direction such as shown in Figures 21A and 2 IB. In such embodiments, the ends of the bullnose edge seal may be mitered and corner openings may be blocked with corner braces such as described infra, placed outward of the bullnose edge seal. Alternatively, any corner opening of such embodiments may be blocked with a truncated rectangle (also known as a snip corner rectangle), for example an elongated octagon, of plastic film or sheet that is formed and configured to provide an inward bullnose shape and placed between the spring and bullnose edge seal. When mounted, such an embodiment may be configured with the bullnose edge seals contacting the corner formed by the window sash and pane.

[0088] Several options for the construction of the corner brace component will now be described. A first example of the corner brace is shown in Figure 5A. In this embodiment, the corner brace comprises a substantially solid cylindrical shaped material 110 having a mitered or otherwise formed inside corner 112. The corner brace may be constructed from any suitable material such closed cell foam, solid plastic, etc. As described supra, the corner brace may function to provide structural rigidity and corner closure for the supplemental window when placed in a window frame or sash.

[0089] A second example of the corner brace is shown in Figure 5B. In this embodiment, the corner brace comprises a substantially hollow cylindrical shaped material 114 having a mitered or otherwise formed inside corner 116. The corner brace may be constructed from any suitable material such closed cell foam, solid plastic, etc.

[0090] A third example of the corner brace is shown in Figure 5C. In this embodiment, the corner brace comprises an approximate half hollow cylindrical shaped material 118 having a mitered or otherwise formed inside corner 120. The corner brace may be constructed from any suitable material such closed cell foam, solid plastic, etc.

[0091] A fourth example of the corner brace is shown in Figure 5D. In this embodiment, the corner brace comprises an approximate half solid cylindrical shaped material 122 having a mitered or otherwise formed inside corner 124. The corner brace may be constructed from any suitable material such closed cell foam, solid plastic, etc.

[0092] Several options for the construction of the spring mechanism will now be described. A first example of the spring mechanism is shown in Figure 6A. In one embodiment, the spring 138, comprises a substantially rectangular plastic material configured to form a figure '8' shape having two loops. The thickness of the spring is in the range of approximately 0.002 inch to approximately 0.010 inch, with a range of approximately 0.003 inch to 0.007 inch preferred. The spring 138 may be formed by bending or thermoforming the plastic material such that the post 136 may be inserted through one of the loops. In some embodiments, one of the loops can be attached to the corner brace 130.

[0093] In another embodiment, the spring 138 is a fashioned as an elliptical or tear drop shaped figure '8' loop from any suitable flexible material, e.g., plastic, metal, etc. One of the two loops wraps around the post 136 (held in position by the suction cup 134 when mounted). Note that this portion of the spring 138 is shown in dashed lines indicating it lies under the cap and may not be visible if the cap is not made of a transparent material. Pushing against the post 136, the other loop is operative to apply an outward spring force to push the corner brace 130 and the bullnose corner 132 into the corner of the window frame or sash (not shown). While the figure '8' shape shown in Figure 6A shows both loops closed, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that one or both of the loops may be open while maintaining the spring functionality and post wrapping functionality. It is also noted that a nut is not required in both of the above embodiments in contrast to the embodiments of Figures 6B to 6F.

[0094] A second example of the spring mechanism is shown in Figure 6B. In this embodiment, the spring 148 is fashioned as a flat or curved band from any suitable flexible material, e.g., plastic, metal, etc. The spring 148 is compressed and placed between the post 146 (held in position by the suction cup 144) and corner brace 140 and operative to apply an outward spring force to push the brace 140 and the bullnose corner 142 into the corner of the window frame (not shown).

[0095] A third example of the spring mechanism is shown in Figure 6C. In this embodiment, the spring 158 is fashioned as a 'T' shaped flat or curved band from any suitable material, e.g., plastic, metal, foam (such as closed cell foam), etc. The spring 158 is compressed and placed between the post 156 (held in position by the suction cup 154) and corner brace 150 and operative to apply an outward spring force to push the brace 150 and the bullnose corner 152 into the corner of the window frame (not shown).

[0096] A fourth example of the spring mechanism is shown in Figure 6D. In this embodiment, the spring 168 is fashioned as a trapezoidal or triangular shaped piece from any suitable compressible material, e.g., foam, etc. The spring 168 is compressed and placed between the post 166 (held in position by the suction cup 164) and corner brace 160 and operative to apply an outward spring force to push the brace 160 and the bullnose corner 162 into the corner of the window frame (not shown). [0097] A fifth example of the spring mechanism is shown in Figure 6E. In this embodiment, a conventional spring 178, such as a helical spring, constructed from any suitable material, e.g., plastic, metal, etc. The spring 178 is compressed and placed between the post 176 (held in position by the suction cup 174) and corner brace 170 and operative to apply an outward spring force to push the brace 170 and the bullnose corner 172 into the corner of the window frame (not shown).

[0098] A sixth example of the spring mechanism is shown in Figure 6F. In this embodiment, the spring 179 is fashioned as a "C", "U" or tear drop shape from any suitable flexible material strip, e.g., plastic, metal, etc., with a hole near each end of the strip. When formed in a "C", "U" or tear drop shape with the two holes aligned, the post and/or suction cup neck are inserted through the two holes. When mounted, the spring 179 is compressed between post 177 (held in position by suction cup 175) and corner brace 171 and operative to apply an outward spring force to push the brace 171 and the bullnose edge seal corner 173 into the corner of the window frame or sash. As shown, a triangular portion of the spring 179 may optionally be omitted along each edge near the portion of the arc that contacts the corner brace to aid in keeping spring 179 positioned at the corner.

[0099] Several options for the construction of the corner sealing mechanism will now be described. Note that in each option, a solid corner brace is used as an example. It is appreciated that each sealing mechanism option may be modified to accommodate any of the corner brace options shown in Figures 5A, 5B, 5C and 5D.

[0100] A first example of the corner sealing mechanism is shown in Figure 7A. This first example corner sealing mechanism comprises a substantially solid corner brace 180 coated either wholly or partially with a suitable material 182. The corner brace 180 arm cross section may take any appropriate shape such as cylindrical, rectangular, square, elliptical, etc., so long as its combination with other sealing materials inhibits air flow into or out of the substantially enclosed space. The corner brace 180 may comprise a solid plastic or a compressible foam material (open or closed cell) having sufficient rigidity and impermeability in combination with material 182 to provide the necessary strength, shape and sealing to the corners of the supplemental window. The coating or layer 182 may comprise a material that has sealing properties such as an oil, grease, gel, etc. In addition, the corner brace 180 may comprise a material that is sufficiently tacky to hold the corner brace in its proper position. Such a material may comprise, gel, releasable adhesive, glue, etc. In addition, the coating may comprise a material having both sealing and tacky properties.

[0101] A second example of the corner sealing mechanism is shown in Figure 7B. This second example corner sealing mechanism comprises a substantially impermeable corner brace 184 having one or more strips 186, 188 (two shown in this example) of a suitable material. The corner brace 184 may take any appropriate shape such as cylindrical, rectangular, square, elliptical, etc. The corner brace 184 may comprise a solid plastic or a compressible foam material (open or closed cell) having sufficient rigidity to provide the necessary strength to the corners of the supplemental window. The strips of material are preferably located on the top (sheet side) and bottom (pane side) portions of the corner brace 184 such that one of the strips contacts the sheet and the other strip contacts the pane when mounted. The strips 186, 188 may comprise a material that have sealing properties such as an oil, grease, gel, O-ring cord, etc., or air transport inhibition properties such as foam or pile. In addition, it may comprise a material that is sufficiently tacky to hold the corner brace 184 in its proper position. Such a material may comprise, gel, releasable adhesive, glue, etc. In addition or alternatively, the strips may comprise a material having both sealing and tacky properties. Additional sealing is also be provided by O- ring seals 189, comprising pile, foam or a suitable elastomer such as silicone, placed on the arms of the corner brace 184.

[0102] A third example of the corner sealing mechanism is shown in Figure 7C. This third example corner sealing mechanism comprises a substantially impermeable corner brace 190 having one or more sealing bands 192 (one shown in this example) wrapped around the arms of the corner brace 190. The band 192 comprises a suitable material to provide sealing and/or tackiness/grip. The corner brace 190 may take any appropriate shape such as cylindrical, rectangular, square, elliptical, etc. It may comprise a solid plastic or a compressible foam material (open or closed cell) having sufficient rigidity to provide the necessary strength, shape and sealing to the corners of the supplemental window. The band 192 may comprise a material that has air flow inhibition properties such as pile, foam or an elastomer such as silicone, and sealing properties such as an oil, grease, gel, etc. In addition, it may comprise a material that is sufficiently tacky to hold the corner brace in its proper position. Such a material may comprise, gel, releasable adhesive, glue, etc. In addition, the band 192 may comprise a material having both sealing and tacky properties. Band 192 preferably extends over the brace midline at the brace corner so as to inhibit air movement between the enclosed space and the air outside the enclosed space when the supplemental window is mounted.

[0103] A fourth example of the corner sealing mechanism is shown in Figure 7D. This fourth example corner sealing mechanism comprises a substantially impermeable corner brace 194 having one or more O-rings 196 and strips 195 on each arm of corner brace 194 each made of a suitable material. The corner brace 194 may take any appropriate chase such as cylindrical, rectangular, square, elliptical, etc. The corner brace 194 may comprise a solid plastic or a compressible foam material (open or closed cell) having sufficient rigidity to provide the necessary strength to the corners of the supplemental window. The O-rings may be constructed from elastomer, plastic, pile, foam or any other suitable material as long as it provides sufficient sealing properties. The strips of material 195 are preferably located on the top (sheet side) and bottom (pane side) portions of the corner brace 194. The strips 195 may comprise any material having appropriate sealing properties such as elastomer (such as silicone), plastic, pile, foam, felt etc. In addition, it may comprise a material that is sufficiently tacky to hold the corner brace in its proper position. Such a material may comprise, gel, releasable adhesive, glue, etc.

[0104] A fifth example of the corner sealing mechanism is shown in Figure 7E. This fifth example corner sealing mechanism comprises a substantially impermeable corner brace 198 having two or more O-rings 200 on each arm of the corner brace and strips 199 each made of a suitable material as described supra. The corner brace 198 may take any appropriate shape such as cylindrical, rectangular, square, elliptical, etc. The corner brace 198 may comprise a compressible foam material (open or closed cell) having sufficient rigidity to provide the necessary strength to the corners of the supplemental window. The double O-rings 200 on each arm of the corner brace provide additional sealing abilities and may be constructed from elastomer (such as silicone), plastic, pile, or any other suitable material as long as it provides sufficient sealing properties. The strips of material 199 are preferably located on the top (sheet side) and bottom (pane side) portions of the corner brace 198. The strips 199 may comprise any material having appropriate sealing properties such as elastomer, plastic, pile, foam, felt, etc. In addition, it may comprise a material that is sufficiently tacky to hold the corner brace in its proper position. Such a material may comprise, gel, releasable adhesive, glue, etc.

[0105] A sixth example of the corner sealing mechanism is shown in Figure 7F. This sixth example corner sealing mechanism comprises a corner brace 202 having a 'U' shaped approximate half hollow cylindrical shaped material 204 having a mitered or otherwise formed inside corner. The corner brace 202 may be constructed via, thermoforming or injection molding for example, from any suitable material such as rigid plastic, flexible plastic, etc. For example, for flexible corner braces, polyethylene terephthalate having a thickness in the range of approximately 3 to 20 mil may be used.

[0106] Several options for the attachment mechanism for embodiments where the attachment mechanism pierces the sheet material will now be described. Note that the holes in the sheet may be made using any suitable means such as a hole punch or laser or ultrasonic cutting. In addition, the supplemental window may comprise attachment means anywhere along its perimeter and not just in the corners, e.g., along the sides, etc. In addition to the embodiments described infra, commercially available products such as the Suction Cup with Push Tack, available from Popco, Inc., Minnetonka, Minneapolis, may be used. When using such a tack and suction cup configuration, the neck or nub portion of the suction cup may function as the post with the sheet held between the cap of the tack and the end of the neck/nub.

[0107] A first example of the attachment mechanism that penetrates or pierces the sheet material is shown in Figure 8A. In this first attachment mechanism example the suction cup 212 is fastened to the sheet material 214 via a cap 216 having dimples, a ring, tab or barbs 218 that fit into a corresponding recess in the neck or nub of the suction cup 212. The cap 216 pierces the sheet and is operative to snap into neck or nub portion of the suction cup. The suction cup is attached to the window pane 210 when the supplemental window is installed. Note that the length of the cap 216 can vary according to the dimensions of the suction cup used and the desired optimum distance between the sheet and the pane. The combination of the compressed suction cup and its post (when in an installed position) determine the distance between sheet and pane.

[0108] Fig. 8B is a second example of the attachment mechanism that penetrates or pierces the sheet material is shown in Figure 8B. In this second attachment mechanism example the suction cup 222 is fastened to the sheet material 224 via a screw 226 having threads 228 that mate into a corresponding threaded receptacle in the neck or nub of the suction cup 222.

Alternatively, the threads of screw 226 may cut into the material within a recess of the suction cup neck or nub. The screw 226 pierces the sheet and is operative to screw into top portion of the suction cup. The suction cup is attached to the window pane 220 when the supplemental window is installed. Note that the length of the screw 226 can vary according to the dimensions of the suction cup used and the desired distance between the sheet and the pane. The

combination of the screw (when in an installed position) and the compressed suction cup determine the distance between sheet and pane.

[0109] A third example of the attachment mechanism that penetrates or pierces the sheet material is shown in Figure 8C. In this third attachment mechanism example the suction cup 232 is fastened to the sheet material 234 via a rivet or cap 236 having that is friction fit and held in place when inserted into a corresponding recess in the neck or nub of the suction cup 230. The cap 236 pierces the sheet and is operative to fit into top portion of the suction cup. Alternatively or in addition, a barb or tab (not shown) may be provided on the cap 236 that fits into corresponding recess on the suction cup to guide and/or secure the placement of the cap. The suction cup is attached to the window pane 230 when the supplemental window is installed. Note that the length of the cap 236 can vary according to the dimensions of the suction cup used and the desired distance between the sheet and the pane. The combination of the cap (when in an installed position) and the compressed suction cup determine the distance between sheet and pane. [0110] Several options for the attachment mechanism for embodiments where the attachment mechanism does not pierce the sheet material will now be described. A first example of the attachment mechanism that does not pierce the sheet material is shown in Figure 9A. In this first example, the suction cup 242 is fastened to the sheet 244 using a hook and loop fastener, such as Velcro. One side 248 of the Velcro (hook or loop) is attached to the sheet using adhesive, tape, glue, etc. while the other side 246 is attached to the top of the suction cup (e.g., a post portion). In this manner, the attachment mechanism is operative to both attach to the window pane 240 but also determine the distance between the sheet and pane.

[0111] A second example of the attachment mechanism that does not pierce the sheet material is shown in Figure 9B. In this second example, the suction cup 252 is fastened to the sheet 254 using adhesive, glue, tape or other adhesive based bonding technique. In this manner, the attachment mechanism is operative to both attach to the window pane 250 but also determine the distance between the sheet and pane.

[0112] A third example of the attachment mechanism that does not pierce the sheet material is shown in Figure 9C. In this third example, the suction cup 262 is fastened to the sheet 264 using a commercially available dry adhesive material 268 such as EverSTIK, Geckskin™, etc., or other dry adhesive such as described in U.S. Patent Nos. 8,206,631; 8,398,909; and U.S.

Publications Nos. 2012/0319320; 2012/0328822; and 2013/0251937 and described at www.nanogriptech.com. Depending on the material used, an arm 266 may be required to attach the suction cup 262 to the material 268. In this manner, the attachment mechanism is operative to both attach to the window pane 260 but also determine the distance between the sheet and pane.

[0113] In an alternative embodiment, supplemental window' s spacing arrangement (e.g., suction cup) may be attached using a releasable, dry surface-adhesive device including, for example, an adhesive pad that may have a tether component attached, the adhesive pad including a planar backing layer having high in-plane stiffness and a planar layer of elastic material having an adhesive surface on at least one side for adhering to the pane, wherein the elastic material is impregnated onto the backing layer on at least the side opposing the adhesive surface, as described in WO 2012/078249, WO 2014/152485, WO 2014/123936 and WO 2014/144136, all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

[0114] When using a releasable, surface-adhesive device, the elastic material preferably comprises a siloxane-based, such as polydimethylsiloxane, urethane-based, or acrylate-based elastomer. Such attachment by adhesive, vacuum or releasable, surface-adhesive device may be made to the interior or exterior surface of the pane. When using suction cups, attachment of the suction cup to the window pane may include use of an additional material between the suction cup and the pane. For example, water, saltwater, saliva, or other water based solution, such as liquid soap or dishwashing soap or solution may be used. Preferred materials include vegetable or cooking oil such as canola, sunflower or corn oil, petroleum jelly, or a grease, such as a petroleum or silicone grease based grease, e.g., polydimethylsiloxane.

[0115] A fourth example of the attachment mechanism that does not pierce the sheet material is shown in Figure 9D. In this fourth example, the suction cup 272 is fastened to the sheet 274 using any suitable well-known welding technique. In this manner, the attachment mechanism welded 276 to the sheet is operative to both attach to the window pane 270 but also determine the distance between the sheet and pane.

[0116] A diagram illustrating a side sectional view of an example frameless supplemental window is shown in Figure 10A. In this example embodiment, the supplemental window 299 does not have corner braces. It is similar to the frameless and corner braceless embodiment shown in Figure 4C described supra.

[0117] The sheet material 291 can be separate from but bonded to the bullnose edge seal or they may be constructed from the same material as a single entity. In this case, they comprise the same material and may be the same thickness. The bullnose edge can be formed by thermoforming, i.e., wrapping the edges around a mold or form and heat treating the material such that the material retains an approximate 'U' or arc shape after the heat source is removed.

[0118] Alternatively, the edge may be stretched, and optionally cut, such that the edge portion of the single entity is thinner than the sheet portion. Further, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the edging seal may be curved in the opposite direction shown so that such edging seal may contact the inward facing surface or the interior facing surface of the frame or sash. In such cases, dry adhesive materials described supra, for example, may be used to seal the edging seal to the frame or sash while using spacing attachment means such as those described in Figures 8A, 8B, 8C and 9A, 9B, 9C, 9D to provide (1) attachment to and (2) the desired spacing from the pane to the sheet.

[0119] In the embodiment shown in Figure 10A, the corners of the bullnose edge are mitered and bonded using any suitable means, such as gluing, taping, heat welding, ultrasonic welding, laser welding, stapling, etc. Regardless of the actual mechanism or method used to form or join the mitered corners, it is important that the bond be substantially air tight so as to prevent leaks of air into or out of the trapped air layer 292.

[0120] The bottom portion (the portion near window pane 290) of the bullnose edge comprises a strip 296 of sealing material substantially along the entire perimeter formed by this portion of the bullnose edge. This sealing material may comprise any suitable material such as oil, grease, gel, dry adhesive or nanosuction adhesive material, foam, elastomer, etc. Preferably, the properties of the sealing material are sufficient to provide functions of both (1) sealing the enclosed air layer; and (2) affixing (i.e. attaching) the supplemental window to the window pane 290. These functions may be achieved by a single strip 296 of material placed at the bottom (near the pane 290) of the bullnose edge or a single strip 294 of material placed at the bullnose edge contacting window frame or sash 298.

[0121] Alternatively, the above functions can be achieved utilizing two separate strips of materials: (1) a first strip 296 on the bottom of the bullnose edge for sealing the enclosed air layer; and (2) a second strip 294 on the side of the bullnose edge for attaching the supplemental window to the window frame or sash 298. Alternatively, the functions of the strips in this embodiment may be reversed with the strip on the side of the bullnose providing sealing and the strip on the bottom of the bullnose edge providing adhesion to the window pane. In the embodiment of Figure 10A, the bullnose edge seal along edges or at corners such as in Figure 11 A, described infra, may provide the desired optimum sheet to pane spacing.

[0122] A side sectional view of an example frameless supplemental window incorporating two enclosed air layers is shown in Figure 10B. In this multi-sheet embodiment, generally referenced 440, a second sheet 456 is added over the first sheet 446. The dimensions of the second substantially enclosed space 450 provided in this embodiment are approximately the same as the dimensions provided by the first substantially enclosed space 448 between the first sheet 446 and the window pane 444 described supra. These dimensions are those that set the distance between the two sheets and the sheet and the pane to be optimal for maximizing the thermal insulating properties of the supplemental window. The first sheet 446 is attached to the pane 444 using techniques described in detail supra. For example, strip 452 may function to either seal or attach the supplemental window to the pane or may perform the functions of both sealing and attaching. Similarly, strip 454 may function to either seal or attach the supplemental window to the pane or may perform both functions of sealing and attaching.

[0123] The spacing between the first and second sheets may be achieved, for example, using a post through both sheets (not shown) with nuts or other retaining means on both sides of the first sheet, a seal, such as a bullnose seal (which may include a corner seal closure, not shown, such as shown in Fig. 1 1 A infra) sized and having the necessary stiffness to provide the desired spacing and attached to both sheets for edges and/or a brace at the corner of each level. For panes having edge dimensions of greater than about 15 inches, it is beneficial to provide one or more additional spacing posts or braces along the edges of the enclosed spaces of this embodiment. Alternatively, as in the embodiment of Figure 10A, the bullnose 458 may substantially determine the spacing between the first and second sheets. [0124] The second cavity 450, between the first and second sheets, may be permanently formed by mitering and welding edging 460 as described supra and welding, adhering or otherwise bonding the edging 458 to both sheets. Attachment to the pane 444 may be accomplished by means described supra. Optionally, a single post through both sheets in each of the corners may be provided with suction cup attachment to the pane. Alternatively, the second cavity may be releasably formed using releasable adhesive 460 as described supra between the second seal 458 and the first sheet 446 or a portion of the first seal 459 that is approximately parallel to and nearest first sheet 446. Other means for attaching the second sheet to the first sheet include a first bolt (not shown) with a tap or other attachment mechanism for a second bolt or bolts, threaded rod, nut and tapped cylinder/spacer between the first and second sheets and one or more bolts.

[0125] With the seals attached inward from the edge of each sheet, rigid clip spacers may be added at several perimeter locations to maintain sheet-to-sheet spacing in multi-sheet embodiments. The corners may be mitered and welded or closed using adhesive to entirely enclose the second cavity 450 when attached to a first sheet.

[0126] Several options for the bullnose corner will now be described. A perspective view of a first example bullnose corner is shown in Figure 11 A. In this first example, the bullnose edge 300 is either attached to sheet 304 perimeter region or formed as an extension of the sheet 304 perimeter region. The corner portion of the bullnose is cut such that when the bullnose is shaped, a miter 302 is formed that is bonded using any suitable means, such as glue, adhesive, welding, tape etc. In this case, the bonding of the miter forms a substantially air tight seal and may be constructed to provide the optimum sheet to pane spacing to maximize the thermal insulation properties of the supplemental window.

[0127] A perspective view of a second example bullnose corner is shown in Figure 1 IB. In this second example, the bullnose edge 310 is either attached to or formed from an extension of the sheet 314 perimeter region. The corner portion of the bullnose is cut such that when the bullnose is shaped, an approximately 90 degree junction 312 is formed by the bottom portions of the edge material near the pane. Alternatively, the bottom corners of the edge material may be cut so they do not form a junction (not shown). The opening formed in the corner is sealed by placing a corner brace with suitable sealing into the corner.

[0128] A perspective view of a third example bullnose corner is shown in Figure 1 1C. In this third example, the bullnose edge 320 is either attached to or formed from an extension of the sheet 324 perimeter region. The corner portion of the bullnose is cut such that when the bullnose is shaped, an approximately 90 degree junction 322 is formed whereby the bottom portions of the bullnose material are allowed to overlap onto each other. The opening formed in the corner is sealed by placing a corner brace with suitable sealing into the corner.

[0129] A perspective view of a fourth example bullnose corner is shown in Figure 1 ID. In this fourth example, the bullnose edge 330 is either attached to or formed from an extension of the sheet 334 perimeter region. The corner portion of the bullnose is cut such that when the bullnose is shaped, an approximately 90 degree junction 332 is formed whereby a squared off portion 336 of the corner the sheet material extends outward of junction 332. Note that the alternative configurations to an approximately 90 degree junction described supra may also be used in this sheet corner outward extension embodiment. The extended sheet material provides a portion of the corner closure when used in conjunction with corner braces shown in Figures 7A, 7B, 7C, 7D and 7E. Alternatively, a similar extending material portion may be formed by appropriate cutting of the top portion (the portion near the sheet) of the bullnose edges shown in Figures 1 IB and 11C. The opening formed in the corner is sealed by placing a corner brace with suitable sealing into the corner.

[0130] A perspective view of a fifth example bullnose corner is shown in Figure 1 IE. In this fifth example, the bullnose edge 340 is either attached to or formed from an extension of the sheet 344 perimeter region. The corner portion of the bullnose is cut such that when the bullnose is shaped, an overlapping miter 342 is formed with grease applied to aid in sealing. The mitered edges of the bullnose, however, are not bonded to each other, but rather simply abut each other. Any air leakage is sealed utilizing a corner brace with suitable sealing placed into the corner.

[0131] A perspective view of another embodiment of the frameless supplemental window is shown in Figure 12A. The window corner, generally referenced 350, comprises a window frame or sash 352 (shown cutaway for clarity), window pane 354, corner brace 358, seal 364 comprising O-rings, O-ring cord, pile, foam, etc., sheet material 366, post 362, suction cup 356 and one or more constraints 360. This embodiment consists of a sheet 366 and bullnose edge seal 351 that is open at each corner. The corner is sealed with the corner brace 358 having a pile or O-ring cord strip 364 on both the pane and sheet sides of the corner brace. In addition, each arm of the brace has a seal comprising a ring of pile or elastomer 364. Through the corner of the corner brace is a post 362 that is held in place using a suction cup 356 or other means described supra that attaches to the pane 354. At the sheet end of the post is a first constraint 360 that functions to press against the sheet preventing the sheet from separating from the pane (thus defining the pane sheet separation) and seals. Optionally, a second constraint 363 may be placed on the post so as to sandwich the sheet thus forming a slot and also defining the pane to sheet separation distance. [0132] A perspective view of an additional embodiment of the frameless supplemental window is shown in Figure 12B. The window corner, generally referenced 370, comprises a window frame 372 (shown cutaway for clarity), window pane 374, corner brace 378, seal 384 comprising O-rings, pile, etc., sheet material 386, post 382, attachment means 376 and one or more constraints 380. This embodiment consists of a sheet 386 and bullnose edge seal 381 that is open at each corner. The corner is sealed with the corner brace 378 having a pile or elastomer cord strip 384 on both the pane and sheet sides of the corner brace. In addition, each arm of the brace has a ring of pile or elastomer 384. Through the corner of the corner brace is a post 382 that is held in place against the pane using glue, double sided tape, adhesive, dry adhesive materials, including nanosuction material such as EverSTIK material, GeckskinTM,

nanoGriptech materials as described at www.nanogriptech.com and manufactured by

nanoGriptech, Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, etc. At the sheet end of the post is a first constraint 380 that functions to press against the sheet preventing the sheet from separating from the pane. Optionally, a second constraint (not shown) may be placed on the post so as to sandwich the sheet thus forming a slot and also defining the pane to sheet separation distance.

[0133] A perspective view of another embodiment of the frameless supplemental window is shown in Figure 12C. The window corner, generally referenced 390, comprises a window frame or sash 392 (the corner portion shown cutaway for clarity), window pane 394, sheet material 398, bullnose edge seal 400 and attachment means 396. This embodiment consists of a sheet and bullnose edge seal as well as an attachment means comprising a suction cup, fastened through a hole in the mitered corner portion of the bottom of the bullnose (i.e., nearest the pane), with a protruding cap (e.g., mushroom shaped, flat, etc.).

[0134] The bullnose 400 may comprise a single continuous strip or two or more strips. At the corner, the bullnose edge is preferably mitered and may comprise a single continuous piece of material or may comprise more than one piece of material for the perimeter. To complete the substantial enclosure, ends and mitered portions of the compressible bullnose edge material may be overlapped, abutted or joined, preferably using adhesive, welding or heat sealing. Note that when the edge is comprised of one piece, the ends of the piece may be joined at a corner, in which case the ends of the piece are mitered, or the ends of the piece may be joined along a perimeter edge, in which case the ends of the piece may be cut so as to abut or slightly overlap to enable joining by methods described supra.

[0135] Attachment to the pane is achieved utilizing any of the attachment means described supra on the pane side surface of the bullnose. As a non-limiting example, shown in Figure 12C is a suction cup 396 with a cap 402 with the suction cup on the pane side of the bullnose edge seal near the window pane. The cap is held in a hole in the bullnose with the cap on the opposite side of the hole from the compressible portion of the suction cup.

[0136] Optionally, a washer comprising foam or an elastomer may be used between the cap and bullnose edge seal 400. In addition, a portion of compressed circumference of the suction cup may reside inward from the bullnose edge seal to pane contact region. In such cases, a foam sheet such as open cell foam, pile or other suitable sealing material may be placed between the sealing portion of the suction cup and the bullnose edging to ensure inhibition of air movement into or out of the enclosed space when the suction cup is compressed.

[0137] Optionally, a post may be attached to the suction cup (not shown). The length of the post may be such that when it is attached to the suction cup, it nearly touches the sheet. The post may be depressed by the end user by pressing on the sheet immediately adjacent to the end of the post during mounting to provide a force on the suction cup which leads to compression of the suction cup and its attachment to the pane.

[0138] In another embodiment, the top of the suction cup or an extension from the suction cup comprises magnetic material or a ring magnet (preferably constrained by a post through its center) that may be repelled by a magnet held by the end user external to the space to be enclosed, such that pressure is applied to the top of the suction cup which leads to its attachment to the pane. Similarly, when strips of dry adhesive material described supra are used for attachment, such strips may comprise magnetic material to enable additional pressure to be applied to the attachment regions during mounting by a magnet held by the end user.

[0139] Each corner of the bullnose edge is mitered 404 and sealed on both the sheet side and the pane side. The bullnose may optionally be thermoformed to form an arc. Sealing of the miters may be accomplished using any suitable technique, such as but not limited to, adhesive, adhesive tape or preferably welded. Similarly, when using a single continuous strip, which may be notched (at locations that substantially match the corner to corner dimensions of the sheet material) to form miters, the ends of the strip may be joined using adhesive, adhesive tape, welded or any other suitable bonding technique. Further, when using a suction cup, the region between the suction cup top surface and the pane side of the bullnose edge may be filled with a foam sheet, for example open or closed cell foam, pile or other suitable sealing material to aid in maintaining the enclosure integrity.

[0140] A perspective view of an additional embodiment of the frameless supplemental window is shown in Figure 13A. A side sectional view B-B' of the example window of Figure 13A is shown in Figure 13B. An exploded view of the example window of Figure 13A is shown in Figure 13C. The window corner, generally referenced 410, comprises a window frame or sash 412 (shown cutaway for clarity), window pane 414, constraint 416, sheet 419, insert 420, optional sheet portion 415, mushroom cap 418, suction cup 432 and bullnose edge seal 421 having one or more slits 423.

[0141] This embodiment consists of a sheet and bullnose edge seal held at each corner using a support mechanism consisting of a constraint 416 and foam insert 420 with the constraint attached to the window pane 414 via one of the suitable pane attachment mechanisms described supra, for example, such as suction cup 432. In one example embodiment, the pane attachment means comprises a suction cup 432 connected to the base of the constraint 416 through a hole that engages the mushroom cap 418 of the suction cup 432. The constraint 416 is positioned so as to constrain the separation between the pane 414 and the sheet 419 and thus determine the distance between them. Preferably, the bullnose edge corner fits into the corner support mechanism, (i.e. the constraint 416) and is optionally friction fit in the support using a foam insert 420. Preferably, the bullnose edge seal includes multiple slits 423 to each side of the edge of the support so that the step from the constraint 416 to the pane 414 may be substantially closed. Such closure is aided by use of an insert 420 in the bullnose edge seal in this location. Insert 420 may be sized and shaped to conform to the step from constraint 416 to pane 414. As such, insert 420 may be constructed from a solid rigid material or a conformable foam material. The gap between the suction cup and bottom of the constraint may optionally be filled with a sheet 415 such as foam, pile or other suitable sealing material. Similarly, slits such as those just described and as described in U.S. Application Serial No. 14/315,503 cited supra may be used in the edging seal in the region where the edging seal crosses any protruding muntins that may be present on the window pane or where edging seal would be deformed by contact with other hardware associated with a window, for example a sash lock or a window alarm sensor.

[0142] Those skilled in the art will recognize that adhesive may be used on the outward pane side surface of constraint 416 instead of using suction cup 432 for attachment, sheet 415 may be omitted leaving a slot between constraint 416 and window pane 414 and that other elements as shown in Figures 21A through 21F may be used in this embodiment.

[0143] The air infiltration blocker of the present invention is useful in inhibiting or minimizing airflow that may enter around one or more window elements into an interior space. A front view of a first example frameless supplemental window incorporating infiltration blockers is shown in Figure 14. The window, generally referenced 470, comprises an existing window frame 472 and a vertical sliding window (for example purposes single or double hung) including a lower sash 502 that is movable and an upper sash 474 that may or may not be movable. The upper and lower sash 474, 502 hold the window panes 478, 490, upper and lower frameless supplemental windows 480, 481, which include infiltration blockers 506, 500, respectively. Lower sash 502 also includes a horizontal handle 488 to aid in opening the window.

[0144] The upper and lower window sashes each have a frameless supplemental window with infiltration blockers installed on both upper window pane 478 and lower window pane 490, respectively. The sheet material 498 and 508 of the lower and upper supplemental windows, respectively, is partially shown for illustration purposes and normally covers nearly all or all of the window pane. The upper window sash has infiltration blocker 506 shown cutaway for clarity purposes only. Similarly, the lower window sash has infiltration blocker 500 shown cutaway for clarity purposes as well. Both infiltration blockers 506, 500 are installed on the three non- checkrail sides of the upper and lower sash, respectively. Note that at the top of the lower sash, there is an infiltration blocker (not shown for clarity) that extends upward and to the exterior to cover the sealing interface at the check rail 504. Each supplemental window 480, 481 comprises sheet material 508, 498, respectively. Supplemental windows 480, 481 also include edges or seals 476 corner braces 484, posts 482 with attachment mechanisms 492 (e.g., suction cup), and springs 486. It is noted that seal materials (e.g., pile, O-ring, gel, dry adhesive material, foam, etc.) as described supra may be used. Note that the springs 486 are shown comprising the spring shown in Figure 6A, they may comprise the springs as shown in Figures 6B-6F described supra.

[0145] Normally, on the top sash of Figure 14, infiltration blockers are installed on the vertical sides and the horizontal top of the sash and optionally overlap each other. For clarity, only a section 506 of the infiltration blocker on the left sash is shown. Note that the infiltration blockers normally extend to the corners of the window. At the top corners of the upper sash of Figure 14, the vertical and horizontal portions of the infiltration blocker normally contact each other and the infiltration blocker closer to the sash may contact the sash. In addition, the horizontal infiltration blockers may be sized to contact the jamb at each side of the sash and the vertically oriented infiltration blockers may be sized to contact the header of the window frame. Additionally, foam or pile (not shown) may be used at the corners of the sashes between the infiltration blockers and the sash or stile to further inhibit air movement toward the interior.

[0146] Normally, on the bottom sash of the window shown in Figure 14, infiltration blockers are installed in which each piece of plastic comprises an arc such that the film contacts the nearest parallel jamb or the sill. For clarity they are omitted from Figure 14 but shown in Figure 15, described infra. In the particular embodiments shown, with reference to Figure 15, the horizontal infiltration blocker at the bottom of the bottom sash forms an arc that is concave to the exterior of the film while the infiltration blockers are concave to interior of the film as shown in Figure 16, described infra. Alternative embodiments may reverse the concavity of these arcs, so long as the end of each arc contacts the respective inward facing surface of the window frame (i.e. the jambs and the sill). Another embodiment shown in Figures 17 and 18, described infra, the infiltration blocker lies substantially parallel to the window pane with a small bend near its point of contact with the jamb. Such a configuration with little or no projection of the infiltration blocker toward the interior is desirable to allow opening of the lower sash without the need to dismount supplemental window parts on the upper sash.

[0147] A diagram illustrating a side sectional view C-C of the example window of Figure 14 incorporating a first example infiltration blocker is shown in Figure 15. This sectional view, generally referenced 510, comprises sill 512, the bottom rail 514 of the lower sash, window pane 516, sheet 518, spring 523, attachment mechanism 520 (e.g., suction cup), post 525 (shown in this example as that portion of the attachment mechanism extending from the suction cup, often referred to as the neck or nub, to the underside of the sheet), cap 522, corner brace 528, bullnose or edge seal 521, horizontal handle 526 and infiltration blocker 524. The installation of the supplemental window onto the window pane creates a substantially enclosed or trapped space (e.g., air) between the plastic sheet and window pane. Infiltration blocker 524 is attached to sheet 518 and extends over rail 514 and handle 516 and is compressed by contact with sill 512. The infiltration blocker is shown having an arc that provides additional space to the interior side rail 514 which is preferable in cases where the rail has a handle 526 attached to aid opening and closing the lower sash. When providing this additional space, the cross-sectional shape of infiltration blocker 524 may be made to provide an optimal air insulation gap between the infiltration blocker 524 and the sash or frame element that it covers. Note that the springs 523 are shown comprising the spring shown in Figure 6 A, they may comprise the springs as shown in Figures 6B-6F described supra.

[0148] A side sectional view C-C of the example window of Figure 14 incorporating a second example infiltration blocker is shown in Figure 16. In this sectional view, generally referenced 530, the bottom rail 514 is shown without a handle as in Figure 15. The remainder of the components shown are similar to that of Figure 15 with the exception that the infiltration blocker 532 is shown with an arc that bends toward, and may optionally contact, rail 514.

Alternatively, the arc of infiltration blocker 532 may bend away from rail 514. When considering the installation of the infiltration blocker 532 on the vertical sides of the window, either of the above configurations for the arc allows the lower sash to be raised (and the upper sash to be lowered) while the infiltration blocker remains in sliding contact with the

corresponding frame or jamb.

[0149] A side sectional view C-C of the example window of Figure 14 incorporating a third example infiltration blocker is shown in Figure 17. In this sectional view, generally referenced 540, the bottom rail 514 is shown without a handle as in Figure 15. The remainder of the components shown are similar to that of Figure 15 with the exception that the end of the infiltration blocker 542 bends toward rail 514 with little or no bowing. When mounted to the upper sash, this lack of bowing toward the sliding path of the lower sash allows the lower sash to freely move past the infiltration blocker to open the window. In one embodiment, infiltration blocker 542 is sufficiently thin and flexible so that when installed on the upper sash it fits between the jamb or frame and stile or header and top rail of the upper sash. Similarly, infiltration blocker 542, when installed on the upper sash, may fit between the jamb or frame and stile of the lower sash, allowing the lower sash to be opened and closed without dismounting of the upper sash supplemental window or infiltration blocker. Alternatively, the end of infiltration blocker 542 may bend away from rail 514. In addition, as described infra, the check rail member separation may also be sufficient to allow infiltration blocker 542 to fit between the check rail members.

[0150] A side sectional view C-C of the example window of Figure 14 incorporating a fourth example infiltration blocker is shown in Figure 18. In this sectional view, generally referenced 550, the bottom rail 514 is shown without a handle as in Figure 15. The remainder of the components shown are similar to that of Figure 15 with the exception that the end of the infiltration blocker 552 is shown bending away from the lower rail. Alternatively, the infiltration blocker may bend toward the lower rail or comprise an arc shape similar to those described supra.

[0151] A side sectional view D-D' along the check rail of the example window of Figure 14 is shown in Figure 19. An infiltration blocker covers the interface between the upper and lower sashes. In this case, the infiltration blocker is shown attached to the supplemental window unit attached to the lower sash pane thus allowing for operability of the lower sash. Additionally, foam or pile (not shown) may be used at the corners of the sashes between the infiltration blockers and the sash or stile to further inhibit air movement toward the interior.

[0152] The sectional view looking along the checkrail, generally referenced 560, comprises a lower sash and an upper sash. The lower sash comprises a top rail 564, window pane 584, sheet 586, post 592, spring 590, attachment mechanism 588 (e.g., suction cups), cap 594, corner brace 596 and bullnose or edge seal 598, creating substantially enclosed or trapped space (e.g., air) between the plastic sheet and window pane. The upper sash comprises a bottom rail 562, window pane 566, sheet 572, post 571, spring 570, attachment mechanism 568 (e.g., suction cups), cap 573, corner brace 580 and bullnose or edge seal 578, creating substantially enclosed or trapped space (e.g., air) between the plastic sheet 572 and window pane 566 and infiltration blocker 576. Note that the springs 590 may comprise the springs as shown in Figure 6A describes supra. [0153] The infiltration blocker 576 is attached to sheet 586 of the supplemental window attached to the lower sash and extends over the check rail members 564 and 562 contacting bullnose or edge seal 578 of the supplemental window attached to the upper sash. Alternatively, the infiltration blocker may be extended as shown in dashed lines 574 to contact sheet 572 above the post 571 and cap 573 of the supplemental window attached to the upper sash. In either case, the infiltration blocker functions to close the space immediately above the check rail which may be a source of air leakage between the upper and lower sashes.

[0154] A perspective view of a corner portion of the example frameless supplemental window of Figure 14 with infiltration blockers is shown in Figure 20. The perspective view, generally referenced 600, of a corner portion of the window comprises sash 602, corner brace 608, sheet 612, window pane 614, attachment mechanism (e.g., suction cup, etc.) 604, cap 606, spring 616 and infiltration blocker 610 (shown partially for clarity purposes). When installed, the attachment mechanism functions to attach the supplemental window to the window pane. The spring applies a force against the corner brace so as to push the corner brace as well as the bullnose seal edge 618 into the corner of the window sash 602. Infiltration blocker 610 is attached to the sheet 612 and functions to prevent or minimize air leakage around one or more window elements, e.g., sash 602 and adjacent jamb, sill or header (not shown), into the interior air space. Note that the springs 616 may comprise the springs as shown in Figure 6A describes supra.

[0155] A perspective view of a corner portion of an example supplemental window incorporating a reverse bullnose seal is shown in Figures 21 A and 2 IB. In these perspective views, generally referenced 620, an alternative to the bullnose seal depicted in previous Figures is shown. In this embodiment, the bullnose edge seal is reversed such that rather than having a convex outward shape, the bullnose seal has a concave outward shape 624. The bullnose edge seal 624 is shown attached to the edge of the sheet 626 and sealed against the window pane 622. A corner support 628 attached to the pane side of the sheet (1) provides pressure against the mitered corners of the reverse bullnose seal, (2) aids in forming a tight corner seal against the pane and sash or frame, as well as (3) aiding in sealing against air leakage around the reverse bullnose by being shaped to substantially following the contours of the inward sides of the reverse bullnose when mounted on a window.

[0156] The corner support 628 is configured to have a 'U' shape whereby the top of the corner support 628 is attached to the sheet and then forms an arc and contoured tip to form a relatively tight fit with the inward sides of the reverse bullnose seal 624. A spring 623, such as shown in Figure 6A, functions to push against the post and the corner support 628. Cap 621, post 627 and attachment mechanism (e.g., suction cup) 625 are also shown for attaching the supplemental window to the pane. In this embodiment, the optimum insulating distance can be set by the edge seal itself, by use of a spacer (not shown) or use of an attachment mechanism (e.g., suction cup) as described in detail supra.

[0157] In a further embodiment, corner support 628 may be formed from a sufficiently strong or thick material, such as a material similar or the same as sheet 626, so that corner support 628 acts as a spacer. In this case, cap 621, spring 623, attachment mechanism 625, and post 627 as shown in Figures 21 A and 2 IB may be omitted and an adhesive attachment mechanism may be used between window pane 622 and corner support 628. Though Figur

21A and 21B show corner support 628 with a 'U" shape, alternative shapes such as a 'Z' or shape may be used for corner support 628. Attachment of corner support 628 to sheet 626 may be made using adhesive which is preferably transparent.

[0158] Another example of a frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 is illustrated in Figures 21 C-21E. The frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 incorporates and has the same structure and operation as the other disclosed examples herein except as illustrated and described below. The frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 is illustrated as installed in an existing window having a window pane 846 held by a sash or frame 848, by way of example only, although the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 may be utilized with other types of window configurations (e.g., for prime windows with protruding muntins, whether holding, adhered to, or removable from the window pane 846, muntin interior surfaces and corners may function in the same way as sash/frame 848 as described infra). In this example, the frameless supplemental window 840 includes a constraint 842, a foot 852, a leg or spacer 854, a sheet 856(1), an edge seal 860(1), and an optional tab 880, although the frameless supplement window apparatus 840 may include additional types and/or numbers of elements in other configurations. This example of the frameless supplemental window apparatus provides a number of advantages including providing easier mounting and dismounting, improved operability of the existing window to which the frameless supplemental window apparatus is installed, and fewer parts leading to lower manufacturing costs.

[0159] Referring now more specifically to Figure 21C, which illustrates a corner of the sash/frame 848 cut away for clarity, the constraint 842 is attached to the window pane 846 of the existing window using an adhesive 844. Although a single constraint is described, it is to be understood that a constraint may be utilized in each corner of an existing window. Strong, clear adhesive materials that are compatible with glass and plastic, such as 4905 or 4910 VHBTM acrylic adhesives manufactured by 3M Manufacturing, Maplewood, Minnesota, may be employed, although other suitable adhesives may be utilized for attaching the constraint 842 to the window pane 846. When such adhesives are placed at perimeter locations of the window pane 846, such as abutting the edges of the sash/frame 848 at the corners, they provide an aesthetically unobtrusive attachment of the constraint 842 to the window pane 846. In one example, the constraint 842 has edges 843 configured to be located parallel and adjacent or abutting to the sash/frame 848 at each inward facing interior surface corner of the sash/frame 848 that holds the window pane 846.

[0160] In this example, the adhesive 844 discussed above is applied along the entire length of each outward edge of the constraint 842 to form an "L" shape, but not under the entire constraint 842, although the adhesive could be applied in other manners. The application of adhesive 844 in this manner provides for a slot 850 that is formed extending under the constraint 842 to the edge where the adhesive 844 is and between at least a portion of the constraint 842 and the window pane 846. The height of the slot 850 is determined based on the thickness of the adhesive 844, when the constraint 842 is applied to the window pane 846, in the direction perpendicular to the window pane 846, although other manners for setting the height could be used, such as with a spacer of a specified height held in place by the adhesive 844 by way of example only. The slot 850 is defined by the volume between the constraint 842 and the window pane 846 where the adhesive 844 does not extend beyond the edges of the constraint 842 and is sized and configured to detachably receive at least a portion of the foot 852 of the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 as illustrated and described below. The slot 850 has dimensions parallel to the window pane 846 that allow for movement of the foot 852 within the slot 850 to aid in accommodating measurement error and on site adjustment during installation of the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840. In this example, the constraint 842 includes triangular or truncated edges 864 to allow a portion of the foot 852 to extend beyond the truncated edges 864 when installed in the slot 850 between the constraint 842 and the window pane 846, although other configurations may be employed.

[0161] Additionally, the constraint 842 when adhered by adhesive 844 to the window pane 846 is rigid to facilitate insertion of the foot 852 into the slot 850 as discussed below, although other types and/or numbers of materials with other properties could be used. In one example, the constraint 842 is fabricated with a notch (not shown) along the non-adhered edge to allow for insertion and removal of the foot 852 from the slot 850 with less required force.

[0162] In this example, the constraint 842 is configured with a low profile, or thickness perpendicular to the window pane 846, in order to allow clearance when installed on an existing window, although the constraint 842 may have other sizes and configurations. By way of example, the total thickness of the constraint 842 and the adhesive 844 perpendicular to the window pane 846 is less than about 0.25 inch, preferably less than 0.125 inches, although other combined thicknesses of the constraint 842 and the adhesive 844 may be utilized. This thickness is typically less than the clearance required for sliding a sash when the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 is installed on a vertical or horizontal sliding window. By keeping the combined thickness of the constraint 842 and the adhesive 844 to less than the clearance distance from the stationary window pane 846 to the sliding sash, the sliding sash may be opened and moved over the constrain 842 without obstruction by removing the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 from the stationary window pane 846 as discussed below. In one example, when using the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 with prime windows that slide to open (e.g., vertical sliding or horizontal sliding) having a sash lock, the constraint 842 is configured with a dimension, in the direction of the sash sliding, larger than that of the sash lock in the direction of sash sliding, to enable placement of the constraint 842 in the corner of the window pane 846, while allowing the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 to be held in place by the constraint 842 without disruption of the sealing edge by the sash lock hardware attached to the prime window stationary window pane 846.

[0163] The foot 852 is configured to be inserted into the slot 850 formed by the attachment of the constraint 842 to the window pane 846 to provide a seal against the window pane 846. The foot 852 is sized and configured to slide into and out of the slot 850 at each corner of the window pane 846 to provide a releasable or detachable attachment of the frameless supplement window apparatus 840 to the existing window. When installed, the foot 852 is substantially parallel to and in contact with the window pane 846. In this example, the foot 852 includes tips 862 that are not covered by the constraint 842 when the foot 852 is inserted into the slot 850 as shown in Figure 21E that interact with the edge seal 860(1) when installed as described below.

[0164] Referring again to Figure 21C, the spacer 854 is coupled to the foot 852, by example through an adhesive, although in another example the spacer 854 and the foot 852 are formed from the same continuous sheet of material by providing a bend in the material between the spacer 854 and the foot 852. In one example, the spacer 854 and the foot 852 are formed to create a right angle, although the spacer 854 and the foot 852 may alternatively form a continuous arc as illustrated for the corner support 628 shown in Figures 21 A and 21B.

Referring again to Figure 21C, in this example, the spacer 854 includes a formed edge 858 that is, by way of example, cut to enable conformity with the edge seal 860(1) as shown in Figure 21C, although the spacer 854 may have other configurations to conform to other types of edge seals. Although formed edge 858 is described as being cut, the formed edge 858 may be manipulated in other manners, including cutting, to establish the necessary conformity with the edge seal 860(1). Optionally, in one example the formed edge 858 of the leg spacer 854 and the conforming portion of the edge seal 860(1) are welded or adhered together or sealed with grease at or along the arc of contact of these parts.

[0165] Other examples utilizing a spacer, such as the spacer 854 formed from the sheet 856 by way of example only, are also contemplated in the present technology. In one example, a corner brace such as shown in Figures 5A, 5B, and 7A through 7E may be used with the spacer 854 and an edge seal such as shown in Figures 3, 4A, 4B, 4C, 10A, 10B, and 11A through 1 IE. In such configurations, the corner brace may be mechanically or adhesively attached to the spacer 854 such that the spacer edges contact the corner brace while the corner brace exerts an outward force against the edge seal. In one example, the spacer 854 is formed from the same continuous material as the sheet 856 and, as described below, may be used with the edge seal 860(1) also formed from the same continuous material as the sheet 856(1).

[0166] The sheet 856(1) is coupled to the spacer 854, such that the sheet 856(1) extends parallel to the window pane 846 when the frameless supplemental window 840 is installed. In this example, the sheet 856(1) is substantially planar throughout, although in other examples a sheet 856(2) may contain edges that are bent away from the window pane 846 to form a flap 870 (Figures 21G and 21H), or a sheet 856(3) may contain edges that are bent toward the window pane 846 to form a flap 872 (Figures 211 and 21J), when the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 is mounted, as discussed below. The sheets 856(2) and 856(3) are otherwise similar in structure and operation to the sheet 856(1). The sheet 856(1) has vertical and horizontal dimensions substantially similar to the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the window pane 846 on which it is to be mounted. The dimensions of the window pane 846 are defined by the inward interior surfaces of the window element (in this case the sash/frame 848) that holds the windowpane 846.

[0167] In one example, the sheet 856(1), the foot 852, and the spacer 854 are formed from a single, continuous, unitary piece of material by utilizing corner cuts to form the shape of the foot 852, the spacer 854, and the sheet 856(1), although the sheet 856(1), the foot 852, and the spacer 854 may alternatively be formed from different pieces of material and adhesively attached or welded to one another. For example, the foot 852 and the spacer 854 may be fabricated from a single piece of material with a small additional section to allow for attachment (e.g., welding or adhesive) of a surface parallel to the sheet 856. Suitable examples of materials for these parts are discussed herein supra. In the example illustrated in Figures 21C-21E, the foot 852 and the spacer 854 have been formed by cutting and forming or bending near the corner of the sheet 856(1). In this way, the sheet 856(1), the spacer 854, and the foot 852 are fabricated from a single, continuous, unitary piece of material. Forming the parts from a single piece of material, without requiring additional assembly and attachment, advantageously provides a frameless supplemental window apparatus with fewer parts and less manufacturing requirements, thus leading to anticipated lower costs. As shown, the bent portions at or near a first intersection 866 between the sheet 856(1) and the spacer 854 and a second intersection 868 between the spacer 854 and the foot 852, as shown in Figure 2 ID, act as cantilever springs that allow further bending when pressure is applied by the end user during attaching and detaching of the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840. In addition, when such pressure is applied, flexing of the sheet 856(1) may also occur during mounting and dismounting of the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840.

[0168] In this example, the sheet 856(1), when installed, provides a gap 857, such as a volume of gas, between the sheet 856(1) and the window pane 846, as shown in Figure 2 ID. The thickness or spacing of the gap 857 is determined by the combination of the height of the foot 852 above the window pane 846 and the height of the spacer 854 in the direction perpendicular to the window pane 846. Thus, the spacing, and thus the volume, of the gap 857 is substantially independent of the thickness of the adhesive 844 used to attach the constraint 842 to the window pane 846. In an alternative example, the foot 852 may be supplied with the adhesive 844 on its outward edges or substantially covering its surface facing the window pane 846 to enable direct attachment of the foot 852 to the window pane 846. In this case, the constraint 842 may be omitted and the thickness of the gap 857 is defined by the thickness of the adhesive 844, the thickness of the foot 852, and the height of the spacer. Whether using the constraint 842 as described above or directly adhering the foot 852 to the window pane 846, the attachment mechanism, adhesive 844, is configured to be predominantly located outward from the spacer 854. Such a configuration, in which the foot 852, the spacer 854, the attachment mechanism 844, and the edge seal 860(1) are substantially aligned at or near the perimeter region of the window pane 846, is beneficial for minimizing refractive index differences, optical distortions, or reflections off surfaces not parallel to the window pane 846 in the non-perimeter region of the window pane 846 and enables easy mounting and dismounting.

[0169] Referring again to Figure 21C, the edge seal 860(1) is constrained inward along interior surfaces of the sash/frame 848 to provide sealing between the edges of the frameless supplement window apparatus 840 and the sash/frame 848. Optionally, the edge seal 860(1) may also comprise sealing material as shown in Figure 10A such that sealing is provided to the sash/frame 848 along the length of the edge seal 860(1).

[0170] In one example, as illustrated in Figure 21F, another example of an edge seal 860(2) has a cross-sectional shape approximating a "3". The edge seal 860(2) is the same in structure and operation as the edge seal 860(1) except as described below and may incorporate features described with respect to edge seal 860(1). In this example, one end of the cross-section of the edge seal 860(2) attaches to or is formed from the sheet 856, one arc 882 of the cross-section conforms to the formed edge 858 of the leg spacer, the middle portion 883 of the "3" in the cross-section aligns with a step formed by the foot tip 862 at the surface of the window pane 846, and the other arc 884 of the cross-section rolls so as to form a self-touching spiral when constrained by the window pane 846, the sash/frame 848, the sheet 856(1), and/or the first end or arc 882 of the edge seal 860. When a "3" cross-section is employed for the edge seal 860(2), as shown in Figure 21F, the portion of the edge seal 860(2) attached to the sheet 856(1) and conforming to the formed edge 858 of the spacer 854 may have a larger thickness than the remaining portion of the cross-section of the edge seal 860(2), by way of example. This provides more robustness and rigidity to the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 while enabling compression and compliance of the outward arc of the edge seal 860(2) with the window pane 846, the sash/frame 848, and either the sheet 856(1) or the thicker portion of the edge seal 860(2) as the spiral is formed. The edge seal 860(2) having more than one cross- sectional thickness may be fabricated from more than one piece of material using adhesive or welding, or from a single piece that is formed with the different thicknesses. Optionally, further sealing of the middle portion 883 of the "3" cross-section of the edge seal 860(2) near the tips 862 of the foot 852 may be provided by the application of grease, such as silicone grease.

[0171] Referring again to Figure 21C, in one example, the edge seal 860(1) includes a slit positioned along its cross-section therein so that the slit is aligned against the side of one of the tips 862 of the foot 852 when installed, eliminating the need for multiple slits when the edge seal 860(1) has a cross section such as shown in Figure 21H. A self-touching spiral having a total angle of more than 540 degrees (1.5 turns) may be particularly useful with such a configuration since the free end of the spiral may serve to cover such a slit inhibiting air communication between the spiral interior and the slit. Cutting, slitting or notching of the edge seal 860(1) may be done in a self-aligned manner with foot 852 since the edge seal 860(1) does not need to overlay the constraint 842. Such cutting, slitting, or notching may be done in the edge seal 860(1) comprising a single continuous piece of material or comprising more than one piece of material around the perimeter of the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840. When the edge seal 860(1) comprises a single continuous piece of material, cuts or notches may be provided at both the edge that couples to the sheet 856(1) and the edge of the edge seal portion that is mechanically isolated from the foot 852, the spacer 854, and other edge seal portions that may be adjusted or constrained by the sash/frame 848 and/or the window pane 846. It is noted that when a self-touching spiral edge seal is used having a total angle of greater than about 450 degrees (1.25 turns), the inner portion of the spiral may also function to apply an inward force against the outer portion of the spiral forcing the outer portion to better conform to the spacer. The cuts or notches provided in the single continuous edge seal 860(1) allow formation of a corner formed by bending each side of the cut or notch away from the other side of the cut or notch. When such corners are formed using one cut or notch a single ninety degree bend may be used, whereas when two cuts or notches are used, two bends (e.g., two forty-five degree bends) may be used. In each case, the formed corner may function as a corner closure. The formed edge seal corners and the ends of the single continuous piece are preferably located outward from each spacer 854 over an outwardly extended foot 852 and/or constraint 842. Multiple closely spaced slits may be made in the edge seal 860 at each location that the edge seal 860(1) will overlay protruding muntins that may be present on the prime window to which the frameless

supplemental window apparatus 840 is attached. Such closely spaced slits allow the edge seal 860(1) to conform to the protruding muntin shape while enabling the neighboring continuous regions of the edge seal 860(1) to maintain contact with the window pane 846. Further sealing of slits or a notch overlaying a protruding muntin may be aided using an optically transparent and colorless, relatively viscous and stiff polysiloxane based conformable putty similar to the combined mass described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,618,349. Such a putty may be manipulated directly by opening the spiral near the muntin, so as to obtain good conforming contact between the putty and the protruding muntin, edge seal 860 at locations adjacent the slits or notch overlaying and near the protruding muntin and window pane 846 to either side of the protruding muntin.

[0172] Referring now to Figure 21K, in one example the edge seal 860(1) overlays the constraint 842. In this example, an additional sealing material 882 similar to that shown in

Figure 10A is provided to close the gap that forms between the edge seal 860(1) and the window pane 846 between the tips 862 (not shown) of the foot 852 along the edge between adjacent corners. Configuring the edge seal as a spiral with a free end inside the spiral also allows more direct access for applying pressure to sealing material 882 to ensure its contact with the window pane. This may be accomplished by opening the spiral so that pressure may be applied to the seal directly on the seal surface directly opposite the sealing material. With such a configuration, even without sealing material 882, it has been found that bending the seal 860(1) at the inward edge of its attachment line to sheet 856(1) toward being perpendicular to sheet 856(1) can provide improved contact of seal 860(1) with window pane 846. Examples of materials described supra for sealing materials may be used advantageously with outward concave edge seals so that the end user may easily exert pressure on the sealing material 882/window pane 846 contact area. Alternatively, a thin plastic film may be provided on the sealing material 882. Such plastic film inhibits sticking of the sealing material 882 in undesired locations on the window pane 846 during mounting, while providing a smooth surface to contact the window pane 846. In an alternative example, the thin plastic film may be welded directly to the edge seal 860(1). In these examples, the thickness of the sealing material 882 or the combined thickness of the sealing material 882 and the plastic film is chosen to be the same or slightly thicker than the combined thickness of the constraint 842 and the adhesive 844. This example may also benefit from the use of coating or layer materials (described supra) on the edge seal 860(1), a corner closure, the spacer 854, and/or the constraint 842. It is also noted that sealing material 882 may function as a weight support mechanism when used on seals along vertical edges of the supplemental window apparatus. When used for weight support, sealing material 882 need not be used along the entire edge (as described for Figure 4C supra) and can be located slightly beneath and optionally abutting constraints 842 located at the top corners. Further, sealing material 882 may also provide weight support when present on the top horizontal edge seal when the top edge seal is attached to the formed edge 858 of spacer 854 as described supra. Another use of sealing material 882 is to aid in preventing bowing of the supplemental window apparatus. In this case, placing sealing material 882 near the midpoint of an edge can be beneficial.

[0173] In examples where perimeter edges of the sheet are bent, such as exemplary sheets 856(2) and 856(3) as shown in Figures 21G-21J, the edge seal is bonded (using adhesive or welding) to the bent portion of the edges of the sheet 856(2) or 856(3). The sheet edges are bent to allow the edge seal to conform to the formed edge 858 of the spacer 854 or other corner closure. Figures 21G and 21H illustrate flaps 870 formed by bending the edges of the sheet 856(2) away from the window pane 846 along each perimeter edge of the sheet 856(2) to which an edge seal is attached, such as the edge seal 860(3) without spiral formation (Figure 21 G) and the edge seal 860(4) with (Figure 21H) spiral formation, respectively. Figures 211 and 21J illustrate flaps 872 formed by bending the edges of the sheet 856(3) toward from the window pane 846 along each perimeter edge of the sheet 856 to which an edge seal is attached, such as the edge seal 860(3) without spiral formation without (Figure 211) and the edge seal 860(4) with (Figure 21 J) spiral formation, respectively. The bend angle of flaps 870 or 872 to the sheet 856 is preferably such that the edge seal 860(3) or 860(4), when attached to the outward facing surface of the flap 870/872, conforms to the shape of the formed edge 858 of the leg spacer 854 or other corner closure having an outward force on the edge seal 860(3) or 860(4). In the case of sheet edges bent toward the side to which the window pane 846 resides when mounted to form the flap 872 as illustrated in Figures 211 and 21J, the formed edge 858 of the leg spacer 854 may be modified to accept the flap 872 in a friction fit manner, with the edge seal 860(3) or 860(4) attached to the outward surface of the flap 872.

[0174] When such bent sheet edges/flaps 870 or 872 are used, advantages gained include added sheet rigidity and additional surfaces for the end user to grip the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 during mounting or dismounting. The flaps 870 and 872 also allow for substantially aligning seal materials with the profile of the formed edge 858 of the spacer 854 or other corner closure when the edge seal 860(3) or 860(4) is attached to the flaps 870/872 of the sheet 856. Further, the seal material may be directed by the flaps 870/872 of the sheet 856 enabling the spacer 854 to apply an outward force on the edge seal 860(3) or 860(4). As described supra, gap closure between any of the disclosed edge seals and the spacer 854 corner closure may be accomplished using for example grease, foam, pile, etc.

[0175] As illustrated in Figures 21G and 21H, a perimeter edge of the sheet 856(2) is bent such that when attached to the window pane, the flap 870 is directed away from the window pane 846 and the edge seal 860(3) or 860(4) is attached to the flap 870. The flap 870 may be continuous along each sheet edge or, optionally, may for example be cut, slit, or notched in one or more locations to aid bending of the sheet 856(2) during mounting or dismounting of the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840. Attachment of the edge seal 860(3) or 860(4) to the flap 870 may be made along perimeter edge length with an adhesive or by welding. The cross-sectional edge seal 860(3) shape may form a "J" as shown in Figure 21G or, by making the edge seal from a wider strip of plastic the edge seal 860(4) may roll back on itself as illustrated in Figure 21H. When rolled back on itself, the edge seal 860(4) may form a tube and/or coiled spring that can advantageously have its diameter adjusted parallel to the window pane 846 constrained by the location of the mounted position of the spacer 854 and the sash/frame 848, forming an additional air space within the coiled spring. These advantages are obtained due to the congruent nature of the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 and the area of the window pane 846 in the opening formed by the interior inward surfaces of the opening of the sash/frame 848.

[0176] Alternatively, as illustrated in Figures 211 and 21 J, the flap 872 may be directed toward the window pane 846 when the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 is mounted. While Figure 211 is shown with the edge seal 860(3) attached to the outward facing surface of the flap 872, the edge seal 860(4) may alternatively be attached to the inward facing surface of the flap 872 as shown in Figure 21J. In this example, the formed edge 858 of the spacer 854 near the sheet 856(3) (as shown in Figure 21C) (furthest from the window pane 846 when mounted) may be notched to accommodate and/or friction fit the flap 872 or the edge of the spacer 854 may be slit so that the flap 872 is held by the spacer 854 near its shaped edge.

[0177] Referring again to Figure 21C, the optional tab 880 may be provided as an attachment to the spacer 854, by way of example only by an adhesive, although optional tab 880 may be formed from the same continuous material as the spacer 854. The optional tab 880 may be used by the end user to hold the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 and to obtain additional leverage for insertion and/or removal of the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840. The optional tab 880 further provides support for holding the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 when dismounted from a stationary window pane 846 of a sliding window, when opening the sliding window is desired. In addition, optional tab 880 may be configured for attachment of an infiltration blocking apparatus.

[0178] An exemplary operation of the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 when employing the constraint 842 will now be described with reference to Figures 21C-21L. In a first step, in order to apply the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 to an existing window having a sash/frame 848 holding a window pane 846, the constraint 842 is attached to the window pane 846 of the existing window using an adhesive 844. The constraint 842 advantageously allows for easy mounting and removal of the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 as described below. The adhesive 844 is placed along and/or abutting the edges of the sash/frame 848 at the corners of the window pane 846. The adhesive 844 is applied along the entire length of each outward edge of the constraint 842 to form an "L" shape. The application of adhesive 844 in this manner provides for a slot 850 formed between at least a portion of the constraint 842 and the window pane 846. The edges of the constraint 842 are then aligned parallel and adjacent or abutting to the sash/frame 848 at each inward facing corner of the sash/frame 848. The adhesive 844 holds the constraint 842 to the window pane 846 adjacent and parallel to each edge of the sash/frame 848 edge at the corner in which the constraint 842. In this example, the constraint 842 is applied to each of the four corners of the window pane 846 of the existing window, resulting in the use of four constraints 842 for the rectangular window pane 846.

[0179] Next, the foot 852 of the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 is inserted into the slot 850 created by the constraint 842 as shown in Figure 21C. The insertion of the foot 852 into the slot 850 provides a substantial corner closure for the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 at the surface of the window pane 846. Although a single foot 852 is described and illustrated, it is to be understood that a foot is inserted into a constraint located at each corner of the window pane 846 of the existing window. The constraint 842 when adhered by adhesive 844 to the window pane 846 is rigid to facilitate insertion of the foot 852 into the slot 850 as discussed below and to maintain contact of the foot 852 with the surface of the window pane 846. The slot 850 has dimensions parallel to the window pane 846 that allow for movement of the foot 852 within the slot 850 to adjust the positioning to aid in accommodating measurement error and on site adjustment during installation of the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840. In this example, a portion of the foot 852 extends beyond the truncated edges 864 when installed in the slot 850 below the constraint 842 to expose the tips 862 of the foot 852. [0180] Insertion of the foot 852 into the slot 850 is aided by the first intersection 866 between the sheet 856(1) and the spacer 854 and the second intersection 868 between the spacer 854 and the foot 852, as shown in Figure 2 ID, which act as cantilever springs that allow further bending when pressure is applied by the end user during insertion for the feet 852 into the slot 850 of the constraint 842. The sheet 856(1) may also flex when this pressure is applied by the end user. The optional tab 880 as shown in Figure 21C may also be utilized by the user to assist in the necessary bending to insert the foot 852 into the constraint 842 in all four corners of the existing window. The first intersection 866 and the second intersection 868 acting as cantilever springs, as well as the optional tab 880, also facilitate removal of the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840. Removal may be accomplished by applying inward pressure on the spacer 854 causing flexing at the intersections 866 and 868 between the spacer 854 and the sheet 856(1) and the foot 852, respectively, as well as flexing of the sheet 856(1) itself. Such inward pressure may be applied directly by the end user, for example using one's fingertips, or may be applied through optional tip 880. In one example, the constraint 842 is fabricated with a notch (not shown) along the non-adhered edge to allow for insertion and removal of the foot 852 from the slot 850 with less force required.

[0181] Once the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 is installed by inserting the foot 852 into the slot 850, the sheet 856(1) extends parallel to the window pane 846 to provide a gap 857, such as a volume of gas, between the sheet 856(1) and the window pane 846, as shown in Figure 21D. When using the constraint 842, the thickness or spacing of the gap 857 is determined by the combination of the height of the foot 852 perpendicular to the window pane 846 and the height of the spacer 854 in the direction perpendicular to the window pane 846 and may be adjusted based on the intended application to provide an optimal thickness for the air gap 857. When the constraint 842 is omitted and the foot 852 is adhesively attached to the window pane 846, the thickness of the gap 857 is determined by the foot 852, the spacer 854, and the adhesive 844 that is applied between the foot 852 and the surface of the window pane 846.

[0182] Next, each edge seal 860(1) constrained along each edge of the frame/sash 848 may be adjusted. The edge seal 860(1) is located around the edges of sash/frame 848 and may provide sealing between the edges of the frameless supplement window apparatus 840 and the sash/frame 848 in addition to or instead of sealing to the window pane 846. In this example, the portion of the edge seal 860(1) furthest from the coupling to the sheet 856 is advantageously mechanically isolated from each adjacent edge seal 860(1), each spacer 854 and each foot 852. The edge of the edge seal 860(1) furthest from the attachment point to the sheet 856(1) is unconstrained so that, upon mounting, the position of this edge of the edge seal 860(1) may be adjusted in position and shape when constrained by the frame/sash 848 that holds the window pane 846 to which the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 is attached. For example, this edge may rest on the surface of the sheet 856(1) furthest from the window pane 846, or it may be forced between the sheet 856(1) and the window pane 846. Importantly, these on site adjustments require minimal end user ability and take place at the perimeter of the window pane 846, resulting in minimal impact on the optical viewing area through the existing window and the aesthetics of the window on which the frameless supplemental window apparatus 840 is mounted. In addition, contact of the edge seal 860(1) with the sash/frame 848 along each edge may beneficially constrain and adjust each edge seal 860(1).

[0183] Referring now to Figures 21G-21H, the edge seal 860(3) or 860(4) may be bonded (using adhesive or welding) to the flaps 870/872 located at the edges of the sheet 856(2) or 856(3). The opposing end of the edge seal 860(3) or 860(4) from the attachment to flaps 870/872 may then be constrained by the sash/frame 848, as shown in Figures 21G and 211, or may spiral over on itself to form an additional air gap located at the edges of the sash/frame 848, as shown in Figures 21H and 21J. The flaps 870 and 872 allow for substantially aligning seal materials with the profile of the formed edge 858 of the spacer 854 or other corner closure when the edge seal 860(3) or 860(4) is attached to the flaps 870/872 of the sheet 856(2) or 856(3).

[0184] The embodiments just described have been found to be useful for small to moderate sized supplemental window attachments. For larger supplemental window attachments, additional weight supports have be found to be useful. Examples of such weight supports include addition of magnetic coupling or mechanical support near corners of each supplemental window apparatus. One example of a mechanical coupling is similar to that described in Figures 13 A and 13B. Such support would be useful at the bottom corners of a supplemental window apparatus. However, when used with hung or sliding windows with clearance between the moveable sash and pane of the stationary sash that is smaller than the desired supplemental window apparatus air gap, such support may inhibit opening of the window with a supplemental window apparatus on the stationary pane of the window. In addition, it is desirable from both an aesthetic standpoint and for maximizing the total viewable area through the window pane to keep any support mechanisms near the edges or corners of the window pane. Such an approach also avoids attachment to other window elements which can result in marks or damage that can be costly to remedy. To simultaneously overcome these multiple problems of supporting more weight, maintaining window opening operability and aesthetics, a releasable coupling located near the top of the supplemental window apparatus may be used while attach the coupling components to the window pane. Magnetic or mechanical couplings (e.g., hook and loop) are two examples of releasable couplings that overcome these multiple problems. [0185] A cross sectional side view of a frameless supplemental window with weight support mechanisms near a top corner of a supplemental window apparatus is shown in Figure 21L. In this example, the weight support mechanism is located above the location where the seal contacts the spacer and the mechanism extends in both left and right directions from this contact location. Magnet support 900 extends perpendicularly from constraint 842 away from window pane 846. On one side of magnet support 900, strong permanent magnet 902, for example a rare earth magnet or a hard ferrite magnet, is attached to or held by magnet support 900. Magnetic material 904, for example magnetic sheet metal such as steel or galvanized steel, is attached to sheet flap 906 which extends toward window pane 846 when the supplemental window apparatus is mounted. Sheet flap 906 may be bent from a portion of sheet 856(1) that extends outward from seal 860(1) attachment location to sheet 856(1) or it may be attached using a separate part. When located near a top corner of a supplemental window apparatus, the portion of sheet flap 906 closest to the vertical edge of the corner may be bent from a portion of sheet 856(1) that extends toward this vertical edge corner from formed edge 858 (1) of spacer 854 in Figure 21L.

[0186] During mounting, the sheet may be raised with its top edge and associated seal contacting the window pane. When the top edge of the sheet nears the top edge of the pane strong permanent magnet 902 will attract magnetic material 904 thereby aiding the mounting and alignment of the sheet and seal on the window pane. The strong attraction also provides a lifting pull force to support the supplemental window apparatus when mounted. When attached in this way with all of the magnet force pulling, the maximum support may be obtained since there is substantially no shear or peel force on the magnetic coupling, as would be found if magnet 902 were oriented with a vertically. In addition, the example just described may ensure that the seal is constrained on three sides so that it conforms to the spacer and may be further forced toward the window pane to provide better sealing at this location. With a spiral seal that is open at its end, the end may deform under these conditions without detrimentally impacting contact of the seal with the window pane, foot tip or tab. An analogous mechanism may be used at the other top corner and/or along the top edge to further aid in mounting and support.

[0187] In another embodiment, adhesive 844 may extend through the area between constraint 842 and window pane 846, omitting slot 850 and foot 852, with spacer 854 contacting window pane 846. The additional adhesive area can be beneficial when using weight support mechanisms due to the larger force required to cause adhesive failure.

[0188] In a further embodiment, magnet support 900 may be oriented at an angle that still provides a lifting pull force, such as a 45 degree angle, with respect to the window pane/sash interface edges such that it is parallel to spacer 854 when the supplemental window apparatus is mounted. In this embodiment, magnetic material 904 may be attached to the either the inward or outward face of spacer 854.

[0189] A cross sectional side view of a frameless supplemental window with weight support mechanisms near a top corner of a supplemental window apparatus is shown in Figure 21P. This embodiment is similar to that shown in Figure 21L supra. In this embodiment, a hook and loop mechanical coupling is used. Hook portion 930 is adhered to the inward surface of support 900(1) and loop portion 932 is adhered to the outward surface of flap 906. Mechanical coupling of the hook and loop portions is provided by applying pressure to each side of the coupling. It is noted that the locations of the hook portion and loop portion may be interchanged.

[0190] While these examples illustrate weight support mechanisms near a corner of a supplement window apparatus, it is recognized that weight support mechanisms may be located at any location along the top edge of the supplemental window apparatus, either as an isolated support or as an extension along the top edge from a support located in a corner. Locating such a support along the top edge of the stationary window is particularly useful for horizontal sliding windows so that the support does not impede opening of such a window. It is also noted that if a relatively rigid seal is used, flap 906 may be omitted and the magnetic material 904 or loop portion 932 may be attached to the seal. Further, it is recognized that when using a magnetic coupling, permanent magnet 902 may be held on the inward side of magnet support 900 and/or magnetic material 904 may attach to the inward side of flap 906. Also, positions of permanent magnet 902 and magnetic material 904 may be interchanged such that permanent magnet 902 is attached to flap 906 and magnetic material 904 is attached to support 900. While support 900 is shown being formed from the same piece as constraint 842, at the point where support 900 meets constraint 842, optional hinge 908 may be present that allows support 900 to rotate to meet constraint 842 or a detachable connection may be present that allows support 900 to be removed along with removal of sheet 856(1), spacer 854 and seal 860(1), allowing a sliding sash to pass unimpeded. Adhesive sealing materials described supra, particularly when present on vertically oriented edges, may beneficially be used in addition to the weight support mechanisms just described to provide further stability to the force of gravity on mounted supplemental windows.

[0191] A side view of a spacer region in which the spacer is comprised of multiple elements is shown in Figure 210, including a weight support mechanism similar to those described supra in Figure 21L. The magnetic coupling in this example is at a 45 degree angle with respect to vertical and horizontal. In this example, foot 852 is adhered directly to window pane 846. Spacer 854 extends substantially perpendicular from foot 852 with permanent magnet 902 adhered to the outward surface of spacer 854. Sheet 856(1) couples to spacer 854 through flap 920 which is formed from a corner of sheet 856(1) or attached to sheet 856(1). Flap 920 is substantially perpendicular to sheet 856(1) and has adhered to its outward surface magnetic material 904. Permanent magnet 902 attracts magnetic material 904 completing the weight support mechanism and spacing mechanism. Optionally, at the intersection of spacer 854 and foot 852, hinge 922 may be used to allow spacer 854 to be rotated to a substantially parallel position to window pane 846 when the magnetic coupling is detached. This provides easier opening sliding or hung windows as a small clearance allows for unimpeded movement of a sash past spacer 854 and permanent magnet 902 without removal of foot 852 from the window pane.

[0192] A plan view of another embodiment of a frameless supplemental window with a weight support mechanism near a top corner of a supplemental window apparatus is shown in Figure 21M. In this example, the top left foot 852 has been modified to have a projecting portion 910 capable of being bent out of the plane of foot 852 and constraint 842 has been modified to have a hole 912 through which projecting portion 910 may be placed, forming an

interpenetrating engagement between the foot 852 and constraint 842 through projecting portion 910 being located in hole 912. When the mirror image of this configuration is at the top right corner of the supplemental window apparatus, the supplemental window apparatus may be supported by the two top constraints 842. Figure 2 IN illustrates an isometric view from the pane center looking toward the top corner of this embodiment. In this view, the sash is omitted for clarity. Though the example shown in Figure 21M has projecting portion 910 with horizontal edges, projecting portion 910 may be made to have an orientation or form that hooks the edge of hole 912. For embodiments having an interpenetrating engagement of constraint 842 and foot 852 such as shown in Figures 21M and 21N supra and Figures 21 Q AND 21R infra, rotation of foot 852 into adhesive 844 may occur with enough force to cause weakening of the adhesive contacts. Such weakening may be mitigated by forming constraint 842 with an adhesive protector (not shown) abutting adhesive 844 having a depth smaller than slot 850 (thus allowing simultaneous contact of adhesive 844 with window pane 846 and constraint 842) and large enough to keep foot 852 from directly contacting adhesive 844. The embodiments just described provide advantages of being capable of supporting larger and heavier supplemental windows than when such weight support mechanism is omitted. At the same time such embodiments can be detachably mounted with all, or nearly all, parts being optically transparent and thus, aesthetically more appealing than if opaque parts are used. Further, when sheet and seal portions are detached or partially detached from a window that opens by sliding a sash, the constraint remains in a low profile that does not impede movement of the sliding sash allowing such a window to remain operable.

[0193] Other embodiments for weight support mechanisms may include a hook hanger such as those illustrated in Figures 21Q, 21R and 21 S. The example shown in Figure 21Q illustrates an upper left corner of a supplemental window apparatus mounted on window having pane 846 and sash/frame 848. When the mirror image of this configuration is at the top right corner of the supplemental window apparatus, the supplemental window apparatus may be supported by the two top constraints 842. Constraint 842 is attached to window pane 846 using adhesive 844 along two edges adjacent sash/frame 848 forming slot 850 as described supra. In this example, a hook hanger 940 is formed from constraint 842 so that hook hanger end 942 contacts window pane 846. The left and right corners of hook hanger end 942 are sloped or curved so that foot 852 may more easily slide under hook hanger end 942 when mounting. Foot 852 in this embodiment is provided with a hole or depression 944 so that the hole/depression 944 edge may be held by hook hanger by mechanical engagement in which the end of the hook hanger contacts window pane when foot has a hole 944.

[0194] A diagram illustrating another hook hanger weight support mechanism at the upper left corner of a supplemental window apparatus is shown in Figure 21R. In this example, constraint 845 is attached to window pane 846 with adhesive 844 throughout its pane side area so a slot does not form upon mounting. Hook hanger 944 extends from constraint 845 and is directed away from window pane 846. As shown in this example, foot 852 has a hole 946 for engaging hook hanger 944 such that hook hanger 944 constrains foot 852. In addition, foot 852 is shown with a step 948 of approximately the same height as the combined constraint

845/adhesive 844 thickness, allowing the inward portion of step 948 to contact window pane 846. The configuration shown in Figure 21R may also be employed with other releasable mechanical engagements, for example snap fit, interlocking (such as those with mushroom- shaped heads as in 3MTM Dual LockTM Reclosable Fasteners) or hook and loop mechanisms, or may employ a multiplicity of such mechanical engagements.

[0195] While the examples illustrated in Figures 21Q and 21R describe a hook hanger at each top corner of the supplemental window apparatus engaging an extension of the sheet material at each top corner, similar hook hanger mechanisms may be employed as a single continuous hook hanger or multiple discontinuous hook hangers adhered along the top

(horizontal) edge of the window pane. Hook hangers so placed may engage a continuous slot or discontinuous holes in the sheet outward from the inwardmost attachment line of the seal to the sheet. When used along the top or side (vertical) edges, such hook hangers are preferably made from a relatively rigid plastic material that is optically transparent.

[0196] A diagram illustrating another hook hanger weight support mechanism at the upper left corner of a supplemental window apparatus is shown in Figure 2 I S. In this example, constraint 842 is attached to window pane 846 using adhesive 844 along two edges adjacent sash/frame 848 forming slot 850 as described supra. When mounted foot 852 inserts into slot 850 upon mounting of the supplemental window apparatus. Constraint 842 has a hook hanger 950 located such that the portion of vertical seal 860(1) extends over hook hanger 950. Seal 860(1) is provided with a hole 952 that engages hook hanger 950 providing support for the weight of the supplemental window apparatus. Hole 952 is located outward and above the location at which seal 806(1) contacts formed edge 858 of spacer 854 (not shown). When seal 860(1) is made with a spiral cross section, one or more of the spiral layers may have a hole for engaging hook hanger 950.

[0197] In many of the above embodiments, clearance for a movable sash is desired so that the window may be opened unimpeded by the mounted supplemental window apparatus. This may require detachment of a portion of the supplemental window apparatus while leaving a constraint portion, from which the main portion of the supplemental window apparatus is detached, attached to the window pane. In such cases, the profile (i.e., the dimension perpendicular to the window pane) of such a constraint and its attachment mechanism (e.g., an adhesive) portion remaining on the window pane preferably is, or is deformable to, less than about 0.25 inch and more preferably less than about 0.125 inch for unimpeded clearance for a movable sash.

[0198] While the above described weight support mechanism embodiments have such mechanisms located inward of the existing window sash/frame/stiles/rails and are attached to the window pane of an existing window, weight support mechanisms involving adhesive or mechanical clips attached to non-glass window components, as are known in the art, may be used instead of or in conjunction with the weight support mechanisms attached to the window pane. Engagement of a foot portion with a constraint may also be accomplished with interpenetrating engagement of interlocking mechanisms having multiple interlocking features to fasten the foot portion to the constraint , such as those with an array of mushroom-shaped heads as in 3MTM Dual LockTM Reclosable Fasteners or an array of hooks as in Velcro® Plastic Hook Tape, on both the foot portion and the constraint. Preferably, such fasteners are clear and not colored to minimize aesthetic disruption of the view through the window pane to which they are adhered. The constraint portion of the fastener is configured to be located adjacent or abutting to the sash/frame at each inward facing interior surface corner of the sash/frame that holds the window pane, preferably shaped to substantially conform to the edges forming each such corner..

[0199] Figures 32A-32F illustrate an exemplary releasable attachment or fastening of a supplemental window apparatus. These examples benefit from easily accessible fastening and unfastening, and improved aesthetic and visibility through the window pane viewing area due to the attachments and constraints being located in the perimeter area of the window pane. For purposes of this disclosure, the perimeter area is the outwardmost area of the window pane proximate to an edge of an element of the existing window surround the window pane. The perimeter area may further be defined by the distance between an edge of the sheet and the existing element of the window pane as described supra. In one example, the perimeter area may be within less than 1.5 inches from the edge of the element of the existing window. In another example, the perimeter area may be within less than 1.0 inches from the edge of the element of the existing window. In yet another example, the perimeter area may be within less than .75 of an inch from the edge of the element of the existing window In addition, fastening is enabled in a two dimensional area which allows accommodation of small measurement errors and minor adjustment by the end user while the two dimensional adhesive area contacting the windowpane provides improved holding strength to the windowpane . Figure 32A is a transparent isometric view of a supplemental window apparatus corner, attached to a window with a corner of its sash/frame 960 cut away for clarity. Portions of sheet 962, seal 964, window pane 966, and sash/frame 960 are truncated in this illustration.

[0200] In this example, foot 968 is attached to, or formed as part of, spacer 970 such that reclosable interlocking fasteners 972 and 974, that have a plurality of mechanical engagements when engaged (e.g., interlocking mushroom-shaped heads on stems as provided by 3MTM Dual LockTM Reclosable Fasterners, although other interlocking configurations may be employed), may fit between window pane 966 and foot 968 when mounted, so a constraining force is provided between foot 968 and windowpane 966 holding the supplemental window apparatus. When mounted with reclosable interlocking fasteners 972 and 974 engaged, spacer pane- contacting surface 976 is contacting or nearly contacting window pane 966. The mechanical engagements of reclosable interlocking fasteners 972 and 974 each cover a two dimensional area so that a two dimensional engagement area is formed upon engagement. The two dimensional engagement area is adjustable at each corner in the perimeter area of the window pane by the end user when fastening, with seal 964 along each perimeter edge of sheet 962 independently adjusting to conform to the inward facing surfaces of sash/frame 960 so the entire supplemental window apparatus substantially covers the viewable area of windowpane 966. As shown in Figure 32 A, fastener 974 does not need to extend outward to reach the outwardmost corner of fastener 972. Such a configuration may be beneficial since it avoids initiating a peel force that could result in adhesive failure between fastener 972 and windowpane 966. When the end user removes or rotates sheet and seal portions of the supplemental window apparatus, window pane adhered fasteners 972 remain adhered to windowpane 966.

[0201] When nearly contacting, sealing material as described supra, an extension 973 from the reclosable interlocking fastener base adhered to window pane 966, or a resilient compressible spacer extension 971 along the length of spacer 970 surface nearest window pane 966 (as shown in Figure 38 and Figure 39) may be used to provide closure between window pane 966 and spacer 970. Reclosable interlocking fastener 972 is adhered to window pane 966 presenting interlocking members for mating (foot) reclosable interlocking fastener 974, with a shape that enables the seal 964 to extend through each spacer formed edge 978 toward the corner of the sash/frame 960 allowing seal 964 to maintain contact with window pane 966 to keep the corner closed. As shown in Figure 32A portions of mating (foot) reclosable interlocking fastener 974 and foot 968 near spacer 970 are, in this example, narrower than the narrowest portion of spacer face 980 so that closure of seal 964 to spacer formed edge 978 contact remains intact. Mating (foot) reclosable interlocking fastener 974 and foot 968 may widen as they extend outward from spacer 970 so that more interlocking fastener engagements may result. In one example, seal 964 does not contact reclosable interlocking fastener 972 adhered to window pane 966 so that seal 964 does not lose contact with window pane 966. Seal 964 may contact foot 968 and/or mating (foot) reclosable interlocking fastener 974, so long as closure of seal 964 along spacer formed edge 978 is not disrupted and the end of seal 964 does not exert undue peeling force on the adhesive used to adhere fastener 972 to windowpane 966. Mating (foot) reclosable interlocking fastener 974 and foot 968 may be fabricated from separate pieces and/or different material compositions as described infra, or may be fabricated as a single piece using the same material for each part.

[0202] Windowpane adhered reclosable interlocking fastener 972, as shown in Figure 32A, may have a slightly larger area than its mating reclosable interlocking fastener 974 and foot 968. This larger area allows for on-site position adjustment of the supplemental window apparatus, if necessary, so the entire mating (foot) reclosable interlocking fastener 974 area is engaged.

Engagement of the entire reclosable interlocking fastener 974 area leads to the most robust weight support of the supplemental window apparatus for foot 968 and mating reclosable interlocking fastener 974 size provided.

[0203] Mating reclosable interlocking fastener 974 is attached to a surface of foot 968 facing window pane 966 and has a shape similar to that of foot 968 so that interlocking mushroom- shaped heads 982 (as shown in Figures 32B and 32C) of mating reclosable interlocking fastener 974 face the interlocking mushroom-shaped heads 984 of reclosable interlocking fastener 972 that is adhered to window pane 966. Application of pressure to the opposite face of foot 968 leads to engagement of reclosable interlocking fasteners 972 and 974 and spacer pane contacting surface 976 contact with window pane 966 to close the corner of gap 986 (as shown in Figures 32B-F). In this example, the spacer dimension perpendicular to window pane 966 defines the dimension of gap 986 between window pane 966 and sheet 962. Also, sizing the diameter of seal 964 slightly larger than the spacer 970 dimension perpendicular to sheet 962 forces seal 964 to compress into contact with window pane 966 when reclosable interlocking fasteners 972 and 974 are engaged. When using a spiral cross-section for seal 964 as shown in these diagrams, forces acting on the supplemental window apparatus may be absorbed by seal 964 through movement of spiral free end 988 distal from the attachment of sheet 962 to seal 964. Optionally, each self- touching spiral seal may have a plug, for example made from a resilient compressible material, within the seal (989) or at the seal end opening (991), or a cover over the seal end opening, (as shown in Figure 40 and Figure 41) that allows each spiral to adjust as described above while inhibiting air movement through the seal. Such air movement inhibition may contribute to reducing heat flow perpendicular to the window.

[0204] Also shown in Figure 41 is flange 871, which may be formed as part of seal 860(2) to provide a flat surface to attach seal 860(2) to sheet 856(1). In addition, crease 873 may be provided along the inward edge of flange 871 to provide additional force to contact of seal 860(2) against windowpane 846 as well as providing less encroachment of seal 860(2) into the transparent area through which viewing occurs through windowpane 846. Flange 871 or crease 873 may beneficially be used whether or not a plug is used in seal 860(2).

[0205] In this example (Figure 32A), attachment of a supplemental window apparatus is advantageously made at perimeter corners where intersection of seal 964 of adjacent edges meet, though do not contact each other so as to maintain independent seal adjustability to each sash/frame edge. The attachment areas thus interrupt the continuous contact of seals to the windowpane around the entire perimeter. Continuous perimeter area contact with the

windowpane is maintained by each corner closure spacer contacting the windowpane between each adjacent edge seal. Locating attachment mechanisms and/or constraints at such corners enables easy access and directly applied forces to reclosable interlocking fastener 974 by an end user for releasing and remounting of the supplemental window apparatus. As with the attachment mechanism described in U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 15/232,680, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, this attachment mechanism is located outward from the nearest corner closure. This is in contrast to attachment mechanisms known in the art that are within the formed air gap inward of a seal perimeter area and corner closure, for which access to attachment mechanisms for releasing is more cumbersome and difficult. This is also in contrast to attachment mechanisms that attach to the frame or sash which can damage the surface (such as adhesive removal of paint) or leave a hole in the frame or sash (such as a screw fastener) upon removal of the supplemental window apparatus, requiring costly repair. In addition, attachment mechanisms in the seal perimeter area, especially when located at corners, minimize aesthetic and viewing obstruction impacts of the attachment mechanism and/or constraint. [0206] An engagement of reclosable interlocking fasteners 972 and 974 is shown in Figure 32B. Figure 32B is a side view of plane F-F' (plane F-F' being perpendicular to window pane 966) shown in Figure 32A, without cutaway of sash/frame 960, as the reclosable interlocking fasteners 972 and 974 are engaged. In this example, each reclosable interlocking fastener 972 and 974 presents a plurality of mushroom-shaped heads 982 and 984, each at the end of stems 990 and 992, respectively, although other interlocking attachment configurations may be employed.

[0207] In this example, attachment 994 affixes fastener base 996 to foot 968. Adhesive layer 998 bonds fastener base 1000 to window pane 966. The arrow shows the direction in which pressure is applied to foot 968 during attachment. Foot 968 and mating reclosable interlocking fastener 974 may flex slightly as engagement occurs and spacer pane contacting surface 976 contacts window pane 966. Sheet 962 is brought into substantially parallel position relative to window pane 966 when all four corners undergo fastening. Adhesive layer 998 contacting windowpane 966 and fastener base 1000 may each have a larger area than the area of covered by stems 990. Doing so provides increased adhesive force holding the supplemental window apparatus directly to the windowpane while providing less optical disruption to the viewing area through the windowpane when adhesive layer 998 and fastener base 1000 are colorless and transparent. Acrylic based adhesives, such as 3MTM VHBTM adhesives, have been successfully used for adhesive layer 998 and/or for attachment 994.

[0208] When used on windows prone to condensation formation on the windowpane, it may be beneficial to provide protection near the interface of adhesive layer 998 and windowpane 966 from condensation, as shown in Figure 42. Such protection may be provided by a protective extension 997 of fastener base 996, 1000 or foot 968 that extends perpendicular to windowpane 966 when mounted contacting windowpane 966 around the interface of adhesive layer 998 and windowpane 966. Alternatively, a transparent caulk, putty, gel or other moldable barrier may be added at each corner around this interface.

[0209] Figure 32 illustrates the disengagement of reclosable interlocking fasteners 972 and 974. Figure 32C is a side view of plane F-F' (plane F-F' being perpendicular to window pane 966) shown in Figure 32A, without cutaway of sash/frame 960, as the reclosable interlocking fasteners 972 and 974 are disengaged. In this example, loop 1002 (for example, either end of a paper clip) may be slipped between fastener bases 996 and 1000 of fasteners 972 and 974 (shown in Figure 32 A), respectively, and a pulling force applied to lift mating fastener base 996 of fastener 974 away from pane adhered fastener base 1000 of fastener 972, although other methods and devices may be utilized for disengagement purposes. Other non-limiting methods and devices may include providing a hole through the fastener and foot to allow insertion of a hook device through the hole which can disengage the fastener when pulled by the end user; or a gusset, loop, tab 969 or hook may be provided on the surface of foot 968 that can be pulled by the end user. A gusset integrally formed with the foot and spacer beneficially provides additional strength to the corner. Tab(s) 969 may extend in the same plane as foot 968 (as shown), curve away from window pane 966 or bend back over foot 969. Referring to Figure 43, it is preferred to initiate disengagement at an edge or corner of the engagement area so that a peel force provides disengagement as illustrated in Figure 32C. When tab(s) 969 are used on sliding windows with low clearance, the moving sash may provide the force to tab 969 necessary for such disengagement. In another example, loop 1002 is incorporated as part of the supplemental window apparatus at each corner as an extension of mating fastener base 996 or encircling mating fastener base 996 and held by multiple stems 992. In the absence of loop 1002, an end user may use a fingertip or fingernail to pry the outward corner or edge of mating fastener 974 away from pane adhered fastener 972.

[0210] Figure 32D is a side view of plane F-F' (plane F-F' being perpendicular to window pane 966) shown in Figure 32A with the reclosable interlocking fasteners 972 and 974 having formed interlocking region 1004. In this example, spacer 970 and foot 968 are relatively rigid, such as may be provided by an injection molded part. Spacer 970 and foot 968 may be made as a single unitary part or made from separate parts attached to each other. Sheet 962 may be welded to spacer 970 across spacer sheet contacting surface 1006. When engaged, spacer pane contacting surface 976 forms part of the corner closure of gap 986 upon contacting window pane 966.

[0211] Figure 32 E a side view of plane F-F' (plane F-F' being perpendicular to window pane 966) shown in Figure 32A when reclosable interlocking fasteners 972 and 974 are interlocking. In this example, flexible connection 1008 is provided as a connection for foot 968 and spacer 970. Flexible connection 1008 is helpful in pressing spacer pane contacting surface 976 against window pane 966 while maintaining the interlocking engagement of reclosable interlocking fasteners 972 and 974. In addition, flexible connection 1008 allows maintaining interlocking fastener engagement when sheet 962 is rotated away from window pane 966 as described infra. Flexible connection 1008 may be, for example, a thin plastic film or sheet, although other flexible connections made of other materials may be utilized.

[0212] Figure 32F is a side view of plane F-F' (plane F-F' being perpendicular to window pane 966) shown in Figure 32A when the reclosable interlocking fasteners 972 and 974 are interlocking. In this example, flexible connections are incorporated at one or more locations. For example, foot 968 may be connected to spacer 970 using connector 1010 such that one end or both ends of connector 1010 flex when a force is applied. In this example, foot 968, connector 1010, and spacer 970 may be made from one unitary piece of material or from separate pieces that are attached together. When made from one piece of material, connector 1010 may be formed by bending along each bend line 1012 and 1014 (perpendicular to F-F', denoted by black circles) to bend the one piece to the shape shown in Figure 32F. Further, foot 968, connector 1010, and spacer 970 may be formed from the same piece of material as sheet 962 by providing a bend along bend line 1016 (perpendicular to plane F-F'), which may also flex when a force is applied, in addition to flexing of the bends just described at bend lines 1012 and 1014. Bending may be performed cold (with or without creasing or scoring) or with applied heat along the bend line. Flexible connections or bend lines, such as described supra, are useful for supplemental window apparatus mounting/dismounting ease and partial detachment when opening sliding windows as described infra.

[0213] In the examples shown in Figures 32A through 32F, foot 968 may have a thickness greater than that shown. The surface of foot 968 opposite reclosable interlocking fastener 974 may be near the plane of sheet 962 and/or this surface may be shaped in order to provide more convenient access during mounting and dismounting, as well as to provide desired aesthetic and/or optical effect. Also, spacer formed edge 978 may be thicker than shown to provide more surface area against which seal 964 may form closure of gap 986.

[0214] Figures 33-37 illustrate the use of supplemental window apparatuses on a small clearance sliding window. The examples described will assume interior mounting of the supplemental window apparatus. As noted supra, exterior mounting of the supplemental window apparatus may be performed, in which case "interior" and "exterior" would be interchanged.

[0215] In Figure 33, the Front View depicts a horizontal sliding window as viewed from the interior. Figure 33 illustrates window frame 1018, interior sash 1020, exterior sash 1022, interior window pane 1024, exterior window pane 1026, sheet 1028 attached to interior window pane 1024, sheet 1030 attached to exterior window pane 1026, interior window pane mounted supplemental window apparatus seal 1032, exterior window pane mounted supplemental window apparatus seal 1034, foot 1036 and foot 1038 (respectively, at each interior sash and exterior sash corner of each supplemental window apparatus), with reclosable fasteners 1042 (not shown), for example having mushroom-shaped heads, on the exterior side of foot 1036 and 1038, and reclosable constraint fasteners 1040 on the interior side of window panes 1024 and 1026. The Top View at plane G-G' (plane G-G' being perpendicular to window panes 1024 and 1026) of the Front View illustrates the obstruction to opening the window having a small clearance between the interior face of window pane 1026 of exterior sash 1022 and the exterior face of interior sash checkrail 1044. In Figure 33, checkrail 1044 of interior sash 1020 will immediately encounter the supplemental window apparatus mounted on the exterior sash 1022, potentially disrupting contact of seal when contact is made during opening of the window.

[0216] Removal of all supplemental window apparatus portions except fastener constraints 1040 adhered to window panes 1024 and 1026 leads to the views depicted in the diagrams illustrated in Figure 34. In the Top View, looking down on plane H-Ff (plane H-FT being perpendicular to window panes 1024 and 1026) of Figure 34 Front View, it can be seen that interior sash checkrail 1044 can move without obstruction past fastener constraints 1040 adhered adjacent to exterior sash checkrail 1046. Note that such movement without obstruction may occur with all interior window pane supplemental window apparatus portions mounted.

[0217] Figure 35 illustrates the opening of a small clearance sliding window, with a supplemental window apparatus mounted on each window pane. In the Front View and Top View at Ι-Γ of Figure 35, each foot 1048 of the supplemental window apparatus (previously fastened to exterior window pane 1026 adj acent checkrail 1046) has been released and, along with sheet 1030, rotated away from exterior window pane 1026 to which they were fastened with flexing of one or more of each reclosable interlocking fastener 974 (shown in Figure 32 A), foot 1038, spacer 970 and bend line (if present) 1012, 1014 and/or 1016 of the supplemental window apparatus at corners that remain fastened to exterior window pane 1026. When using fasteners such as 3MTM Dual LockTM Reclosable Fasteners, it has been found that some of the interlocking mushroom-heads may disengage while most remain engaged at the two fastened corners. In addition, as the size of the supplemental window apparatus increases, reclosable fasteners with interlocking mushroom heads having a profile of more than 0.125 inch may be utilized to provide sufficient weight support. Interior sash 1020 is moved to open the window creating opening 1052. Optionally, a stop may be added in a track that guides the opening movement of interior sash 1020 so that the angle to which sheet 1030 must rotate is limited. Interior sash 1020 slides between exterior window pane mounted supplemental window apparatus 1054 and exterior window pane 1026. To close the window, interior sash 1020 may be moved back to the position shown in Figure 33 and Figure 34 and each foot 1048 that had been released may be refastened to its respective fastener 1040 to re-establish the condition shown in Figure 33.

[0218] With release of the two feet 1048 adjacent the exterior sash checkrail 1046 as shown in Figure 34 and Figure 35 for a horizontal slider window, an undesirable torque at the supplemental window apparatus corners that remain fastened may occur due to gravitational force on the released portion of the partially released supplemental window apparatus. To help mitigate undesirable torque, a prop may be provided under the bottom of released sheet 1030, released foot 1056 or edge seal 1058 of the partially released supplemental window apparatus and resting on the window sill 1061, such as shown in Figure 36, Figure 37 and Figure 44A-C. In some horizontal slider windows, the interior-most bottom track portion may be high enough to provide this prop function. When this track portion is not high enough, a separate part may be provided that rests on the window sill and acts as a prop under the bottom released foot 1056 or edge seal 1058. Such a prop may be a spring 1059 or have an adjustable height and it may be a separate piece or it may attach, for example with clip 1063 to sheet 1030 (as shown in Figure 44A-C), or the foot or edge seal of the releasing portion of the supplemental window apparatus. When attached to a sheet, foot or edge seal, such a prop may, optionally, be rotatable about a vertical axis to improve the stability of the partially released supplemental window apparatus portion when the prop rests on the sill.

[0219] In a further example illustrated in Figure 36 and Figure 37, a prop 1060 may be provided that fastens to the bottom interior pane mounted fastener 1062 adjacent interior sash checkrail 1044. Such fastening may occur in fastener area 1064 not covered by bottom foot 1036 when bottom foot 1036 is fastened providing, in this example, an "L-shaped" area for prop 1060 fastening. Alternatively, foot 1036 may be released providing the entire area 1064 of the fastener for fastening prop 1060. Prop 1060 may be, for example, an injection molded plastic material with reclosable fastener adhered to the surface to be engaged to fastener 1062. Prop 1060 projects toward the interior in the example illustrated in Figure 36, as seen in the Top View of plane J-J' (plane J-J' being perpendicular to window panes 1024 and 1026) in Figure 36 Front View. As illustrated in the diagrams shown in Figure 37, when the exterior pane mounted supplemental window apparatus feet 1048 adjacent the exterior sash checkrail 1046 are released, this supplemental window apparatus may be rotated as described supra. In this example, bottom foot 1056 of exterior pane mounted supplemental window apparatus 1054 rests on prop 1060.

[0220] It will be appreciated that single hung and double hung windows present analogous relationships between two sashes as just described, except the sliding direction is vertical, torque is substantially not present upon release of the exterior pane mounted supplemental window apparatus, and the supplemental window apparatus on the exterior window pane may be supported by its two top constraint fasteners when the window is opened. As noted supra, each supplemental window apparatus may be mounted on either the interior or exterior surface of each window pane. Thus, the descriptions of Figure 32 through Figure 37 are applicable to situations in which a supplemental window apparatus is mounted on each exterior window pane surface. It is further noted that the sliding window small clearance problem may also be avoided by mounting the supplemental window apparatus of the exterior sash on the exterior side of the window pane and the supplemental window apparatus of the interior sash on the interior side of the window pane. In this latter case, fastener release is not needed in order to open the window. [0221] It will also be appreciated that other supplemental window apparatus components may be fastened to window pane adhered reclosable interlocking fasteners 972 in a manner similar to that describe supra for prop 1060. For example, infiltration blockers such as described in U.S. Pat. No. 9,663,983, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, may be modified by attaching a reclosable fastener as described supra, so they can be fastened to window pane adhered fasteners 972.

[0222] When providing a supplemental window apparatus to an end user, it may be beneficial to pre-apply constraint 842 to cover foot 852 enabling easier first time mounting and self-alignment of constraint 842 to the remainder of its supplemental window apparatus. For embodiments in which constraint 842 is intended to form a slot, this may be accomplished by covering adhesive 844 with a liner material that also forms a slot into which foot 852 may be placed. An additional piece of adhesive tape may be placed on constraint 842, on the side opposite adhesive 844 and its liner material, with the adhesive tape extending past the hypotenuse of constraint 842. This enables adhering the adhesive tape to the outward face of spacer 854 and/or the face of sheet 856 opposite the face to which seal 860 is attached. Prior to mounting, the end user may first remove the liner material covering adhesive 844 and then position the supplemental window apparatus at the window pane. Each constraint 842 may then be pushed into contact with window pane 846. Once constraint 842 is adhered to window pane 846, its associated piece of adhesive tape may be removed. For embodiments in which constraint 842 does not form a slot, the releasable mechanical engagement mechanisms on constraint 842 and foot 852 may be provided pre-engaged with a liner material covering adhesive 844. Prior to mounting, the end user may remove the liner material and then position the supplemental window apparatus at window pane 846. Each constraint 842 may then be pushed into contact with window pane 846.

[0223] When providing a supplemental window apparatus incorporating reclosable interlocking fasteners for attachment to a window pane, a window pane adhering fastener may be supplied pre-engaged with its mating fastener which is pre-attached to each foot. A liner may be provided to protect the adhesive on the pane adhering fastener and the end user may remove the liner just prior to mounting the supplemental window apparatus to a window pane. In this way, self-alignment of fasteners is assured. Small on site adjustment of mating fasteners by the end user may be performed after initial mounting. Alternatively, each window pane adhered fastener may be placed on the window pane at each corner abutting the sash/frame edges, followed by fastening of mating fasteners at each corner of the supplemental window apparatus. As is known in the art, allowing the window pane adhered fastener adhesive to wet out on the window pane surface prior to applying the remaining supplemental window apparatus load will lead to improved adhesive holding force to the window pane.

[0224] While the embodiments described above indicate use of a single type of constraint, hanger or fastener to mount all attachment points of a supplemental window apparatus, there are instances in which use of different embodiments at different attachment locations of a supplemental window apparatus is beneficial. The attachments, constraints and fasteners must be of sufficient strength to hold the weight of the supplemental window apparatus. On the other hand, for windows that open by sliding a sash relative to a stationary sash having a clearance that is smaller than the supplemental window apparatus air gap dimension, emergencies may require opening such a window for rapid egress. In addition, it is desirable for windows to be easily opened in non-emergency situations. In such situations, configuring fastening at the checkrail or meeting stile on the stationary pane of such sliding windows to release with less force, for example less shear force parallel to the window pane in the direction of sash movement, than the holding force of the remaining attachments is desirable. This could allow for release of the desired attachments using the same force used to open the window. For example, the stationary pane checkrail or meeting stile attachments could be configured with the low profile slot constraint design described in Figures 21C-21K, while using a weight bearing hanger, per Figures 21L-21 T, or reclosable mushroom head fastener, per Figures 32A-32F and Figures 33- 37, for the remaining attachments. Another approach to such differential holding force attachment configurations utilizes a reclosable mushroom head fastener for each attachment in which the stationary pane checkrail or meeting stile attachments 1) have a lower stem density than the remaining attachments, 2) have a lower profile than the remaining attachments or 3) are configured with both foot fastener and pane fastener stem rows substantially perpendicular to the checkrail/meeting stile, while the remaining fasteners do not have these stem rows so aligned, when the supplemental window apparatus is mounted. In each of these cases, weight bearing constraints at one or more locations away from the checkrail/meeting stile must be capable of holding the sheet and seals. Further, when sheet and seal portions are detached or partially detached from a window that opens by sliding a sash, a constraint adhered to the stationary windowpane remains adhered in a low profile that does not impede movement of the sliding sash allowing such a window to remain operable.

[0225] While the embodiments described above may relate to fully assembled supplemental windows, it will be appreciated that such supplemental windows may be supplied as kits requiring assembly by the end user. In such cases, various portions of the supplemental window apparatus may be supplied separately. For example, the sheet may be supplied as a rectangle that is to be cut by the end user; the edge seal may be supplied as one or more separate pieces with adhesive that are cut and adhered to the sheet by the end user; an attachment mechanism and a spacer corner closure may be supplied as a single part, or as separate parts, for each corner and applied to the window pane or the sheet at each corner during assembly. Alternatively, a kit may be supplied in which the sheet and/or the edge seals, either of which may be supplied with adhesive protected by a liner material, are custom cut to size prior to delivery to the end user with the remaining parts supplied as described above. Once received by the end user, the liner material is removed and the edge seal(s) are adhered to the sheet and the remaining parts assembled as described above. Additional parts, such as infiltration blockers described infra, may be provided as part of such kits or as part of a fully assembled supplemental window apparatus.

[0226] A front view of a frameless supplemental window with infiltration blockers at each sealing interface is shown in Figure 22. This embodiment is useful for windows that open and close by rotation at hinges, such as casement or awning windows. The infiltration blocker shown in this case is similar to that shown in Figure 14 for the top of the top sash in the vertical sliding window. In Figure 22, a window pane held by a sash that closes against a stop to the interior of the sash is shown. The infiltration blocker is formed such that it bends to the interior to that it contacts the stop and covers the sealing interface between the sash and the stop. Such a mechanism is useful along each sealing interface of this type of window. At the corners, where the infiltration blockers meet, the ends of infiltration blockers may be made to overlap, abut or a space may be left between the ends. In each of these cases, the corners may be closed by any means known in the art including, but not limited to, use of miter cuts, foam or pile inserts, or tape. Alternatively, the infiltration blockers shown may be modified to comprise pile, foam, felt, etc. to aid in blocking air infiltration.

[0227] Although the front view shown, generally referenced 630, is for a hinged window, such as a casement or awning window, the principles can be applied to other window types as well. The hinged window with frameless supplemental window comprises an existing window frame 632 such as found in awning windows, that is hinged along the top of the window sash. Opening and closing of the window is activated by turning a knob or crank 648. The awning window shown has a frameless supplemental window with infiltration blockers installed on the window pane 634. The sheet material 636 is partially shown for clarity purposes and normally covers nearly all or all of the window pane. The window comprises an existing window frame 632, hinged sash 647 holding the window pane 634, the frameless supplemental window 643 which includes infiltration blockers 641 along each of its four perimeter edges. For clarity, only a portion of the left infiltration blocker is shown. The supplemental window 643 comprises sheet material 636, edge seal 638, corner brace 640, post 644 with attachment mechanism 642 (e.g., suction cup), stop 645, sash 647 and spring 646. Optionally, seal materials (e.g., pile, O- ring, gel, dry adhesive material, foam, etc.) as described supra may be used. Note that the springs 646 may comprise the springs as shown in Figure 6A describes supra.

[0228] Anisometric view of a corner portion of the window of Figure 22 is shown in Figure

23. The view, generally referenced 650, shows the exterior of the window at the bottom and the interior at the top of the diagram. The isometric view comprises frame or sill 652, sash stile or rail 654, stop 664, window pane 663, sheet 651, post 658 with attachment mechanism 665 (e.g., suction cup), cap 660, spring 656, corner brace 668 and bullnose or edge seal 661. Infiltration blockers 662 and 666 are attached at the side and bottom perimeter edges, respectively, of the supplemental window 655. When the window is in the closed position as shown in Figure 23, each infiltration blocker is forced to bend toward the interior somewhat due to contact with stop 664 and cover the sealing interface 657 between sash 654 and stop 664. When the window is opened, the bent end of each infiltration blocker that contacts stop 664 along the non-hinged sides slides across or off the surface of stop 664 while remaining attached to the supplemental window 655. When subsequently closing the window, it may be beneficial to use a thin stiff card or the like to help guide infiltration blockers inward of stop 664. The infiltration blockers are shown attached 653 to the sheet 651. In an alternative embodiment, attachment of the infiltration blockers may be made to the bullnose or edge seal 661. As described supra, the infiltration blockers may be pre-formed to have a bend, angle or arc. Note that the springs 656 may comprise the springs as shown in Figure 6A describes supra.

[0229] A side sectional view E-E' of the example window of Figure 22 is shown in Figure

24. The side sectional view, generally referenced 670, comprises sill 672, sash 683, stop 674, window pane 685, sheet 686, post 682, attachment mechanism 684 (e.g., suction cup), cap 678, spring 680, bullnose or edge seal 688, corner brace 681 and infiltration blocker 676. The supplement window creates a substantially enclosed or trapped space (e.g., air) between the window pane 685 and sheet 686. Note that the springs 680 may comprise the springs as shown in Figure 6A describes supra. Note also that in slice E-E' of Figure 22, most of the spring 680 is not shown. The only portion visible is a slice of the portion 680 that wraps around the post. In addition, the infiltration blocker 676 is shown in this example embodiment attached to the sheet 686 and having a 'J' shaped tip that functions to make a mechanical seal with stop 674.

Alternatively, the infiltration blocker can be configured to make a seal with the window sash 683 and the stop 674.

[0230] An isometric view of a lower corner portion of a window with a frameless supplemental window where attachment is via the infiltration blockers is shown in Figure 25. The isometric view, generally referenced 690, shows the exterior of the window at the bottom and the interior at the top of the diagram. In this embodiment, the suction cup attachment mechanism is replaced with attachment via the infiltration blockers. The isometric view comprises frame, jamb or sill 692, sash stile or rail 694, stop 691, window pane 696, sheet 702, corner brace 704, optional spring (not shown) and bullnose or edge seal 706. For the

embodiment shown, the infiltration blockers 698 and 700 are preferably more flexible than edge seal 706 so that the pane to sheet separation may be determined by the shape of edge seal 706. Infiltration blockers 698 and 700 are attached at the side and bottom perimeter edges, respectively, of the supplemental window 705. When the window is in the closed position as shown in Figure 25, each infiltration blocker is forced to bend inward somewhat due to contact with stop 691 and cover the sealing interface 707 between sash 694 and stop 691. When the window is opened, the bent end of each infiltration blocker that contacts stop 691 along the non- hinged sides slides across or off the surface of stop 691 while remaining attached to the supplemental window 705. When subsequently closing the window, it may be beneficial to use a thin stiff card or the like to help guide infiltration blockers inward of stop 691. The infiltration blockers are shown attached 709 to the sheet. In an alternative embodiment, attachment of the infiltration blockers may be made to the bullnose or edge seal. As described supra, the infiltration blockers may be pre-formed to have a bend, angle or arc. Note that the springs (not shown) may comprise the springs as shown in Figure 6A describes supra.

[0231] In one embodiment, the infiltration blocker provides the attachment of the supplemental window to the window and pane via adhesive strip 701 sandwiched between the infiltration blocker and the sash 694. Here, the infiltration blocker and adhesive 701 may function both to (1) prevent or minimize air leakage as well as (2) provide attachment to the window.

[0232] Alternatively, attachment of the supplemental window to the window and pane may be made via adhesive strip 703 sandwiched between the bullnose edge seal 706 and the sash 694. Here, the bullnose edge seal and adhesive 703 may function to trap and/or enclose a layer of air between the pane and sheet as well as provide attachment to the window.

[0233] A diagram illustrating a side sectional view of the window of Figure 25 is shown in Figure 26. The side sectional view, generally referenced 710, comprises sill 712, sash 728, stop 714, window pane 726, sheet 718, bullnose or edge seal 724, corner brace 722, spring 720 and infiltration blocker 716. The supplemental window creates a substantially enclosed or trapped space (e.g., air) between the window pane 726 and sheet 718. Note that in this embodiment the suction cup attachment mechanism is replaced with adhesive strip 721 (on the sash inward facing surface) and/or 723 (on the sash interior facing surface). Note that adhesive strip 721 and/or 723 may be used when considering a vertical or horizontal sliding window, though strip 721 may be preferred if the thickness strip 723 leads to obstruction, for example, of the opening of a vertical sliding window by sliding the lower sash upwards (or the upper sash downwards). Depending on the type of window, adhesive strip 723 may impede the opening and closing of the window while adhesive strip 721 minimizes any interference with the movement of the window. Spring 720 attached to the sheet 718 is configured to apply a force against the corner brace 722 and edge seal 724. The distance between the window pane and the sheet is set optimize the thermal insulating properties of the supplemental window. The distance may be determined by either of the edge seal, corner brace or spring by being constructed of sufficient mechanical stiffness such that the optimal distance between the pane and sheet is set and maintained. For example, the spring sets the distance when pushed toward the window pane by the end user to the point of sensing spring 720 resistance. At that point, the distance between the pane and the sheet is optimal.

[0234] The infiltration blocker 716 is shown in this example embodiment attached to the sheet 718 and having a 'J' shaped tip that functions to make a mechanical seal with stop 714. Alternatively, the infiltration blocker can be configured to make a seal with the window sash 728 and the stop 714.

[0235] Attachment to the window can be provided either via (1) adhesive strip 721 which functions to attach the edge seal 724 to the sash 728, and/or (2) adhesive strip 723 which functions to attach the infiltration blocker 716 to the sash 728.

[0236] A perspective view of an example supplemental window with infiltration blocker in the area of the check rail and jamb of a sliding window (e.g., double hung window) is shown in Figure 27. In this perspective view, generally referenced 730, the infiltration blocker 740 is shown attached to the sheet 738 which is held attached to the window pane via attachment mechanism (e.g., suction cup, etc.) 742. The optimum distance between the sheet and the pane is set by the combination of the post 744 and compressed suction cup 742. The post is fastened to the sheet via cap 746. In this example, the view is of a portion of the check rail 736 and 748, respectively of the lower and upper sash, jamb or window frame 732 and track 734 of a vertical sliding window (e.g., double hung window). There is an upward facing top sash checkrail surface 748 above which that infiltration blocker 740 (shown on the left side but contemplated on both sides of the window) normally lies after installation of the supplemental window. The infiltration blocker 740 arcs or bends to fit in the space between the left edge of the lower sash and the inward facing portion of the jamb to the exterior side of the track 734 and possibly gap 745. Configuring the infiltration blocker to fit above surface 748 or the checkrail gap 745 and in the track area enables the lower sash to slide freely up as well as the upper sash to slide freely down without blocking the travel of the windows normally present without the present invention installed as well as prevent any damage to the infiltration blocker or other parts of the supplemental window when the windows are opened. It is noted that in this embodiment, the edge seal is attached to the sheet but is not shown for clarity.

[0237] In an alternative embodiment, the edge seal is omitted. In this case, the sealing function is performed by the infiltration blocker and the attaching and optimum distance setting is performed by the post and attachment mechanism.

[0238] A first example frameless supplemental window without an edge seal and incorporating infiltration blockers is shown in Figure 28. In the perspective view, generally referenced 750, the supplemental window comprises a vertical infiltration blocker 763 attached to sheet 762 and a horizontal infiltration blocker 761 attached to sheet 762. In this embodiment, there is no edge seal as in many of the embodiments described supra. Rather, the sealing function, whether mechanical, adhesive strips or other means, is provided by (1) the vertical infiltration blocker 763 which seals against the side (stile) portions of the sash 756 and (2) the horizontal infiltration blocker 761 which seals against the upper and lower (rail) portions of the sash 752. The attachment mechanism is fastened to the sheet via post 766 and cap 768. The optimum thickness for the enclosed gas layer 760 between the sheet 762 and the window pane 758 is determined by a combination of the post 766 and attachment mechanism 764. Note that in this example embodiment, infiltration blocker 761 flexes to form a smooth arc from the sheet 762 to the sill 755 and functions to prevent or minimize air leakage through one or more window elements and infiltration blocker 763 contacts jamb or frame 754 to prevent or minimize such air leakage.

[0239] A second example frameless supplemental window without an edge seal and incorporating infiltration blockers overlapping in corner areas is shown in Figure 29. The perspective view, generally referenced 770, comprises sill 772, side frame or jamb 774, vertical sash (stile) 777, bottom sash rail 775, window pane 786, sheet 788, post 780, cap 778, attachment mechanism (e.g., suction cup, etc.) 782, vertical infiltration blocker 776 and horizontal infiltration blocker 781. This example embodiment lacks an edge seal for sealing. Rather, the infiltration blockers 776 and 781 function (1) to provide sealing, via mechanical, adhesive, or other means, of the enclosed or trapped layer 784 between the window pane 786 and the sheet 788, and (2) to prevent or minimize air leakage around one or more window elements. Note that in this example embodiment, infiltration blocker 776 flexes to form a smooth arc from the sheet 788 to the frame or jamb 774 while infiltration blocker 781 flexes to form a smooth arc from the sheet 788 to the sill 772. Infiltration blocker 776 is shown having been cut at its outward corner 783 to allow overlapping of each side of the cut region and enabling the infiltration blocker to easily flex in two directions. Also note that while this example embodiment lacks an edge seal for sealing to the pane for enclosing layer 784 between the pane and sheet, configuration of infiltration blockers overlapping in corners as shown in Figure 29 may be used in embodiments that have edge seals.

[0240] A side sectional view in the region of the checkrail of a third example frameless supplemental window without an edge seal and incorporating infiltration blockers is shown in Figure 30. Note that this embodiment is similar to that of Figure 19 with the key difference being that the embodiment of Figure 30 lacks an edge seal.

[0241] This sectional view, generally referenced 790, comprises a lower sash and an upper sash of a vertical sliding window. The lower sash comprises a top rail 794, window pane 798, sheet 811, post 816, cap 818, attachment mechanism 814 (e.g., suction cups) and infiltration blocker 806 that extends past the top of the sash window forming an arc and seals (e.g., mechanical, etc.) against the sheet 808 on the upper sash. The post and attachment mechanism 816, 814 sets the optimum distance between the plastic sheet 811 and window pane 798 to maximize thermal insulating properties. The upper sash comprises a bottom rail 792, window pane 796, sheet 808, post 804, attachment mechanism 800 (e.g., suction cups), cap 801 and infiltration blocking portion 810 attached to extension arm 812. The post and attachment mechanism 804, 800 sets the optimum distance between the plastic sheet 808 and window pane 796 to maximize thermal insulating properties.

[0242] The infiltration blocking portion 810 may comprise a strip of pile, foam, felt or other insulating material that is offset from the supplemental window such that it covers and preferably contacts the portions of the lower and upper sashes so as to prevent or greatly minimize air leakage through any existing gap 803 between the lower and upper sashes.

[0243] The infiltration blocker 806 is attached to sheet 81 1 of the supplemental window attached to the lower sash and extends over the check rail members 792 and 794 contacting sheet 808 of the upper sash. The infiltration blocker in combination with infiltration blocking portion 810 functions to enclose the close the space immediately above the check rail which may be a source of air leakage between the upper and lower sashes through gap 803 as well as prevent the transfer of gas between the enclosed air layer 807 of the supplemental window installed on the lower sash and the enclosed air layer 805 of the supplemental window installed on the upper sash.

[0244] A side sectional view of a fourth example frameless supplemental without an edge seal and incorporating infiltration blockers is shown in Figure 31. This example embodiment, like the embodiments of Figures 28, 29 and 30, do not comprise an edge seal. Rather, sealing is achieved via an adhesive strip attached between the infiltration blocker and the sash rail or stile 824. The side sectional view, generally referenced 820, comprises sill or window frame or jamb 822, sash or stile 824, window pane 826, sheet 838, post 830, cap 832, attachment mechanism (e.g., suction cup, etc.) 828 and infiltration blocker 834. Lacking an edge seal, this embodiment is dependent on the seal provided by adhesive strip 836 that attaches the infiltration blocker 834 to the sash rail or stile 824. Note that the infiltration blocker 834, attached to the edge of the sheet 838, serves to seal the enclosed air layer 823 between the window pane 826 and the sheet 838. The mechanical seal 825 between the infiltration blocker and sill, window frame or jamb 822 also prevents or minimizes air leakage around one or more window elements, such as between the sash 824 and sill, jamb or frame 822.

[0245] When the sealing interface is wider than the thickness of the infiltration blocker, this enables additional methods for infiltration and exfiltration blocking at higher indoor/outdoor pressure differential by insertion of an infiltration blocker edge into the sealing interface. When the window frame has a channel, such as the jamb of a vertical sliding window, forming the edge of the infiltration blocker into a "V" or "N" shape may be beneficial. When such a shape inserted into the channel may be mechanically trapped by the sash, channel and pressure from either direction. In addition, the infiltration blocker may be formed to provide an optimal spacing over the sash/frame to provide additional insulation over the sash/frame.

[0246] Infiltration blockers illustrated in Figures 22 through 31 may be mounted with outward edge regions inserted into respective sealing interfaces or outward edge regions may be modified to have "V" or "N" shapes which may be inserted into the respective sealing interfaces. In such a configuration, closure of the window forces the outward edge to contact both the outward facing surface of the sash and the inward facing surface of thejamb that form the sealing interface. In this case, the outward edge region is shaped in an "N" shape, such that the outwardmost line is shorter than thejamb channel (sliding windows). This allows the infiltration blocker to be forced into either the interior or exterior facing surface of thejamb channel if a significant pressure differential exists between the indoors and outdoors.

[0247] In another embodiment, the infiltration blocker may be shaped to form a surface substantially parallel to the sash/frame and have a width similar to the sash/frame width. In such a case, it would be preferable for the end user to provide the depth of the pane in the sash to allow for design of the infiltration blocker surface parallel to the sash/frame surface gap that is optimal, similar to that preferred for the sheet to pane distance.

[0248] The infiltration blockers shown in the Figures described supra may comprise a non porous flexible material. Thin pieces of thermoplastic film or sheet may be used, for example, polyethylene terephthalate having a thickness of approximately 0.002 to about 0.020 inch and preferably approximately 0.003 to about 0.010 inch. The thin pieces of non-porous flexible material may be attached to the plastic sheet or the edge seal along each perimeter edge of the supplemental window. The attachment to the sheet or edge seal may be accomplished by any of the means described supra, including welding (e.g., ultrasonic, laser, RF, etc.) or adhesive means. The infiltration blockers on the window sides and top are sized such that they deform, compress or bend, relative to their relaxed shapes, when in contact the window stop, jamb, frame, sill or header, thus covering potential infiltration regions between the sash stiles or sash rails and the respective jambs, frames, sill or header when the window is in the closed position. The edges of the edge seal and infiltration blockers that are not attached to the supplemental window may be curled, curved, polished or beaded to avoid exposed sharp edges.

[0249] The infiltration blockers described herein may be used in conjunction with any of the embodiments described supra. In addition, such infiltration blockers may be used in

embodiments that omit the sheet of a supplemental window. Thus, in general, the infiltration blockers may be attached directly to a supplemental window part such as a post, seal or sheet. When used without the sheet material, attachment of the infiltration blocker to the window directly, or indirectly by attachment to a post or seal which in turn is attached to the window, is accomplished by the mechanisms described herein, e.g., suction cups, adhesives, dry adhesives, etc. or welding or adhering to other parts described herein.

[0250] While the embodiments described supra provide for attachment of the infiltration blocker to the supplemental window which in turn is attached to a window pane, attachment mechanisms may be used to releasably attach the infiltration blocker to one or more of the pane, sash rail or stile, jamb, frame casing, sill or header of the window.

[0251] As described supra, the infiltration blocker may form an angle, bend or arc such that sealing surfaces or extensions of such sealing surfaces through which infiltration may occur are contacted by the infiltration blocker on two sides of the sealing interface to the interior or inward of the sealing interface. Angles, bends or arcs in the infiltration blockers may be pre-formed by thermoforming or cold forming or bending such that the infiltration blocker may still undergo deformation when mounted, due to contacting a window surface (e.g., sill, jamb, frame, sash or header) or another supplemental window.

[0252] In each embodiment described supra, in addition to the attachment mechanisms described for mounting, a safety feature (e.g., a clip) attaching to a portion of the window not used for mounting (e.g., a frame, a sash or a protruding muntin) may be included. When provided, the safety feature is in mechanical communication with the frameless supplemental window such that in case of failure of the various attachment mechanisms described supra, the safety feature inhibits the frameless supplemental window from falling away from the fenestration.

[0253] Note that corner braces and constraints can be fabricated, for example, by injection molding, thermoforming or three-dimensional printing methods. As part of extrusion for fabricating the sheet and edging parts, injection molding or 3D printing operations for fabricating corner braces and constraints, printing, embossing or other means of part identification, material type and recyclability, installation instructions and mating indicators may be imparted on each such part. Other aspects of fabrication may include the chopping, cutting or slitting of materials, application of adhesives and associated protective covers for applied adhesives and packaging material. Another example of fabrication may include, prior to packaging, edge seals as shown in Figures 21A through 21F may each be wound tightly back on itself and kept tightly wound using adhesive (e.g., glue or tape attachment to the sheet material) or a clip to keep the edge seal in a tube-like state through mounting. Once mounted, the adhesive connection may be broken or the clip removed to allow the wound edge seal to relax and compress against the window pane and/or sash/frame. Formation of the sheet, edge seal and other supplemental window parts described supra into a custom supplemental window during fabrication may be performed to minimize installation complexity. Such formation may be by adhesive, or preferably welding, heat sealing, mechanically, etc. to aid in end-of-life recycling or re-use of the materials.

[0254] When an end user no longer wishes to use the custom supplemental parts, for example due to moving to a different location, the custom supplemental parts may be recycled or re-used by a subsequent occupant at the location of the installation. When recycling the custom supplemental parts, such recycling may be achieved by the end user through a local recycling program, sent to a local retailer for recycling or sent to the service provider for recycling. When sent to the service provider for recycling, the custom supplemental parts may also be resold, with refurbishment or remanufacturing if necessary, to a different end user having similar, though perhaps slightly different, design requirements as the original end user. For example, the shape of a plastic sheet might be altered slightly by cutting along an edge while other components are re-used without modification.

[0255] Alternatively, the service provider may separate the custom supplemental parts from multiple end users so that such parts may be recombined in different combinations to meet the design requirements of a new end user. Another recycling route that may be used by the service provider or fabricator is to have the received parts enter a recycling stream in which the parts reenter a manufacturing stream at a raw material stage where they are reformed into a new shape or part. The materials used for corner braces, the plastic sheet, or the edging may be chosen to optimize certain characteristics, depending on the part and end user design choices. It is preferred that the materials used for each part are chosen so that each part may be reused, recycled or remanufactured.

[0256] For use as corner braces, supports, or posts, materials having sufficient stiffness while providing the supplemental window mechanical stability are desirable. As the custom supplemental parts may be exposed to sunlight for extended periods, ultraviolet stabilizers can be added to the materials to maintain optical and mechanical properties or materials with inherent stability to ultraviolet and visible light may be chosen. Suitable materials for the plastic sheet or edging include, polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene terephthalate glycol-modified, a copolyester such as PET to which cyclohexane dimethanol has been introduced, acrylic such as polymethylmethacrylate, polyvinyl chloride, cellulose acetate, or polycarbonate as well as ultraviolet stabilized polypropylene or polyethylene. Flexible glass may also be suitable for use as a sheet material.

[0257] Plastic materials that may be useful for one or more of the supplemental window components may include vinyl, such as polyvinyl chloride or acrylic, polyethylene,

polypropylene, or polycarbonate. When polycarbonate is used, polycarbonates may include those that are made by reacting carbon dioxide with organic compounds such as epoxides.

[0258] For use as edge seal material, materials that are also flexible and easily bent and shaped are preferred. For example, polyethylene terephthalate may be used in a thickness range of approximately 3 to 8 mil to allow for on site adjustment of the edge seal by the spring, though a larger thickness may be used if no adjustment capability is required. If the supplemental window apparatus is used to provide protection of the window pane from potentially destructive forces, edging material thickness up to that of the sheet thickness may be beneficial as well, as destructive forces may be dissipated through deformation of the edge seal as well as deformation of the sheet. If transparency of the window opening is desired, materials having relatively high transparency, clarity and gloss as well as low haze are useful in the present invention. For use as spring material, polyethylene terephthalate strip and ring in a thickness range, respectively, of approximately 10 to 60 mil and approximately 5 to 20 mil has been found to yield acceptable results. For use as infiltration blocker material, a transparent, flexible non-porous material may be used such as polyethylene terephthalate in a thickness range of approximately 2 to 10 mil.

[0259] Additionally, the plastic sheet, edge seal and/or infiltration blocker may comprise other materials dispersed within it or in the form of layers. For example, a plastic sheet, edge seal or infiltration blocker comprising other materials is particularly useful when emissivity, transmittance, absorptance and/or reflectance control is desired. One type of such material may be the addition of a laminate, for example a multilayer laminate comprising an infrared reflective layer and a scratch resistant layer such as those found in currently available window films. Such sheets, edge seals or infiltration blockers may include materials such as transparent plastic that has been metalized or dyed, or may comprise ceramic (inorganic oxides such as tin oxide or indium oxide, or metal hexaboride or metal nitride or metal oxynitride or metal silicide, preferably less than 200 nm in diameter, more preferably less than 100 nm in diameter) film laminates that are applied as a thin layer to transparent sheets. Such materials may also act as a filter for reflecting most ultraviolet and/or infrared wavelengths while allowing transmission of visible light. When used on sheet materials, ultraviolet and/or infrared reflecting materials may be on either the interior or exterior side of the sheet material when the supplemental window apparatus is mounted. When the supplemental window apparatus is mounted, it is beneficial for ultraviolet reflecting or absorbing materials to be located on the exterior side of the sheet material to inhibit ultraviolet degradation of the sheet material. Scratch resistant layers are beneficially exposed and used on side of the sheet opposite the window pane. For the purpose of laser welding, the plastic sheet or edging may comprise an infrared absorber near the joining surface of one of the parts to be welded. For interior use, fire and/or smoke resistant additives or cap layers may be used.

[0260] Alternatively, the plastic sheet and/or edging may comprise materials that control the visible light transmitted for effecting privacy purposes. When using emissivity or reflectivity control layers or treatments, the sheet may be mounted on the interior or exterior side of the window pane to provide the surface treatment location that provides optimal energy savings. For example, during cold weather seasons, mounting a low-e or infrared reflective material to the interior of the pane is preferred, while during hot weather seasons it is preferable to mount the low-e or infrared reflective material to the exterior of the pane. Incorporation of such low-e or infrared reflective materials may be accomplished by application or lamination of a multilayer laminate to a sheet material, where the multilayer laminate contains one or more low-e or infrared reflective layers and an adhesive layer that may be used to adhere to a sheet material. Such multilayer laminates may commonly be obtained as window films in which a plastic compatible adhesive for bonding to a sheet material has been substituted for the commonly used adhesives compatible for bonding to glass. Alternatively, such application or lamination of low-e or infrared reflective layers may occur with adhesive pre-applied to the sheet material or applied during a lamination process.

[0261] The plastic sheet may also have printing on the portion through which the window pane is visible. Such printing may include logos, decals or figures for desired aesthetic purposes, or line patterns, such as those used to inhibit bird strikes on the window. For plastic sheet parts, mechanical, optical and thermal conduction properties of the sheet may be optimized in different ways depending upon the end user product choices. When used on the exterior of the original window, high impact resistance may be desirable. When packaged for delivery to an end user, the plastic sheet may have a protective liner to guard against scratches or a more rigid protector, such as cardboard, that can also act to keep the sheet flat during mounting. Keeping the sheet flat at the time of mounting may help to reduce stresses on supplemental window apparatus attachment locations.

[0262] In the foregoing, use of expressions such as "comprise", "include", "incorporate", "is", "are", "have", "contain" are not intended to be exclusive, namely such expressions are to be construed to allow other unspecified items also to be present. Reference to the singular is to include reference to the plural and vice versa. In the accompanying claims, numerals included within parentheses (if any) are for assisting understanding of the claims and are not intended to influence claim scope.

[0263] The terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of the invention. As used herein, the singular forms "a", "an" and "the" are intended to include the plural forms as well, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. It will be further understood that the terms "comprises" and/or

"comprising," when used in this specification, specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps, operations, elements, and/or components, but do not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps, operations, elements, components, and/or groups thereof.

[0264] The corresponding structures, materials, acts, and equivalents of all means or step plus function elements in the claims below are intended to include any structure, material, or act for performing the function in combination with other claimed elements as specifically claimed. The description of the present invention has been presented for purposes of illustration and description, but is not intended to be exhaustive or limited to the invention in the form disclosed. As numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art, it is intended that the invention not be limited to the limited number of embodiments described herein. Accordingly, it will be appreciated that all suitable variations, modifications and equivalents may be resorted to, falling within the spirit and scope of the present invention. The embodiments were chosen and described in order to best explain the principles of the invention and the practical application, and to enable others of ordinary skill in the art to understand the invention for various embodiments with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated.




 
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