Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
FROZEN CONFECTION PRODUCT PACKAGING
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/229204
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention provides a frozen confection product comprising a frozen confection and a flexible wrapper, wherein the inner material of the wrapper has a high water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) and a subsequent material has a low water vapour transmission rate (WVTR). The use of the frozen confection product reduces the amount of frost present on the surface of a frozen confection during storage.

Inventors:
ORDEGNO MONICA (GB)
Application Number:
PCT/EP2018/065833
Publication Date:
December 20, 2018
Filing Date:
June 14, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
UNILEVER PLC (GB)
UNILEVER NV (NL)
CONOPCO INC D/B/A UNILEVER (US)
International Classes:
A23G9/26; A23G9/50; B32B15/12; B32B27/10; B32B27/32; B32B27/36; B65D75/46; B65D85/78
Domestic Patent References:
WO2016184818A12016-11-24
WO2011004156A22011-01-13
WO1984000734A11984-03-01
WO2011004156A22011-01-13
Foreign References:
US8043674B22011-10-25
EP2589547A12013-05-08
US20120138670A12012-06-07
EP0887026A11998-12-30
US2999758A1961-09-12
EP1449790A12004-08-25
US2999758A1961-09-12
US3003884A1961-10-10
Other References:
C. CLARKE: "The Science of Ice Cream", 2004, RSC, pages: 100 - 102
JENKINS; HARRINGTON: "Packaging Foods with Plastics", TECHNOMIC PUBLISHING CO. INC.
C. CLARKE: "The Science of Ice Cream", 2004, RSC, pages: 92
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
TURNER, Felicity, Margaret, Mary (GB)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1 A frozen confection product comprising a frozen confection and a flexible flow-wrap wrapper, wherein the flexible flow-wrap wrapper comprises an inner material and at least one subsequent material, wherein the inner material has a water vapour transmission rate of at least 300 gnr2 per 24 hr, the subsequent material has a water vapour transmission rate of at most 300 gnr2 per 24 hr; wherein water vapour transmission rate is measured according to test method: ASTM 1249-13 at 38 °C and 90% humidity, the frozen confection is adjacent to the inner material and the flexible flow-wrap wrapper is closed or sealed.

2 A frozen confection product according to claim 1 , wherein the inner material comprises a cellulose material with a weight of from 60 to 120 gnr2.

3 A frozen confection product according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the inner material is a cellulose material selected from the group consisting of paper.

4 A frozen confection product according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein one subsequent material is selected from the group consisting of a polymer material, one or more metals, a coating material, lacquer and clay.

5 A frozen confection product according to claims 1 to 4, wherein the subsequent material is a polymer material selected from the group consisting of polypropylene, polyethylene and polyethylene terephthalate.

6 A frozen confection product according to claims 1 to 5, wherein the flexible wrapper is a material selected from the group consisting of laminated polypropylene-paper, laminated polyethylene-paper and laminated polyethylene terephthalate-paper.

7 A frozen confection product according to any one of claims 4 to 6, wherein the subsequent material that is a coating material is in contact with the inner material and a second subsequent material. A frozen confection product according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the flexible flow-wrap wrapper has a thickness of from 10 μηη to 70 μηη. A frozen confection product according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the frozen confection composition is selected from the group consisting of water ice, milk-ice cream, water-ice cream, ice cream, frozen yoghurt, sorbet and mixtures thereof. A frozen confection product according to any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the outer surface of the frozen confection comprises from 30 wt% to 99 wt% water, A method for the manufacture of a frozen confection product comprising a flexible flow-wrap wrapper and a frozen confection according to claims 1 to 10 comprising the steps of:

a Providing a flexible wrapper;

b Shaping the flexible wrapper of a. into a sleeve;

c Placing a frozen confection on the surface of the inner material of the sleeve of step b.; and

d Sealing or closing the sleeve of step c. wherein the frozen confection is present within the sealed or closed flexible wrapper material;

wherein the flexible wrapper is prepared by a process selected from the group consisting of: adhesive lamination; extrusion lamination; extrusion coating; and coating of an inner material.

Description:
Frozen Confection Product Packaging

Field of the invention A frozen confection product comprising a frozen confection and a flexible wrapper, wherein the inner material of the flexible wrapper has a high water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) and the subsequent material has a low water vapour transmission rate (WVTR). The use of the flexible wrapper for reduction of frost present on the surface of the frozen confection, in particular, upon storage.

Background of the invention

Frozen confections are typically required to be storage stable for up to 24 months at approximately -18 °C to achieve satisfactory quality standards. A typical problem that reduces the storage stability and consequently shelf-life of frozen confections is moisture accumulation on the surface of the frozen confection, typically called frost. Frost may form on the surface of frozen confections through accumulation and crystallisation of moisture on the surface, this moisture may originate from the atmosphere surrounding the frozen confection or from moisture migration from the frozen confection itself. Several solutions have been provided in order to reduce the formation of frost on the surface of frozen confections or chilled food products.

In order to reduce or prevent frost formation resulting from water migration through the flexible packaging material itself, a flexible wrapper material with a low water vapour transmission rate (WVTR), also known as moisture vapour transmission rate (MVTR), such as a monolayer polypropylene film, is typically used as a flexible wrapper packaging material for frozen confections. Examples of such monolayer polypropylene film wrappers include the current Twister® and Solero ® frozen confection wrappers. Additionally, or alternatively, an inert gas such as nitrogen, or a mix of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, may be introduced into the packaging prior to sealing. The introduction of an inert gas or mix of gasses reduces and/or replaces any moisture present within the atmosphere during the packaging process; consequently, the production of frost on the surface of the frozen food is reduced further. Such a process is exemplified in EP 1 449 790 A1 . This solution appears to solve the problem of frost forming on the frozen confection within sealed packaging that contains moisture within the sealed

atmosphere of the packaging. An alternative solution to reduce frost forming on the surface of frozen confections is to reduce the dehydration of the frozen confection. Dehydration of the frozen confection and the subsequent formation of frost on the surface of the confection occurs through migration of water contained in the frozen confection to the surface of the confection. US 2,999,758 discloses an ice cream carton comprising a sheet of unwaxed paperboard laminated to a barrier material. The paperboard lines the inner surface of the finished carton and demonstrates improved storage stability of the ice cream. The improved storage stability arises from the decreased dehydration of the high moisture content frozen confection compared to the same product stored in a carton with a waxed paperboard inner surface. It was observed that the unwaxed paperboard cartons demonstrated limited absorption of moisture from the ice cream and a reduction in the amount of food clinging to the surfaces of the paperboard. It should be noted that the paperboard imparts sufficient strength to make the cartons self- supporting and has a weight of between 60-250 pounds per ream.

There remains a need to provide a flexible wrapper suitable for the storage of frozen confections that reduces the amount of frost forming on the surface of the frozen confection, in particular, high moisture content frozen confections. It is an advantage if the flexible wrapper is suitable for individual frozen confection servings, such as stick- based products, and that the manufacture and use of the wrapper is commercially feasible.

Summary of the invention A frozen confection product comprising a frozen confection and a flexible wrapper, wherein the inner material of the flexible wrapper has a high water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) and the subsequent material or materials have a low water vapour transmission rate (WVTR). The use of the flexible wrapper for reduction of frost present on the surface of the frozen confection, in particular, upon storage. The present invention demonstrates that a significant reduction in the amount of frost on the surface of a frozen confection has been observed when the frozen confection is stored in a flexible wrapper comprising an inner and one or more subsequent materials. The maximum amount of frost observed upon storage, at both constant and variable temperatures, was 16% of the total frost present. In comparison, frozen confections stored under the same conditions in a polymer only flexible wrapper were observed to have up to 83 % of the total frost present on the surface of the frozen confection. Such a significant reduction frost present on the surface of the frozen confection significantly improves the storage stability (shelf life) and quality of the frozen confection.

Detailed description of the invention

A frozen confection product comprising a frozen confection and a flexible wrapper, wherein the flexible wrapper comprises an inner material and one or more subsequent materials, wherein the inner material has a water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) of at least 300 gnr 2 per 24 hr and a subsequent material with a water vapour transmission rate of at most 300 gnr 2 per 24 hr.

Typical conditions of measuring WVTR include 38 °C and 90% humidity, according to test method: ASTM 1249-13. ASTM is an international standards developing organization and can be accessed at www.astm.org.

A flexible wrapper comprising an inner material and one or more subsequent materials, wherein the inner material has a water vapour transmission rate of at least 300 gnr 2 per 24 hr and is bonded by lamination, optionally with an adhesive, to a subsequent material, wherein the subsequent material has a water vapour transmission rate of at most 300 gnr 2 per 24 hr. An example of a suitable lamination process is described in WO201 1/004156, page 12 lines 8-15. A flexible wrapper comprising an inner material and one or more subsequent materials, wherein the inner material has a water vapour transmission rate of at least 300 gnr 2 per 24 hr and is coated with a subsequent material, wherein the subsequent material has a water vapour transmission rate of at most 300 gnr 2 per 24 hr. An example of a suitable coating process is described in US 3,003,884, col. 3, lines 55-58. The frozen confection product may further comprise a gaseous substance. Gaseous substance means a composition comprising one or more gasses; i.e. a composition in the gas phase. The gas is selected from the group consisting of: air, one or more inert gases and mixtures thereof. Inert gases may include for example: nitrogen or carbon dioxide.

Inner material means the material on the inside of the flexible wrapper, i.e. the material comprising the surface of the flexible wrapper that is adjacent to the frozen confection.

Subsequent material means the material of the flexible wrapper that is bonded to or coated on to the inner material. Alternatively, there may be several subsequent materials present in the flexible wrapper, in such an embodiment, each additional subsequent material is bonded to or coated on to the surface of an adjacent, subsequent material.

Outer material means the material of the flexible wrapper that is the subsequent material bonded to or coated onto either an inner material or one or more adjacent subsequent materials and is exposed to the external atmosphere; i.e. the material comprising the external surface of the wrapper.

Inner materials; i.e. materials with a high water vapour transmission rate (WVTR), means materials with a WVTR of at least 300 gnr 2 per 24 hr, preferably at least 400 gnr 2 per 24 hr, from 300 to 10,000 gnr 2 per 24 hr, from 1 ,300 to 1 ,600 gnr 2 per 24 hr. Examples of materials with a high WVTR include cellulose materials. Examples of materials with a high water vapour transmission rate include cellulose materials selected from the group consisting of paper. Examples of paper include 'Emelcar 1-5' and 'Carlux OB' supplied by Cham Paper Group (http://www.cham-group.com): Food, Non-Food, Pharma/Flexible Packaging Papers and Gerbier HD papers from Munksjo (http://www.munksjo.com).

The amount of cellulose material present as the inner material can be defined by its weight per square meter. The amount of cellulose present is in an amount of from 35 gnr 2 to 120 gnr 2 , preferably from 40 to 80 gnr 2 , more preferably from 60 to 70 gnr 2 . Subsequent materials; i.e. materials with a low water vapour transmission rate (WVTR), means materials with a WVTR of at most 300 gnr 2 per 24 hr; from 0 to 300 gnr 2 per 24 hr; from 0.1 gnr 2 to 100 gnr 2 per 24 hr; from 0.2 gnr 2 to 30 gnr 2 per 24 hr; from 0.3 to 20 gnr 2 per 24 hr; from 5 gnr 2 to 15 gnr 2 per; and from 5 to 10 gnr 2 per 24 hr. Examples of materials with a low water vapour transmission rate include materials selected from one or more of the group consisting of polymer material; metals; and coating material.

Polymer material is selected from the group consisting of polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The polymer material may be uni- or bi-axially oriented, for example bi-axially oriented polypropylene, typically

abbreviated to the name BOPP.

The polymer material may comprise a treated surface on one surface of the polymer material, and a heat sealable layer on the opposing surface of the polymer material [see www.jindal.com for descriptions of examples provided below]. The polymer materials with a treated surface and a heat sealable layer may be used in the preparation of the flexible wrapper by a lamination process with the inner material. Examples include polypropylene polymer materials for use in laminating processes, i.e. BOPP films, such as the Bicor range of materials supplied by Jindal (www.jindalfilms.com); for example: 15MB400 and OPPalyte™ 33ICE. The treated surface of the polymer material may be a metal and may be in the form of a metallized polymer material, for example, the polymer material may be a metallized film. Examples of metalized films include: 'MettalyteTM', i.e. metallized OPP, PP or PE film and Metallyte BOPP 15MM488 and 20MM480 available from Jindal (www.jindalfilms.com). The metal comprises aluminium or the metal is aluminium. The aluminium may be coated onto the polymer by a physical vapour deposition process.

The polymer material for use in lamination to the inner material has a thickness of at least 8 μηη and at the most 40 μηη at least 10 μηη and at the most 40 μηη; preferably between about 15 μηη and about 33 μηι; preferably between 15 μηη and 33 μηη.

A flexible wrapper comprising an inner material with a high water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) and a subsequent material with a low water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) wherein the inner and subsequent materials that are bonded together may be prepared by either adhesive lamination or extrusion lamination. Examples of a flexible wrapper prepared by lamination include: laminated polypropylene-paper (PP paper) and laminated polyethylene-paper (PE paper). In an embodiment the flexible wrapper is prepared by adhesive lamination and comprises a BOPP-paper wrapper comprising of BOPP (20 μηι), adhesive (3 gsm) and paper (60 gnr 2 ).

In another embodiment, the flexible wrapper is prepared by extrusion lamination and comprises a BOPP-paper wrapper comprising of PP (20 μηι), PP (15 gnr 2 ) and paper (60 gnr 2 ).

The flexible wrapper may also be prepared by coating an inner material with a polymer material or coating material.

Examples of resins that may be used to form a polymer material that is a subsequent material bonded to an inner material prepared by an extrusion coating process include DOW™ LDPE 722 - TDS (www.dow.com) and Borealis Daploy™ WF420HMS (www.borealisgroup.com).

The polymer material is present in an amount from 10 gnr 2 to 40 gnr 2 , more preferably from 15 gnr 2 to 20 gnr 2 .

The coating material is commonly known as a 'high barrier moisture resistant coating material'. Such a coating material that may be used to form a subsequent material bonded to the inner material include; for example: Aquaseal X2258, available from Paramelt (www.paramelt.com); and Joncryl DFC3030 available from BASF (www.basf.com). The coating material is present from 5 gnr 2 to 40 gnr 2 , more preferably from 10 gnr 2 to 20 gnr 2 .

A subsequent material may also be the coating material of a coated inner material; e.g. the coating of a coated cellulose material. The coating material is selected from the group consisting of metal, lacquer and clay. Examples of coated inner material include: metalized paper, lacquer coated paper and clay coated paper.

Where the coating material is metal, the metal is present from 0.1 gnr 2 to 10 gnr 2 , preferably from 1 gnr 2 to 8 gnr 2 .

Where the coating material is lacquer, the metal is present from 30 gnr 2 to 55 gnr 2 , preferably from 35 gnr 2 to 50 gnr 2 . In a preferred embodiment, the flexible wrapper is paper coated with lacquer; wherein the lacquer behaves as a barrier against moisture, grease and water. The thickness of the flexible wrapper is from 48 to 58 μηη and the lacquer is present in an amount of from 42 to 45 gnr 2 . The term 'bonded' means that two materials are attached for example by either by either adhesive lamination or extrusion lamination or coating.

Both lamination (adhesive and extrusion) and coating processes result in a layered structure of the inner material and one or more subsequent materials. For example, the laminated process results in an inner material on one surface of the wrapper, and a subsequent material on the opposed surface of the material, optionally bonded to or coated with a further subsequent material.

The invention further comprises an outer material. The outer material may be any of the subsequent materials of the flexible wrapper. Preferably, the outer material is a lacquer or a polymer material as defined above.

The term surface may be interchangeable with the term face. A flexible wrapper wherein the wrapper material has a thickness of from 10 μηη to 70 μηη, preferably from 15 μηη to 60 μηη.

Flexible wrapper is intended to mean a flexible flow-wrapped wrapper as described and prepared in C. Clarke The Science of Ice Cream', RSC 2004, pages 100 - 102. A flexible wrapper is prepared by folding and sealing the flexible wrapper material in a flow wrap process, utilizing machines such as a: horizontal form-fill-seal machine, Jenkins and Harrington, Packaging Foods with Plastics, Technomic Publishing Co. Inc. A sealant may be present on the surface of the inner material positioned substantially where the seal is to be formed. Sealant materials may be selected from the group consisting of: patterned cold seal and patterned heat seal sealants, e.g.: liofol, available from Henkel. An example of a suitable pattern sealing process is described in WO201 1/004156, page 12 lines 16- 23. A frozen confection that is wrapped in a flexible flow-wrap wrapper does not typically correspond closely in shape to the shape of the flexible flow-wrap wrapper, i.e. the wrapper is not closely aligned to the contours of the frozen confection, such as for example a wafer cone frozen confection wrapped in a conical wrapper, or a frozen confection that is shaped by the contours of the packaging itself. Flexible flow-wrap wrappers are typically rectangular (from a front perspective view) and may comprise any shape of frozen confection, such as a 'rocket lolly' which has a rocket shape (tapered in sections from the stick end of the frozen confection to the tip-end), or a tear-drop/oval shape, such as the 'Solero Exotic' frozen confection; or a rectangle that has rounded corners at one or both ends, or a conical shape with the smallest diameter of the cone at the tip end of the frozen confection, such as 'fruttare' products. All shapes are described as a 2-D view from the front perspective of the frozen confection or wrapper. Front perspective means the 2-D face of the frozen confection or flexible flow-wrapper with the greatest surface area. The flexible flow-wrap wrapper behaves as an envelope to enclose the frozen confection, rather than a wrapper that is designed to be closely aligned to the contours of the frozen confection. A flexible flow-wrap wrapper in the form of an envelope means that the frozen confection and any gaseous substance present are encased within the sealed or closed flexible flow-wrap wrapper.

Frozen confections within flexible flow-wrap wrappers are typically able to move in any direction within the flexible flow-wrap wrapper. The longest length of the frozen confection (excluding any stick present) is typically from 20 to 80% of the longest length of the flow-wrap wrapper of the frozen confection product. Preferably, from 25 to 75% of the longest length of the flow-wrap wrapper of the frozen confection product. More preferably, from 30 to 70% of the longest length of the flow-wrap wrapper of the frozen confection product. The longest length of the frozen confection and the longest length of the flexible flow-wrap wrapper are lengths measured in the same linear direction of the frozen confection product. Frozen confection product means a frozen confection and a flexible wrapper. Preferably the wrapper is sealed or closed and comprises the frozen confection within the sealed or closed wrapper. Preferably the wrapper is a flow-wrap wrapper; i.e.: prepared by a flow- wrap process. A method for the manufacture of a frozen confection product comprising a flexible wrapper and a frozen confection using a flexible packaging converting process comprising the steps of:

a Providing a flexible wrapper;

b Shaping the flexible wrapper of a. into a sleeve;

c Placing a frozen confection on the surface of the inner material of the sleeve of step b.

d Sealing or closing the sleeve of step c. wherein the frozen confection is present within the sealed or closed flexible wrapper material;

wherein the flexible wrapper is prepared from an inner material and one or more subsequent materials by a process selected from the group consisting of: adhesive lamination; extrusion lamination; extrusion coating; and coating of an inner material.

Frozen confection means: a sweet-tasting fabricated foodstuff intended for consumption in the frozen state (i.e. under conditions wherein the temperature of the foodstuff is less than 0 0 C, and preferably under conditions wherein the foodstuff comprises significant amounts of ice). The frozen confection composition is selected from the group consisting of water ice, milk-ice cream, water-ice cream, ice cream, frozen yoghurt, sorbet and mixtures thereof. Examples of frozen confection include: the 'Rocket Lolly', 'Solero Exotic', 'Mini Milk', 'Fruit Smoothie', 'Twister' and 'Mivvi/Split', available from Unilever®. An experimental method for preparing frozen water ices, such as the core of the Twister product is provided in C. Clarke 'The Science of Ice Cream' RSC 2004, pages 92 ('fill and suck' method) and 177 (ingredients and method). The outer surface of the frozen confection comprises greater than 30% water, greater than 40% water, greater than 50% water, greater than 60% water, greater than 70% water. The outer surface of the frozen confection comprises at the most 80% water, at the most 90% water, at the most 95% water, at the most 99% water. The outer surface of the frozen confection comprises from 30 wt% to 99 wt% water, from 40 wt% to 95 wt% water, from 50 wt% to 90 wt% water, and from 60 wt% to 80wt % water.

Frost means moisture that accumulates on the surface of the frozen confection. The moisture may originate from the atmosphere surrounding the frozen confection or from migration of moisture from the body of the frozen confection towards and onto the surface of the frozen confection. Frost may be ice.

Use of a flexible wrapper according to the present invention for the storage of a frozen confection at about -18 °C. Use of a flexible wrapper according to the present invention for the storage of a frozen confection at about -20 °C.

Use of a flexible wrapper for the reduction of frost on a frozen confection surface, wherein the frost present on the surface of the frozen confection is from 2 wt% to 5 wt% after 3 weeks of storage at about -18 °C; from 2.25 wt% to 4 wt% after 3 weeks of storage at about -18 °C; from 2.5 wt% to 3 wt% after 3 weeks of storage at about -18 °C.

Use of a flexible wrapper for the reduction of frost on a frozen confection surface, wherein the frost present on the surface of the frozen confection is from 0 wt% to 10 wt% after 6 weeks of storage at about -18 °C; from 0 wt% to 7.5 wt% after 6 weeks of storage at about -18 °C; from 0 wt% to 5 wt% after 6 weeks of storage at about -18 °C; preferably form 0 wt% to 4 wt% after 6 weeks of storage at about -18 °C.

Use of a flexible wrapper for the reduction of frost on a frozen confection surface, wherein the frost present on the surface of the frozen confection is from 0 wt% to 15 wt% after 14 weeks of storage at about -18 °C; from 0 wt% to 13 wt% after 14 weeks of storage at about -18 °C; from 0 wt% to 1 1 wt% after 14 weeks of storage at about -18 °C; preferably from 0 wt% to 10 wt% after 14 weeks of storage at about -18 °C. Use of a flexible wrapper wherein the frozen confection may be stored at about -18 °C for 6 months or greater, 9 months or greater, 12 months or greater, 18 months or greater, 24 months or greater and the percentage of frost present on the surface of the frozen confection is from 0 wt% to 50 wt% of the total frost present.

About -18 °C means the storage temperature of a commercial or domestic freezer. The storage temperature of a commercial or domestic freezer may vary from between -15 °C to -30 °C. It is also intended that 'about -18 °C means the average storage temperature experienced by the frozen confection; for example, where fluctuation in temperature is experienced due to opening and shutting of freezer/storage unit doors or due to transportation of the frozen confection between distribution sites and points (centres) for sale of the frozen confections to customers.

Use of a flexible wrapper for the reduction of frost on a frozen confection surface, wherein the percentage of frost present on the surface of the frozen confection is from 0 wt% to 5 wt% after 3 weeks of storage at about -20 °C; from 0 wt% to 4 wt% after 3 weeks of storage at about -20 °C; from 0 wt% to 3 wt% after 3 weeks of storage at about -20 °C; wherein the temperature of storage may fluctuate by up to about 2 °C. Use of a flexible wrapper for the reduction of frost on a frozen confection surface, wherein the percentage of frost present on the surface of the frozen confection is from 0 wt% to 10 wt% after 6 weeks of storage at about -20 °C; from 0 wt% to 7.5 wt% after 6 weeks of storage at about -20 °C; from 0 wt% to 5 wt% after 6 weeks of storage at about -20 °C; preferably form 0 wt% to 4 wt% after 6 weeks of storage at about -20 °C; wherein the temperature of storage may fluctuate by up to about 2 °C.

Use of a flexible wrapper for the reduction of frost on a frozen confection surface, wherein the percentage of frost present on the surface of the frozen confection is from 0 wt% to 15 wt% after 14 weeks of storage at about -20 °C; from 0 wt% to 13 wt% after 14 weeks of storage at about -20 °C; from 0 wt% to 1 1 wt% after 14 weeks of storage at about -20 °C; preferably from 0 wt% to 10 wt% after 14 weeks of storage at about -20 °C; wherein the temperature of storage may fluctuate by up to about 2 °C. Total frost present means the amount of the frost present on the surface of the frozen confection and the frost present on the flexible wrapper. Total frost present means the amount of frost present within the sealed flexible wrapper comprising a frozen confection.

Examples

General Experimental Method:

Frozen confections (Rocket Lolly, average weight 56.5 g, Unilever ®) were removed from a Visimax freezer that was maintained at about -20°C. The packaging was removed and any surface frost was removed mechanically by scraping. Surface frost was identified as being clear frozen water, free of any colour attached to the surface of the coloured frozen confection. The frozen confections were then placed in a pre-weighed flexible packaging wrapper and sealed using a horizontal form fill seal machine at room temperature to obtain frozen confection products. The frozen confection products were stored in a Visimax freezer according to the conditions provided in Examples 1 -18. After storage, the frozen confection products were removed from the Visimax freezer. The frozen confection was weighed and the wrapper was then opened at the stick end and the confection was removed. The empty wrapper and the frost contained within were weighed. The visible colourless frost was then mechanically removed from the surface of the frozen confection by scraping. The frost scraped from the surface of the frozen confection and the frozen confection after scraping were weighed

independently.

Examples 1 -6:

The general experimental method was followed. The frozen confection products were stored for a duration of 3, 6 and 14 weeks at a constant temperature of about -20 °C with a temperature fluctuation of up to about 2 °C. The frozen confection flexible wrapper used was a paper-polypropylene flexible wrapper with a thickness of 63 μηη +/- 2 μηι. Examples 7-12:

The general experimental method was followed. The frozen confection products were stored for a duration of 3, 6 and 14 weeks at a temperature of about -18 °C with a fluctuation of the temperature between 15 °C and -30 °C for short periods, mimicking the storage of frozen confection products in storage facilities at points of sale of the frozen confections to customers. The frozen confection flexible wrapper used was a paper-polypropylene flexible wrapper with a thickness of 63 μηη +/- 2 μηι.

Example 13-18 (Comparative Example):

The general experimental method was followed. The frozen confection products were stored for a duration of 3, 6 and 14 weeks at a temperature of about -18 °C with a fluctuation of the temperature between 15 °C and -30 °C for short periods, mimicking the storage of frozen confection products in storage facilities at points of sale of the frozen confections to customers. The frozen confection flexible wrapper used was a BOPP flexible wrapper with a thickness of 33 μηη.

Examples 19-21 :

The general experimental method was followed. The frozen confection products were stored for a duration of 3, 6 and 14 weeks at a constant temperature of about -18 °C with a temperature fluctuation of up to about 2 °C. The frozen confection flexible wrapper used was a paper-lacquer flexible wrapper. The thickness of the flexible wrapper is from 48 to 58 μπΊ and the lacquer is present in an amount of from 42 to 45 gnr 2 . Example 13-18 (Comparative Example):

The general experimental method was followed. The frozen confection products were stored for a duration of 3, 6 and 14 weeks at a constant temperature of about -18 °C with a temperature fluctuation of up to about 2 °C. The frozen confection flexible wrapper used was a BOPP flexible wrapper with a thickness of 33 μηη.

Table 1a: Percentage frost on frozen confection surface contained in paper- polypropylene flexible wrappers stored at -20 °C over 3, 6 and 14 weeks

(Examples 1 -6): Example Storage Wrapper Wrapper + Weight of Weight of Total frost % total % frost (weeks) (g, dry) Frozen frost on frost on wrapper frost present confection wrapper scraped and scraped present on surface after (g) from frozen from frozen in of frozen storage (g) confection confection wrapper confection

(g) (g)

1 3 2.70 58.36 0.71 0.07 0.78 91.0 9.0

2 3 2.60 61.14 1.20 0.13 1.33 90.2 9.8

3 6 2.60 59.62 1.23 0.12 1.35 91.1 8.9

4 6 2.70 62.14 1.22 0.16 1.38 88.4 11.6

5 14 2.60 54.70 2.98 0.10 3.08 96.8 3.2

6 14 2.70 58.68 1.47 0.11 1.58 93.0 7.0

Table 1 a illustrates that the total frost present in the wrapper and on the frozen

confection increases slightly over time during storage. The total weight of frost present after 3 weeks of storage was 0.78 and 1.33 g; 1.35 and 1 .38 g after 6 weeks; and 3.08 and 1 .58 g after 14 weeks. The percentage of the total frost that is present on the surface of the frozen confection is approximately consistent for examples 1 -4 and 6 (between 7.0 % and 1 1 .6 %). Table 1 b: Average weight of percentage frost on frozen confection surface contained in paper-polypropylene flexible wrapper stored at -20 °C over 3, 6 and

14 weeks (Examples 1 -6):

Example Storage Average Standard Average Weight of Standard Total % frost (weeks) Weight of frost Deviation frost scraped from Deviation weight of present on in wrapper (g) frozen confection frost (g) surface of

(g) frozen confection

1 3

0.95 0.35 0.10 0.04 1.05 9.5

2 3

3 6

1.23 0.01 0.14 0.03 1.37 10.2

4 6

5 14

2.23 1.07 0.11 0.01 2.34 4.7 The average weight of frost present on the wrapper increased from 0.95 g to 1.23 g and 2.23 g on storage duration for 3, 6 and 14 weeks respectively. In comparison, for the same storage duration, the average weight of frost on the surface of the frozen confection remained approximately the same (0.10 g, 0.14 g and 0.1 1 g).

The percentage of the total frost that is present on the surface of the frozen confection after 3, 6 and 14 weeks of storage was 9.5 %, 10.2 % and 4.7 %. The percentage of the total frost present on the surface of the frozen confection for Examples 1 -4 was approximately consistent.

Table 2a: Percentage frost on frozen confection surface contained in paper- polypropylene flexible wrapper stored at -18 °C over 3, 6 and 14 weeks

(Examples 7-12).

In correspondence with Table 1 a, Table 2a illustrates that the presence of total frost increases over time during storage; however, the increase observed in Table 2a is greater than the values in Table 1 a. The observed greater increase in total frost would appear to correspond to the greater fluctuation in storage temperature experienced by Examples 7-12 when compared to Examples 1 -6. The total weight of frost present after 3 weeks of storage was 5.07 g and 3.23 g and increased to 9.62 g and 1 1.23 g after 14 weeks. Table 2b: Average weight of percentage frost on frozen confection surface contained in paper-polypropylene flexible wrapper stored at -18 °C over 3, 6 and

14 weeks (Examples 7-12).

In correspondence with Table 1 b, Table 2b illustrates that the average weight of frost present on the wrapper increases from 4.05 g to 5.86 g and 9.38 g for a storage

duration of 3, 6 and 14 weeks respectively.

In contrast to Table 1 b, Table 2b illustrates the average weight of frost on the surface of the frozen confection increases from 0.1 1 to 0.21 and 1 .04 for a storage duration of

3, 6 and 14 weeks respectively. The percentage of the total frost that is present on the surface of the frozen confection increases after a storage duration of 3, 6 and 14 weeks from 2.6 % to 3.5 % and 10.0

% of the total frost present in the frozen confection product.

Table 3a: Percentage frost on frozen confection surface contained in a BOPP

flexible wrapper stored at -18 °C over 3, 6 and 14 weeks (Examples 13-18).

Sample Storage Wrapper Wrapper + Weight of Weight of Total frost % total % frost

(weeks) (g, dry) Frozen frost on frost scraped on wrapper and frost present on confection after wrapper from frozen scraped from present surface of storage (g) (g) confection (g) frozen in frozen confection (g) wrapper confection 13 3 0.80 58.80 6.10 0.10 6.20 98.4 1.6

14 3 0.80 55.40 4.10 0.30 4.40 93.0 7.0

15 6 0.70 53.80 3.60 3.30 6.90 52.0 48.0

16 6 1.00 56.00 4.90 4.30 9.20 53.0 47.0

17 14 0.90 56.50 1.70 7.80 9.50 17.9 82.1

18 14 0.80 54.10 1.70 8.80 10.50 16.2 83.8

In correspondence with Tables 1 a and 2a, Table 3a illustrates that the presence of total frost increases over time during storage. Similarly to Table 2a, the total weight of frost present after 3 weeks of storage was 6.20 and 4.40 g and increased to 9.50 g and 10.50 g after 14 weeks.

Table 3a illustrates that the percentage of the total frost present on the surface of the frozen confection significantly increases from 1.6 and 7.0 wt% to 82.1 and 83.8 wt% with increase in storage duration from 3 to 14 weeks. The increase in the percentage of the frost present on the surface of the frozen confection for Examples 13-18 is much greater (83.1 % after 14 weeks) in comparison to the Examples 7-12 (16.0 % after 14 weeks).

Table 3b: Average Weight Average weight of percentage frost on frozen

confection surface contained in a BOPP flexible wrapper stored at -18 °C over 3, 6 and 14 weeks (Examples 13-18).

Sample Storage Average Standard Average Weight of Standard Total % frost present (weeks) Weight of frost Deviation frost scraped from Deviation weight of on surface of in wrapper (g) frozen confection frost (g) frozen

(g) confection

13 3

5.10 1.41 0.20 0.14 5.3 3.8

14 3

15 6

4.25 0.92 3.80 0.71 8.05 47.2

16 6

17 14

1.70 0.00 8.30 0.71 10 83.0 ln contrast to Examples 1 -12, (Tables 1 b and 2b), Examples 13-18 (Table 3b) illustrate that the average weight of frost present on the surface of the frozen confection significantly increases from 0.20 g to 3.80 g and 8.30 g for a storage duration of 3, 6 and 14 weeks, respectively. This increase corresponds to a percentage increase of frost on the surface of a frozen confection of from 3.8 % to 47.2 % and 83.0 % for a storage duration of 3, 6 and 14 weeks, respectively.

Table 4: Percentage frost on frozen confection surface contained in paper- lacquer flexible wrappers stored at -18 °C over 3, 6 and 14 weeks (Examples 1 -6):

Table 4 illustrates that the total frost present in the paper-lacquer flexible wrapper and on the frozen confection increases over time during storage from 5.2 g to 6.2 g and 9.7 g. The percentage of the frost present on the frozen confection (3.8 %, 1 1 .3 % and 7.2 %) is significantly less than the frost present in the flexible wrapper (96.2 %, 88.7 % and 92.8 %).

Table 5: Percentage frost on frozen confection surface contained in paper-BOPP flexible wrappers stored at -18 °C over 3, 6 and 14 weeks (Examples 1 -6):

Example Storage Weight of Weight of Total frost % total % frost

(weeks) frost on frost on wrapper frost present on

wrapper (g) scraped and present in surface of

from frozen scraped wrapper frozen

confection from frozen confection

(g) confection

(g)

22 3 4.9 0.2 5.1 96.1 3.9 23 6 4.1 3.5 7.6 53.9 46.1

24 14 3.6 8.3 11.9 30.3 69.7

Table 5 illustrates that the total frost present in the flexible wrapper and on the frozen confection increases over time during storage from 5.2 g to 7.6 g and 1 1 .9 g. The percentage of the frost present on the frozen confection (3.9 %, 46.1 % and 69.7%) is significantly greater upon storage than the frost present in the flexible wrapper (96.1 %, 53.9 % and 69.7 %). Additionally, the amount of frost present on the frozen confection with the BOPP flexible wrapper (3.9 %, 46.1 % and 69.7%) is significantly greater upon storage than the frost present on the frozen confection with the paper-lacquer flexible wrappers (3.8 %, 1 1.3 % and 7.2 %).

Figure 1 illustrates the average frost present on the surface of a frozen confection (labelled: 'on product surface') or in the wrapper (labelled: 'in wrapper') over time for Examples 7-12 (paper-polypropylene flexible wrapper) and Examples 13-18 (BOPP flexible wrapper). It can be seen that the weight of frost present on the surface of the frozen confection is significantly less for the frozen confection contained in the paper- polypropylene (Paper) flexible wrapper (Examples 7-12), compared to the frozen confection contained in the polymer-only flexible wrapper (BOPP) (Examples 13-18).

Figure 1 illustrates that the average percentage of frost present on the surface of the frozen confection over time during storage in a paper-polypropylene (Paper) flexible wrapper increases from 2.6% to 3.5 % and 10%. This increase is in striking contrast to the equivalent amount of frost present on the surface of the frozen confection when the frozen confection is stored in a polymer only (BOPP) flexible wrapper. The percentage of the total frost on the surface of the frozen confection over time during storage in a polymer only (BOPP) flexible wrapper increases from 3.8% to 47.2 % and 83%.

Figure 2: illustrates the frost present on the surface of a frozen confection (labelled: Paper Product') or in the wrapper (labelled: 'Paper FW) over time for Examples 19-21 (paper-lacquer flexible wrapper). It can be seen that the weight of frost present on the surface of the frozen confection is significantly less than the weight of frost present on the wrapper. Figure 3: illustrates the frost present on the surface of a frozen confection (labelled: 'BOPP Product') or in the wrapper (labelled: 'BOPP FW) over time for Examples 22-24 (BOPP flexible wrapper). It can be seen that the weight of frost present on the surface of the frozen confection is significantly more with storage duration than the weight of frost present on the wrapper.

Figures 4a and 4b: Example 1 1 : front and rear view, respectively.

Figures 5a and 5b: Example 17: front and rear view, respectively.