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Title:
GLYCOMIMETIC INHIBITORS OF THE PA-IL LECTIN, PA-IIL LECTIN OR BOTH THE LECTINS FROM PSEUDOMONAS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2007/021721
Kind Code:
A3
Abstract:
Compositions and methods are provided related to Pseudomonas bacteria. The compositions and methods may be used for diagnosis and therapy of medical conditions involving infection with Pseudomonas bacteria. Such infections include Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis. A compound useful in the present methods may be used in combination with a therapeutic agent or may be linked to a therapeutic agent. Pseudomonas bacteria may be inhibited by blocking colonization, inhibiting virulence factors, arresting growth or killing the bacteria.

Inventors:
MAGNANI JOHN L (US)
PATTON JOHN T JR (US)
SARKAR ARUN K (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2006/030993
Publication Date:
April 26, 2007
Filing Date:
August 08, 2006
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
GLYCOMIMETICS INC (US)
MAGNANI JOHN L (US)
PATTON JOHN T JR (US)
SARKAR ARUN K (US)
International Classes:
C07H17/04; A61K31/7048; A61P31/04
Domestic Patent References:
WO2004058304A12004-07-15
Foreign References:
Other References:
ACORD J ET AL: "A rapid microplate method for quantifying inhibition of bacterial adhesion to eukaryotic cells", JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGICAL METHODS, ELSEVIER, AMSTERDAM,, NL, vol. 60, no. 1, January 2005 (2005-01-01), pages 55 - 62, XP004658670, ISSN: 0167-7012
PERRET, S. ET AL.: "Structural basis for the interaction between human milk oligosaccharides and the bacterial lectin PA-IIL of Pseudomonas aeruginosa", BIOCHEMICAL JOURNAL, vol. 389, 2005, pages 325 - 332, XP002417556
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SHARKEY, Richard, G. et al. (Suite 6300 701 Fifth Avenu, Seattle Washington, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula :

wherein: where - O - separating the two rings in the formula is in an alpha or beta 1-3 linkage;

R 1 = independently selected from OH, NHAc, 6' sulfated GIcNAc, 6' carboxylated GIcNAc, GaINAc, galactose linked by an O glycosidic bond, a C glycosidic bond or an S glycosidic bond, thiodigalactoside, 6' sulfated galactose and 6' carboxylated galactose, with the proviso that three of the four R 1 are independently selected from OH and NHAc and one R 1 is not OH or NHAc;

R 2 = H, a fucose, a galactose, an arabinose, a fructose, a mannose, cyclohexane, substituted cyclohexane, tetrahydropyran, substituted tetrahydropyran, piperidine, substituted piperidine, a polyol or substituted polyol;

R 3 = (CH 2 )p, NH 2 , — CH 2 -OH, where m, n and q are independently selected from 0-1, p is 1-20, Z is N, O or S, and X is NH-C x -C 8 alkyl, C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, substituted C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, Ci-C 8 alkyl, C 6 -Ci 4 aryl, substituted C 6 -Ci 4 aryl,

C 1 -C 14 heteroaryl, substituted C 1 -C 14 heteroaryl, non-aryl C 1 -C 14 heterocycle or substituted non-aryl C 1 -C 14 heterocycle, NHCH 2 Ph, N(CH 2 Ph) 2 , NHSO 3 Na, NHCO-C 6 H 4 -COOH (ortho), NHCOPh, NHCO-C 6 H 4 -CI (para), NHCO-C 6 H 4 -OMe (para), NHCO-C 6 H 4 -NO 2 (para), NHCO-C 6 H 4 -Ph (para), NHCO-C 6 H 3 (OMe) 2 (meta, para), NHC0(2-naphthyl), NHCO-C 6 H 4 -OCH 2 Ph (para), N(CH 2 Ph)COPh, NHCOCH 2 CH 2 Ph, NHCOCHPh 2 , NHCOMe, NHCO(CyCIo-C 6 H 11 ), NHSO 2 -C 6 H 4 -Me (para), NHCONHEt, NHCONHPh, NHCOOCH 2 -C 6 H 4 -NO 2 (para), NHCOOCH 2 (2-naphthyl), or NHCOOCH 2 Ph;

R 4 = H, NHAc, -O-Lactose, substituted -O-Lactose, -O-Lactosamine, substituted -O-Lactosamine, NHAc substituted with N-glycolyl, polyethylene glycol or substituted polyethylene glycol; and

R 5 = H, NHAc, or NHAc substituted with N-glycolyl.

2. The compound or salt thereof according to claim 1 wherein R la is not OH or NHAc.

3. The compound or salt thereof according to claim 1 wherein R lb is not OH or NHAc.

4. The compound or salt thereof according to claim 1 wherein R lc is not OH or NHAc.

5. The compound or salt thereof according to claim 1 wherein R ld is not OH or NHAc.

6. The compound or salt thereof according to claim 1 wherein R la , R lb , R lc or R ld is 6' sulfated GIcNAc or 6' carboxylated GIcNAc.

7. The compound or salt thereof according to claim 1 wherein R la , R lb , R lc or R ld is galactose.

8. The compound or salt thereof according to claim 1 wherein R la , R lb , R lc or R ld is 6' sulfated galactose or 6' carboxylated galactose.

9. The compound or salt thereof according to claim 1 wherein R la , R lb , R lc or R ld is thiodigalactoside.

10. The compound or salt thereof according to claim 1, where -O- separating the two rings in the formula is in a beta 1-3 linkage.

11. The compound or salt thereof according to claim 1 wherein R 2 is fucose.

12. The compound or salt thereof according to claim 1 wherein R 3 is -CH 2 -OH.

13. The compound or salt thereof according to claim 1 wherein R 3

NH is O="^ , where X is defined according to R 3 of claim 1.

X

14. The compound or salt thereof according to claim 13 wherein X is

15. The compound or salt thereof according to claim 1 wherein R 4 is H.

16. The compound or salt thereof according to claim 1 wherein R 4 is NHAc.

17. The compound or salt thereof according to claim 1 wherein R 5 is H.

18. The compound or salt thereof according to claim 1 wherein R 5 is NHAc.

19. The compound or salt thereof according to any one of claims 1-18 wherein the compound or salt thereof is in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.

20. A conjugate comprising a therapeutic agent linked to a compound according to any one of claims 1-18.

21. The conjugate of claim 20 wherein the conjugate is in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.

22. The compound or salt thereof according to claim 1 wherein the compound is with the formula:

23. The compound or salt thereof according to claim 22 wherein the compound or salt thereof is in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.

24. A conjugate comprising a therapeutic agent linked to a compound according to claim 22.

25. The conjugate of claim 24 wherein the conjugate is in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.

26. A method of inhibiting Pseudomonas bacteria infection in a warm-blooded animal comprising administering to the animal in an amount effective to inhibit one or more lectins of the bacteria a compound comprising a compound according to claim 1.

27. The method of claim 26 wherein the compound is linked to a therapeutic agent.

28. The method of claim 26 or claim 27 wherein the compound is in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.

29. The method of claim 26 or claim 27 wherein the compound is in combination with another anti-bacterial compound.

30. The method of claim 26 wherein the bacteria are Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

31. A method of detecting Pseudomonas bacteria comprising contacting a sample with a diagnostic agent linked to a compound comprising a compound according to claim 1, under conditions sufficient for the compound to

bind to the bacteria or its lectin products if present in the sample; and detecting the agent present in the sample, wherein the presence of agent in the sample is indicative of the presence of Pseudomonas bacteria.

32. The method of claim 31 wherein the bacteria are Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

33. A method of immobilizing Pseudomonas bacteria on a solid support comprising contacting, under conditions sufficient for binding, a sample containing Pseudomonas bacteria with a compound comprising a compound according to claim 1 that is immobilized on a solid support; and separating the sample from the solid support.

34. A compound or salt thereof according to any one of claims 1- 19 or 22-23 for use in a method of inhibiting Pseudomonas bacteria infection or in a method of detecting Pseudomonas bacteria.

35. Use of a compound or salt thereof according to any one of claims 1-19 or 22-23 in the preparation of a medicament for the inhibition of Pseudomonas bacteria.

Description:

GLYCOMIMETIC INHIBITORS OF THE PA-IL LECTIN, PA-IIL LECTIN OR BOTH THE LECTINS FROM PSEUDOMONAS

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Field of the Invention The present invention relates generally to compounds, compositions and methods for the diagnosis and therapy of diseases in warm-blooded animals (e.g., in humans) involving infections with and colonization by Pseudomonas bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis. The invention relates more particularly to the use of one or more compounds selective for binding PA-IL and/or PA-IIL lectins of Pseudomonas bacteria. These compounds are useful for diagnosis and/or therapeutic intervention of the colonization of Pseudomonas bacteria, or may be linked to an agent(s) to target and effectively arrest or kill Pseudomonas bacteria.

Description of the Related Art

Pseudomonas infections occur in a variety of medical conditions and can be life threatening. Pseudomonas is an opportunistic bacterium. Examples of individuals at risk include cystic fibrosis patients, burn patients, and patients on ventilators. Cystic fibrosis is described below as a representative example of a medical condition which can involve infection with Pseudomonas bacteria.

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal genetic disease among the Caucasian population. CF is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which acts as a chloride channel. The genetic mutations of CFTR which alter ion movements also affect the N-glycosylation of CFTR as well as other cell surface molecules. All of the exocrine glands of the patients are

affected; however, the lungs are the primary site of morbidity and mortality. The general change in glycosylation is associated with an increase in infectivity by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The salivary and respiratory mucins from CF patients also contain altered glycosylation patterns.

The major cause of morbidity and mortality in CF patients is chronic lung colonization by the bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which results in pronounced lung infection with a robust neutrophilic inflammatory response leading to destruction of the lungs and death. Colonization by P. aeruginosa initiates during the sessile phase of the bacteria in which virulence factors are secreted in concert. Two virulence factors that bind carbohydrates are lectins. These lectins, known as PA-IL and PA-IIL, bind these oligosaccharide structures with high affinity and represent a potential molecular target to block bacterial colonization. Patients that are never fully colonized by the bacteria maintain an excellent long-term prognosis. Due to the difficulties in the current approaches in the art for prevention of colonization in an individual by Pseudomonas bacteria, there is a need for improved compounds, compositions and methods.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Briefly stated, this invention provides compounds, compositions and methods for utilizing both the PA-IIL and PA-IL lectins, or either one alone, expressed by Pseudomonas bacteria for the detection of Pseudomonas bacteria and the diagnosis and therapy of disease involving Pseudomonas bacteria, including human disease. For example, compounds of the present invention that have high affinity binding to the PA-IIL lectin, the PA-IL lectin or both lectins from P. aeruginosa will have a beneficial therapeutic effect on CF patients. Furthermore, these compounds may be administered in combination therapy with antibiotics or may be conjugated, for example, with antibiotics to increase the efficacy and lower the dose,

thereby avoiding well known deleterious side effects of many antibiotics. Given that these binding sites are crucial for the colonization and pathogenicity of the bacterium, mutations in this target to become resistant to this conjugate therapy should result in non-pathogenic forms of the bacteria.

One embodiment of the present invention provides a compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

wherein: where - O - separating the two rings in the formula is in an alpha or beta 1-3 linkage;

R 1 = independently selected from OH, NHAc, 6' sulfated GIcNAc, 6' carboxylated GIcNAc, GaINAc, galactose linked by an O glycosidic bond, a C glycosidic bond or an S glycosidic bond, thiodigalactoside, 6' sulfated galactose and 6' carboxylated galactose, with the proviso that three of the four R 1 are independently selected from OH and NHAc and one R 1 is not OH or NHAc;

R 2 = H, a fucose, a galactose, an arabinose, a fructose, a mannose, cyclohexane, substituted cyclohexane, tetrahydropyran, substituted tetrahydropyran, piperidine, substituted piperidine, a polyol or substituted polyol;

R 3 = (CH 2 )p, NH 2 , — CH 2 -OH, — CH 2 -(NH-^X or

where m, n and q are independently

selected from 0-1, p is 1-20, Z is N 7 O or S, and X is NH-C 1 -C 8 alkyl, C 3 -C 8 cydoalkyl, substituted C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, C 1 -C 8 alkyl, C 6 -Ci 4 aryl, substituted C 6 -C 14 aryl, C 1 -C 14 heteroaryl, substituted C 1 -C 14 heteroaryl, non-aryl C 1 -C 14 heterocycle or substituted non-aryl C 1 -C 14 heterocycle, NHCH 2 Ph, N(CH 2 Ph) 2 , NHSO 3 Na, NHCO-C 6 H 4 -COOH (ortho), NHCOPh, NHCO-C 6 H 4 -CI (para), NHCO-C 6 H 4 -OMe (para), NHCO-C 6 H 4 -NO 2 (para), NHCO-C 6 H 4 -Ph (para), NHCO-C 6 H 3 (OMe) 2 (meta, para), NHC0(2-naphthyl), NHCO-C 6 H 4 -OCH 2 Ph (para),

N(CH 2 Ph)COPh, NHCOCH 2 CH 2 Ph, NHCOCHPh 2 , NHCOMe, NHCO(CyCIo-C 6 H 11 ), NHSO 2 -C 6 H 4 -Me (para), NHCONHEt, NHCONHPh, NHCOOCH 2 -C 6 H 4 -NO 2 (para), NHCOOCH 2 (2-naphthyl), or NHCOOCH 2 Ph; R 4 = H, NHAc, -O-Lactose, substituted -O-Lactose, -O-Lactosamine, substituted -O-Lactosamine, NHAc substituted with N-glycolyl, polyethylene glycol or substituted polyethylene glycol; and R 5 = H, NHAc, or NHAc substituted with N-glycolyl.

A compound or salt thereof of the present invention may be in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.

In another embodiment, the present invention provides a conjugate comprising a therapeutic agent linked to a compound as set forth above.

Another embodiment of the present invention provides a method of inhibiting Pseudomonas bacteria infection in a warm-blooded animal comprising administering to the animal in an amount effective to inhibit one or more lectins of the bacteria a compound comprising a compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

wherein : where - O - separating the two rings in the formula is in an alpha or beta 1-3 linkage;

R 1 = independently selected from OH, NHAc, 6' sulfated GIcNAc, 6' carboxylated GIcNAc, GaINAc, galactose linked by an O glycosidic bond, a C glycosidic bond or an S glycosidic bond, thiodigalactoside, 6' sulfated galactose and 6' carboxylated galactose, with the proviso that three of the four R 1 are independently selected from OH and NHAc and one R 1 is not OH or NHAc;

R 2 = H, a fucose, a galactose, an arabinose, a fructose, a mannose, cyclohexane, substituted cyclohexane, tetrahydropyran, substituted tetrahydropyran, piperidine, substituted piperidine, a polyol or substituted polyol;

R 3 = (CH 2 )p, NH 2 , — CH 2 -OH, — CH 2 -( NH^X or

where m, n and q are independently selected from 0-1, p is 1-20, Z is N, O or S, and X is NH-Ci-C 8 alkyl, C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, substituted C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, C x -C 8 alkyl, C 6 -C 14 aryl, substituted C 6 -Ci 4 aryl, Ci-Ci 4 heteroaryl, substituted C x -Ci 4 heteroaryl, non-aryl Ci-C 14 heterocycle or substituted non-aryl C x -Ci 4 heterocycle, NHCH 2 Ph, N(CH 2 Ph) 2 ,

NHSO 3 Na, NHCO-C 6 H 4 -COOH (ortho), NHCOPh, NHCO-C 6 H 4 -CI (para), NHCO-C 6 H 4 -OMe (para), NHCO-C 6 H 4 -NO 2 (para), NHCO-C 6 H 4 -Ph (para), NHCO-C 6 H 3 (OMe) 2 (meta, para), NHC0(2-naphthyl), NHCO-C 6 H 4 -OCH 2 Ph (para), N(CH 2 Ph)COPh, NHCOCH 2 CH 2 Ph, NHCOCHPh 2 , NHCOMe,

NHCO(cyclo-C 6 Hu), NHSO 2 -C 6 H 4 -Me (para), NHCONHEt, NHCONHPh, NHCOOCH 2 -C 6 H 4 -NO 2 (para), NHCOOCH 2 (2-naphthyl), or NHCOOCH 2 Ph;

R 4 = H, NHAc, -O-Lactose, substituted -O-Lactose, -O-Lactosamine, substituted -O-Lactosamine, NHAc substituted with N-glycolyl, polyethylene glycol or substituted polyethylene glycol; and R 5 = H, NHAc, or NHAc substituted with N-glycolyl.

In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of detecting Pseudomonas bacteria comprising contacting a sample with a diagnostic agent linked to a compound comprising a compound as set forth above, under conditions sufficient for the compound to bind to the bacteria or its lectin products if present in the sample; and detecting the agent present in the sample, wherein the presence of agent in the sample is indicative of the presence of Pseudomonas bacteria. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of immobilizing Pseudomonas bacteria on a solid support comprising contacting, under conditions sufficient for binding, a sample containing Pseudomonas bacteria with a compound comprising a compound as set forth above that is immobilized on a solid support; and separating the sample from the solid support.

In other embodiments, the compounds and conjugates described herein may be used in the preparation of a medicament for the inhibition of Pseudomonas bacteria.

These and other aspects of the present invention will become apparent upon reference to the following detailed description and attached

drawings. All references disclosed herein are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety as if each was incorporated individually.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Figure 1 is a diagram illustrating the synthesis of a glycomimetic compound.

Figure 2A is a diagram illustrating the synthesis of a glycomimetic compound containing a linker arm.

Figure 2B is a diagram illustrating the conjugation of the compound of Figure 2A to the antibiotic tobramycin. Figures 3A and 3B are diagrams illustrating the synthesis of glycomimetic compounds.

Figure 4 depicts the structures of three of the compounds (Compound A, Compound B, and Glycomimetic 1) used in one or more of the lectin assays described herein. Figure 5 graphically illustrates the inhibition of PA-IL lectin by

Glycomimetic 1 ("Glycm 1"). PA-IL lectin is a galactose-binding lectin and is inhibited by galactose, Melibiose (Galαl-6Gal), and Glycomimetic 1; but not by fucose, Compound A or Compound B.

Figure 6 graphically illustrates inhibition of the PA-IIL Lectin. The fucose binding lectin, PA-IIL is inhibited by fucose, Compound A and Glycomimetic 1; but not by galactose.

Figure 7 shows the determination of IC 50 value for Glycomimetic 1 for inhibition of PA-IL. Glycomimetic 1 inhibits the galactose-binding lectin, PA-IL about 4 to 5 times better than galactose; whereas, fucose is inactive.

Figure 8 shows the IC 50 determination of Glycomimetic 1 for inhibition of PA-IIL. Glycomimetic 1 inhibits the fucose-binding lectin, PAUL about 4 to 5 times better than fucose; while galactose is inactive.

Figure 9 illustrates the inhibition of PA-IIL binding to human epithelial cells. Human buccal epithelial cells are incubated with biotinylated PA-IIL lectin followed by detection of bound lectin with fluorescein-labeled streptavidin. Fluorescently labeled cells are quantified by fluorescent-activated cell sorting (B). Incubation of the PA-IIL lectin with fucose (D) or Glycomimetic 1 (E and F) inhibits binding to the cell surface. Galactose (C) has no effect.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

As noted above, the present invention provides compounds and compositions that bind Pseudomonas bacterial lectins (e.g., P. aeruginosa lectins) and may be used in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.

GLYCOMIMETIC COMPOUNDS

The term "Glycomimetic compound," as used herein, refers to a compound (including physiologically acceptable salts thereof) that has high affinity for the PA-IL lectin, PA-IIL lectin or both lectins from Pseudomonas bacteria. Embodiments of the structures of the Glycomimetic compounds of this invention have the formula:

wherein: where - O - separating the two rings in the formula is in an alpha or beta 1-3 linkage;

R 1 = independently selected from OH, NHAc, 6' sulfated GIcNAc, 6' carboxylated GIcNAc, GaINAc, galactose linked by an O glycosidic bond, a C glycosidic bond or an S glycosidic bond, thiodigalactoside, 6' sulfated galactose and 6' carboxylated galactose;

R 2 = H, a fucose, a galactose, an arabinose, a fructose, a mannose, cyclohexane, substituted cyclohexane, tetrahydropyran, substituted tetrahydropyran, piperidine, substituted piperidine, a polyol or substituted polyol;

R 3 = (CH 2 )p, NH 2 , — CH 2 -OH, — CH 2 -( NH^-X or

where m, n and q are independently selected from 0-1, p is 1-20, Z is N, O or S, and X is NH-C 1 -C 8 alkyl, C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, substituted C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, Ci-C 8 alkyl,

C 6 -Ci 4 aryl, substituted C 6 -Ci 4 aryl, Ci-Ci 4 heteroaryl, substituted C x -Ci 4 heteroaryl, non-aryl Ci-Ci 4 heterocycle or substituted non-aryl Cj-C 14 heterocycle, NHCH 2 Ph, N(CH 2 Ph) 2 , NHSO 3 Na, NHCO-C 6 H 4 -COOH (ortho), NHCOPh, NHCO-C 6 H 4 -Cl (para), NHCO-C 6 H 4 -OMe (para), NHCO-C 6 H 4 -NO 2 (para),

NHCO-C 6 H 4 -Ph (para), NHCO-C 6 H 3 (OMe) 2 (meta, para), NHC0(2-naphthyl), NHCO-C 6 H 4 -OCH 2 Ph (para), N(CH 2 Ph)COPh, NHCOCH 2 CH 2 Ph, NHCOCHPh 2 , NHCOMe, NHCO(CyCIo-C 6 H 1I ), NHSO 2 -C 6 H 4 -Me (para), NHCONHEt, NHCONHPh, NHCOOCH 2 -C 6 H 4 -NO 2 (para),

NHCOOCH 2 (2-naphthyl), or NHCOOCH 2 Ph;

R 4 = H, NHAc, -0-Lactose, substituted -O-Lactose, -O-Lactosamine, substituted -O-Lactosamine, NHAc substituted with N-glycolyl, polyethylene glycol or substituted polyethylene glycol; and R 5 = H, NHAc, or NHAc substituted with N-glycolyl. All compounds (or conjugates thereof) useful in the present invention include physiologically acceptable salts thereof.

Glycomimetic compounds of the present invention include the formula set forth above with substituents R^R 5 . Where a substituent option (i.e., atom or group) for R^-R 5 possesses a "-" this is to indicate the point of attachment (to a ring for R la , R lb , R lc and R 3 -R 5 , to CH 2 for R ld , and to O for R 2 ), and does not represent CH 2 or CH 3 . In the above formula, there is an oxygen (-O-) linking the two rings depicted in the formula. The oxygen may be in an alpha 1-3 linkage or a beta 1-3 linkage.

As used herein, a line to which no group is depicted represents the bond that attaches the substituent to the structure depicted by the general formula. As used herein, a "C 6 -Ci 4 aryl" refers to an aromatic substituent with six to fourteen carbon atoms in one or multiple rings which may be separated by a bond or an alkyl group or be fused. As used herein, a "Ci-C 14 heteroaryl" is similar to a "C 6 -Ci 4 aryl," except the aromatic substituent possesses at least one heteroatom (such as N, O or S) in place of a ring carbon. Examples of aryls and heteroaryls include phenyl, naphthyl, diphenyl, pyridinyl and pyrimidinyl.

R 1 is composed of R la , R lb , R lc and R ld , as depicted in the above formula. R la is attached at carbon position 2. R lb is attached at carbon position 3. , R lc is attached at carbon position 4. R ld is attached at carbon position 6, which in turn is attached at carbon position 5.

Examples of R 1 substituents include GaINAc, 6' sulfated GIcNAc and 6' carboxylated GIcNAc. The abbreviation "GIcNAc" represents N-Acetylglucosamine and "GaINAc" represents N-Acetylgalactosamine. Other R 1 substituents are OH, NHAc, galactose, thiodigalactoside, 6'

sulfated galactose and 6' carboxylated galactose. Galactose is linked by an O glycosidic bond, a C glycosidic bond or an S glycosidic bond. Where R 1 as set forth with the above formula is galactose, 6' sulfated galactose or 6' carboxylated galactose, R 1 in an embodiment is attached by an alpha 1-3 linkage, but the linkage may be beta. In embodiments, only one of the four R 1 is other than OH or NHAc (i.e., selected from one of the R 1 substituents listed other than OH or NHAc).

Examples of R 2 substituents include monosaccharides, such as fucose, galactose, arabinose, fructose or mannose. The monosaccharides possess a D- and an L- form. Such monosaccharides include L-fucose,

L-galactose, D-arabinose, D-fructose and D-mannose. A monosaccharide of R 2 may be replaced with a mimic of the monosaccharide. For example, a monosaccharide ring may be replaced with a cyclohexane, substituted cyclohexane, tetrahydropyran, substituted tetrahydropyran, piperidine, substituted piperidine, a polyol or substituted polyol. Alternatively, or in addition to the replacement of a ring, substituents may be added to a ring as replacement for, or in addition to, existing substituents or both. For example, one or more hydroxyl groups may be replaced with alkoxy groups (such as methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, etc.), halides (such as fluorine, chlorine, etc.), esters and amides. Similarly, for example, one or more hydrogens of cyclohexane, tetrahydropyran or piperidine may be replaced with such groups (alkoxy, halide, ester and amide) to produce a substituted cyclohexane, substituted tetrahydropyran or substituted piperidine, respectively. Examples of R 3 substituents include (CH 2 ) P where p is 1-20,

-CH 2 -OH, NH 2 , -CH 2 -(NH) q -X and -(CH 2 ) m -NH-C(=O)-(Z) n -X where m, n and q are independently selected from 0 and 1, and where X is NH-C 1 -C 8 alkyl, C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, substituted C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl, Ci-C 8 alkyl, C 6 -Ci 4 aryl, substituted C 6 -Ci 4 aryl, C x -Ci 4 heteroaryl, substituted C x -Ci 4 heteroaryl, non-aryl Ci-Ci 4 heterocycle or substituted non-aryl Ci-Ci 4 heterocycle. As

used herein, "C 1 -C 8 alkyl" refers to a saturated hydrocarbon which may be straight chained or branched. Examples are methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, and t-butyl. "C 6 -Ci 4 aryl" and "Ci-C 14 heteroaryl" are as defined above. Examples are provided above. A "substituted C 6 -Ci 4 aryl" is a C 6 -Ci 4 aryl wherein at least one ring hydrogen is replaced with one or more atoms other than hydrogen. A "substituted CrC 14 heteroaryl" is a Ci-Ci 4 heteroaryl wherein at least one ring hydrogen or hydrogen attached to a heteroatom is replaced with one or more atoms other than hydrogen. Such atoms include carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and halogen. A "non-aryl Ci-C 14 heterocycle" refers to a non-aromatic substituent with one to fourteen carbon atoms (with at least one heteroatom) in one or multiple rings which may be separated by a bond or fused. The third atom of a three member ring may be provided by the carbon to which R 3 is attached. Examples include piperidine, piperazine, pyrrolidine, and their oxygen and sulfur equivalents. A "substituted non-aryl C f Ci 4 heterocycle" is a non-aryl Ci-Ci 4 heterocycle wherein at least one ring hydrogen or hydrogen attached to a heteroatom is replaced with one or more atoms other than hydrogen. Such atoms include carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and halogen. Examples of R 3 include NHCOPh, NHCO-C 6 H 4 -CI (para), NHCO-C 6 H 4 -OMe (para), NHCO-C 6 H 4 -NO 2 (para), NHCO-C 6 H 4 -Ph (para), NHCO-C 6 H 3 (OMe) 2 (meta, para), NHC0(2-naphthyl), NHCO-C 6 H 4 -OCH 2 Ph (para), N(CH 2 Ph)COPh, NHCOCH 2 CH 2 Ph, NHCOCHPh 2 , NHCOMe, NHCO(cyclo-C 6 Hu), NHSO 2 -C 6 H 4 -Me (para), NHCONHEt, NHCONHPh, NHCOOCH 2 -C 6 H 4 -NO 2 (para), NHCOOCH 2 (2-naphthyl), or NHCOOCH 2 Ph. The abbreviation "Ph" represents "phenyl".

Examples of R 4 substituents include H, NHAc, and NHAc substituted with N-glycolyl. It also includes -O-Lactose, substituted -O-Lactose, -O-Lactosamine, substituted -O-Lactosamine, polyethylene glycol and substituted polyethylene glycol.

Examples of R 5 substituents include H, NHAc, and NHAc substituted with N-glycolyl.

Examples of non-monosaccharide, ringed substituents include:

OH

where n = 0-10,

For certain embodiments, it may be beneficial to also, or alternatively, link a diagnostic or therapeutic agent, such as a drug to a Glycomirnetic compound, to form a conjugate where the linkage is covalent. As used herein, the term "'therapeutic agent" refers to any bioactive agent intended for administration to a warm-blooded animal (e.g., a mammal such as a human) to prevent or treat a disease or other undesirable condition or to enhance the success of therapies. Therapeutic agents include antibiotics, hormones, growth factors, proteins, peptides, genes, non-viral vectors and other compounds.

GLYCOMIMETIC COMPOUND FORMULATIONS

Glycomimetic compounds as described herein may be present within a pharmaceutical composition. A pharmaceutical composition comprises one or more Glycomimetic compounds in combination with one or more pharmaceutically or physiologically acceptable carriers, diluents or excipients. Such compositions may comprise buffers (e.g., neutral buffered saline or phosphate buffered saline), carbohydrates (e.g., glucose, mannose, sucrose or dextrans), mannitol, proteins, polypeptides or amino acids such as glycine, antioxidants, chelating agents such as EDTA or

glutathione, adjuvants (e.g., aluminum hydroxide) and/or preservatives. Within yet other embodiments, compositions of the present invention may be formulated as a lyophilizate. Compositions of the present invention may be formulated for any appropriate manner of administration, including for example, aerosol, topical, oral, nasal, intravenous, intracranial, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, or intramuscular administration.

A pharmaceutical composition may also, or alternatively, contain one or more active agents, such as drugs (e.g., antibiotics), which may be linked to a Glycomimetic compound or may be free within the composition. The attachment of an agent to a Glycomimetic compound may be covalent or noncovalent. An example of an active agent is tobramycin. Tobramycin alone has typically been administered intravenously or by inhalation.

The compositions described herein may be administered as part of a sustained release formulation (i.e., a formulation such as a capsule or sponge that effects a slow release of modulating agent following administration). Such formulations may generally be prepared using well known technology and administered by, for example, oral, rectal or subcutaneous implantation, or by implantation at the desired target site. Carriers for use within such formulations are biocompatible, and may also be biodegradable; preferably the formulation provides a relatively constant level of modulating agent release. The amount of Glycomimetic compound contained within a sustained release formulation depends upon the site of implantation, the rate and expected duration of release and the nature of the condition to be treated or prevented.

Glycomimetic compounds are generally present within a pharmaceutical composition in a therapeutically effective amount. A therapeutically effective amount is an amount that results in a discernible patient benefit, such as a measured or observed response of a condition associated with Pseudomonas infection.

GLYCOMIMETIC COMPOUNDS METHODS OF USE

In general, Giycomimetic compounds described herein may be used for achieving diagnostic and/or therapeutic results in disease (e.g., human disease) involving infection by Pseudomonas (e.g., P. aeruginosa) bacteria. Such diagnostic and/or therapeutic results may be achieved in vitro and/or in vivo in an animal, preferably in a mammal such as a human, provided that Pseudomonas (e.g., P. aeruginosa) or its products are ultimately contacted with a Glycomimetic compound, in an amount and for a time sufficient to achieve a discernable diagnostic or therapeutic result. In the context of this invention, a therapeutic result would relate, for example, to the prevention of lung infections. In some conditions, therapeutic results would be associated with the inhibiting of Pseudomonas (such as P. aeruginosa) or its products (where inhibiting includes, for example, arresting the growth of or killing the bacteria or preventing colonization by the bacteria). As used herein, therapy or therapeutic results includes treatment or prevention.

Glycomimetic compounds of the present invention may be administered in a manner appropriate to the disease to be treated or prevented. Appropriate dosages and a suitable duration and frequency of administration may be determined by such factors as the condition of the patient, the type and severity of the patient's disease and the method of administration. In general, an appropriate dosage and treatment regimen provides the modulating agent(s) in an amount sufficient to provide treatment and/or prophylactic benefit. Within particularly preferred embodiments of the invention, a Glycomimetic compound may be administered at a dosage ranging from 0.001 to 1000 mg/kg body weight (more typically 0.01 to 1000 mg/kg), on a regimen of single or multiple daily doses. Appropriate dosages may generally be determined using experimental models and/or clinical trials. In general, the use of the minimum dosage that is sufficient to provide effective therapy is preferred.

Patients may generally be monitored for therapeutic effectiveness using assays suitable for the condition being treated or prevented, which will be familiar to those of ordinary skill in the art. Glycomimetic compounds described herein may be administered in combination (i.e., simultaneously or sequentially) with another anti-bacterial compound. For example, a Glycomimetic compound may be administered in combination with tobramycin.

Glycomimetic compounds may also be used to target substances to Pseudomonas bacteria, e.g., P. aeruginosa. Such substances include therapeutic agents and diagnostic agents. Therapeutic agents may be a molecule, virus, viral component, cell, cell component or any other substance that can be demonstrated to modify the properties of a target cell so as to provide a benefit for treating or preventing a disorder or regulating the physiology of a patient. A therapeutic agent may also be a drug or a prodrug that generates an agent having a biological activity in vivo. Molecules that may be therapeutic agents may be, for example, polypeptides, amino acids, nucleic acids, polynucleotides, nucleosides, steroids, polysaccharides or inorganic compounds. Such molecules may function in any of a variety of ways, including as enzymes, enzyme inhibitors, hormones, receptors, antisense oligonucleotides, catalytic polynucleotides, anti-viral agents, anti-tumor agents, anti-bacterial agents, immunomodulating agents and cytotoxic agents (e.g., radionuclides such as iodine, bromine, lead, rhenium, homium, palladium or copper). Diagnostic agents include imaging agents such as metals and radioactive agents (e.g., gallium, technetium, indium, strontium, iodine, barium, bromine and phosphorus-containing compounds), contrast agents, dyes (e.g., fluorescent dyes and chromophores) and enzymes that catalyze a colorimetric or fluorometric reaction. In general, therapeutic and diagnostic agents may be attached to a Glycomimetic compound using a variety of techniques such as those described above. For targeting purposes, a

Glycomimetic compound may be administered to a patient as described herein.

Glycomimetic compounds may also be used in vitro, e.g., within a variety of well known cell culture and cell separation methods. For example, a Glycomimetic compound may be immobilized on a solid support (such as linked to the interior surface of a tissue culture plate or other cell culture support) for use in immobilizing Pseudomonas bacteria or their products for screens, assays and growth in culture. Such linkage may be performed by any suitable technique, such as the methods described above, as well as other standard techniques. Glycomimetic compounds may also be used to facilitate cell identification and sorting in vitro, permitting the selection of such bacterial cells. Preferably, the Glycomimetic compound(s) for use in such methods is linked to a diagnostic agent which is a detectable marker. Suitable markers are well known in the art and include radionuclides, luminescent groups, fluorescent groups, enzymes, dyes, constant immunoglobulin domains and biotin. Within one preferred embodiment, a Glycomimetic compound linked to a fluorescent marker, such as fluorescein, is contacted with the cells, which are then analyzed by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Such in vitro methods generally comprise contacting a sample

(e.g., a biological preparation) with any one of the Glycomimetic compounds, and detecting the compound in the sample. If desired, one or more wash steps may be added to a method. For example, subsequent to contacting a sample with a Glycomimetic compound but prior to detection of the compound, the sample may be washed (i.e., contacted with a fluid and then removal of the fluid in order to remove unbound Glycomimetic compound). Alternatively, or in addition, a wash step may be added during the detection process. For example, if a Glycomimetic compound possesses a marker (a diagnostic agent) that can bind to a substance that is detectable, it may be desirable to wash the sample subsequent to

contacting the sample with a detectable substance, but prior to the detection. As used herein, the phrase "detecting the compound (or agent) in the sample" includes detecting the compound (or agent) while it is bound to the sample, or detecting the compound (or agent) which was bound to the sample but after it has been separated from the sample.

The following Examples are offered by way of illustration and not by way of limitation.

EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE 1

SYNTHESIS OF GLYCOMIMETIC 1

Reagents and solvents were used as received from commercial suppliers. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was performed using Analtech silica gel plates and visualized by UV light (254 nm) stain. Progress of the reactions was monitored by TLC or GC.

Preparation of B4 Derivatives

B4-1 B4-2 B4

B4-3

Preparation of B4-2

A solution of B4-1 (150 g, 385 mmol) in CH 2 CI 2 (800 rπL) was added slowly to a slurry of ZrCI 4 (85 g, 366 mmol) in CH 2 CI 2 (800 mL) at

0 0 C. After the reaction was stirred at 0 0 C for 30 min, EtSH (32 mL, 423 mmol) was added and the reaction was complete within 2 h. The reaction was quenched by brine (500 mL). The layers were separated and the organic layer was washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO 3 (1 x 500 mL) and brine (1 x 500 mL), dried over MgSO 4 , filtered, and concentrated to give an oily residue. This was dissolved in MTBE (300 mL) and the solution was diluted with heptane (1.2 L). After the resulting slurry had been stirred in an ice bath for 1 h, the mixture was filtered to provide compound B4-2 (143 g, 95%).

Preparation of B4

NaOMe (0.5 M in MeOH, 1.09 L, 545 mmol) was added to a solution of B4-2 (710 g, 392 mmol) in MeOH (4 L) at room temperature.

After 2 h, Dowex 50wx8-200 resin (350 g) was added until the pH reached

3.5-4. The resin was filtered off and the filtrate was concentrated to an oily residue. This was dissolved in CH 2 CI 2 and concentrated again to give B4 as a solid (367 g, 90%).

Preparation of B4-3

A solution of B4 (10 g, 44.6 mmol) in anhydrous DMF (125 mL) was added to a suspension of NaH (14 g, 357 mmol, 60% in mineral oil) in anhydrous DMF (125 mL) at 0 0 C. After the reaction was stirred at room temperature for 30 min and then cooled to O 0 C, BnBr (42 mL, 357 mmol) was added cautiously. The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 2 h and then cautiously quenched with MeOH (30 mL) while cooling in an ice bath. Water (200 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 200 mL). The organic phase was washed with water (2 x 500 mL) and brine, dried over MgSO 4 , and concentrated to an oily residue. Chromatographic purification on silica gel eluted with EtOAc/heptane (1:9) provided B4 (20.6 g, 79%).

Preparation of B2 Derivatives

B2-4 B2

Preparation of B2-2

Triethylamine (6.8 L, 48.7 mol) was added to a solution of B2-1 (1 kg, 6.1 mol) and DMAP (74 g, 0.61 mol) in CH 2 CI 2 (12 L), followed by addition Of Ac 2 O (3.46 L, 36.6 mol) at 0-1O 0 C. The reaction was stirred at room temperature oversight and then quenched with water (25 L). The layers were separated. The organic phase was washed with water (25 L), saturated aqueous NaHCO 3 (2 x 10 L), and brine (10 L), dried over MgSO 4 , and concentrated to provide crude B2-2 (2.1 kg, quantitative).

Preparation of B2-3

A solution of B2-2 (1.5 kg, 3.01 mol) in CH 2 CI 2 (6 L) was added slowly to a slurry of ZrCI 4 (1 kg, 2.86 mol) in CH 2 CI 2 (1.2 L) at 0-5 0 C. After the reaction was stirred for 30 min, EtSH (351 mL, 3.16 mol) was added. The reaction was stirred at O 0 C. Due to incomplete reaction, additional EtSH (3 x 3051 mL) was added during the first 30 h of the reaction. After 2 days the mixture was quenched with brine (7.5 L). The layers were separated and the organic layer was washed with saturated NaHCO 3 (6 L) and brine (6 L), dried over MgSO 4 , and concentrated to give an oily residue. The residue was recrystallized from MTBE/heptane (1 :3) to give a first crop of B2-3. The mother liquors were concentrated and the residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel eluted with

EtOAc/heptane (2:8) to give a second crop. A total of 560 g of B2-3 (38% over two steps) was obtained.

Preparation of B2-4

NaOMe (25 wt% in MeOH, 119 ml_, 519 mmol) was added slowly into a solution of B2-3 (579 g, 1.73 mol) in MeOH (2.3 L) at room temperature. After 1 h, Dowex 50wx8-200 resin (290 g) was added and the reaction was stirred for 30 min. The resin was filtered off and the filtrate was concentrated to afford solid B2-4 (360 g, quantitative).

Preparation of B2 A solution of B2-4 (360 g, 1.73 mol) in THF (3.5 L) was treated with potassium te/t-butoxide (20 wt% in THF, 3.88 kg, 6.91 mol) at 0 0 C. After 30 min, BnBr (822 mL, 6.91 mol) was added. The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 2 h and then cooled to 10 0 C. After overnight stirring, the reaction was quenched with saturated aqueous NH 4 CI (2 L) and then filtered through a pad of Celite. The filtrate was extracted with EtOAc (5.5 L). The organic phase was washed with brine (4 L) and concentrated. Chromatographic purification eluted with EtOAc/heptane (1:9) provided B2 (460 g, 56%).

Preparation of B5 Derivatives

BS-J B5-2 B5-3

BS

Preparation of B5-2

A suspension of B5-1 (184 g, 676 mmol, Aldrich) and Pd/C (10 wt%, 50% water wet; 19 g) in THF (800 mL) was hydrogenated at 50 psi overnight at room temperature. The catalyst was filtered off through a pad

overnight at room temperature. The catalyst was filtered off through a pad of Celite, the filter pad was washed with ethyl acetate, and the combined filtrate was concentrated. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate and the solution was then washed with water (250 mL), aqueous sodium bicarbonate (250 mL) and then brine (250 mL), dried over MgSO 4 and concentrated to give B5-2 as an oily residue (217 g, quantitative).

Preparation of B5-3

NaOMe (25 wt% in MeOH, 236 mL, 1.03 mol) was added slowly into a solution of B5-2 (189 g, 689 mmol) in MeOH (600 mL) at room temperature. After 2 h, Dowex 50wx8-200 (320 g) was added to adjust pH to 3.5-4. The resin was filtered off and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was azeotroped with toluene and then with acetonitrile to give B5-3 (102 g, quantitative) as a waxy solid.

Preparation of B5 A suspension of B5-3 (69 g, 465 mmol) in CH 3 CN (1.2 L) was treated with benzaldehyde dimethyl acetai (76.9 mL, 512 mmol) and a solution of jO-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (4.56 g, 24 mmol) in CH 3 CN (75 mL). After stirring at room temperature for 1 h, the reaction was heated to reflux for 1 h and then cooled to room temperature and neutralized with Et 3 N (3 mL). The mixture was concentrated and the residue was dissolved with EtOAc (800 mL). The solution was washed with water (500 mL) and then brine (500 mL), dried over MgSO 4 , and concentrated to give a crude product. This was dissolved in ethyl acetate (100 mL) at 70 0 C and then treated with heptane (270 mL, in 50 mL portions). The mixture was cooled to room temperature and filtered to give a first crop of B5. Chromatographic purification of the mother liquors on silica gel eluted with EtOAc/heptane (3:7) gave a second crop. A total of 88 g of B5 (80%) was obtained.

Preparation of Glvcomimetic 1

HCl

Preparation of Compound 1

A suspension of B5 (20 g, 87.4 mmol), B4-2 (40 g, 101.6 mmol), and /V-iodosuccinimide (25 g, 110.1 mmol) in CH 2 CI 2 (230 ml_, anhydrous) was treated with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (0.15 M in CH 2 CI 2 , about 2 ml_; freshly prepared before use) at O 0 C until the color changed from light red brown to dark brown. The reaction was stirred in an ice bath for 40 min and then quenched with aqueous Na 2 CO 3 (8%, 100 mL) to pH 9. After dilution with CH 2 CI 2 (100 mL) and water (100 mL), the layers were separated. The organic phase was washed with aqueous Na 2 S 2 O 3 (10%, 370 mL) and then brine (100 mL), dried over Na 2 SO 4 , and concentrated. Chromatographic purification on silica gel eluted with MTBE/heptane (6:4) gave 1 (40.8 g, 81%) as a foam.

Preparation of Compound 2

A solution of NaBH 3 CN (42 g, 670 mmol) in anhydrous THF (280 mL) was added into a solution of compound 1 (38 g, 67 mmol) in anhydrous THF (70 mL) at room temperature. Molecular sieves (3 A, powder, dried; 30 g) were then added and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min before being cooled to O 0 C. HCI (in anhydrous Et 2 O, prepared before use; ~90 mL) was added slowly until the complete consumption by TLC of compound 1. Solid Na 2 CO 3 (35 g) was added portionwise into the reaction with cooling of an ice bath and the slurry was stirred for 10 min before filtering through a pad of Celite. The filtrate was diluted with EtOAc (300 mL), washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO 3 (100 mL) and brine (100 mL), and concentrated to a yellow oil. This residue was partitioned between toluene (400 mL) and water (200 mL) but three layers formed. The layers were separated and the middle layer was repeatedly partitioned between toluene (6 x 400 mL) and water (6 x 100 mL). The combined organic layers were concentrated to give crude 2 (35 g). Chromatographic purification on silica gel eluted with EtOAc/heptane (6:4) provided 2 (26 g, 68%) as an oily foam.

Preparation of Compound 3 Part 1 : Br 2 (distilled over P 2 O 5 , 1.8 mL, 34.8 mmol) was added dropwise to a solution of B2 (13.9 g, 29 mmol) in anhydrous CH 2 CI 2 (30 mL) at O 0 C. After the reaction had been stirred in an ice bath for 40 min, cyclohexene (4 mL) was added until the color changed to a persistent yellow. Part 2: Compound 2 (11 g, 19.4 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous CH 2 CI 2 (80 mL), followed by addition of Et 4 NBr (dried at 200 0 C for 2 h under N 2 ; 6.1 g, 29 mmol), anhydrous DMF (50 mL), and molecular sieves (4 A powder, dried; 12 g). After the reaction mixture had been stirred at room temperature for 30 min, the solution from part 1 was

added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 40 h at room temperature and then diluted with EtOAc (100 ml_) and filtered through a pad of Celite. The filtrate was washed with aqueous Na 2 S 2 O 3 (10%, 100 mL), water (100 mL), and then brine (100 mL), dried over Na 2 SO 4 , and concentrated. Chromatographic purification on silica gel eluted with EtOAc/heptane (1 : 1) gave 3 (15 g, 78%) as an oily foam.

Preparation of Compound 4

NaOMe (0.5 M in MeOH, 4.6 mL, 2.24 mmol) was added to a solution of compound 3 (11 g, 11.2 mmol) in MeOH (30 mL) at room temperature. After 3 h, AcOH (1 mL) was added and pH reached 4. The mixture was concentrated to give crude 4 (9.2 g, quantitative), used without additional purification in the next step.

Preparation of Compound 5

A mixture of compound 4 (9.2 g, 12.3 mmol) and dibutyltin oxide (3.92 g, 15.8 mmol) in anhydrous MeOH (150 mL) was heated to reflux for 4 h and then the reaction was evaporated to dryness. The residue was dissolved in toluene (150 mL, anhydrous) in a dry flask.

Tetrabutylammonium bromide (3.65 g, 7.91 mmol) and allyl bromide (1.6 mL, 18.1 mmol) were added. The reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 4 h, cooled and then concentrated. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel eluted with EtOAc/CH 2 CI 2 (7:3) to give 5 (6.4 g, 67% over two steps).

Preparation of Compound 6

A solution of compound 5 (6.3 g, 7.35 mmol) in anhydrous DMF (30 mL) was added into a suspension of NaH (1.47 g, 36.8 mmol, 60% in mineral oil) in anhydrous DMF (30 mL) at O 0 C. After the reaction had been stirred at room temperature for 30 min, it was cooled to 0 0 C and BnBr

(3.95 mL, 33.1 mmol) was added. The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 2 h and then quenched with MeOH (1.5 mL) in an ice bath. Water (20 mL) and ice cold aqueous HCI (1 M, 100 mL) were added, followed by extraction with CH 2 CI 2 (200 mL). The layers were separated and the organic phase was washed with water (200 mL), ice cold saturated aqueous NaHCO 3 (100 mL), and brine, dried over Na 2 SO 4 , and concentrated. Chromatographic purification on silica gel eluted with EtOAc/heptane (1 :4) provided 6 (6.36 g, 78%).

Preparation of Compound 7 KOtBu (1.57 g, 14.0 mmol) was added to a solution of compound 6 (6.3 g, 5.59 mmol) in DMSO (40 mL) at room temperature. The slurry was heated to 100 0 C in a pre-heated oil bath for 2 h. After the reaction had been cooled to room temperature, CH 2 CI 2 (150 ML) and water (100 mL) were added. The layers were separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with CH 2 CI 2 (2 x 150 mL). The combined organics were washed with water (3 x 100 mL) and then brine (100 mL), dried over Na 2 SO 4 , and concentrated to a residue (6.4 g). This was dissolved with acetone (40 mL) and water (4 mL), HgO (yellow; 3.3 g, 15.1 mmol) was added followed by a solution of HgCI 2 (anhydrous; 3.3 g, 12.3 mmol) in acetone (40 mL) and water (4 mL) dropwise. After 30 min, the mixture was filtered through a pad of Celite and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was partitioned between CH 2 CI 2 (200 mL) and saturated aqueous NaI (30 mL). The organic layer was washed with water (100 mL) and then brine, dried over Na 2 SO 4 , and concentrated. Chromatographic purification on silica gel eluted with EtOAc/heptane (1 :4) provided 7 (4.35 g, 72%) as a yellow oil.

Preparation of Compound 8

Part 1: Br 2 (distilled over P 2 O 5 , 0.39 mL, 7.59 mmol) was added dropwise to a solution of B4-3 (4.03 g, 6.9 mmol) in anhydrous CH 2 CI 2 (10 mL) at 0 0 C. After the reaction had been stirred in an ice bath for 40 min, cyclohexene (1 mL) was added until the color changed to a persistent yellow.

Part 2: Compound 7 (3.75 g, 3.45 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous CH 2 CI 2 (25 mL) and then Et 4 NBr (dried at 200 0 C for 2 h under N 2 , 1.45 g, 6.9 mmol), anhydrous DMF (15 mL), and molecular sieves (4 A powder, dried; 4 g) were added. After this mixture had been stirred at room temperature for 30 min, the solution from part 1 was added. The reaction was stirred for 60 h at room temperature and then diluted with EtOAc (50 mL) and filtered through a pad of Celite. The filtrate was washed with aqueous Na 2 S 2 O 3 (10%, 50 mL), water (30 mL), and then brine (30 mL), dried over Na 2 SO 4 , and concentrated. Chromatographic purification on silica gel eluted with EtOAc/heptane (1:3) gave 8 (3.94 g, 71%) as a foam.

Preparation of Glycomimetic 1

A suspension of 8 (3.9 g, 2.42 mmol) and Pd(OH) 2 /C (20 wt%, 50% water wet; 2 g) in MeOH (150 mL), 1,4-dioxane (15 mL), and AcOH (5 mL) was hydrogenated under 60 psi at room temperature for 20 h. The mixture was filtered through a pad of Celite and the filtrate was concentrated. Chromatographic purification on silica gel eluted with CH 2 Cl 2 /MeOH/H 2 O (10:9: 1) gave Glycomimetic 1 (1.05 g, 70%) as a white solid.

EXAMPLE 2

SYNTHESIS OF GLYCOMIMETIC (COMPOUND XXVIII)

Chemical structures are depicted in Figures 3A-3B.

Synthesis of intermediate XVIV: To a solution of compound XVIII (0.8 g) in acetonitrile (10 ml) is added benzaldehydedimethylacetal (0.5 g) and p-toluenesulfonic acid (0.2 mg) and the mixture is stirred at room temperature for 6h. Triethylamine (0.2 ml) is added and the reaction mixture is stirred at room temperature for 5 min. Solvent is evaporated off and the residue is purified by column chromatography (silica gel) to give intermediate XVIV.

Synthesis of intermediate XXV: To a solution of compound XVIV (0.5 g) in DMF (5 ml) is added sodium hydride (0.1 g, 60% suspension in oil) with stirring. Benzyl bromide (0.2 ml) is added drop wise to the above reaction mixture and stirred at room temperature for 16h. Methanol (0.5 ml) is added with stirring and the reaction mixture is concentrated to dryness. Dichloromethane (50 ml) is added and the organic layer is washed successively with cold IN HCI cold sodium bicarbonate solution and cold water. Organic layer is dried (sodium sulfate), filtered and concentrated to dryness. Residue is purified by column chromatography (silica gel) to give compound XXV.

Synthesis of intermediate XXVI: To a cold solution of XXV (0.4 g) in THF (5 ml) is added sodiumcyanoborohydride (0.1 g). A cold solution of HCI in ether is added drop wise until effervescence ceases (pH 2-3).

Reaction mixture is diluted with ether (50 ml) and washed successively with a cold aqueous solution of sodium bicarbonate, and cold water. Solvent is evaporated off and the residue is purified by column chromatography (silica gel) to give compound XXVI. Synthesis of intermediate XXVII: To a solution of compound

XXVI (0.1 g) in dichloromethane-DMF (2 ml) is added molecular sieves (4A, 0.1 g) and tetraethyl ammonium bromide (0.05 g) and the reaction mixture is stirred for Ih at room temperature under argon. To this reaction mixture is added compound XVI (0.1 g) and the reaction mixture is stirred at room temperature for 48h under argon. Reaction mixture is diluted with

dichloromethane (10 ml) and washed successively with cold saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and water; then dried (sodium sulfate), filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue is purified by column chromatography (silica gel) to give compound XXVII. Synthesis of compound XXVIII: To a solution of compound

XXVII (0.06 g) in dioxane-water (5 ml, 6: 1) is added acetic acid (10 drops) and 10% Pd-C (0.06 g). The reaction mixture is vigorously shaken under hydrogen for 2Oh. Reaction mixture is filtered through a bed of celite and the solvent is evaporated off. Residue is purified by passing through a column of sephadex G-10 to give compound XXVIII.

EXAMPLE 3 SYNTHESIS OF GLYCOMIMETIC (COMPOUND XXXIII)

Chemical structures are depicted in Figures 3A-3B.

Synthesis of intermediate XXIX: To a solution of compound XVIII (2 g) in pyridine (20 ml) is added tert-butyl-dimethylsialylchloride (0.6 g) and the solution is stirred at room temperature for 16h. Solvent is evaporated off and the residue is purified by column chromatography (silica gel) to give compound XXIX.

Synthesis of intermediate XXX: To a suspension of compound XXIX (1 g) in α,α-dimethoxy propane (10 ml) is added camphorsulfonic acid (0.2 g) and the reaction mixture is stirred at room temperature for 16h. Triethylamine (0.2 ml) is added and the solvent is evaporated off. The residue is purified by column chromatography (silica gel) to give compound XXX. Synthesis of intermediate XXXI: Compound XXX (0.8 g) is reacted with compound XVI (0.8 g) in the same way as described in Example 2 to give compound XXXI.

Synthesis of intermediate XXXII: To a solution of compound XXXI (0.5 g) in acotonitrile (5 ml) is added triethylamine (0.1 ml) and a

solution of H 2 SiF 6 (0.5 ml, 35%) in acetonitrile (1 ml). After 2h, the reaction mixture is diluted with dichloromethane (50 ml) and washed with cold saturated solution of sodium bicarbonate and cold water, then dried (sodium sulfate), filtered, and concentrated to dryness. The residue is purified by column chromatography (silica gel) to give compound XXXII.

Synthesis of compound XXXIII: A solution of compound XXXII (0.2 g) in 60% acetic acid in water is heated at 60 0 C for Ih. Solvent is evaporated off and the crude product is dissolved in dioxan-water (5 ml, 6: 1). Acetic acid (10 drops) is added followed by 10% Pd-C. The suspension is shaken under hydrogen for 24h, filtered (Celte bed) and concentrated to dryness. The residue is purified by passing through a column of sephadex G-IO to give compound XXXIII.

EXAMPLE 4 SYNTHESIS OF GLYCOMIMETIC (COMPOUND XXXVII)

Chemical structures are depicted in Figures 3A-3B.

Synthesis of intermediate XXXIV: A solution of XXIX (1 g) in DMF is treated with NaH (0.14 g) and benzyl bromide (0.4 ml) in same way as described in Example 2 and purified by column chromatography (silica gel) to give compound XXXIV. Synthesis of intermediate XXXV: Compound XXXIV (1 g) is treated with H 2 SiF 6 in the same way as described in Example 3 to give compound XXXV.

Synthesis of intermediate XXXVI: Intermediate XXXV (0.5 g) is reacted with intermediate XVI (0.4 g) as described in Example 2 to give compound XXXVI.

Synthesis of compound XXXVII: Intermediate XXXVI (0.3 g) is hydrogenated as described in Example 2 and purified by sephadex G-10 to give compound XXXVII.

EXAMPLE 5 ASSAY FOR PA-IL ANTAGONIST ACTIVITY

Weils of a microtiter plate (plate 1) are coated with PA-IL (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) by incubation for 2 hrs at 37°C. The wells are then blocked for 2 hrs by the addition of 1% bovine serum albumin

(BSA) diluted in TBS-Ca (50 mM TrisHCI, 150 mM NaCl, 2 mM CaCI 2 pH 7.4) mixed 1: 1 v/v with Stabilcoat (Surmodics, Eden Prairie, MN). In a second low-binding round-bottom microtiter plate (plate 2), test antagonists are serial diluted in 1% BSA in TBS-Ca /Stabilcoat (60μl/well). Preformed conjugates of α-galactose-PAA-biotin (GlycoTech Corp, Gaithersburg, MD) mixed with streptavidin-HRP (KPL Labs, Gaithersburg, MD) are added to each well of plate 2 (60μl/well of 2 μg/ml). Plate 1 is then washed with TBS-Ca and 100 μl/well are transferred from plate 2 to plate 1. After incubation at room temperature for 2 hrs, plate 1 is washed and 100 μl of TMB reagent (KPL Labs, Gaithersburg, MD) is added to each well. After incubation for 5 minutes at room temperature, the reaction is stopped by adding 100 μl/well of IM H 3 PO 4 and the absorbance of light at 450 nm is determined by a microtiter plate reader.

EXAMPLE 6 ASSAY FOR PA-IIL ANTAGONIST ACTIVITY

Wells of a microtiter plate (plate 1) are coated with PA-IIL (Dr. Wimmerova, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic) by incubation for 2 hrs at 37°C. The wells are then blocked for 2 hrs by the addition of 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) diluted in TBS-Ca (50 mM TrisHCI, 150 mM NaCI, 2 mM CaCI 2 pH 7.4) mixed 1 : 1 v/v with Stabilcoat (Surmodics, Eden Prairie, MN). In a second low-binding round-bottom microtiter plate (plate 2), test antagonists are serial diluted in 1% BSA in TBS-Ca /Stabilcoat (60μl/well). Preformed conjugates of fucose-PAA-biotin (GlycoTech Corp,

Gaithersburg, MD) mixed with streptavidin-HRP (KPL Labs, Gaithersburg, MD) are added to each well of plate 2 (60μl/well of 2 μg/ml). Plate 1 is then washed with TBS-Ca and 100 μl/well are transferred from plate 2 to plate 1. After incubation at room temperature for 2 hrs, plate 1 is washed and 100 μl of TMB reagent (KPL Labs, Gaithersburg, MD) is added to each well. After incubation for 5 minutes at room temperature, the reaction is stopped by adding 100 μl/well of IM H 3 PO 4 and the absorbance of light at 450nm is determined by a microtiter plate reader.

EXAMPLE 7 ASSAY FOR INHIBITION OF PA-I OR PA-II LECTIN BINDING TO BUCCAL

CELLS

Obtain sample of buccal cells by scraping inside of cheek and collecting in 2 mis PBS. Spin cells at 400 g for 7 minutes to generate cell pellet. Discard supernatant. Resuspend in cold TBS-Ca (50 mM TrisHCI, 150 mM NaCI, 2 mM CaCI 2 pH 7.4) to cell concentration of 10 6 cells/ml. Aliquot 0.1 ml to each tube. Add biotinylated PA-I or PA-II to tubes (5 μ/well of 1.0 mg/ml lectin). Add inhibitors to tubes (5 μl at desired concentration). Incubate on ice for 30 minutes. Wash cells once by adding 400 μl of cold TBS-Ca to each tube and spinning at 400 g for 7 minutes. Discard supernatant. Resuspend cells in 100 μl of cold TBS-Ca. Add streptavidin- FITC (2 μl/tube of 1 mg/ml, KPL Labs, Gaithersburg, MD). Incubate 30 minutes on ice. Wash cells once by adding 400 μl of cold TBS- Ca to each tube and spinning at 400 g for 7 minutes. Discard supernatant. Resuspend cells in 500 μl of cold TBS-Ca. Analyze in flow cytometer. From the foregoing it will be appreciated that, although specific embodiments of the invention have been described herein for purposes of illustration, various modifications may be made without deviating from the spirit and scope of the invention.