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Title:
HERBICIDAL MIXTURES COMPRISING L-GLUFOSINATE OR ITS SALT AND AT LEAST ONE VLCFA INHIBITOR
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/030104
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to herbicidal mixture comprising L-glufosinate or its salt and at least one VLCFA inhibitor. The invention furthermore relates to a method for controlling undesirable vegetation in burndown programs, in industrial vegetation management and forestry, in vegetable and perennial crops and in turf and lawn.

Inventors:
WINTER CHRISTIAN (DE)
GEWEHR MARKUS (DE)
Application Number:
PCT/EP2018/070951
Publication Date:
February 14, 2019
Filing Date:
August 02, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
BASF SE (DE)
International Classes:
A01N37/22; A01N37/20; A01N37/26; A01N39/02; A01N43/10; A01N43/56; A01N43/80; A01N43/82; A01N47/38; A01N57/20; A01P13/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2012024524A12012-02-23
WO2009141367A22009-11-26
WO2016113334A12016-07-21
WO2009141367A22009-11-26
WO2006104120A12006-10-05
WO2006024820A12006-03-09
WO2007071900A12007-06-28
WO2007096576A12007-08-30
WO2017011288A12017-01-19
Foreign References:
US20110294663A12011-12-01
US20110224077A12011-09-15
US6165939A2000-12-26
US20110287933A12011-11-24
US20110287932A12011-11-24
US20110287934A12011-11-24
US20130023413A12013-01-24
US4265654A1981-05-05
DE19836726A12000-02-17
US7105470B12006-09-12
US5530142A1996-06-25
EP0127429A21984-12-05
EP3028573A12016-06-08
Other References:
MONIKA RUHLAND ET AL: "Distribution and metabolism ofD/L-,L- andD-glufosinate in transgenic, glufosinate-tolerant crops of maize(Zea mays L sspmays) and oilseed rape(Brassica napus L varnapus)", PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, vol. 60, no. 7, 14 June 2004 (2004-06-14), BOGNOR REGIS; GB, pages 691 - 696, XP055415713, ISSN: 1526-498X, DOI: 10.1002/ps.857
DATABASE CA [online] CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SERVICE, COLUMBUS, OHIO, US; 30 October 2013 (2013-10-30), ZHANG, WEI: "Herbicidal composition containing glufosinate and amides herbicide, preparation method and application thereof", XP002778051, retrieved from STN Database accession no. 2013:1691324
THARP BRENT, KELLS JAMES: "Residual Herbicides used in Combination with Glyphosate and Glufosinate in Corn (Zea mays)", WEED TECHNOLOGY, vol. 16, no. 2, 1 April 2002 (2002-04-01), pages 274 - 281, XP009503403
DATABASE CA [online] CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SERVICE, COLUMBUS, OHIO, US; WANG, XUEQUAN: "Synergistic herbicidal composition containing glufosinate-ammonium and S-metolachlor", XP002780607, retrieved from STN Database accession no. 2012:1492518
DATABASE CA [online] CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SERVICE, COLUMBUS, OHIO, US; 2012, WANG XUEQUAN: "Glufosinate containing compound herbicide", XP002780608, Database accession no. 2012:1642498
F. SCHWERDTLE ET AL., Z. PFLANZENKR. PFLANZENSCHUTZ, 1981, pages 431 - 440
J. CHEM. SOC. PER-KIN TRANS., vol. 1, 1992, pages 1525 - 1529
"Pesticide Manual", vol. 5.2, 2008
"Technical Monograph", May 2008, CROPLIFE INTERNATIONAL, article "Catalogue of pesticide formulation types and international coding system"
MOLLET; GRUBEMANN: "Formulation technology", 2001, WILEY VCH
KNOWLES: "Agrow Reports DS243", 2005, T&F INFORMA, article "New developments in crop protection product formulation"
"McCutcheon's, Vol.1: Emulsifiers & Detergents", vol. 1, 2008, MCCUTCHEON'S DIRECTORIES
KNOWLES: "Agrow Reports DS256", 2006, T&F INFORMA, article "Adjuvants and additives"
COLBY, S. R.: "Calculating Synergistic and Antagonistic Responses in Herbicide Combinations", WEEDS, vol. 15, 1967, pages 21 - 22
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BASF IP ASSOCIATION (DE)
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Claims:
Claims

1 . A herbicidal mixture comprising

a) L- glufosinate and its salts as compound I; and

b) at least one VLCFA inhibitor as compound II;

wherein L-glufosinate comprises more than 70% by weight of the L-enantiomer.

2. The herbicidal mixture as claimed in claim 1 , wherein compound I is selected from the group consisting of L-glufosinate-ammonium or L-glufosinate-sodium as L-glufosinate salts and L-glufosinate as free acid.

3. The herbicidal mixture as claimed in claim 1 , wherein compound I is L-glufosinate- ammonium. 4. The herbicidal mixture as claimed in any of claims 1 to 4, wherein L-glufosinate comprises more than 80% by weight, preferably more than 90% by weight, even more preferably 95% by weight of the L-enantiomer. 5. The herbicidal mixture as claimed in any of claims 1 to 4, wherein compound II is selected from the group consisting of acetochlor, alachlor, butachlor, dimethachlor, dimethenamid, dimethenamid-P, metazachlor, metolachlor, S-metolachlor, pethoxamid, pretilachlor, propachlor, propisochlor, thenylchlor, flufenacet, mefenacet, diphenamid, naproanilide, napropamide, napropamide-M, fentrazamide, anilofos, cafenstrole, fenoxasulfone, ipfen- carbazone, piperophos, pyroxasulfone, isoxazoline compounds of the formulae ll.is-1 , II. is- 2, ll.is-3, ll.is-4, ll.is-5, ll.is-6, ll.is-7, ll.is-8 and ll.is-9

ll.is-1 ll.is-2

ll.is-3 ll.is-4

ll.is-8 ll.is-9

The herbicidal mixture as claimed in any of claims 1 to 4, wherein compound II is selected from the group consisting of acetochlor, dimethenamid, dimethenamid-P, metazachlor, metolachlor, S-metolachlor, flufenacet and pyroxasulfone.

The herbicidal mixture as claimed in any of claims 1 to 4, wherein compound II is selected from the group consisting of pethoxamid and pyroxasulfone.

The herbicidal mixture as claimed in any of claims 1 to 7, wherein the weight ratio of compound I to compound II is from 1000:1 to 1 :500.

A pesticidal composition, comprising a liquid or solid carrier and a mixture as defined in any of claims 1 to 8.

A method for controlling undesirable vegetation, which method comprises applying a mixture according to claims 1 to 8 to a locus where undesirable vegetation is present or is expected to be present.

1 1 . The method as claimed in claim 10, comprising application of the mixture as defined in claims 1 to 8 prior emergence of the crop.

12. The method as claimed in claim 10, comprising application of the mixture as defined in claims 1 to 7 prior to planting the crop.

13. The method as claimed in any of claims 10 to 12, wherein the crop is selected from rice, maize, pulse crops, cotton, canola, small grain cereals, soybeans, peanut, sugarcane, sunflower, plantation crops, tree crops, nuts and grapes.

14. The method as claimed in any of claims 10 to 13, wherein the crop is selected from

glufosinate tolerant crops.

15. The method as claimed in any of claims 10 to 14, wherein compounds I and II of the mixture as defined in any of claims 1 to 8 are applied simultaneously, that is jointly or separately, or in succession.

Description:
Herbicidal mixtures comprising L-glufosinate or its salt and at least one VLCFA inhibitor Description The present invention relates to herbicidal mixture comprising L-glufosinate or its salt and at least one VLCFA inhibitor. The invention furthermore relates to a method for controlling undesirable vegetation in burndown programs, in industrial vegetation management and forestry, in vegetable and perennial crops and in turf and lawn. Burndown, i.e. the complete removal of weeds from the soil by application of herbicides prior to planting or emergence of a crop, is an important tool of modern weed management. Weeds present at planting will generally grow much quicker than crop plants and thus compete very early in the growing season thereby damaging the crop plants and reducing crop yield. Thus, it is desirable to plant the crop in a weed-free seed bed or to assure that essentially no weeds are present when the crop emerges. Burn-down may also entail weed control on fallow crop land.

In industrial weed management and forestry, it is desirable to control a broad range of weeds for an extended period of time. The control of large weeds, or taller species such as bushes or trees may also be desirable. Industrial weed management includes for example railway and right-of-way management, fence lines and non-crop land such as industrial and building sites, gravel areas, roads or sidewalks. Forestry includes for example the clearing of existing forest or bushland, the removal of regrowth after mechanical forest cutting, or the management of weeds under forestry plantations. In the latter case, it may be desirable to shield desirable trees from contact with the spray solution that contains the herbicidal mixture according to the present in- vention.

Vegetable crops includes for example aubergine, beans, bell pepper, cabbage, chili, cucumber, eggplant, lettuce, melon, onion, potato, sweet potato, spinach and tomato. For weed control in vegetable crops, it may be desirable to shield the crops from contact with the spray solution that contains the herbicidal mixture according to the present invention.

Perennial crops include trees, nuts and vine crops such as for example almond, apple, apricot, avocado, cashew nut, cherry, Christmas trees, durian, orange, dragon fruit, grapes, guava, lon- gan, mango, olive, papaya, peach, pear and other pome fruits, pistachio, plum, pomegranate, pomelo and quince and citrus crops including e. g. Clementine, grapefruit, lemon, lime, manda- rin and nectarine as well as nut crops including e. g. hazelnut, macadamia nut and walnut; and plantation crops such as for example banana, cacao, coconut, coffee, oil palm, pepper and other spices, plantain, rubber, sugarcane and tea. Also included are ornamentals such as, for example, azaleas, rhododendron, roses and nurseries. For weed control in perennial crops, it may be desirable to shield the crops from contact with the spray solution that contains the herbicidal mixture according to the present invention.

The compositions according to the invention can also be used for weed control in turf and lawn provided the desirable grass species are tolerant to the herbicidal mixture. In particular, such mixtures can be used in desirable grass that has been rendered tolerant to glufosinate by mutagenesis or genetic engineering.

Glufosinate and its salts are non-selective systemic herbicides having a good post-emergence activity against numerous weeds and thus can be used in burndown programs, in industrial vegetation management and forestry, in vegetable and perennial crops and in turf and lawn. However, solo application of glufosinate often yields unsatisfactory weed control, and several applications and/or high dosage rates are often required. Moreover, the effectiveness of glufosinate against some weeds is not fully sufficient.

Therefore, it is frequently recommended to apply glufosinate in combination with at least one further herbicide. However, the effectiveness of such combinations is often not satisfactory and high application rates are still required to achieve acceptable weed control. Moreover, the reliability and persistence of such combinations depends strongly on the weathering conditions and certain difficult to control weed species may escape. In addition, the herbicidal activity of these mixtures persists only for a short time, which allows effective burndown only within a small timeframe prior to planting a crop.

Thus, it is an object of the present invention to provide a herbicidal mixture, which allows efficient and reliable control of grass and broad leaf weeds in a burndown program, in industrial vegetation management and forestry, in vegetable and perennial crops and in turf and lawn. Moreover, the persistence of the herbicidal activity of the mixture should be sufficiently long in order to achieve control of the weeds over a sufficient long time period thus allowing a more flexible application. The mixture should also have a low toxicity to humans or other mammals. The mixtures should also show an accelerated action on harmful plants, i.e. they should affect damaging of the harmful plants more quickly in comparison with application of the individual herbicides.

Glufosinate is a racemate of two enantiomers, out of which only one shows sufficient herbicidal activity (see e.g. US 4265654 and JP92448/83). Even though various methods to prepare L- glufosinate (and respective salts) are known, the mixtures known in the art do not point at the stereochemistry, meaning that the racemate is present (WO2009141367, DE 19836726, US 7105470).

Surprisingly, it has been found that mixtures of L-glufosinate or its salt and at least one VLCFA inhibitor show a higher activity in burndown programms, in industrial vegetation management and forestry, in vegetable and perennial crops and in turf and lawn, if compared to L-glufosinate alone.

Surprisingly, it has been found that mixtures of L-glufosinate or its salt and at least one VLCFA inhibitor show a higher activity in burndown programms, in industrial vegetation management and forestry, in vegetable and perennial crops and in turf and lawn, if compared to mixtures of racemic glufosinate and at least one VLCFA inhibitor.

Thus, the present invention relates to herbicidal mixtures of

1 ) L-glufosinate or its salt as compound I and at least one VLCFA inhibitor as compound II, preferably selected from the group consisting of acetochlor, alachlor, butachlor, dimethachlor, dimethenamid, dimethenamid-P, metaza- chlor, metolachlor, S-metolachlor, pethoxamid, pretilachlor, propachlor, propisochlor, thenylchlor, flufenacet, mefenacet, diphenamid, naproanilide, napropamide, napropamide- M, fentrazamide, anilofos, cafenstrole, fenoxasulfone, ipfencarbazone, piperophos, pyrox- asulfone, isoxazoline compounds of the formulae 11. is-1 , ll.is-2, ll.is-3, ll.is-4, ll.is-5, ll.is-6, ll.is-7, ll.is-8 and ll.is-9

ll.is-6 ll.is-7

ll.is-8 ll.is-9

In a preferred embodiment, the abovementioned invention relates to herbicidal mixtures as de- scribed above, wherein L-glufosinate comprises more than 70% by weight of the L-enantiomer.

Glufosinate [common name of DL-4-[hydroxyl(methyl)phosphinoyl]-DL-homoalaninate] and its salts such as glufosinate ammonium and its herbicidal acitivity have been described e.g. by F. Schwerdtle et al. Z. Pflanzenkr. Pflanzenschutz, 1981 , Sonderheft IX, pp. 431 -440. Glufosinate as racemate and its salts are commercially available, e.g. from Bayer CropScience under the tradenames Basta™ and Liberty™.

L-Glufosinate as used in the present invention comprises more than 70% by weight of the L- enantiomer; preferably more than 80% by weight of the L-enantiomer; more preferably more than 90% of the L-entantiomer, most preferably more than 95% of the L-enantiomer and can be prepared as referred to above. L-Glufosinate can be prepared according to methods known in the art, e.g. as described in WO2006/104120, US5530142, EP0127429 and J. Chem. Soc. Per- kin Trans. 1 , 1992, 1525-1529. L-Glufosinate, also called glufosinate-P, is (2S)-2-amino-4-[hydroxy(methyl)phosphinoyl]butyric acid (CAS Reg. No. 35597-44-5). Relevant salts of L-glufosinate are L-glufosinate-ammonium (also called glufosinate-P-ammonium), which is ammonium (2S)-2-amino-4- (methylphosphinato)butyric acid (CAS Reg. No. 73777-50-1 ); L-glufosinate-sodium (also called glufosinate-P-sodium), which is sodium (2S)-2-amino-4-(methylphosphinato)butyric acid (CAS Reg. No. 70033-13-5) and L-glufosinate-potassium (also called glufosinate-P-potassium), which is potassium (2S)-2-amino-4-(methylphosphinato)butyric acid.

Compounds II as well as their pesticidal action and methods for producing them are generally known, for example in the Pesticide Manual V5.2 (ISBN 978 1 901396 85 0) (2008-201 1 ) amongst other sources. Compounds ll.is-1 , II. is -2, ll.is-3, ll.is-4, ll.is-5, ll.is-6, ll.is-7, ll.is-8 and ll.is-9 are known from WO 2006/024820 and/or WO 2007/071900 and/or WO 2007/096576.

In the inventive mixtures the weight ratio of compound I to compound II is preferably from 1000: 1 to 1 : 500, 400:1 to 1 :40, more preferably 500:1 to 1 :250, in particular from 200:1 to 1 :20, even more preferably from 100:1 to 1 :10, most preferrably 50:1 to 1 :5. Furthermore, mixtures are preferred, which contain L-glufosinate-ammonium or L-glufosinate- sodium as L-glufosinate salts or L-glufosinate as free acid. Especially preferred are mixtures, which contain L-glufosinate-ammonium as L-glufosinate salt. Preferred compounds II are acetochlor, dimethenamid, dimethenamid-P, metazachlor, metolachlor, S-metolachlor, flufenacet, pethoxamid, pyroxasulfone, butachlor, pretilachlor and fentrazamide.

More preferred compounds II are acetochlor, dimethenamid, dimethenamid-P, metazachlor, metolachlor, S-metolachlor, flufenacet, pethoxamid and pyroxasulfone.

Thus, preferred mixtures of the present invention are mixtures of L-glufosinate-ammonium or L- glufosinate-sodium as L-glufosinate salts or L-glufosinate as free acid and a VLCFA inhibitor selected from the group consisting of acetochlor, dimethenamid, dimethenamid-P, metazachlor, metolachlor, S-metolachlor, flufenacet, pethoxamid, pyroxasulfone, butachlor, pretilachlor and fentrazamide.

More preferred mixtures of the present invention are mixtures of L-glufosinate or its salt as compound I, preferably mixtures of L-glufosinate-ammonium or L-glufosinate-sodium as L- glufosinate salts or L-glufosinate as free acid, and a VLCFA inhibitor selected from the group consisting of pethoxamid and pyroxasulfone.

In one embodiment, the mixture of the present invention is a mixture of L-glufosinate or its salt as compound I, preferably mixtures of L-glufosinate-ammonium or L-glufosinate-sodium as L- glufosinate salts or L-glufosinate as free acid, and pethoxamid.

In one embodiment, the mixture of the present invention is a mixture of L-glufosinate or its salt as compound I, preferably mixtures of L-glufosinate-ammonium or L-glufosinate-sodium as L- glufosinate salts or L-glufosinate as free acid, and pyroxasulfone.

All preferred mixtures are listed in table 2, wherein the following abbreviations are used in table 1 :

Table 1

Compound Abbreviation Compound Abbreviation

L-glufosinate-ammonium 1-1 pyroxasulfone II-8

L-glufosinate-sodium I-2 butachlor II-9

L-glufosinate as free acid I-3 pretilachlor 11-10 acetochlor 11-1 fentrazamide 11-1 1 dimethenamid II-2 dimethachlor 11-12 dimethenamid-P II-3 napropamide 11-13 metazachlor II-4 pethoxamid 11-14 metolachlor II-5 pyroxasulfone 11-15

S-metolachlor II-6 See formulae above ll.is-1 to flufenacet II-7 ll.is-9 Table 2

More preferred mixtures of the present invention are mixtures of L-glufosinate-ammonium or L- glufosinate-sodium as L-glufosinate salts or L-glufosinate as free acid and a VLCFA inhibitor selected from the group consisting of acetochlor, dimethenamid, dimethenamid-P, metazachlor, metolachlor, S-metolachlor, flufenacet, pethoxamid and pyroxasulfone.

Thus, more preferred are mixtures M-1 , M-2, M-3, M-4, M-5, M-6, M-7, M-8, M-12, M-13, M-14, M-15, M-16, M-17, M-18, M-19, M-23, M-24, M-25, M-26, M-27, M-28, M-29, M-30.

Even more preferred are mixtures M-1 , M-3, M-4, M-6, M-7, M-8, M-12, M-14, M-15, M-17, M- 18, M-19, M-23, M-25, M-26, M-28, M-29 and M-30. Other preferred mixtures are M-1 , M-2, M-3, M-4, M-5, M-6, M-7 and M-8.

Other preferred mixtures are M-36, M-37, M-40, M-41 , M-44, M-45. Other even more preferred mixtures are M-36 and M-37. All above-referred mixtures are herein below referred to as "inventive mixtures".

The inventive mixtures can further contain one or more insecticides, fungicides, herbicides.

The inventive mixtures can be converted into customary types of agrochemical mixtures, e. g. solutions, emulsions, suspensions, dusts, powders, pastes, granules, pressings, capsules, and mixtures thereof. Examples for mixture types are suspensions (e.g. SC, OD, FS), emulsifiable concentrates (e.g. EC), emulsions (e.g. EW, EO, ES, ME), capsules (e.g. CS, ZC), pastes, pastilles, wetable powders or dusts (e.g. WP, SP, WS, DP, DS), pressings (e.g. BR, TB, DT), granules (e.g. WG, SG, GR, FG, GG, MG), insecticidal articles (e.g. LN), as well as gel formulations for the treatment of plant propagation materials such as seeds (e.g. GF). These and further mixtures types are defined in the "Catalogue of pesticide formulation types and international coding system", Technical Monograph No. 2, 6 th Ed. May 2008, CropLife International.

The mixtures are prepared in a known manner, such as described by Mollet and Grubemann, Formulation technology, Wiley VCH, Weinheim, 2001 ; or Knowles, New developments in crop protection product formulation, Agrow Reports DS243, T&F Informa, London, 2005.

Suitable auxiliaries are solvents, liquid carriers, solid carriers or fillers, surfactants, dispersants, emulsifiers, wetters, adjuvants, solubilizers, penetration enhancers, protective colloids, adhesion agents, thickeners, humectants, repellents, attractants, feeding stimulants, compatibilizers, bactericides, anti-freezing agents, anti-foaming agents, colorants, tackifiers and binders.

Suitable solvents and liquid carriers are water and organic solvents, such as mineral oil fractions of medium to high boiling point, e.g. kerosene, diesel oil; oils of vegetable or animal origin; aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons, e. g. toluene, paraffin, tetrahydronaphthalene, alkylated naphthalenes; alcohols, e.g. ethanol, propanol, butanol, benzylalcohol, cyclohexanol; glycols; DMSO; ketones, e.g. cyclohexanone; esters, e.g. lactates, carbonates, fatty acid esters, gamma-butyrolactone; fatty acids; phosphonates; amines; amides, e.g. N-methylpyrrolidone, fatty acid dimethylamides; and mixtures thereof.

Suitable solid carriers or fillers are mineral earths, e.g. silicates, silica gels, talc, kaolins, lime- stone, lime, chalk, clays, dolomite, diatomaceous earth, bentonite, calcium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, magnesium oxide; polysaccharides, e.g. cellulose, starch; fertilizers, e.g. ammonium sulfate, ammonium phosphate, ammonium nitrate, ureas; products of vegetable origin, e.g. cereal meal, tree bark meal, wood meal, nutshell meal, and mixtures thereof.

Suitable surfactants are surface-active compounds, such as anionic, cationic, nonionic and amphoteric surfactants, block polymers, polyelectrolytes, and mixtures thereof. Such surfactants can be used as emulsifier, dispersant, solubilizer, wetter, penetration enhancer, protective colloid, or adjuvant. Examples of surfactants are listed in McCutcheon's, Vol.1 : Emulsifiers & Detergents, McCutcheon's Directories, Glen Rock, USA, 2008 (International Ed. or North American Ed.).

Suitable anionic surfactants are alkali, alkaline earth or ammonium salts of sulfonates, sulfates, phosphates, carboxylates, and mixtures thereof. Examples of sulfonates are alkylarylsulfonates, diphenylsulfonates, alpha-olefin sulfonates, lignine sulfonates, sulfonates of fatty acids and oils, sulfonates of ethoxylated alkylphenols, sulfonates of alkoxylated arylphenols, sulfonates of con- densed naphthalenes, sulfonates of dodecyl- and tridecylbenzenes, sulfonates of naphthalenes and alkylnaphthalenes, sulfosuccinates or sulfosuccinamates. Examples of sulfates are sulfates of fatty acids and oils, of ethoxylated alkylphenols, of alcohols, of ethoxylated alcohols, or of fatty acid esters. Examples of phosphates are phosphate esters. Examples of carboxylates are alkyl carboxylates, and carboxylated alcohol or alkylphenol ethoxylates.

Suitable nonionic surfactants are alkoxylates, N-subsituted fatty acid amides, amine oxides, esters, sugar-based surfactants, polymeric surfactants, and mixtures thereof. Examples of alkoxylates are compounds such as alcohols, alkylphenols, amines, amides, arylphenols, fatty acids or fatty acid esters which have been alkoxylated with 1 to 50 equivalents. Ethylene oxide and/or propylene oxide may be employed for the alkoxylation, preferably ethylene oxide. Exam- pies of N-subsititued fatty acid amides are fatty acid glucamides or fatty acid alkanolamides. Examples of esters are fatty acid esters, glycerol esters or monoglycerides. Examples of sugar- based surfactants are sorbitans, ethoxylated sorbitans, sucrose and glucose esters or al- kylpolyglucosides. Examples of polymeric surfactants are home- or copolymers of vinylpyrroli- done, vinylalcohols, or vinylacetate.

Suitable cationic surfactants are quaternary surfactants, for example quaternary ammonium compounds with one or two hydrophobic groups, or salts of long-chain primary amines. Suitable amphoteric surfactants are alkylbetains and imidazolines. Suitable block polymers are block polymers of the A-B or A-B-A type comprising blocks of polyethylene oxide and polypropylene oxide, or of the A-B-C type comprising alkanol, polyethylene oxide and polypropylene oxide. Suitable polyelectrolytes are polyacids or polybases. Examples of polyacids are alkali salts of polyacrylic acid or polyacid comb polymers. Examples of polybases are polyvinylamines or pol- yethyleneamines.

Suitable adjuvants are compounds, which have a neglectable or even no pesticidal activity themselves, and which improve the biological performance of the inventive mixtures on the tar- get. Examples are surfactants, mineral or vegetable oils, and other auxilaries. Further examples are listed by Knowles, Adjuvants and additives, Agrow Reports DS256, T&F Informa UK, 2006, chapter 5. Suitable thickeners are polysaccharides (e.g. xanthan gum, carboxymethylcellulose), anorganic clays (organically modified or unmodified), polycarboxylates, and silicates.

Suitable bactericides are bronopol and isothiazolinone derivatives such as alkylisothiazolinones and benzisothiazolinones.

Suitable anti-freezing agents are ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, urea and glycerin.

Suitable anti-foaming agents are silicones, long chain alcohols, and salts of fatty acids.

Suitable colorants (e.g. in red, blue, or green) are pigments of low water solubility and water- soluble dyes. Examples are inorganic colorants (e.g. iron oxide, titan oxide, iron hexacyanofer- rate) and organic colorants (e.g. alizarin-, azo- and phthalocyanine colorants).

Suitable tackifiers or binders are polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinylacetates, polyvinyl alcohols, pol- yacrylates, biological or synthetic waxes, and cellulose ethers.

Examples for mixture types and their preparation are:

i) Water-soluble concentrates (SL, LS)

10-60 wt% of an inventive mixture and 5-15 wt% wetting agent (e.g. alcohol alkoxylates) are dissolved in water and/or in a water-soluble solvent (e.g. alcohols) ad 100 wt%. The active substance dissolves upon dilution with water.

ii) Dispersible concentrates (DC)

5-25 wt% of an inventive mixture and 1 -10 wt% dispersant (e. g. polyvinylpyrrolidone) are dis- solved in organic solvent (e.g. cyclohexanone) ad 100 wt%. Dilution with water gives a dispersion.

iii) Emulsifiable concentrates (EC)

15-70 wt% of an inventive mixture and 5-10 wt% emulsifiers (e.g. calcium dodecylben- zenesulfonate and castor oil ethoxylate) are dissolved in water-insoluble organic solvent (e.g. aromatic hydrocarbon) ad 100 wt%. Dilution with water gives an emulsion.

iv) Emulsions (EW, EO, ES)

5-40 wt% of an inventive mixture and 1 -10 wt% emulsifiers (e.g. calcium dodecylbenzene- sulfonate and castor oil ethoxylate) are dissolved in 20-40 wt% water-insoluble organic solvent (e.g. aromatic hydrocarbon). This mixture is introduced into water ad 100 wt% by means of an emulsifying machine and made into a homogeneous emulsion. Dilution with water gives an emulsion.

v) Suspensions (SC, OD, FS)

In an agitated ball mill, 20-60 wt% of an inventive mixture are comminuted with addition of 2-10 wt% dispersants and wetting agents (e.g. sodium lignosulfonate and alcohol ethoxylate), 0.1 - 2 wt% thickener (e.g. xanthan gum) and water ad 100 wt% to give a fine active substance suspension. Dilution with water gives a stable suspension of the active substance. For FS type mixture up to 40 wt% binder (e.g. polyvinylalcohol) is added.

vi) Water-dispersible granules and water-soluble granules (WG, SG)

50-80 wt% of an inventive mixture are ground finely with addition of dispersants and wetting agents (e.g. sodium lignosulfonate and alcohol ethoxylate) ad 100 wt% and prepared as water- dispersible or water-soluble granules by means of technical appliances (e. g. extrusion, spray tower, fluidized bed). Dilution with water gives a stable dispersion or solution of the active sub- stance.

vii) Water-dispersible powders and water-soluble powders (WP, SP, WS)

50-80 wt% of an inventive mixture are ground in a rotor-stator mill with addition of 1 -5 wt% dis- persants (e.g. sodium lignosulfonate), 1 -3 wt% wetting agents (e.g. alcohol ethoxylate) and solid carrier (e.g. silica gel) ad 100 wt%. Dilution with water gives a stable dispersion or solution of the active substance.

viii) Gel (GW, GF)

In an agitated ball mill, 5-25 wt% of an inventive mixture are comminuted with addition of 3-10 wt% dispersants (e.g. sodium lignosulfonate), 1 -5 wt% thickener (e.g. carboxymethylcellulose) and water ad 100 wt% to give a fine suspension of the active substance. Dilution with water gives a stable suspension of the active substance.

ix) Microemulsion (ME)

5-20 wt% of an inventive mixture are added to 5-30 wt% organic solvent blend (e.g. fatty acid dimethylamide and cyclohexanone), 10-25 wt% surfactant blend (e.g. alcohol ethoxylate and arylphenol ethoxylate), and water ad 100 %. This mixture is stirred for 1 h to produce spontaneously a thermodynamically stable microemulsion.

x) Microcapsules (CS)

An oil phase comprising 5-50 wt% of an inventive mixture, 0-40 wt% water insoluble organic solvent (e.g. aromatic hydrocarbon), 2-15 wt% acrylic monomers (e.g. methylmethacrylate, methacrylic acid and a di- or triacrylate) are dispersed into an aqueous solution of a protective colloid (e.g. polyvinyl alcohol). Radical polymerization initiated by a radical initiator results in the formation of poly(meth)acrylate microcapsules. Alternatively, an oil phase comprising 5-50 wt% of an inventive mixture according to the invention, 0-40 wt% water insoluble organic solvent (e.g. aromatic hydrocarbon), and an isocyanate monomer (e.g. diphenylmethene-4,4'- diisocyanatae) are dispersed into an aqueous solution of a protective colloid (e.g. polyvinyl alcohol). The addition of a polyamine (e.g. hexamethylenediamine) results in the formation of pol- yurea microcapsules. The monomers amount to 1-10 wt%. The wt% relate to the total CS mixture.

xi) Dustable powders (DP, DS)

1 -10 wt% of an inventive mixture are ground finely and mixed intimately with solid carrier (e.g. finely divided kaolin) ad 100 wt%.

xii) Granules (GR, FG)

0.5-30 wt% of an inventive mixture is ground finely and associated with solid carrier (e.g. silicate) ad 100 wt%. Granulation is achieved by extrusion, spray-drying or fluidized bed.

xiii) Ultra-low volume liquids (UL)

1 -50 wt% of an inventive mixture are dissolved in organic solvent (e.g. aromatic hydrocarbon) ad 100 wt%.

The mixtures types i) to xiii) may optionally comprise further auxiliaries, such as 0.1 -1 wt% bactericides, 5-15 wt% anti-freezing agents, 0.1 -1 wt% anti-foaming agents, and 0.1 -1 wt% color- ants.

The resulting agrochemical mixtures generally comprise between 0.01 and 95%, preferably be- tween 0.1 and 90%, and in particular between 0.5 and 75%, by weight of active substance. The active substances are employed in a purity of from 90% to 100%, preferably from 95% to 100% (according to NMR spectrum).

Solutions for seed treatment (LS), Suspoemulsions (SE), flowable concentrates (FS), powders for dry treatment (DS), water-dispersible powders for slurry treatment (WS), water-soluble powders (SS), emulsions (ES), emulsifiable concentrates (EC) and gels (GF) are usually employed for the purposes of treatment of plant propagation materials, particularly seeds. The mixtures in question give, after two-to-tenfold dilution, active substance concentrations of from 0.01 to 60% by weight, preferably from 0.1 to 40%, in the ready-to-use preparations. Application can be car- ried out before or during sowing. Methods for applying the inventive mixtures and mixtures thereof, respectively, on to plant propagation material, especially seeds include dressing, coating, pelleting, dusting, soaking and in-furrow application methods of the propagation material. Preferably, the inventive mixtures or the mixtures thereof, respectively, are applied on to the plant propagation material by a method such that germination is not induced, e. g. by seed dressing, pelleting, coating and dusting.

The invention also relates to an herbicidal formulation, which comprises a herbicidally active mixture as defined herein and at least one carrier material, including liquid and/or solid carrier materials.

Various types of oils, wetters, adjuvants, fertilizer, or micronutrients, and further pesticides (e.g. herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, growth regulators, safeners) may be added to the active substances or the inventive mixtures comprising them as premix or, if appropriate not until immediately prior to use (tank mix). These agents can be admixed with the inventive mixtures in a weight ratio of 1 :100 to 100:1 , preferably 1 :10 to 10:1.

The user applies the mixture according to the invention usually from a predosage device, a knapsack sprayer, a spray tank, a spray plane, or an irrigation system. Usually, the agrochemi- cal mixture is made up with water, buffer, and/or further auxiliaries to the desired application concentration and the ready-to-use spray liquor or the agrochemical mixture according to the invention is thus obtained. Usually, 20 to 2000 liters, preferably 50 to 400 liters, of the ready-to- use spray liquor are applied per hectare of agricultural useful area.

As outlined above, the invention also relates to the use of a mixture as defined herein for controlling undesirable vegetation in burndown programs, in industrial vegetation management and forestry, in vegetable and perennial crops and in turf and lawn, wherein the inventive mixtures can be applied pre- or post-emergence, i.e. before, during and/or after emergence of the unde- sirable plants. Preferred is the application as post-emergence treatment, i.e. during and/or after emergence of the undesirable plants. Herein, the inventive mixtures are applied to a locus where crops will be planted before planting or emergence of the crop.

Therefore, the present invention also relates to a method for burndown treatment of undesirable vegetation in crops, comprising applying an inventive mixture to a locus where crops will be planted before planting (or seeding) or emergence of the crop. Herein, the inventive mixture is applied undesirable vegetation or the locus thereof.

Thus, present invention therefore relates to a method for controlling undesirable vegetation, which method comprises applying an inventive mixture to a locus where undesirable vegetation is present or is expected to be present, wherein application can be done before, during and/or after, preferably during and/or after, the emergence of the undesirable vegetation

As used herein, the terms "controlling" and "combating" are synonyms.

As used herein, the terms "undesirable vegetation", "undesirable species", "undesirable plants", "harmful plants", "undesirable weeds", or "harmfull weeds" are synonyms.

The term "locus", as used herein, means the area in which the vegetation or plants are growing or will grow, typically a field.

In such burndown programs, the inventive mixtures can be applied prior to seeding (planting) or after seeding (or planting) of the crop plants but before the emergence of the crop plants, in particular prior to seeding. The inventive mixtures are preferably applied prior to seeding of the crop plants. For burndown, the inventive mixtures will generally be applied a date up to 9 months, frequently up to 6 months, preferably up to 4 months prior to planting the crop. The burndown application can be done at a date up to 1 day prior to emergence of the crop plant and is preferably done at a date prior to seeding/planting of the crop plant, preferably at a date of at least one day, preferably at least 2 days and in particular at least one 4 days prior to planting or from 6 months to 1 day prior emergence, in particular from 4 months to 2 days prior emergence and more preferably from 4 months to 4 days prior emergence. It is, of course, possible to repeat the burndown application once or more, e.g. once, twice, three times, four times or five times within that time frame.

It is a particular benefit of the inventive mixtures that they have a very good post-emergence herbicide activity, i.e. they show a good herbicidal activity against emerged undesirable plants. Thus, in a preferred embodiment of invention, the inventive mixtures are applied post- emergence, i.e. during and/or after, the emergence of the undesirable plants. It is particularly advantageous to apply the inventive mixtures post emergent when the undesirable plant starts with leaf development up to flowering. The inventive mixtures are particularly useful for controlling undesirable vegetation which has already developed to a state, which is difficult to control with conventional burndown mixtures, i.e. when the individual weed is taller than 10 cm (4 inch- es) or even taller than 15 cm (6 inches) and/or for heavy weed populations.

In the case of a post-emergence treatment of the plants, the inventive mixtures are preferably applied by foliar application. If the active compounds I and II are less well tolerated by certain crop plants, application techniques may be used in which the herbicidal compositions are sprayed, with the aid of the spraying equipment, in such a way that as far as possible they do not come into contact with the leaves of the sensitive crop plants, while the active compounds reach the leaves of undesirable plants growing underneath, or the bare soil surface (post-directed, lay-by). In addition, spray shields may be used.

Application may be effected, for example, by usual spraying techniques with water as the carrier, using amounts of spray mixture of usually from 10 to 2000 l/ha, in particular 50 to 1000 l/ha. The required application rate of the mixture of the pure active compounds depends on the density of the undesired vegetation, on the development stage of the plants, on the climatic conditions of the location where the mixture is used and on the application method. In general, the application rate of the mixture is from 55 to 6000 g/ha, preferably from 100 to 5000 g/ha, from 200 to 4000 g/ha, and more preferably from 300 to 3000 g/ha of active ingredient (a.i.).

When using the inventive mixtures in the methods of the present invention, the active compounds present in the inventive mixtures can be applied simultaneously or in succession, where undesirable vegetation may occur. Herein, it is immaterial whether the individual compounds present in the inventive mixtures are formulated jointly or separately and applied jointly or sepa- rately, and, in the case of separate application, in which order the application takes place. It is only necessary, that the individual compounds present in the inventive mixtures are applied in a time frame, which allows simultaneous action of the active ingredients on the undesirable plants. As mentioned above, the inventive mixtures have several advantages i.e. enhanced herbicide action in comparison if compared to mixtures of racemic glufosinate with a VLCFA inhibitor.

Moreover, the inventive mixtures show a persistant herbicidal activity, even under difficult weathering conditions, which allows a more flexible application in burndown applications and minimizes the risk of weeds escaping. Apart form that, the inventive mixtures show superior crop compatibility with certain conventional crop plants and with herbicide tolerant crop plants, i.e. their use in these crops leads to a reduced damage of the crop plants and/or does not result in increased damage of the crop plants. Thus, the inventive mixtures can also be applied after the emergence of the crop plants. The inventive mixtures may also show an accelerated action on harmful plants, i.e. they may affect damage of the harmful plants more quickly if compared to mixtures of racemic glufosinate with at least one VLCFA inhibitor.

Both L-glufosinate alone as well as, in the methods of the present invention, the inventive mixtures are suitable for controlling a large number of harmful plants in agricultural crops, including monocotyledonous weeds, in particular annual weeds such as gramineous weeds (grasses) including Echinochloa species such as barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli var. crus-galli), Echinchloa walteri (Pursh) Heller, jungle rice (Echinochloa colona), Echinochloa crus-pavonis, Echinochloa oryzicola, Digitaria species such as crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), Digitaria hor- izontalis, sourgrass (Digitaria insularis) or naked crabgrass (Digitaria nuda), Setaria species such as green foxtail (Setaria viridis), giant foxtail (Setaria faberii), yellow foxtail (Setaria glauca or Setaria pumila) or Setaria verticillata, Sorghum species such as johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense Pers.), Avena species such as wild oats (Avena fatua), Avena sterillis or Avena stri- gosa, Cenchrus species such as Cenchrus species such as field sandbur (Cenchrus pauciflo- rus) or Cenchrus echinatus, Bromus species such as Bromus japonicus Thunb, Bromus sterilis or Bromus tectorum, Lolium species, Phalaris species such as Phalaris brachystachys, Phalaris minor or Phalaris persicaria, Eriochloa species, Panicum species such as fall panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum), Panicum fasciculatum or Panicum maximum, Brachiaria species, annual bluegrass (Poa annua), Alopecurus species such as blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides), Al- opecurus aequalis Sobol or Alopecurus japonicus Steud, Aegilops species such as Aegilops cylindrica or Aegylops tauschii, Apera spica-venti, Eleusine indica, Cynodon dactylon, couch grass (Agropyron repens or Elymus repens), Agrostis alba, Beckmannia syzigachne (Steud.) Fernald, Chloris species such as Chloris virgata, Commelina species such as Commelina ben- ghalensis, Commelina communis, Commelina diffusa or Commelina erecta, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Hordeum jubatum, Hordeum leporinum, Imperata cylindrica, Ischaemum rogusum, Ixophorus unisetus, Leerisa hexandra, Leersia japonica, Leptochloa species such as Lepto- chloa chinensis, Leptochloa fascicularis, Leptochloa filiformis or Leptochloa panicoides, Lolium species such as Lolium multiflorum, Lolium perenne, Lolium persicum or rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum), Luziola subintegra, Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan, Oryza latifolia, Oryza rufipogon, Paspalum distichum, Paspalum species, Pennisetum americanum, Pennisetum purpureum, Phleum paniculatum, Phragmites australia, Ploypogon fugax. N., Poa species such as Poa an- nua or Poa trivialis L., Puccinellia distans, Rottboellia cochinchinensis, Sclerochloa kengiana (Ohwi) Tzvel., Trichloris crinita, Urochloa or Brachiaria species such as Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria plantaginea, Brachiaria platyphylla, Urochloa panicoides, Urochloa ramosa and the like. Both L-glufosinate alone as well as the inventive mixtures are also suitable for controlling a large number of dicotyledonous weeds, in particular broad leaf weeds including Polygonum species such as wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvolus), Polygonum pensilvanicum, Polygonum persicaria or prostrate knotweed (Polygonum aviculare), Amaranthus species such as pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), tall waterhemp (Ama- ranthus tuberculatus or Amaranthus rudis), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), green amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus), purple amaranth (Amaranthus lividus), prickly amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus) or Amaranthus quitensis, Chenopodium species such as common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), Chenopodium serotinum or Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), Sida species such as prickly sida (Sida spinosa L.), Ambrosia species such as com- mon ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) or giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida), Acanthospermum species, Anthemis species such as Anthemis arvensis or Anthemis cotula, Atriplex species, Cirsium species such as Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus species such as field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), Conyza species such as horseweed (Conyza canadensis, Erigeron canadensis) or hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis, Erigeron bonariensis), Cassia species, Datura species such as jimsonweed (Datura stramonium), Euphorbia species such as toothed spurge (Euphorbia dentata), Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia helioscopia or fireplant (Euphorbia heterophyl- la), Geranium species such as Geranium donianum or Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga species, morningglory (Ipomoea species), Lamium species such as henbit dead-nettle (Lamium amplexi- caule), Malva species such as dwarf mallow (Malva neglecta) or cheeseweed (Malwa parviflo- ra), Matricaria species such as chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) or Matricaria inodora,

Sysimbrium species, Solanum species such as black nightshade (Solanum nigrum), Xanthium species, Veronica species such as Veronica polita, Viola species, common chickweed (Stellaria media), velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti), Sesbania species such as Sesbania exaltata, Ses- bania herbacea or hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata Cory), Anoda cristata, Bidens species such as Bidens frondosa or Bidens pilosa, Brassica kaber, Capsella species such as Capsella media or Capsella bursa-pastoris, Centaurea cyanus, Galeopsis tetrahit, Galium aparine, Heli- anthus annuus, Desmodium tortuosum, Kochia scoparia, Mercurialis annua, Myosotis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Raphanus species such as wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum), Salsola species such as Salsola tragus or Salsola kali, Sinapis arvensis, Sonchus species sucha Sonchus asper, Sonchus arvensis or Sonchus oleraceus, Thlaspi arvense, Tagetes minuta, Richardia species such as Richardia scabra or Richardia brasiliensis, Aeschynomeme species such as Aeschynomene denticulata, Aeschynomene indica orAeschynomene rudis, Alisma species such as Alisma canaliculatum orAlisma plantago-aquatica, Borreria species such as Borreria verticil- lata, Brassica rapa, Carduus acanthoides, Parietaria debilis, Portulaca oleracea, Ipomoea spe- cies such as Ipomoea grandifolia, Ipomoea hederacea, Ipomoea indivisa, Ipomoea lacunose, Ipomoea lonchophylla or Ipomoea wrightii,, Senna obtusifolia, Sida species such as arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia) or prickly sida (Sida spinosa), Spermacoce latifolia, Tridax procumbens, Trianthema portulacastrum, Parthenium hysterophorus, Portulaca oleracea, Acalypha australis, Ammi majus, Atriplex species, Orobanche species, Mercurialis annua, Cirsium arvense, Calys- tegia sepium, Stellaria media, Lamium species, Viola species, Celosia argentea, Melampodium divaricatum, Cleome viscosa, Molugo verticilatus, Borhevia erecta, Gomphrena species, Nican- dra physalodes, Ricinus communis, Geranium dissectum, Alternanthera species such as Al- thernanthera philoxeroides or Alternanthera tenella, Ammannia species such as Ammania coc- cinea, Anacamtodon fortunei Mitt., Anagallis arvensis, Aneilema keisak, Arenaria serpyllifolia, Argemone mexicana, Asphodelus tenuifolius, Atriplex patula, Bacopa rotundifolia, Brassica na- pus, Caperonia species sucha as Caperonia castaneifolia or Caperonia palustris, Cephalano- plos segetum, Corynopus didymus, Crepis capillaris, Crepis tectorum, Croton lobatus, Descu- minia sophia (L.), Descurainia pinnata, Echinodorus grandiflorus, Eclipta alba, Eclipta prostrata, Eichhornia crassipes, Eleocharis species, Equisetum arvense, Fallopia convolvulus, Fallopia convolvulus, Heteranthera limosa, Jussiaea species, Kallstroemia maxima, Lactuca serriola, Lathyrus aphaca, Launea mudicaulis, Leucas chinensis, Limnocharis flava, Lindernia dubia, Lindernia pyxidaria, Litospermum arvense, Ludwigia species such as Ludwigia octovallis, Mac- roptilium lathyroides, Malachium aquaticum (L), Melilotus species, Merremia aegyptia, Momor- dica charantia, Monochoria hastate, Monochoria vaginalis, Mucuna species, Murdannia nudiflo- ra, Oxalis neaei, Phylanthus species, Physalis species, Pistia stratiotes, Potamogeton distinc- tus, Rorippa islandica, Rotala indica, Rotala ramosior, Rumex dentatus, Rumex obtusifolius, Sagittaria montevidensis, Sagittaria pygmaea Miq., Sagittaria sagittifolia, Sagittaria trifolia L, Senecio vulgaris, Sicyos polyacanthus, Silene gallica, chenopoSisymbrium species such as Sisymbrium oficinale, Solanum species, Spergula arvensis, Sphenoclea zeylanica, Trianthema spp., Tripleurospermum inodorum, Veronica species such as Veronica persica orVeronica polita Vicia sativa and the like.

Both L-glufosinate alone as well as the inventive mixtures are also suitable for controlling a large number of annual and perennial sedge weeds including Cyperus species such as purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L), hime-kugu (Cyperus brevifolius H.), sedge weed (Cyperus microiria Steud), rice flatsedge (Cyperus iria L), Cyperus difformis, Cyperus difformis L, Cyperus esculentus, Cyperus ferax, Cyperus flavus, Cyperus iria, Cyperus lanceolatus, Cyperus odoratus, Cyperus rotundus, Cyperus serotinus Rottb., Eleo- charis acicularis, Eleocharis kuroguwai, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Fimbristylis miliacea, Scirpus grossus, Scirpus juncoides, Scirpus juncoides Roxb, Scirpus or Bolboschoenus maritimus, Scirpus or Schoenoplectus mucronatus, Scirpus planiculmis Fr. Schmidt and the like.

Both L-glufosinate alone as well as the inventive mixtures are also suitable for controlling weeds that are resistant to commonly used herbicides such as, for example, weeds that are resistant to glyphosate, weeds that are resistant to auxin inhibitor herbicides such as e. g. 2,4-D or dicam- ba, weeds that are resistant to photosynthesis inhibitors such as e. g. atrazine, weeds that are resistant to ALS inhibitors such as e. g. sulfonylureas, imidazolinones or triazolopyrimidines, weeds that are resistant to ACCase inhibitors such as e. g. clodinafop, clethodim or pinoxaden or weeds that are resistant to protoporphyrinogen-IX-oxidase inhibitors such as e. g. sulfentra- zone, flumioxazine, fomesafen or acifluorfen, for example the weeds that are listed in the International Survey of Resistant Weeds

(http://www.weedscience.org/Summary/SpeciesbySOATable.aspx). In particular, they are suitable for controlling the resistant weeds that are listed in the International Survey of Resistant Weeds, for example ACCase resistant Echinochloa crus-galli, Avena fatua, Alopecurus myosu- roides, Echinochloa colona, Alopecurus japonicus, Bromus tectorum, Hordeum murinum, Is- chaemum rugosum, Setaria viridis, Sorghum halepense, Alopecurus aequalis, Apera spica- venti, Avena sterilis, Beckmannia szygachne, Bromus diandrus, Digitaria sanguinalis, Echi- nocloa oryzoides, Echinochloa phyllopogon, Phalaris minor, Phalaris paradoxa, Setaria faberi, Setaria viridis, Brachypodium distachyon, Bromus diandrus, Bromus sterilis, Cynosurus echina- tus, Digitaria insularis, Digitaria ischaemum, Leptochloa chinensis, Phalaris brachystachis, Rot- boellia cochinchinensis, Digitaria ciliaris, Ehrharta longiflora, Eriochloa punctata, Leptochloa panicoides, Lolium persicum, Polypogon fugax, Sclerochloa kengiana, Snowdenia polystacha, Sorghum Sudanese and Brachiaria plantaginea, ALS inhibitor resistant Echinochloa crus-galli, Poa annua, Avena fatua, Alopecurus myosuroides, Echinochloa colona, Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus rudis, Conyza sumatrensis, Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia artemisifolia, Conyza canadensis, Kochia scoparia, Raphanus raphanistrum, Senecio ver- nalis, Alopecurus japonicus, Bidens pilosa, Bromus tectorum, Chenopodium album, Conyza bonariensis, Hordeum murinum, Ischaemum rugosum, Senecio vulgaris, Setaria viridis, Sisymbrium orientale, Sorghum halepense, Alopecurus aequalis, Amaranthus blitum, Amaranthus powellii, Apera spica-venti, Avena sterilis, Brassica rapa, Bromus diandrus, Descurainia sophia, Digitaria sanguinalis, Echinochloa oryzoides, Echinochloa phyllopogon, Euphorbia heterophylla, Lactuca serriola, Phalaris minor, Phalaris paradoxa, Setaria faberi, Setaria viridis, Sinapis arvensis, Solanum ptycanthum, Sonchus oleraceus, Stellaria media, Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus spinosus, Amaranthus viridis, Ambrosia trifida, Bidens subalternans, Bromus diandrus, Bromus sterilis, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Centaurea cyanus, Cynosurus echinatus, Cyperus difformis, Fimbristilis miliacea, Galeopsis tetrahit, Galium aparine, Galium spurium, Helianthus annuus, Hirschfeldia incana, Limnocharis flava, Limnophila erecta, Papaver rhoeas, Parthenium hysterophorus, Phalaris brachystachis, Polygonum convolvulus, Polygonum lapathifolium, Polygonum persicaria, Ranunculus acris, Rottboellia cochinchinensis, Sagittaria montevidensis, Salsola tragus, Schoenoplectus mucronatus, Setaria pumila, Sonchus asper, Xanthium stru- marium, Ageratum conyzoides, Alisma canaliculatum, Alisma plantago-aquatica, Ammannia auriculata, Ammannia coccinea, Ammannia arvensis, Anthemis cotula, Bacopa rotundifolia, Bi- fora radians, Blyxa aubertii, Brassica tournefortii, Bromus japonicus, Bromus secalinus, Litho- spermum arvense, Camelina microcarpa, Chamaesyce maculata, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Clidemia hirta, Crepis tectorum, Cuscuta pentagona, Cyperus brevifolis, Cyperus compressus, Cyperus esculentus, Cyperus iria, Cyperus odoratus, Damasonium minus, Diplotaxis erucoides, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dopatrum junceum, Echium plantagineum, Elatine triandra, Eleocharis acicularis, Erucaria hispanica, Erysimum repandum, Galium tricornutum, Iva xanthifolia, Ixopho- rus unisetus, Lamium amplexicaule, Limnophilia sessiliflora, Lindernia dubia, Lindernia micran- tha, Lindernia procumbens, Ludwigia prostrata, Matricaria recutita, Mesembryanthemum crystal- linum, Monochoria korsakowii, Monochoria vaginalis, Myosoton aquaticum, Neslia paniculata, Oryza sativa var. sylvatica, Pentzia suffruticosa, Picris hieracioides, Raphanus sativus,

Rapistrum rugosum, Rorippa indica, Rotala indica, Rotala pusilla, Rumex dentatus, Sagittaria guayensis, Sagittaria pygmaea, Sagittaria trifolia, Schoenoplectus fluviatilis, Schoenoplectus juncoides, Schoenoplectus wallichii, Sida spinosa, Silene gallica, Sinapis alba, Sisymbrium thel- lungii, Sorghum bicolor, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Tripleurospermum perforatum, Vaccaria hispanica and Vicia sativa, photosynthesis inhibitor resistant Echinochloa crus-galli, Poa annua, Alopecurus myosuroides, Echinochloa colona, Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus rudis, Conyza sumatrensis, Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia artemisifo- lia, Conyza canadensis, Kochia scoparia, Raphanus raphanistrum, Senecio vernalis, Alopecu- rus japonicus, Bidens pilosa, Bromus tectorum, Chenopodium album, Conyza bonariensis, Ischaemum rugosum, Senecio vulgaris, Setaria viridis, Sisymbrium orientale, Amaranthus blitum, Amaranthus powellii, Apera spica-venti, Beckmannia syzigachne, Brassica rapa, Digitaria san- guinalis, Euphorbia heterophylla, Phalaris minor, Phalaris paradoxa, Setaria faberi, Setaria virid- is, Sinapis arvensis, Solanum ptycanthum, Stellaria media, Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus viridis, Bidens subalternans, Brachypodium distachyon, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chloris bar- bata, Cyperus difformis, Echinochloa erecta, Epilobium ciliatum, Polygonum aviculare, Polygonum convolvulus, Polygonum lapathifolium, Polygonum persicaria, Portulaca oleracea, Schoe- noplectus mucronatus, Setaria pumila, Solanum nigrum, Sonchus asper, Urochloa panicoides, Vulpia bromoides, Abutilon theophrasti, Amaranthus albus, Amaranthus cruentus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arenaria serpyllifolia, Bidens tripartita, Chenopodium album, Chenopodium ficifolium, Chenopodium polyspermum, Crypsis schoenoides, Datura stramonium, Epilobium tetragonum, Galinsoga ciliata, Matricaria discoidea, Panicum capillare, Panicum dichotomiflorum, Plantago lagopus, Polygonum hydopiper, Polygonum pensylvanicum, Polygonum monspeliensis, Ros- traria, smyrnacea, Rumex acetosella, Setaria verticillata and Urtica urens, PS-l-electron diversion inhibitor resistant Poa annua, Conyza sumatrensis, Conyza canadensis, Alopecurus japonicus, Bidens pilosa, Conyza bonariensis, Hordeum murinum, Ischaemum rugosum, Amaranthus blitum, Solanum ptycanthum, Arctotheca calendula, Epilobium ciliatum, Hedyotis verticillata, Solanum nigrum, Vulpia bromoides, Convolvulus arvensis, Crassocephalum crepidioides, Cuphea carthagensis, Erigeron philadelphicus, Gamochaeta pensylvanica, Landoltia punctata, Lepidium virginicum, Mazus fauriei, Mazus pumilus, Mitracarpus hirtus, Sclerochloa dura, Solanum americanum and Youngia japonica, glyphosate resistant Poa annua, Echinochloa colona, Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus rudis, Conyza sumatrensis, Ambrosia artemisifolia, Conyza canadensis, Kochia scoparia, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa, Co- nyza bonariensis, Hordeum murinum, Sorghum halepense, Brassica rapa, Bromus diandrus, Lactuca serriola, Sonchus oleraceus, Amaranthus spinosus, Ambrosia trifida, Digitaria insularis, Hedyotis verticillata, Helianthus annuus, Parthenium hysterophorus, Plantago lanceolata, Salso- la tragus, Urochloa panicoides, Brachiaria eruciformis, Bromus rubens, Chloris elata, Chloris truncata, Chloris virgata, Cynodon hirsutus, Lactuca saligna, Leptochloa virgata, Paspalum pa- niculatum and Tridax procumbens, microtubule assembly inhibitor resistant Echinochloa crus- galli, Poa annua, Avena fatua, Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus palmeri, Setaria viridis, Sorghum halepense, Alopecurus aequalis, Beckmannia syzigachne and Fumaria densifloria, auxin herbicide resistant Echinochloa crus-galli, Echinochloa colona, Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus rudis, Conyza sumatrensis, Kochia scoparia, Raphanus raphanistrum, Cheno- podim album, Sisymbrium orientale, Descurainia sophia, Lactuca serriola, Sinapis arvensis, Sonchus oleraceus, Stellaria media, Arctotheca calendula, Centaurea cyanus, Digitaria ischaemum, Fimbristylis miliacea, Galeopsis tetrahit, Galium aparine, Galium spurium, Hirschfeldia incana, Limnocharis flava, Limnocharis erecta, Papaver rhoeas, Plantago lanceolata, Ranunculus acris, Carduus nutans, Carduus pycnocephalus, Centaurea soltitialis, Centaurea stoebe ssp. Micranthos, Cirsium arvense, Commelina diffusa, Echinochloa crus-pavonis, Soliva sessilis and Sphenoclea zeylanica, HPPD inhibitor resistant Amaranthus palmeri and Amaranthus rudis, PPO inhibitor resistant Acalypha australis, Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus rudis, Ambrosia artemisifolia, Avena fatua, Conyza sumatrensis, Descurainia sophia, Euphorbia heterophylla and Senecio vernalis, carotenoid biosynthesis in- hibitor resistant Hydrilla verticillata, Raphanus raphanistrum, Senecio vernalis and Sisymbrium orientale, VLCFA inhibitor resistant Alopecurus myosuroides, Avena fatua and Echinochloa crus-galli.

The inventive mixtures are suitable for combating/controlling common harmful plants in fields, where useful plants shall be planted (i.e. in crops). The inventive mixtures are generally suitable for burndown of undesired vegetation in fields of the following crops:

Grain crops, including e.g.

cereals (small grain crops) such as wheat (Triticum aestivum) and wheat like crops such as durum (T. durum), einkorn (T. monococcum), emmer (T. dicoccon) and spelt (T. spelta), rye (Secale cereale), triticale (Tritiosecale), barley (Hordeum vul- gare);

maize (corn; Zea mays);

sorghum (e.g. Sorghum bicolour);

rice (Oryza spp. such as Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima); and

- sugar cane;

Legumes (Fabaceae), including e.g. soybeans (Glycine max.), peanuts (Arachis hypo- gaea and pulse crops such as peas including Pisum sativum, pigeon pea and cowpea, beans including broad beans (Vicia faba), Vigna spp., and Phaseolus spp. and lentils (lens culinaris var.);

- brassicaceae, including e.g. canola (Brassica napus), oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica na- pus), cabbage (B. oleracea var.), mustard such as B. juncea, B. campestris, B. narinosa, B. nigra and B. tournefortii; and turnip (Brassica rapa var.);

other broadleaf crops including e.g. sunflower, cotton, flax, linseed, sugarbeet, potato and tomato;

- TNV-crops (TNV: trees, nuts and vine) including e.g. grapes, citrus, pomefruit, e.g. apple and pear, coffee, pistachio and oilpalm, stonefruit, e.g. peach, almond, walnut, olive, cherry, plum and apricot;

turf, pasture and rangeland;

onion and garlic;

- bulb ornamentals such as tulips and narcissus;

conifers and deciduous trees such as pinus, fir, oak, maple, dogwood, hawthorne, crabapple, and rhamnus (buckthorn); and

garden ornamentals such as roses, petunia, marigold and snapdragon. The inventive mixtures are in particular suitable for burndown of undesired vegetation in fields of the following crop plants: small grain crops such as wheat, barley, rye, triticale and durum, rice, maize (corn), sugarcane, sorghum, soybean, pulse crops such as pea, bean and lentils, peanut, sunflower, sugarbeet, potato, cotton, brassica crops, such as oilseed rape, canola, mustard, cabbage and turnip, turf, pasture, rangeland, grapes, pomefruit, such as apple and pear, stonefruit, such as peach, almond, walnut, pecans, olive, cherry, plum and apricot, citrus, cof- fee, pistachio, garden ornamentals, such as roses, petunia, marigold, snap dragon, bulb ornamentals such as tulips and narcissus, conifers and deciduous trees such as pinus, fir, oak, maple, dogwood, hawthorne, crabapple and rhamnus.

The inventive mixtures are most suitable for burndown of undesired vegetation in fields of the following crop plants: small grain crops such as wheat, barley, rye, triticale and durum, rice, maize, sugarcane, soybean, pulse crops such as pea, bean and lentils, peanut, sunflower, cotton, brassica crops, such as oilseed rape, canola, turf, pasture, rangeland, grapes, stonefruit, such as peach, almond, walnut, pecans, olive, cherry, plum and apricot, citrus and pistachio.

The invention furthermore relates to the use of a mixture as defined herein for controlling undesirable vegetation in crops in a burndown program, wherein the crop is produced by genetic engineering or by breeding, are resistant to one or more herbicides and/or pathogens such as plant-pathogenous fungi, and/or to attack by insects; preferably resistant to glufosinate.

Thus, in as used in the present invention, the term "crops" as used herein includes also (crop) plants which have been modified by mutagenesis or genetic engineering in order to provide a new trait to a plant or to modify an already present trait.

Mutagenesis includes techniques of random mutagenesis using X-rays or mutagenic chemicals, but also techniques of targeted mutagenesis, in order to create mutations at a specific locus of a plant genome. Targeted mutagenesis techniques frequently use oligonucleotides or proteins like CRISPR/Cas, zinc-finger nucleases, TALENs or meganucleases to achieve the targeting effect. Genetic engineering usually uses recombinant DNA techniques to create modifications in a plant genome which under natural circumstances cannot readily be obtained by cross breeding, mutagenesis or natural recombination. Typically, one or more genes are integrated into the genome of a plant in order to add a trait or improve a trait. These integrated genes are also referred to as transgenes in the art, while plant comprising such transgenes are referred to as transgenic plants. The process of plant transformation usually produces several transformation events, which differ in the genomic locus in which a transgene has been integrated. Plants comprising a specific transgene on a specific genomic locus are usually described as comprising a specific "event", which is referred to by a specific event name. Traits which have been introduced in plants or have been modified include in particular herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, increased yield and tolerance to abiotic conditions, like drought.

Herbicide tolerance has been created by using mutagenesis as well as using genetic engineering. Plants which have been rendered tolerant to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor herbi- cides by conventional methods of mutagenesis and breeding comprise plant varieties commercially available under the name Clearfield ® . However, most of the herbicide tolerance traits have been created via the use of transgenes.

Herbicide tolerance has been created to glyphosate, glufosinate, 2,4-D, dicamba, oxynil herbicides, like bromoxynil and ioxynil, sulfonylurea herbicides, ALS inhibitor herbicides and 4- hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitors, like isoxaflutole and mesotrione.

Transgenes which have been used to provide herbicide tolerance traits comprise: for tolerance to glyphosate: cp4 epsps, epsps grg23ace5, mepsps, 2mepsps, gat4601 , gat4621 and goxv247, for tolerance to glufosinate: pat and bar, for tolerance to 2,4-D: aad-1 and aad-12, for tolerance to dicamba: dmo, for tolerance to oxynil herbicies: bxn, for tolerance to sulfonylurea herbicides: zm-hra, csr1 -2, gm-hra, S4-HrA, for tolerance to ALS inhibitor herbicides: csr1 -2, for tolerance to HPPD inhibitor herbicides: hppdPF, W336 and avhppd-03.

Transgenic corn events comprising herbicide tolerance genes are for example, but not excluding others, DAS40278, MON801 , MON802, MON809, MON810, MON832, MON8741 1 ,

MON87419, MON87427, MON88017, MON89034, NK603, GA21 , MZHG0JG, HCEM485, VCO- 01981 -5, 676, 678, 680, 33121 , 41 14, 59122, 98140, Bt10, Bt176, CBH-351 , DBT418, DLL25, MS3, MS6, MZIR098, T25, TC1507 and TC6275.

Transgenic soybean events comprising herbicide tolerance genes are for example, but not excluding others, GTS 40-3-2, MON87705, MON87708, MON87712, MON87769, MON89788, A2704-12, A2704-21 , A5547-127, A5547-35, DP356043, DAS44406-6, DAS68416-4, DAS- 81419-2, GU262, SYHT0H2, W62, W98, FG72 and CV127.

Transgenic cotton events comprising herbicide tolerance genes are for example, but not excluding others, 19-51 a, 31707, 42317, 81910, 281 -24-236, 3006-210-23, BXN1021 1 , BXN 10215, BXN10222, BXN 10224, MON1445, MON1698, MON88701 , MON88913, GHB1 19, GHB614, LLCotton25, T303-3 and T304-40.

Transgenic canola events comprising herbicide tolerance genes are for example, but not ex- eluding others, MON88302, HCR-1 , HCN10, HCN28, HCN92, MS1 , MS8, PHY14, PHY23, PHY35, PHY36, RF1 , RF2 and RF3.

Insect resistance has mainly been created by transferring bacterial genes for insecticidal proteins to plants. Transgenes which have most frequently been used are toxin genes of Bacillus spec, and synthetic variants thereof, like cry1A, crylAb, cry1Ab-Ac, crylAc, cry1A.105, cry1 F, cry1 Fa2, cry2Ab2, cry2Ae, mcry3A, ecry3.1Ab, cry3Bb1 , cry34Ab1 , cry35Ab1 , cry9C, vip3A(a), vip3Aa20. However, also genes of plant origin have been transferred to other plants. In particular genes coding for protease inhibitors, like CpTI and pinll. A further approach uses transgenes in order to produce double stranded RNA in plants to target and downregulate insect genes. An example for such a transgene is dvsnf7.

Transgenic corn events comprising genes for insecticidal proteins or double stranded RNA are for example, but not excluding others, Bt10, Bt1 1 , Bt176, MON801 , MON802, MON809, MON810, MON863, MON8741 1 , MON88017, MON89034, 33121 , 41 14, 5307, 59122, TC1507, TC6275, CBH-351 , MIR162, DBT418 and MZIR098.

Transgenic soybean events comprising genes for insecticidal proteins are for example, but not excluding others, MON87701 , MON87751 and DAS-81419.

Transgenic cotton events comprising genes for insecticidal proteins are for example, but not excluding others, SGK321 , MON531 , MON757, MON1076, MON15985, 31707, 31803, 31807, 31808, 42317, BNLA-601 , Eventl , COT67B, COT102, T303-3, T304-40, GFM Cry1A, GK12, MLS 9124, 281 -24-236, 3006-210-23, GHB1 19 and SGK321. Increased yield has been created by increasing ear biomass using the transgene athb17, being present in corn event MON87403, or by enhancing photosynthesis using the transgene bbx32, being present in the soybean event MON87712.

Crops comprising a modified oil content have been created by using the transgenes: gm-fad2-1 , Pj.D6D, Nc.Fad3, fad2-1A and fatb1 -A. Soybean events comprising at least one of these genes are: 260-05, MON87705 and MON87769.

Tolerance to abiotic conditions, in particular to tolerance to drought, has been created by using the transgene cspB, comprised by the corn event MON87460 and by using the transgene Hahb- 4, comprised by soybean event IND-00410-5.

Traits are frequently combined by combining genes in a transformation event or by combining different events during the breeding process. Preferred combination of traits are herbicide tolerance to different groups of herbicides, insect tolerance to different kind of insects, in particular tolerance to lepidopteran and coleopteran insects, herbicide tolerance with one or several types of insect resistance, herbicide tolerance with increased yield as well as a combination of herbicide tolerance and tolerance to abiotic conditions.

Plants comprising singular or stacked traits as well as the genes and events providing these traits are well known in the art. For example, detailed information as to the mutagenized or integrated genes and the respective events are available from websites of the organizations "International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA)"

(http://www.isaaa.org/gmapprovaldatabase) and the "Center for Environmental Risk Assessment (CERA)" (http://cera-gmc.org/GMCropDatabase), as well as in patent applications, like EP3028573 and WO2017/01 1288.

The use of inventive mixtures on crops may result in effects which are specific to a crop comprising a certain gene or event. These effects might involve changes in growth behavior or changed resistance to biotic or abiotic stress factors. Such effects may in particular comprise enhanced yield, enhanced resistance or tolerance to insects, nematodes, fungal, bacterial, mycoplasma, viral or viroid pathogens as well as early vigour, early or delayed ripening, cold or heat tolerance as well as changed amino acid or fatty acid spectrum or content.

Furthermore, plants are also covered that contain by the use of recombinant DNA techniques a modified amount of ingredients or new ingredients, specifically to improve raw material production, e.g., potatoes that produce increased amounts of amylopectin (e.g. Amflora® potato, BASF SE, Germany). Preferred are crops, which are tolerant to glufosinate, wherein the glufosinate tolerant crop plant is preferably selected grom the group consisting of rice, canola, soybean, corn and cotton plants.

Transgenic corn events comprising glufosinate tolerance genes are for example, but not exclud- ing others, 5307 x MIR604 x Bt1 1 x TC1507 x GA21 x MIR162 (event code: SYN-05307-1 x SYN-IR604-5 x SYN-BT01 1 -1 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-00021 -9 x SYN-IR162-4, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Agrisure® Duracade™ 5222), 59122 (event code: DAS-59122-7, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Herculex™ RW), 5307 x MIR604 x Bt1 1 x TC1507 x GA21 (event code: SYN-05307-1 x SYN-IR604-5 x SYN-BT01 1 -1 x DAS-01507-1 x MON- 00021 -9, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Agrisure® Duracade™ 5122), 59122 x

NK603 (event code: DAS-59122-7 x MON-00603-6, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Herculex™ RW Roundup Ready™ 2), Bt10 (gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Bt10), Bt1 1 (X4334CBR, X4734CBR) (event code: SYN-BT01 1 -1 , gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Agrisure™ CB/LL), BT1 1 x 59122 x MIR604 x TC1507 x GA21 (event code: SYN- BT01 1 -1 x DAS-59122-7 x SYN-IR604-5 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-00021 -9, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Agrisure® 3122), Bt1 1 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT01 1 -1 x MON- 00021 -9, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Agrisure™ GT/CB/LL), Bt1 1 x MIR162 (event code: SYN-BT01 1 -1 x SYN-IR162-4, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Agrisure® Viptera™ 2100), Bt1 1 x MIR162 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT01 1 -1 x SYN-IR162-4 x MON-00021 -9, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Agrisure® Viptera™ 31 10), BT1 1 x MIR162 x MIR604 (event code: SYN-BT01 1 -1 x SYN-IR162-4 x SYN-IR604-5, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Agrisure® Viptera™ 3100), Bt1 1 x MIR162 x MIR604 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT01 1 -1 x SYN-IR162-4 x SYN-IR604-5 x MON-00021 -9, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Agrisure® Viptera™ 31 1 1 , Agrisure® Viptera™ 4), Bt1 1 x MIR162 x TC1507 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT01 1 -1 x SYN-IR162-4 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-00021 - 9, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Agrisure™ Viptera 3220), Bt1 1 x MIR604 (event code: SYN-BT01 1 -1 x SYN-IR604-5, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Agrisure™ CB/LL/RW), BT1 1 x MIR604 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT01 1 -1 x SYN-IR604-5 x MON- 00021 -9, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Agrisure™ 3000GT), Bt176 (176) (event code: SYN-EV176-9, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as NaturGard KnockOut™, Maxi- mizer™), CBH-351 (event code: ACS-ZM004-3, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as Star- link™ Maize), DBT418 (event code: DKB-89614-9, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as Bt Xtra™ Maize), MON89034 x TC1507 x MON88017 x 59122 (event code: MON-89034-3 x DAS- 01507-1 x MON-88017-3 x DAS-59122-7, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Genuity® SmartStax™), MON89034 x TC1507 x NK603 (event code: MON-89034-3 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-00603-6, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Power Core™), NK603 x T25 (event code: MON-00603-6 x ACS-ZM003-2, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Roundup Ready™ Liberty Link™ Maize), T14 (event code: ACS-ZM002-1 , gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Liberty Link™ Maize), T25 (event code: ACS-ZM003-2, gene: pat, e.g. commer- cially available as Liberty Link™ Maize), T25 x MON810 (event code: ACS-ZM003-2 x MON- 00810-6, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Liberty Link™ Yieldgard™ Maize), TC1507 (event code: DAS-01507-1 , gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Herculex™ I, Herculex™ CB), TC1507 x 59122 x MON810 x MIR604 x NK603 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x DAS- 59122-7 x MON-00810-6 x SYN-IR604-5 x MON-00603, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available asOptimum™ Intrasect Xtreme), TC1507 x 59122 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x DAS- 59122-7, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Herculex XTRA™), TC1507 x 59122 x MON810 x NK603 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x DAS-59122-7 x MON-00810-6 x MON- 00603-6, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Optimum™ Intrasect XTRA), TC1507 x 59122 x NK603 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x DAS-59122-7 x MON-00603-6, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Herculex XTRA™ RR), TC1507 x MIR604 x NK603 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x SYN-IR604-5 x MON-00603-6, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Optimum™ TRIsect), TC1507 x MON810 x NK603 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x MON-00810- 6 x MON-00603-6, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Optimum™ Intrasect), TC1507 x NK603 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x MON-00603-6, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Herculex™ I RR), 3272 x Bt1 1 (event code:, SYN-E3272-5 x SYN-BT01 1 -1 gene: pat), 3272 x Bt1 1 x GA21 (event code: SYN-E3272-5 x SYN-BT01 1 -1 x MON-00021 -9, gene: pat), 3272 x Bt1 1 x MIR604 (event code: SYN-E3272-5 x SYN-BT01 1 -1 x SYN-IR604-5, gene: pat), 3272 x BT1 1 x MIR604 x GA21 (event code: SYN-E3272-5 x SYN-BT01 1 -1 x SYN-IR604-5 x MON- 00021 -9, gene: pat), 33121 (event code: DP-033121 -3, gene: pat), 41 14 (event code: DP- 0041 14-3, gene: pat), 59122 x GA21 (event code: DAS-59122-7 x MON-00021 -9, gene: pat), 59122 x MIR604 (event code: DAS-59122-7 x SYN-IR604-5, gene: pat), 5307 x MIR604 x Bt1 1 x TC1507 x GA21 x MIR162 (event code:, gene: pat), 59122 x MIR604 x GA21 (event code: DAS-59122-7 x SYN-IR604-5 x MON-00021 -9, gene: pat), 59122 x MIR604 x TC1507 (event code: DAS-59122-7 x SYN-IR604-5 x DAS-01507-1 , gene: pat), 59122 x MIR604 x TC1507 x GA21 (event code:, gene: pat), (event code: DAS-59122-7 x SYN-IR604-5 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-00021 -9, gene: pat), 59122 x MON810 (event code: DAS-59122-7 x MON-00810-6, gene: pat), 59122 x MON810 x NK603 (event code: DAS-59122-7 x MON-00810-6 x MON- 00603-6, gene: pat), 59122 x TC1507 x GA21 (event code: DAS-59122-7 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-00021 -9, gene: pat), 676 (event code: PH-000676-7, gene: pat), 678 (event code: PH- 000678-9, gene: pat), 680 (event code: PH-000680-2, gene: pat), 98140 x 59122 (event code: DP-098140-6 x DAS-59122-7, gene: pat), 98140 x TC1507 (event code: DP-098140-6 x DAS-01507-1 , gene: pat), 98140 x TC1507 x 59122 (event code: DP-098140-6 x DAS- 01507-1 x DAS-59122-7, gene: pat), 59122 x MON88017 (event code: DAS-59122-7 x MON- 88017-3, gene: pat), Bt1 1 x 59122 (event code: SYN-BT01 1 -1 x DAS-59122-7, gene: pat), Bt1 1 x 59122 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT01 1 -1 x DAS-59122-7 x MON-00021 -9, gene: pat), Bt1 1 x 59122 x MIR604 (event code: SYN-BT01 1 -1 x DAS-59122-7 x SYN-IR604-5, gene: pat), Bt1 1 x 59122 x MIR604 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT01 1 -1 x DAS-59122-7 x SYN- IR604-5 x MON-00021 -9, gene: pat), Bt1 1 x 59122 x MIR604 x TC1507 (event code: Bt1 1 x 59122 x Ml R604 x TC1507, gene: pat), Bt1 1 x 59122 x TC1507 (event code: SYN-BT01 1 -1 x DAS-59122-7 x DAS-01507-1 , gene: pat), Bt1 1 x 59122 x TC1507 x GA21 (event code: SYN- BT01 1 -1 x DAS-59122-7 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-00021 -9, gene: pat), Bt1 1 x MIR162 x TC1507 (event code: SYN-BT01 1 -1 x SYN-IR162-4 x DAS-01507-1 , gene: pat), Bt1 1 x

MIR604 x TC1507 (event code: SYN-BT01 1 -1 x SYN-IR604-5 x DAS-01507-1 , gene: pat), Bt1 1 x TC1507 (event code: SYN-BT01 1 -1 x DAS-01507-1 , gene: pat), Bt1 1 x TC1507 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT01 1-1 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), GA21 x T25 (event code: MON-00021-9 x ACS-ZM003-2, gene: pat), MIR162 x TC1507 (event code: SYN-IR162-4 x DAS-01507-1 , gene: pat), MIR162 x TC1507 x GA21 (event code: SYN-IR162- 4 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), MIR604 x TC1507 (event code: SYN-IR604-5 x DAS-01507-1 , gene: pat), MON87427 x MON89034 x TC1507 x MON88017 x 59122

(event code: MON-87427-7 x MON-89034-3 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-88017-3 x DAS-59122-7, gene: pat), MON89034 x 59122 (event code: MON-89034-3 x DAS-59122-7, gene: pat), MON89034 x 59122 x MON88017 (event code:, gene: pat), MON89034 x TC1507 (event code: MON-89034-3 x DAS-59122-7 x MON-88017-3, gene: pat), (event code: MON-89034-3 x DAS-01507-1 , gene: pat), MIR604 x TC1507 (event code: SYN-IR604-5 x DAS-01507-1 , gene: pat), MON87427 x MON89034 x TC1507 x MON88017 x 59122 (event code: MON- 87427-7 x MON-89034-3 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-88017-3 x DAS-59122-7, gene: pat), MON89034 x 59122 (event code: MON-89034-3 x DAS-59122-7, gene: pat), MON89034 x 59122 x MON88017 (event code:, gene: pat), MON89034 x TC1507 (event code: MON-89034- 3 x DAS-59122-7 x MON-88017-3, gene: pat), (event code: MON-89034-3 x DAS-01507-1 , gene: pat), DLL25 (B16) (event code: DKB-89790-5, gene: bar), MIR604 x TC1507 (event code: SYN-IR604-5 x DAS-01507-1 , gene: pat), MON87427 x MON89034 x TC1507 x MON88017 x 59122 (event code: MON-87427-7 x MON-89034-3 x DAS-01507-1 x MON- 88017-3 x DAS-59122-7, gene: pat), MON89034 x 59122 (event code: MON-89034-3 x DAS- 59122-7, gene: pat), MON89034 x 59122 x MON88017 (event code: MON-89034-3 x DAS- 59122-7 x MON-88017-3, gene: pat), MON89034 x TC1507 (event code: MON-89034-3 x DAS-01507-1 , gene: pat), MON89034 x TC1507 x 59122 (event code: MON-89034-3 x DAS- 01507-1 x DAS-59122-7, gene: pat), MON89034 x TC1507 x MON88017 (event code: MON- 89034-3 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-88017-3, gene: pat), MON89034 x TC1507 x MON88017 x 59122 x DAS40278 (event code: MON-89034-3 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-88017-3 x DAS-

59122-7 x DAS-40278-9, gene: pat), MON89034 x TC1507 x MON88017 x DAS40278 (event code: MON-89034-3 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-88017-3 x DAS-59122-7 x DAS-40278-9, gene: pat), MON89034 x TC1507 x NK603 x DAS40278 (event code: MON-89034-3 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-00603-6 x DAS-40278-9, gene: pat), NK603 x MON810 x 4114 x MIR 604 (event code: MON-00603-6 x MON-00810-6 x DP0041 14-3 x SYN-IR604-4, gene: pat), TC1507 χ

MON810 x MIR604 χ NK603 (event code: DAS-01507-1 χ MON-00810-6 x SYN-IR604-5 x MON-00603-6, gene: pat), TC1507 x 59122 x MON810 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x DAS- 59122-7 x MON-00810-6, gene: pat), TC1507 x 59122 x MON88017 (event code: DAS- 01507-1 x DAS-59122-7 x MON-88017-3, gene: pat), TC1507 x GA21 (event code: DAS- 01507-1 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), TC1507 x MON810 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x

MON-00810-6, gene: pat), TC1507 x MON810 x MIR162 x NK603 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x MON-00810-6 x SYN-IR162-4 x MON-00603-6, gene: pat), 3272 x Bt1 1 x MIR604 x TC1507 x 5307 x GA21 (event code: SYN-E3272-5 x SYN-BT01 1-1 x SYN-IR604-5 x DAS- 01507-1 x SYN-05307-1 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), TC1507 x MIR162 x NK603 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x SYN-IR162-4 x MON-00603-6, gene: pat), TC1507 x MON810 x

MIR162 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x MON-00810-6 x SYN-IR162-4, gene: pat), MON87419 (event code: MON87419-8, gene: pat), TC1507 x MON88017 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x MON-88017-3, gene: pat), TC6275 (event code: DAS-06275-8, gene: bar), MZHGOJG (event code: SYN-000JG-2, gene: pat), MZIR098 (event code: SYN-00098-3, gene: pat), Bt1 1 x MIR162 x MON89034 (event code: SYN-BT01 1-1 x SYN-IR162-4 x MON-89034-3, gene: pat) and Bt11 x MIR162 x MON89034 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT011-1 x SYN-IR162-4 x MON- 89034-3 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), 59122 x DAS40278 (event code: DAS-59122-7 x DAS- 40278-9, gene: pat), 59122 x MON810 x MIR604 (event code: DAS-59122-7 x MON-00810-6 x SYN-IR604-5, gene: pat), 59122 x MON810 x NK603 x MIR604 (event code: DAS-59122-7 x MON-00810-6 x MON-00603-6 x SYN-IR604-5, gene: pat), 59122 x MON88017 x

DAS40278 (event code: DAS-59122-7 x MON-88017-3 x DAS-40278-9, gene: pat), 59122 x NK603 x MIR604 (event code: DAS-59122-7 x MON-00603-6 x SYN-IR604-5, gene: pat), Bt1 1 x 5307 (event code: SYN-BT01 1-1 x SYN-05307-1 , gene: pat), Bt1 1 x 5307 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT01 1-1 x SYN-05307-1 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), Bt11 x MIR162 x 5307 (event code: SYN-BT011-1 x SYN-IR162-4 x SYN-05307-1 , gene: pat), Bt11 x MIR162 x 5307 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT01 1-1 x SYN-IR162-4 x SYN-05307-1 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), BT11 x MIR162 x MIR604 x 5307 (event code: SYN-BT011-1 x SYN-IR162-4 x SYN-IR604-5 x SYN-05307-1 , gene: pat), Bt1 1 x MIR162 x MIR604 x 5307 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT011-1 x SYN-IR162-4 x SYN-IR604-5 x SYN-05307-1 xMON-00021-9, gene: pat), Bt11 x MIR162 x MIR604 x MON89034 x 5307 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT01 1-1 x SYN- IR162-4 x SYN-IR604-5 x MON-89034-3 x SYN-05307-1 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), BT1 1 x MIR162 x MIR604 x TC1507 (event code: SYN-BT01 1-1 x SYN-IR162-4 x SYN-IR604-5 x DAS-01507-1 , gene: pat), BT1 1 x MIR162 x MIR604 x TC1507 x 5307 (event code: SYN- BT01 1-1 x SYN-IR162-4 x SYN-IR604-5 x DAS-01507-1 x SYN-05307-1 , gene: pat), Bt1 1 x MIR162 x MIR604 x TC1507 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT011-1 x SYN-IR162-4 x SYN-IR604- 5 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), Bt1 1 x MIR162 x TC1507 x 5307 (event code: SYN-BT01 1-1 x SYN-IR162-4 x DAS-01507-1 x SYN-05307-1 , gene: pat), BT1 1 x MIR162 x MIR604 x TC1507 x 5307 (event code: SYN-BT01 1-1 x SYN-IR162-4 x SYN-IR604-5 x DAS- 01507-1 x SYN-05307-1 , gene: pat), Bt1 1 x MIR162 x MIR604 x TC1507 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT01 1-1 x SYN-IR162-4 x SYN-IR604-5 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), Bt1 1 x MIR162 X TC1507 x 5307 (event code: SYN-BT01 1-1 x SYN-IR162-4 x DAS-01507-1 x SYN-05307-1 , gene: pat), Bt1 1 x MIR162 x TC1507 x 5307 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT011- 1 x SYN-IR162-4 x DAS-01507-1 x SYN-05307-1 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), Bt1 1 x MIR604 x 5307 (event code: SYN-BT01 1-1 x SYN-IR604-5 x SYN-05307-1 , gene: pat), Bt1 1 x MIR604 x 5307 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT011-1 x SYN-IR604-5 x SYN-05307-1 x MON- 00021-9, gene: pat), Bt1 1 x MIR604 x TC1507 x 5307 (event code: SYN-BT011-1 x SYN- IR604-5 x DAS-01507-1 x SYN-05307-1 , gene: pat), Bt1 1 x MIR604 x TC1507 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT011-1 x SYN-IR604-5 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), Bt1 1 x MON89034 (or Bt1 1 x MON89034) (event code: SYN-BT01 1-1 x MON-89034-3, gene: pat), Bt1 1 x MON89034 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT01 1-1 x MON-89034-3 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), Bt1 1 x MON89034 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT01 1-1 x MON-89034-3 x MON- 00021-9, gene: pat), Bt1 1 x TC1507 x 5307 (event code: SYN-BT011-1 x DAS-01507-1 x SYN-05307-1 , gene: pat), Bt11 x TC 1507 x 5307 x GA21 (event code: SYN-BT01 1-1 x DAS- 01507-1 x SYN-05307-1 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), MIR162 x MIR604 x TC1507 x 5307 (event code: SYN-IR162-4 x SYN-IR604-5 x DAS-01507-1 x SYN-05307-1 , gene: pat), MIR162 x MIR604 x TC1507 x 5307 x GA21 (event code: SYN-IR162-4 x SYN-IR604-5 x DAS- 01507-1 x SYN-05307-1 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), MIR162 x MIR604 x TC1507 x GA21 (event code: SYN-IR162-4 x SYN-IR604-5 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), MIR162 x TC1507 x 5307 (event code: SYN-IR162-4 x DAS-01507-1 x SYN-05307-1 , gene: pat), MIR162 x TC1507 x 5307 x GA21 (event code: SYN-IR162-4 x DAS-01507-1 x SYN- 05307-1 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), MIR604 x TC1507 x 5307 (event code: SYN-IR604-5 x DAS-01507-1 x SYN-05307-1 , gene: pat), MIR162 x TC1507 x 5307 (event code: SYN- IR162-4 x DAS-01507-1 x SYN-05307-1 , gene: pat), MIR162 x TC1507 x 5307 x GA21 (event code: SYN-IR162-4 x DAS-01507-1 x SYN-05307-1 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), MIR604 x TC1507 x 5307 (event code: SYN-IR604-5 x DAS-01507-1 x SYN-05307-1 , gene: pat), MIR604 x TC1507 x 5307 xGA21 (event code: SYN-IR604-5 x TC1507 x SYN-05307-1 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), MIR604 x TC1507 x GA21 (event code: SYN-IR604-5 x TC1507 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), MON87427 x 59122 (event code MON-87427-7 x DAS-59122-7:, gene: pat), MON87427 x MON89034 x 59122 (event code: MON-87427-7 x MON-89034-3 x DAS-59122-7, gene: pat), MON87427 x MON89034 x MON88017 x 59122 (event code: MON- 87427-7 x MON-89034-3 x MON-88017-3 x 59122, gene: pat), MON87427 x MON89034 x TC1507 (event code: MON-87427-7 x MON-89034-3 x DAS-01507-1 , gene: pat), MON87427 x MON89034 x TC1507 x 59122 (event code: MON-87427-7 x MON-89034-3 x DAS-01507-1 x DAS-59122-7, gene: pat), MON87427 x MON89034 x TC1507 x MON8741 1 x 59122 (event code: MON-87427-7 x MON-89034-3 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-8741 1-9 x DAS-59122-7, gene: pat), MON87427 x MON89034 x TC1507 x MON8741 1 x 59122 x DAS40278 (event code: MON-87427-7 x MON-89034-3 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-8741 1-9 x DAS-59122-7 x DAS- 40278-9, gene: pat), MON87427 x MON89034 x TC1507 x MON88017 (event code: MON- 87427-7 x MON-89034-3 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-88017-3, gene: pat), MON87427 x TC1507 (event code: MON-87427-7 x DAS-01507-1 , gene: pat), MON87427 x TC1507 x 59122 (event code: MON-87427-7 x DAS-01507-1 x DAS-59122-7, gene: pat), MON87427 x TC1507 x MON88017 (event code: MON-87427-7 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-88017-3, gene: pat),

MON87427 x TC1507 x MON88017 x 59122 (event code: MON-87427-7 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-88017-3 x DAS-59122-7, gene: pat), MON89034 x 59122 x DAS40278 (event code:

MON-89034-3 x DAS-59122-7 x DAS-40278-9, gene: pat), MON89034 x 59122 x MON88017 x DAS40278 (event code: MON-89034-3 x DAS-59122-7 x MON-88017-3 x DAS-40278-9, gene: pat), MON89034 x TC1507 x 59122 x DAS40278 (event code: MON-89034-3 x DAS- 01507-1 x DAS-59122-7 x DAS-40278-9, gene: pat), MON89034 x TC1507 x DAS40278 (event code: MON-89034-3 x DAS-01507-1 x DAS-40278-9, gene: pat), MON89034 x

TC1507 x NK603 x MIR162 (event code: MON-89034-3 x DAS-01507-1 x MON-00603-6 x SYN-IR162-4, gene: pat), TC1507 x 5307 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x SYN-05307-1 , gene: pat), TC1507 x 5307 x GA21 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x SYN-05307-1 x MON-00021-9, gene: pat), TC1507 x 59122 x DAS40278 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x DAS-59122-7 x DAS- 40278-9, gene: pat), TC1507 x 59122 x MON810 x MIR604 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x

DAS-59122-7 x MON-00810-6 x SYN-IR604-5, gene: pat), TC1507 x 59122 x MON88017 x DAS40278 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x DAS-59122-7 x MON-88017-3 x DAS-40278-9, gene: pat), TC1507 x 59122 x NK603 x MIR604 (event code:, gene: pat) DAS-01507-1 x DAS- 59122-7 x MON-00603-6 x SYN-IR604-5, TC1507 x DAS40278 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x DAS-40278-9, gene: pat), TC1507 x MON810 x MIR604 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x MON- 00810-6 x SYN-IR604-5, gene: pat), TC1507 x MON810 x NK603 x MIR604 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x MON-00810-6 x MON-00603-6 x SYN-IR604-5, gene: pat), TC1507 x MON88017 x DAS40278 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x MON-88017-3 x DAS-40278-9, gene: pat) and TC1507 x NK603 x DAS40278 (event code: DAS-01507-1 x MON-00603-6 x DAS- 40278-9, gene: pat). Transgenic soybean events comprising glufosinate tolerance genes are for example, but not excluding others, A2704-12 (event code: ACS-GM005-3, gene: pat , e.g. commercially available as Liberty Link™ soybean), A2704-21 (event code: ACS-GM004-2, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Liberty Link™ soybean), A5547-127 (event code: ACS-GM006-4, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Liberty Link™ soybean), A5547-35 (event code: ACS- GM008-6, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Liberty Link™ soybean), GU262 (event code: ACS-GM003-1 , gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Liberty Link™ soybean), W62 (event code: ACS-GM002-9, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Liberty Link™ soybean), W98 (event code: ACS-GM001 -8, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Liberty Link™ soybean), DAS68416-4 (event code: DAS-68416-4, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Enlist™ Soybean), DAS44406-6 (event code: DAS-44406-6, gene: pat), DAS68416-4 x

MON89788 (event code: DAS-68416-4 x MON-89788-1 , gene: pat), SYHT0H2 (event code: SYN-000H2-5, gene: pat), DAS81419 x DAS44406-6 (event code: DAS-81419-2 x DAS- 44406-6, gene: pat) and FG72 x A5547-127 (event code: MST-FG072-3 x ACS-GM006-4, gene: pat).

Transgenic cotton events comprising glufosinate tolerance genes are for example, but not excluding others, 3006-210-23 x 281 -24-236 x MON1445 (event code: DAS-21023-5 x DAS- 24236-5 x MON-01445-2, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as WideStrike™ Roundup Ready™ Cotton), 3006-210-23 x 281 -24-236 x MON88913 (event code: DAS-21023-5 x DAS- 24236-5 x MON-88913-8, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as Widestrike™ Roundup Ready Flex™ Cotton), 3006-210-23 x 281 -24-236 x MON88913 x COT102 (event code: DAS- 21023-5 x DAS-24236-5 x MON-88913-8 x SYN-IR102-7, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as Widestrike™ x Roundup Ready Flex™ x VIPCOT™ Cotton), GHB614 x LLCotton25 (event code: BCS-GH002-5 x ACS-GH001 -3, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as GlyTol™ Liberty Link™), GHB614 x T304-40 x GHB1 19 (event code: BCS-GH002-5 x BCS- GH004-7 x BCS-GH005-8, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as Glytol™ x Twinlink™), LLCotton25 (event code: ACS-GH001 -3, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as ACS- GH001 -3), GHB614 x T304-40 x GHB1 19 x COT102 (event code: BCS-GH002-5 x BCS- GH004-7 x BCS-GH005-8 x SYN-IR102-7, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as Glytol™ x Twinlink™ x VIPCOT™ Cotton), LLCotton25 x MON 15985 (event code: ACS-GH001 -3 x MON-15985-7, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as Fibermax™ Liberty Link™ Bollgard II™), T304-40 x GHB1 19 (event code: BCS-GH004-7 x BCS-GH005-8, gene: bar, e.g. com- mercially available as TwinLink™ Cotton), GHB614 x T304-40 x GHB1 19 x COT102 (event code: BCS-GH002-5 x BCS-GH004-7 x BCS-GH005-8 x SYN-IR102-7, gene: bar, e.g.

commercially available as Glytol™ x Twinlink™ x VIPCOT™ Cotton), GHB1 19 (event code: BCS-GH005-8, gene: bar), GHB614 x LLCotton25 x MON15985 (event code: CS-GH002-5 x ACS-GH001 -3 x MON-15985-7, gene: bar), MON 88701 -3 (event code: MON88701 , gene: bar), T303-3 (event code: BCS-GH003-6, gene: bar), T304-40 (event code: BCS-GH003-6, gene: bar), (event code: BCS-GH004-7, gene: bar), 81910 (event code: DAS-81910-7, gene: pat), MON8870 (event code: MON 88701 -3, gene: bar), MON88701 x MON88913 (event code: MON 88701 -3 x MON-88913-8, gene: bar), MON88701 x MON88913 x MON15985 (event code: MON 88701 -3 x MON-88913-8 x MON-15985-7, gene: bar), 281 -24-236 x 3006-210-23 x COT102 x 81910 (event code: DAS-24236-5 x DAS-21023-5 x SYN-IR102-7 x DAS-81910-7, gene: pat), COT102 x MON 15985 x MON88913 x MON88701 (event code: SYN-IR102-7 x MON-15985-7 x MON-88913-8 x MON 88701 -3, gene: bar) and 3006-210-23 x 281 -24-236 x MON88913 x COT102 x 81910 (event code: DAS-21023-5 x DAS-24236-5 x MON-88913-8 x SYN-IR102-7 x DAS-81910-7, gene: pat).

Transgenic canola events comprising glufosinate tolerance genes are for example, but not excluding others, HCN10 (Topas 19/2) (event code: , gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as Liberty Link™ Independence™), HCN28 (T45) (event code: ACS-BN008-2, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as InVigor™ Canola), HCN92 (Topas 19/2 (event code: ACS-BN007-1 , gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as Liberty Link™ Innovator™), MS1 (B91 -4) (event code: ACS-BN004-7, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as InVigor™ Canola), MS1 x RF1 (PGS1 ) (event code: ACS-BN004-7 x ACS-BN001 -4, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as InVigor™ Canola), MS1 x RF2 (PGS2) (event code: ACS-BN004-7 x ACS-BN002-5, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as InVigor™ Canola), MS1 x RF3 (event code: ACS-BN004-7 x ACS-BN003-6, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as InVigor™ Canola), MS8 (event code: ACS-BN005-8, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as InVigor™ Canola), MS8 x RF3 (event code: ACS-BN005-8 x ACS-BN003-6, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as InVigor™ Canola), RF1 (B93-101 ) (event code: ACS-BN001 -4, gene: bar, e.g. commercially availa- ble as InVigor™ Canola), RF2 (B94-2) (event code: ACS-BN002-5, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as InVigor™ Canola), RF3 (event code: ACS-BN003-6, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as InVigor™ Canola), MS1 x MON88302 (event code: ACS-BN004-7 x MON- 88302-9, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as InVigor™ x TruFlex™ Roundup Ready™ Canola), MS8 x MON88302 (event code: ACS-BN005-8 x MON-88302-9, gene: bar, e.g.

commercially available as InVigor™ x TruFlex™ Roundup Ready™ Canola), RF1 x MON88302 (event code: ACS-BN001 -4 x MON-88302-9, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as InVigor™ x TruFlex™ Roundup Ready™ Canola), RF2 x MON88302 (event code: ACS-BN002-5 x MON-88302-9, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as InVigor™ x TruFlex™ Roundup Ready™ Canola), HCN28 x MON88302 (event code: ACS-BN008-2 x MON-88302-9, gene: pat, e.g. commercially available as InVigor™ x TruFlex™ Roundup Ready™ Canola), HCN92 x MON88302 (event code: ACS-BN007-1 x MON-88302-9, gene: bar, e.g. commercially available as Liberty Link™ Innovator™ x TruFlex™ Roundup Ready™ Canola), HCR-1 (gene: pat), MON88302 x MS8 x RF3 (event code: MON-88302-9 x ACS-BN005-8 x ACS-BN003-6, gene: bar), MON88302 x RF3 (event code: MON-88302-9 x ACS-BN003-6, gene: bar), MS8 x RF3 x GT73 (RT73) (event code:, gene: bar), PHY14 (event code: ACS-BN005-8 x ACS-BN003-6 x MON-00073-7, gene: bar), PHY23 (gene: bar), PHY35 (gene: bar) and PHY36 (gene: bar) and 73496 x RF3 (event code: DP-073496-4 x ACS-BN003-6, gene: bar).

Transgenic rice events comprising glufosinate tolerance genes are for example, but not excluding others, LLRICE06 (event code: ACS-OS001 -4, e.g. commercially available as Liberty Link™ rice), LLRICE601 (event code: BCS-OS003-7, e.g. commercially available as Liberty Link™ rice) and LLRICE62 (event code: ACS-OS002-5, e.g. commercially available as Liberty Link™ rice).

The inventive mixtures can be applied in conventional manner by using techniques as skilled person is familiar with. Suitable techniques include spraying, atomizing, dusting, spreading or watering. The type of application depends on the intended purpose in a well known manner; in any case, they should ensure the finest possible distribution of the active ingredients according to the invention.

In one embodiment, the inventive mixtures are applied to locus mainly by spraying, in particular foliar spraying of an aqueous dilution of the active ingredients of the mixture. Application can be carried out by customary spraying techniques using, for example, water as carrier and spray liquor rates of from about 10 to 2000 l/ha or 50 to 1000 l/ha (for example from 100 to 500 l/ha). Application of the inventive mixtures by the low-volume and the ultra-low-volume method is possible, as is their application in the form of microgranules.

The required application rate of the mixture of the pure active compounds depends on the density of the undesired vegetation, on the development stage of the plants, on the climatic conditions of the location where the mixture is used and on the application method. In general, the rate of application of L-glufosinate is usually from 50 g/ha to 3000 g/ha and preferably in the range from 100 g/ha to 2000 g/ha or from 200 g/ha to 1500 g/ha of active substance (a.i.), and the rate of application of the VLCFA inhibitor is from 1 g/ha to 2000 g/ha and preferably in the range from 5 g/ha to 1500 g/ha, more preferably from 25 g/ha to 900 g/ha of active substance (a.i.).

The examples which follow illustrate the invention without imposing any limitation.

Biological examples

Synergism can be described as an interaction where the combined effect of two or more compounds is greater than the sum of the individual effects of each of the compounds. The pres- ence of a synergistic effect in terms of percent control, between two mixing partners (X and Y) can be calculated using the Colby equation (Colby, S. R., 1967, Calculating Synergistic and Antagonistic Responses in Herbicide Combinations, Weeds, 15, 21 -22):

When the observed combined control effect is greater than the expected (calculated) combined control effect (E), then the combined effect is synergistic.

The following tests demonstrate the control efficacy of compounds, mixtures or compositions of this invention on specific weeds. However, the weed control afforded by the compounds, mixtures or compositions is not limited to these species. The analysis of synergism or antagonism between the mixtures or compositions was determined using Colby's equation.

Test method:

The culture containers used were plastic flowerpots containing loamy sand with approximately 3.0% of humus as the substrate. The seeds of the test plants were sown separately for each species and/or resistant biotype. For the pre-emergence treatment, the active ingredients, which had been suspended or emulsified in water, were applied directly after sowing by means of finely distributing nozzles. The containers were irrigated gently to promote germination and growth and subsequently covered with transparent plastic hoods until the plants had rooted. This cover caused uniform germination of the test plants, unless this had been impaired by the active in- gredients. For the post-emergence treatment, the test plants were first grown to a height of 3 to 15 cm, depending on the plant habit, and only then treated with the active ingredients which had been suspended or emulsified in water. For this purpose, the test plants were either sown directly and grown in the same containers, or they were first grown separately as seedlings and transplanted into the test containers a few days prior to treatment. Depending on the species, the plants were kept at 10 - 25°C or 20 - 35°C, respectively. The test period extended to 20 days after treatment. During this time, the plants were tended, and their response to the individual treatments was evaluated. The evaluation was carried out by using a scale from 0 to 100. 100 means no emergence of the plants or complete destruction of at least the above-ground parts, and 0 means no damage, or normal course of growth. Data shown are the mean of two replications.

Products:

L-Glufosinate: 5 % EC formulation

Pyroxasulfone: 85 % WG formulation

Pethoxamid: 5 % EC formulation Weeds in the study:

Example 1 : Post emergence treatment with the mixture of L-glufosinate with pyroxasulfone

Example 2: Post emergence treatment with the mixture of L-glufosinate with pethoxamid

Herbicidal activity against

Application rate in g ai/ha

ABUTH AVE FA

L-Glufosinate Pethoxamid Found Calculated Found Calculated

150 — 55 — 0 —

— 100 0 — 0 —

150 100 98 55 40 0

75 — 0 — 0 —

— 50 0 — 0 —

75 50 35 0 5 0