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Title:
HETEROARYL PYRROLIDINE AND PIPERIDINE OREXIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/026047
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention is directed to heteroaryl pyrrolidine and piperidine compounds which are agonists of orexin receptors. The present invention is also directed to uses of the compounds described herein in the potential treatment or prevention of neurological and psychiatric disorders and diseases in which orexin receptors are involved. The present invention is also directed to compositions comprising these compounds. The present invention is also directed to uses of these compositions in the potential prevention or treatment of such diseases in which orexin receptors are involved.

Inventors:
BOGEN STEPHANE (US)
CHEN PING (US)
CLAUSEN DANE JAMES (US)
HAO JINSONG (US)
KALYANI DIPPANITA (US)
RUDD MICHAEL (US)
WALSH SHAWN (US)
WEI LAN (US)
YANG DEXI (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2020/044691
Publication Date:
February 11, 2021
Filing Date:
August 03, 2020
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
MERCK SHARP & DOHME (US)
BOGEN STEPHANE L (US)
CHEN PING (US)
CLAUSEN DANE JAMES (US)
HAO JINSONG (US)
KALYANI DIPPANITA (US)
RUDD MICHAEL T (US)
WALSH SHAWN P (US)
WEI LAN (US)
YANG DEXI (US)
International Classes:
C07D207/16; C07D401/04; C07D403/04
Domestic Patent References:
WO2019027003A12019-02-07
Foreign References:
US20190031611A12019-01-31
US20140024650A12014-01-23
US20200255403A12020-08-13
Other References:
DATABASE PubChem 7 October 2017 (2017-10-07), XP055791257, Database accession no. 130335965
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MERCK SHARP & DOHME CORP. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A compound of the formula I: wherein: n is 1 or 2;

A is a furanyl, imidazolyl, isoquinolinyl, isothiazolyl, isoxazolyl, oxadiazolyl, phenyl, pyrazinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrrolopyridinyl, furopyridinyl, isoxazolopyridinyl, tetrazolyl, 1,3,4-thiadiazol, thiazolyl, thiophenyl or triazolyl ring, or an N-oxide thereof;

Y is N or CH; R1a R1b and R1c as present are independently selected from:

(1) hydrogen,

(2) halogen,

(3) hydroxyl,

(4) C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with substituents selected from: hydroxy, fluoro and phenyl,

(5) -O-C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with substituents selected from: fluoro and phenyl,

(6) C3-6cycloalkyl,

(7) C2-6alkynyl,

(8) -NH2,

(9) -NH(C1-6alkyl),

(10) -N(C1-6alkyl)2,

(11) -(CO)-O-C1-6alkyl,

(12) keto, (13) -phenyl,

(14) -pyridyl, and

(15) -CN;

R2 is selected from:

(1) hydrogen,

(2) -C1-6alkyl, where the alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to six substituents independently selected from R4,

(3) -C3-6cycloalkyl, where the cycloalkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to six substituents independently selected from R4,

(4) -phenyl, where the phenyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to three substituents independently selected from R4, and

(5) -heteroaryl, where the heteroaryl is selected from: pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, and pyrazinyl, and the heteroaryl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to three substituents independently selected from R4;

R2a and R2b are independently selected from:

(1) hydrogen,

(2) hydroxyl,

(3) halogen, and

(4) -C1-6alkyl, where the alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to six substituents independently selected from halogen; R3 is selected from:

(1) -C1-6alkyl, where the alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to six substituents independently selected from R4,

(2) -C3-6cycloalkyl, where the cycloalkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to six substituents independently selected from R4,

(3) -phenyl, where the phenyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to three substituents independently selected from R4,

(4) -NR10 R11, wherein R10 and R11 are independently selected from:

(a) hydrogen, and

(b) C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with one to six R4; R4 is selected from: (1) hydroxyl,

(2) halogen,

(3) C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with one to six fluoro,

(10) phenyl,

(11) -CO2H, and

(12) -CN; R5 and R6 are independently selected from:

(1) hydrogen,

(2) C1-6alkyl, where the alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to six substituents independently selected from R4, and

(3) -C3-6cycloalkyl, where the cycloalkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to six substituents independently selected from R4, or R5 and R6 are joined together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached to form a -C3-6cycloalkyl ring, where the cycloalkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to six substituents independently selected from R4; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

2. The compound of Claim 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof wherein A is a furan-2-yl, imidazol-2-yl, imidazol-5-yl, isoquinolin-4-yl, isothiazol-5-yl, isoxazol-3-yl, l,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl, phenyl, pyrazin-2-yl, pyrazol-4-yl, pyridin-2-yl, pyridin-3-yl, pyridin-4-yl, pyridin-5-yl, pyrimidin-2-yl, pyrimidin-4-yl, pyrimidin-5-yl, pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridin- 6-yl, tetrazol-5-yl, l,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl, l,2,4-thiadiazol-5-yl, thiazol-2-yl, thiazol-4-yl, thiazol- 5-yl, thiophen-3-yl, l,2,4-triazol-3-yl, l,2,3-triazol-4-yl, or l,2,4-triazol-5-yl ring.

3. The compound of any of Claims 1-2 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof wherein Y is CH.

4. The compound of any of Claims 1-3 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof wherein R1a, R1b and R 1 c as are present are independently selected from:

(1) hydrogen,

(2) fluoro,

(3) hydroxyl,

(14) cyclopropyl, and

(15) phenyl.

5. The compound of any of Claims 1-4 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof wherein R2a is hydrogen and R2b is hydrogen, and R2 is selected from:

(1) hydrogen,

(2) -CH2(CH3)2,

(3) -CF3,

(4) -CH2CHF2,

(5) -CH2CF3, and

(6) phenyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with -CF3 or -CH2CF3.

6. The compound of any of Claims 1-5 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof wherein R3 is selected from:

(1) methyl,

(2) -CF3,

(3) -CH2F,

(4) ethyl,

(5) cyclopropyl,

(6) -CH(CH3)2, (7) -NH(CH3),

(8) -N(CH3)2, and

(9) -phenyl.

7. The compound of any of Claims 1-6 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof wherein R5 is hydrogen or methyl and R6 is hydrogen.

8. A compound which is selected from:

N-((CIS)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(5-phenylpyridin-3- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((CIS)- 1 -( 1 -methyl- 1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((CIS)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(4-

(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((CIS)- 1 -(isoquinolin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((CIS)- 1 -( 1 -methyl- 1H- 1 ,2,4-triazol-3 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((CIS)- 1 -(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((CIS)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(1H-pyrrolo[3,2- b]pyridin-6-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((CIS)- 1 -( 1 -methyl- 1H- 1 ,2,3 -triazol-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((CIS)-1-(2-methylthiazol-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)- methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((CIS)- 1 -(5-methyl- 1 ,3 ,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((CIS)-1-(4-methyl-2-phenylthiazol-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((CIS)-1-(4-(5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)phenyl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)-methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((CIS)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(2-(pyridin-4-yl)thiazol-4- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide; N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -methyl- 1H- 1 ,2,4-triazol-3 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -methyl- 1H- 1 ,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(pyridin-2- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(isoxazol-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(isothiazol-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(thiophen-3- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R, 3 S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenyl cyclohexyl)oxy)m ethyl)- l-(pyri din-3 - yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-(difluoromethyl)-4-fluorophenyl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(4-(difluoromethyl)-2-fluorophenyl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -(difluoromethyl)-6-oxo- 1 ,6-dihydropyri din-3 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R, 3 S)-1-(6-(difluorom ethyl )pyri din-3 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)-methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(2-cyanopyridin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(thiazol-5- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(thiazol-2- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -methyl- 1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(l,5-dimethyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(l,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide; N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -methyl- 1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 ,2-dimethyl- 1H-imidazol-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(l,2,4-thiadiazol-5- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(6-

(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-(difluoromethoxy)pyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(4-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(5-methyl- 1 ,3 ,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(pyrimidin-2- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-cyanofuran-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -methyl- 1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(2-

(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-5-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(pyrimidin-5- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(2-(hydroxym ethyl )pyridin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)pyridin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)-methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(6-(hydroxymethyl)-5-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)-methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(6-

(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-hydroxypyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide; N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(2 -methyl pyrimidin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-(hydroxymethyl)pyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(5-

(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(4-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-(difluoromethoxy)pyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(6-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(6-methoxy-5-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R, 3 S)-l -(3 -(hydroxymethyl )pyridin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(pyridin-4- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(6-(difluoromethoxy)pyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(2-methoxypyridin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(6-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)-methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(6-m ethyl pyrazin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3,5-difluoropyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide; N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-cyclopropylpyrazin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(4-m ethyl pyrimidin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(2-cyclopropylthiazol-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(3-

(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R, 3 S)-1-(6-(hydroxym ethyl )pyri din-3 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(4-methoxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(4-(dimethylamino)pyri din-2 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(1H-pyrazol-4- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((CIS)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(5-phenylpyridin-3- yl)piperidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((CIS)- 1 -(5-methyl- 1 ,3 ,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)piperidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((CIS)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(l,2,4-thiadiazol-5- yl)piperidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S,5R)-5-methyl-1-(l-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)-methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide; N-((2R, 3 S)-l -(2 -methyl pyri din-3 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(4-methylthiazol-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-methylthiazol-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S,5S)-1-(5-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-5-(methoxymethyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(3 -fluoro- 1 -methyl-4-oxo- 1 ,4-dihydropyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -methyl -4-oxo- 1 ,4-dihydropyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(5-fluoro- 1 -methyl-4-oxo- 1 ,4-dihydropyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -(2,2-difluoroethyl)-5-fluoro-4-oxo- 1 ,4-dihydropyri din-2 -yl)-2- ((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(isoxazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(furo[3,2-b]pyridin-6-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(furo[2,3-b]pyridin-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N'-((2R,3S,5S)-1-(5-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-5-(methoxymethyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)-N,N-dimethyl- sulfamide;

N’-((2R,3S,5R)-1-(5-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-5-methylpyrrolidin-3-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-sulfamide;

N’-((2R,3S,5R)-1-(5-chloro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-5-methylpyrrolidin-3-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-sulfamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-chloro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-chloro-3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide; N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3,5-difluoro-4-methoxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyirolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-(hydroxymethyl)thiazol-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide; methyl 2-((2R,3 S)-3-(methylsulfonamido)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)thiazole-4-carboxylate; methyl 2-((2R,3 S)-3-(methylsulfonamido)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)thiazole-5-carboxylate;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(4-hydroxy-5-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(4-bromo-5-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)- 1 -(4-hydroxythiazol-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(4-bromothiazol-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(2-methylthiazol-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(thiazol-4- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -methyl-2-oxo- 1 ,2-dihydropyri din-3 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -methyl-6-oxo- 1 ,6-dihydropyri din-3 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-chloro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-chloro-3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-fluoro-4-methoxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide; N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -methyl-6-oxo- 1 ,6-dihydropyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -methyl-2-oxo- 1 ,2-dihydropyridin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(4-hydroxy-5-methoxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-chloro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R, 3 S)-1-(4-(difluorom ethyl )pyri din-3 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(4-hydroxypyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(4-(benzyloxy)pyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-(difluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R, 3 S)-l -(3 -methyl pyri din-2 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(3-

(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(3-

(trifluoromethoxy)pyridin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-methoxy-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-fluoro-2-hydroxypyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(5-

(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-cyanopyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide; N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-cyanopyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

3-((2R,3S)-3-(methylsulfonamido)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin- 1 -yl)pyridine 1 -oxide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-cyanopyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(4-cyanopyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(6-cyanopyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(4-(difluoromethoxy)-5-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-methoxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(4,6-bis(difluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(4-(difluorom ethyl )pyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(4-m ethyl pyri din-2 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(6-cyanopyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-cyanophenyl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(6-oxo- 1 ,6-dihydropyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(6-hydroxypyrazin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide; N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(6-hydroxypyrimidin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(6-methoxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-fluoro-2-hydroxypyridin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(2-oxo- 1 ,2-dihydropyridin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N’-((2R,3S,5R)-1-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-5-methylpyrrolidin-3-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-sulfamide;

N’-((2R,3S,5R)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3-fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(4- hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-5-methylpyrrolidin-3-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-sulfamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)piperidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-(2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcy cl ohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(pyri din-3 -yl)piperi din-3 - yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-(((4-(2-

(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4-(2,3,6- trifluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- isopropylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide; and

N-((2R,3S,5R)-1-(3-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-5-methylpyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

9. A pharmaceutical composition which comprises an inert carrier and a compound of any of Claims 1-8 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

10. A compound of any of Claims 1-8 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof for use in therapy.

11. A compound of any of Claims 1-8, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use in the treatment or prevention of a sleep disorder.

12. A method for treating narcolepsy in a mammalian subject which comprises administering to the patient an effective amount of the compound of any of Claims 1-8 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

13. A method for treating hypersomnia in a mammalian subject which comprises administering to the patient an effective amount of the compound of any of Claims 1-8 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

Description:
TITLE OF THE INVENTION

HETEROARYL PYRROLIDINE AND PIPERIDINE OREXIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The orexins (hypocretins) comprise two neuropeptides produced in the hypothalamus: orexin A (OX- A) (a 33 amino acid peptide) and the orexin B (OX-B) (a 28 amino acid peptide) (Sakurai T. et al., Cell, 1998, 92, 573-585). Orexins regulate states of sleep and wakefulness opening potentially novel therapeutic approaches for narcolepsy, idiopathic hypersomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, shift work disorder, obstructive sleep apnea and insomnia (Chemelli R.M. et al., Cell, 1999, 98, 437-451). Orexins are found to stimulate food consumption in rats suggesting a physiological role for these peptides as mediators in the central feedback mechanism that regulates feeding behavior (Sakurai T. et al., Cell, 1998, 92, 573-585). Orexins have also been indicated as playing a role in arousal, emotion, energy homeostasis, reward, learning and memory (Peyron, et al., Journal Neurosci., 1998,18(23):9996-100150, Harris, et al., Trends Neurosci., 2006, 29 (10), 571-577). Two orexin receptors have been cloned and characterized in mammals. They belong to the super family of G-protein coupled receptors (Sakurai T. et al., Cell, 1998, 92, 573-585): the orexin-1 receptor (OX or OX1R) is partially selective for OX-A and the orexin-2 receptor (OX2 or OX2R) is capable of binding OX-A as well as OX-B with similar affinity. The physiological actions in which orexins are presumed to participate are thought to be expressed via one or both of OX1 receptor and OX2 receptor as the two subtypes of orexin receptors.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to heteroaryl pyrrolidine and piperidine compounds which are agonists of orexin receptors. The present invention is also directed to uses of the compounds described herein in the potential treatment or prevention of neurological and psychiatric disorders and diseases in which orexin receptors are involved. The present invention is also directed to compositions comprising these compounds. The present invention is also directed to uses of these compositions in the potential prevention or treatment of such diseases in which orexin receptors are involved.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to compounds of the formula I:

wherein: n is 1 or 2;

A is a furanyl, imidazolyl, isoquinolinyl, isothiazolyl, isoxazolyl, oxadiazolyl, phenyl, pyrazinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrrolopyridinyl, furopyridinyl, isoxazolopyridinyl, tetrazolyl, 1,3,4-thiadiazol, thiazolyl, thiophenyl or triazolyl ring, or an N-oxide thereof; Y is N or CH;

R 1a , R 1b and R 1c as present are independently selected from:

(1) hydrogen,

(2) halogen,

(3) hydroxyl,

(4) C 1-6 alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with substituents selected from: hydroxy, fluoro and phenyl,

(5) -O- C 1-6 alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with substituents selected from: fluoro and phenyl,

(6) C 3-6 cycloalkyl,

(7) C 2-6 alkynyl,

(8) -NH 2 ,

(9) -NH(C 1-6 alkyl),

(10) -N(C 1-6 alkyl) 2 ,

(11) -(CO)-O-C 1-6 alkyl,

(12) keto,

(13) -phenyl,

(14) -pyridyl, and

(15) -CN; R 2 is selected from:

(1) hydrogen,

(2) -C 1-6 alkyl, where the alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to six substituents independently selected from R 4 ,

(3) -C 3-6 cycloalkyl, where the cycloalkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to six substituents independently selected from R 4 ,

(4) -phenyl, where the phenyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to three substituents independently selected from R 4 , and

(5) -heteroaryl, where the heteroaryl is selected from: pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, and pyrazinyl, and the heteroaryl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to three substituents independently selected from R 4 ; R 2a and R 2b are independently selected from:

(1) hydrogen,

(2) hydroxyl,

(3) halogen, and

(4) -C 1-6 alkyl, where the alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to six substituents independently selected from halogen; R 3 is selected from:

(1) -C 1-6 alkyl, where the alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to six substituents independently selected from R 4 ,

(2) -C 3-6 cycloalkyl, where the cycloalkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to six substituents independently selected from R 4 ,

(3) -phenyl, where the phenyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to three substituents independently selected from R 4 ,

(4) -NR 10 R 11 , wherein R 10 and R 11 are independently selected from:

(a) hydrogen, and

(b) C 1-6 alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with one to six R 4 ; R 4 is selected from:

(1) hydroxyl,

(2) halogen,

(3) C 1-6 alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with one to six fluoro, (4) -C 3-6 cycloalkyl,

(5) -O-C 1-6 alkyl,

(6) -O(C=O)-C 1 _6alkyl,

(7) -NH 2 ,

(8) -NH- C 1-6 alkyl,

(9) -NO 2 ,

(10) phenyl,

(11) -CO 2 H, and

(12) -CN; R 5 and Rb are independently selected from:

(1) hydrogen,

(2) C 1-6 alkyl, where the alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to six substituents independently selected from R 4 , and

(3) -C 3-6 cycloalkyl, where the cycloalkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to six substituents independently selected from R 4 , or R 5 and R 6 are joined together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached to form a -C 3-6 cycloalkyl ring, where the cycloalkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to six substituents independently selected from R 4 ; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula la: wherein A, n, R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c R 2 R 2a R 2b , R 3 R 5 and R 6 are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula lb:

wherein A, n, R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 R 3 R 5 and R 6 are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula lb’ : lb’ wherein A, n, R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 R 3 R 5 and R 6 are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula lb”: lb” wherein A, n, R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 R 3 R 5 and R 6 are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula lb”’ :

lb”’ wherein A, n, R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 R 3 R 5 and defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Ic:

Ic wherein A, R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 R 3 R 5 and R a 6 nd defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula lb’ :

Ic’ wherein A , R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 R 3 R 5 and R 6 defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Ic”:

Ic” wherein A , R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 R 3 R an 5 d R 6 and defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Ic”’ :

Ic’” wherein A , R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 R 3 R 5 are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Id:

Id wherein A , R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 R 3 R 5 and R a 6 nd defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Id’ :

Id’ wherein A , R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 R 3 are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Id”:

Id” wherein A , R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 R 3 R an 5 d R 6 and defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Id”’ :

Id’” wherein A , R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 R 3 R 5 are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Ha:

wherein A, n, R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 R 2a R 2b and R 3 and defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Hb: wherein A, n, R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 and R 3 and defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Hb’ :

Ilb’ wherein A, n, R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 and R 3 and defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Hb”:

lib” wherein A, n, R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 and R 3 are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula He: wherein A, R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 a nd R 3 are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula He’ : wherein A, R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 and R 3 are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula He”:

lie” wherein A, R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 and R 3 are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula nd:

Rd wherein A, R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 and R 3 are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Ed’ :

Ed’ wherein A, R 1a , R 1b , R 1 c , R 2 and R 3 are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Ed”: nd” wherein A, R 1a , R 1b , R l c, R 2 a nd R 3 are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein n is i (to form a pyrrolidine ring). An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein n is 2 (to form a piperidine ring).

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A is a furan-2-yl, imidazol-2-yl, imidazol-5-yl, isoquinolin-4-yl, isothiazol-5-yl, isoxazol-3-yl, 1,3,4- oxadiazol-2-yl, phenyl, pyrazin-2-yl, pyrazol-4-yl, pyridin-2-yl, pyridin-3-yl, pyridin-4-yl, pyridin-5-yl, pyrimidin-2-yl, pyrimidin-4-yl, pyrimidin-5-yl, pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridin-6-yl, tetrazol- 5-yl, l,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl, l,2,4-thiadiazol-5-yl, thiazol-2-yl, thiazol-4-yl, thiazol-5-yl, thiophen- 3-yl, l,2,4-triazol-3-yl, l,2,3-triazol-4-yl, or l,2,4-triazol-5-yl ring. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A is a pyridin-2-yl, pyridin-3-yl, pyridin-4-yl, or pyridin-5-yl ring.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein Y is N. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein Y is CH.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R 1a , R 1b and R 1 c as are present are independently selected from:

(1) hydrogen,

(2) fluoro,

(3) chloro,

(4) hydroxyl,

(5) C 1-3 alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with hydroxy or one or more fluoro,

(6) -O- C 1-3 alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more fluoro,

(7) C 3-6 cycloalkyl,

(8) -NH 2 , (9) -NH( C 1-3 alkyl),

(10) -N(C 1-3 alkyl)2,

(11) keto, and

(12) -phenyl.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein Rd a , R 1b and R 1 c as are present are independently selected from:

(1) hydrogen,

(2) fluoro,

(3) hydroxyl,

(4) -CH 3 ,

(5) -CHF2,

(6) -CF 3 ,

(7) -CH2OH,

(8) -CH 2 CH 3 ,

(9) -C(CH 3 )OH,

(10) -OCH 3 ,

(11) -OCHF 2 ,

(12) -OCH 2 CH 2 F,

(13) -N(CH 3 ) 2 ,

(14) cyclopropyl, and

(15) phenyl.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein Rd c is hydrogen and R 1a and R 1b , as are present, are independently selected from:

(1) hydrogen,

(2) fluoro,

(3) hydroxyl,

(4) -CH 3 ,

(5) -CHF 2 ,

(6) -CF 3 ,

(7) -CH 2 OH,

(8) -CH 2 CH 3 ,

(9) -C(CH 3 )OH,

(10) -OCH 3 ,

(11) -OCHF 2 , (12) -OCH 2 CH 2 F,

(13) -N(CH 3 ) 2 ,

(14) cyclopropyl, and

(15) phenyl.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein Rd c and R 1b , as are present, are hydrogen and R 1a and are independently selected from:

(1) hydrogen,

(2) fluoro,

(3) hydroxyl,

(4) -CH 3 ,

(5) -CHF 2 ,

(6) -CF 3 ,

(7) -CH 2 OH,

(8) -CH 2 CH 3 ,

(9) -C(CH 3 )OH,

(10) -OCH 3 ,

(11) -OCHF 2 ,

(12) -OCH 2 CH 2 F,

(13) -N(CH 3 ) 2 ,

(14) cyclopropyl, and

(15) phenyl.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R 2 is selected from:

(1) hydrogen,

(2) -C 1-6 alkyl, where the alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to three fluoro, and

(3) phenyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with -C 1-6 alkyl, where the alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to three fluoro.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R 2 is selected from:

(1) hydrogen,

(2) -CH 2 (CH 3 ) 2 ,

(3) -CF 3 ,

(4) -CH 2 CHF 2 , (5) -CH2CF 3 , and

(6) phenyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with -CF 3 or -CH 2 CF 3 .

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R 2a is hydrogen and R 2b is hydrogen. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R 2a is methyl and R 2b is hydrogen. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R 2a is methyl and R 2b is methyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R . 2a is methyl and R 2b is methyl, wherein R 2a and R 2b and attached to the same carbon atom. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R 2a is fluoro and R 2b is hydrogen. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R 2a is fluoro and R 2b is fluoro, wherein R 2a and R 2b a re attached to the same carbon atom.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R 3 is selected from:

(1) -C 1-6 alkyl, where the alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one to three fluoro,

(2) -C 3-6 cycloalkyl,

(3) -NH 2 ,

(4) -NH(C 1-6 alkyl),

(5) -N(C 1-6 alkyl)(C 1-6 alkyl), and

(6) -phenyl.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R 3 is selected from:

(1) methyl,

(2) -CF 3 ,

(3) -CH 2 F,

(4) ethyl,

(5) cyclopropyl,

(6) -CH(CH 3 )2,

(7) -NH(CH 3 ),

(8) -N(CH 3 )2, and

(9) -phenyl.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R 5 and R 6 are independently selected from:

(1) hydrogen, (2) methyl,

(3) ethyl,

(8) cyclopropyl.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R 5 is hydrogen or methyl and R 6 is hydrogen. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R 5 is hydrogen and R 6 is hydrogen. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R 5 is methyl and R 6 is hydrogen. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R 5 is ethyl and R 6 is hydrogen. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R 5 is ethyl and R 6 is ethyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R 5 and R 6 are joined together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached to form a cyclopropyl ring.

Certain embodiments of the present invention include a compound which is selected from the group consisting of the subject compounds of the Examples herein or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

Certain embodiments of the present invention include a compound which is selected from:

N-((CIS)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(5-p henylpyridin-3- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((CIS)- 1 -( 1 -methyl- 1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((CIS)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(4-

(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamid e;

N-((CIS)- 1 -(isoquinolin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((CIS)- 1 -( 1 -methyl- 1H- 1 ,2,4-triazol-3 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((CIS)- 1 -(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((CIS)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(1H- pyrrolo[3,2- b]pyridin-6-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide; N-((CIS)- 1 -( 1 -methyl- 1H- 1 ,2,3 -triazol-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((CIS)-1-(2-methylthiazol-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((CIS)- 1 -(5-methyl- 1 ,3 ,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((CIS)-1-(4-methyl-2-phenylthiazol-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((CIS)-1-(4-(5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(( ((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)-methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((CIS)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(2-( pyridin-4-yl)thiazol-4- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -methyl- 1H- 1 ,2,4-triazol-3 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -methyl- 1H- 1 ,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(p yridin-2- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(isoxazol-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(isothiazol-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(t hiophen-3- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R, 3 S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)m ethyl)- l-(pyri din-3 - yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-(difluoromethyl)-4-fluorophenyl)-2-((((CI S)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(4-(difluoromethyl)-2-fluorophenyl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -(difluoromethyl)-6-oxo- 1 ,6-dihydropyri din-3 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(6-(difluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)- 4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)-methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide; N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(2-cyanopyridin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(t hiazol-5- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(t hiazol-2- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -methyl- 1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(l,5-dimethyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4 - phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(l,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -methyl- 1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(l,2-dimethyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4 - phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(l ,2,4-thiadiazol-5- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(6 -

(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulf onamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-(difluoromethoxy)pyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS) -4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(4-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4 - phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(p yrimidin-2- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-cyanofuran-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -methyl- 1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(2 -

(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-5-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesu lfonamide; N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(pyri midin-5- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(2-(hydroxym ethyl )pyridin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)pyridin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)-methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(6-(hydroxymethyl)-5-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-( (((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)-methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(6 -

(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)pynOlidin-3-yl)methanesul fonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-hydroxypyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(2 -methyl pyrimidin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-(hydroxymethyl)pyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4 - phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(5 -

(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulf onamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(4-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-(difluoromethoxy)pyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS) -4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(6-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(6-methoxy-5-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)- 4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R, 3 S)-l -(3 -(hydroxymethyl )pyridin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(p yridin-4- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(6-(difluoromethoxy)pyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS) -4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide; N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(2-methoxypyridin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(6-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl)-2-((( (CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)-methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(6-m ethyl pyrazin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3,5-difluoropyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-cyclopropylpyrazin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(4-m ethyl pyrimidin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(2-cyclopropylthiazol-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(3 -

(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulf onamide;

N-((2R, 3 S)-1-(6-(hydroxym ethyl )pyri din-3 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)- 4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(4-methoxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(4-(dimethylamino)pyri din-2 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de; N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(1H-p yrazol-4- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((CIS)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(5-p henylpyridin-3- yl)piperidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((CIS)- 1 -(5-methyl- 1 ,3 ,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)piperidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamid e;

N-((CIS)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(l,2 ,4-thiadiazol-5- yl)piperidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S,5R)-5-methyl-1-(l-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-2-(( ((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)-methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonam ide;

N-((2R, 3 S)-l -(4-methyl pyri din-3 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1 -(2 -methyl pyri din-3 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(4-methylthiazol-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-methylthiazol-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S,5S)-1-(5-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CI S)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-5-(methoxymethyl)pyrroli din-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(3 -fluoro- 1 -methyl-4-oxo- 1 , 4-dihydropyri din-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -methyl-4-oxo- 1 , 4-dihydropyri din-2 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(5-fluoro- 1 -methyl-4-oxo- 1 , 4-dihydropyri din-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -(2,2-difluoroethyl)-5-fluoro-4-oxo- 1 ,4-dihydropyridin-2-yl)-2- ((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)metha nesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(isoxazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(furo[3,2-b]pyridin-6-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(furo[2,3-b]pyridin-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de; N'-((2R,3S,5S)-1-(5-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS) -4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-5-(methoxymethyl)pyrroli din-3-yl)-N,N-dimethyl- sulfamide;

N’-((2R,3S,5R)-1-(5-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((( (CIS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-5-methylpyrrolidin-3-yl) -N,N-dimethyl-sulfamide;

N’-((2R,3S,5R)-1-(5-chloro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((( (CIS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-5-methylpyrrolidin-3-yl) -N,N-dimethyl-sulfamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)- 4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesu lfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-chloro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)- 4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyirolidin-3-yl)methanesu lfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-chloro-3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2- ((((CIS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesu lfonainide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)- 4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesu lfonainide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3,5-difluoro-4-methoxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((C IS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesu lfonainide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((C IS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-(hydroxymethyl)thiazol-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4 - phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de; methyl 2-((2R,3 S)-3-(methylsulfonamido)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)thiazole-4-carbo xylate; methyl 2-((2R,3 S)-3-(methylsulfonamido)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)thiazole-5-carbo xylate;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(4-hydroxy-5-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)- 4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(4-bromo-5-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)- 1 -(4-hydroxythiazol-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(4-bromothiazol-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(2-methylthiazol-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de; N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(thia zol-4- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -methyl -2-oxo- 1 ,2-dihydropyri din-3 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -methyl-6-oxo- 1 ,6-dihydropyri din-3 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-chloro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)- 4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-chloro-3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2- ((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-fluoro-4-methoxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)- 4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -methyl-6-oxo- 1 ,6-dihydropyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)- 4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -( 1 -methyl-2-oxo- 1 ,2-dihydropyridin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(4-hydroxy-5-methoxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS) -4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-chloro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)- 4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R, 3 S)-1-(4-(difluorom ethyl )pyri din-3 -yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(4-hydroxypyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(4-(benzyloxy)pyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-(difluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)- 4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-methylpyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(3 -

(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulf onamide; N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(3-

(trifluoromethoxy)pyridin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesul fonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-methoxy-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)- 4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-fluoro-2-hydroxypyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)- 4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(5 -

(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulf onamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-cyanopyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-cyanopyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

3-((2R,3S)-3-(methylsulfonamido)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin- 1 -yl)pyridine 1 -oxide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-cyanopyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(4-cyanopyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(6-cyanopyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(4-(difluoromethoxy)-5-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-2 -((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-methoxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(4,6-bis(difluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-2-(((( CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(4-(difluorom ethyl )pyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de; N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(4-methylpyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(6-cyanopyridin-3-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-cyanophenyl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(6-oxo- 1 ,6-dihydropyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(6-hydroxypyrazin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(6-hydroxypyrimidin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)- 4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(6-methoxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(5-fluoro-2-hydroxypyridin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)- 4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3 S)- 1 -(2-oxo- 1 ,2-dihydropyridin-4-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonami de;

N’-((2R,3S,5R)-1-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((( (CIS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-5-methylpyrrolidin-3-yl) -N,N-dimethyl-sulfamide;

N’-((2R,3S,5R)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3-fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl) oxy)methyl)-1-(4- hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-5-methylpyrrolidin-3-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-s ulfamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)- 4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)piperidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamid e;

N-(2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcy cl ohexyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(pyri din-3 -yl)piperi din-3 - yl)methanesulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-(((4-(2-

(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin- 3-yl)methanesulfonamide; N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4-( 2,3,6- trifluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methan esulfonamide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((CIS)- 4- isopropylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfon amide;

N-((2R,3S)-1-(3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-2-((((C IS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyirolidin-3-yl)methanesu lfonamide; and

N-((2R,3S,5R)-1-(3-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropyridin-2-yl)- 2-((((CIS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-5-methylpyrrolidin-3-yl) methanesulfonamide; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

The compounds of the present invention may contain one or more asymmetric centers and can thus occur as racemates and racemic mixtures, single enantiomers, diastereomeric mixtures and individual diastereomers. Additional asymmetric centers may be present depending upon the nature of the various substituents on the molecule. Each such asymmetric center will independently produce two optical isomers and it is intended that all of the possible optical isomers and diastereomers in mixtures and as pure or partially purified compounds are included within the ambit of this invention. The present invention is meant to comprehend all such isomeric forms of these compounds. Likewise, the present invention includes tautomeric forms of the compounds disclosed herein. Formula I shows the structure of the class of compounds without specific stereochemistry. At least some of the chemical names of compounds of the invention as set forth in this application may have been generated on an automated basis by use of commercially available chemical naming software programs, and have not been independently verified.

The independent syntheses of these diastereomers or their chromatographic separations may be achieved as known in the art by appropriate modification of the methodology disclosed herein. Their absolute stereochemistry may be determined by the x-ray crystallography of crystalline products or crystalline intermediates which are derivatized, if necessary, with a reagent containing an asymmetric center of known absolute configuration. If desired, racemic mixtures of the compounds may be separated so that the individual enantiomers are isolated. The separation can be carried out by methods well known in the art, such as the coupling of a racemic mixture of compounds to an enantiomerically pure compound to form a diastereomeric mixture, followed by separation of the individual diastereomers by standard methods, such as fractional crystallization or chromatography. The coupling reaction is often the formation of salts using an enantiomerically pure acid or base. The diasteromeric derivatives may then be converted to the pure enantiomers by cleavage of the added chiral residue. The racemic mixture of the compounds can also be separated directly by chromatographic methods utilizing chiral stationary phases, which methods are well known in the art. Alternatively, any enantiomer of a compound may be obtained by stereoselective synthesis using optically pure starting materials or reagents of known configuration by methods well known in the art.

As appreciated by those of skill in the art, halogen or halo as used herein are intended to include fluoro, chloro, bromo and iodo. Similarly, C 1-6 , as in C 1-6 alkyl is defined to identify the group as having 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 carbons in a linear or branched arrangement, such that C 1-6 alkyl specifically includes methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, iso-propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl, tert- butyl, pentyl, and hexyl. A group which is designated as being independently substituted with substituents may be independently substituted with multiple numbers of such substituents.

The present invention also includes all pharmaceutically acceptable isotopic variations of a compound of the Formula I in which one or more atoms is replaced by atoms having the same atomic number, but an atomic mass or mass number different from the atomic mass or mass number usually found in nature. Such compounds are identical to those disclosed herein, but for the fact that one or more atoms are replaced by an atom having an atomic mass or mass number different from the atomic mass or mass number usually found in nature. Examples of isotopes suitable for inclusion in the compounds of the invention include isotopes of hydrogen such as 2H and 3H, carbon such as 11C, 13C and 14C, nitrogen such as 13N and 15N, oxygen such as 15C, 17C and 18C, phosphorus such as 32P, sulfur such as 35S, fluorine such as 18F, iodine such as 123i and 125I, and chlorine such as 36ci. Certain isotopically-labelled compounds of Formula I, for example those incorporating a radioactive isotope, are useful in drug and/or substrate tissue distribution studies. The radioactive isotopes tritium, i.e. 3 FI, and carbon-14, i.e. 14C, are particularly useful for this purpose in view of their ease of incorporation and ready means of detection. Substitution with heavier isotopes such as deuterium, i.e. 2H, may afford certain therapeutic advantages resulting from greater metabolic stability, for example, increased in vivo half-life or reduced dosage requirements, and hence may be preferred in some circumstances. Substitution with positron emitting isotopes, such as 11C, 18F, 15C and 13N, can be useful in Positron Emission Topography (PET) studies for examining substrate receptor occupancy. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds that are substituted with a positron emitting isotope. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds that are substituted with a 11C isotope. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds that are substituted with an 18F isotope. In the compounds of the invention, the atoms may exhibit their natural isotopic abundances, or one or more of the atoms may be artificially enriched in a particular isotope having the same atomic number, but an atomic mass or mass number different from the atomic mass or mass number predominantly found in nature. The present invention is meant to include all suitable isotopic variations of the compounds of the invention. For example, different isotopic forms of hydrogen (H) include protium (Ή) and deuterium ( 2 H). Protium is the predominant hydrogen isotope found in nature. Enriching for deuterium may afford certain therapeutic advantages, such as increasing in vivo half-life or reducing dosage requirements, or may provide a compound useful as a standard for characterization of biological samples. Isotopically-enriched compounds of the invention can be prepared without undue experimentation by conventional techniques well known to those skilled in the art or by processes analogous to those described in the schemes and examples herein using appropriate isotopically-enriched reagents and/or intermediates.

Those skilled in the art will recognize those instances in which the compounds of the invention may form salts. In such instances, another embodiment provides pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the compounds of the invention. Thus, reference to a compound of the invention herein is understood to include reference to salts thereof, unless otherwise indicated. The term "pharmaceutically acceptable salts" refers to salts prepared from pharmaceutically acceptable non-toxic bases or acids including inorganic or organic bases and inorganic or organic acids. In addition, when a compound of the invention contains both a basic moiety, such as, but not limited to a pyridine or imidazole, and an acidic moiety, such as, but not limited to a carboxylic acid, zwitterions ("inner salts") may be formed and are included within the present invention. Salts derived from inorganic bases include aluminum, ammonium, calcium, copper, ferric, ferrous, lithium, magnesium, manganic salts, manganous, potassium, sodium, zinc, and the like. Particular embodiments include the ammonium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts. Salts in the solid form may exist in more than one crystal structure, and may also be in the form of hydrates or solvates. Salts derived from pharmaceutically acceptable organic non-toxic bases include salts of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines, substituted amines including naturally occurring substituted amines, cyclic amines, and basic ion exchange resins, such as arginine, betaine, caffeine, choline, N,N'-dibenzylethylene-diamine, diethylamine, 2- diethylaminoethanol, 2-dimethylaminoethanol, ethanolamine, ethylenediamine, N-ethyl- morpholine, N-ethylpiperidine, glucamine, glucosamine, histidine, hydrabamine, isopropylamine, lysine, methylglucamine, morpholine, piperazine, piperidine, polyamine resins, procaine, purines, theobromine, triethylamine, trimethylamine, tripropylamine, tromethamine, and the like.

When the compound of the present invention is basic, salts may be prepared from pharmaceutically acceptable non-toxic acids, including inorganic and organic acids. Such acids include acetic, benzenesulfonic, benzoic, camphorsulfonic, citric, ethanesulfonic, fumaric, gluconic, glutamic, hydrobromic, hydrochloric, isethionic, lactic, maleic, malic, mandelic, methanesulfonic, mucic, nitric, pamoic, pantothenic, phosphoric, succinic, sulfuric, tartaric, p- toluenesulfonic acid, and the like. Particular embodiments include the citric, hydrobromic, hydrochloric, maleic, phosphoric, sulfuric, fumaric, and tartaric acids. It will be understood that, as used herein, references to the compounds of Formula I are meant to also include the pharmaceutically acceptable salts. Salts of the compounds of the invention may be formed by methods known to those of ordinary skill in the art, for example, by reacting a compound of the invention with an amount of acid or base, such as an equivalent amount, in a medium such as one in which the salt precipitates or in an aqueous medium followed by lyophilization.

Exemplifying the invention is the use of the compounds disclosed in the Examples and herein. Specific compounds within the present invention include a compound which is selected from the compounds disclosed in the following Examples and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof and individual enantiomers or diastereomers thereof.

The present invention is also directed to the use of the compounds disclosed herein as agonists of orexin receptor activity. The subject compounds and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof are useful in a method of agonizing orexin receptor activity in a subject such as a mammal comprising the administration of an amount of the compound. In addition to primates, especially humans, a variety of other mammals may be administered with a compound of the present invention. The present invention is directed to a compound of the present invention or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof that could be useful in thereapy. The present invention may further be directed to a use of a compound of the present invention or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof for the manufacture of a medicament for agonizing orexin receptor activity or treating the disorders and diseases noted herein in humans and animals.

A subject administered with a compound of the present invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, is generally a mammal, such as a human being, male or female. The amount of compound administered to the subject is an amount sufficient to agonize the orexin receptor in the subject. In an embodiment, the amount of compound can be an “effective amount”, wherein the subject compound is administered in an amount that will elicit the biological or medical response of a tissue, system, animal or human that is being sought by the researcher, veterinarian, medical doctor or other clinician. An effective amount does not necessarily include considerations of toxicity and safety related to the administration of the compound. It is recognized that one skilled in the art may affect neurological and psychiatric disorders associated with orexin receptor activation by treating a subject presently afflicted with the disorders, or by prophylactically treating a subject likely to be afflicted with the disorders, with an effective amount of a compound of the present invention. As used herein, the terms "treatment" and "treating" refer to all processes wherein there may be a slowing, interrupting, arresting, controlling, or stopping of the progression of the neurological and psychiatric disorders described herein, but does not necessarily indicate a total elimination of all disorder symptoms, as well as the prophylactic therapy of the mentioned conditions, particularly in a subject that is predisposed to such disease or disorder. The terms "administration of' and or "administering a" compound should be understood to mean providing a compound of the invention or a prodrug of a compound of the invention to to the subject.

The term "composition" as used herein is intended to encompass a product comprising the specified ingredients in the specified amounts, as well as any product which results, directly or indirectly, from combination of the specified ingredients in the specified amounts. Such term is intended to encompass a product comprising the active ingredient(s), and the inert ingredient(s) that make up the carrier, as well as any product which results, directly or indirectly, from combination, complexation or aggregation of any two or more of the ingredients, or from dissociation of one or more of the ingredients, or from other types of reactions or interactions of one or more of the ingredients. Accordingly, the compositions of the present invention encompass any composition made by admixing a compound of the present invention and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. By "pharmaceutically acceptable" it is meant the carrier, diluent or excipient must be compatible with the other ingredients of the formulation and not deleterious to the recipient thereof.

The utility of the compounds in accordance with the present invention as orexin receptor OX1R and/or OX2R agonists may be readily determined without undue experimentation by methodology well known in the art. Both the OX1R and/or OX2R G-coupled protein receptors (GPCRs) couple through the Gaq signaling pathway, which ultimately promotes calcium mobilization via inositol triphosphate (IP3) production. The half-life of IP-3 is relatively short, being rapidly metabolized to inositol monophosphate (IP-1), which can be readily detected using a commercially available assay kit (IP-One; Cisbio; cat# 621PAPEC) coupled with a cell line expressing the target receptor(s) of interest. The utility of the compounds in accordance with the present invention as orexin receptor OX1R and/or OX2R agonists may be determined utilizing this assay.

In a typical experiment, the OX1 and OX2 receptor agonist activity is determined in accordance with the following general experimental method. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing human OX1R and/or the human OX2R were grown in Iscove’s modified DMEM containing glutaMAX™, 1% G418, 100 U/mL penicillin, 100 mg/mL streptomycin and 10 % heat-inactivated qualified fetal bovine serum (FBS). The OX2R cells were seeded at 10,000 cells/well/50 mL and the OX1R cells were seeded at 20,000 cells/well/50 mL into 384- well white tissue culture plates (Greiner; cat# 781080). All cell/media reagents were from GIBCO-Invitrogen Corp. The seeded cell plate(s) were incubated at 37°C with 5% CO2 and 85% humidity for 20-24 hours. On the day of the assay, assay-ready compound plates were prepared using an acoustic liquid handler (ECHO; Labcyte), which dispensed sufficient volume of test compound stock (10 mM in DMSO) or 100% DMSO to prepare 10 point, ½-log dilutions in a final volume of 202.5 nL/well in all test wells of a 384-well diamond plate (Labcyte). Following completion of assay-ready plates, importantly, the next three steps were performed with minimal delay: 1) 20 ml of lx stimulation buffer was added to the compound plate using a Multidrop Combi (small cassette, Thermo Fisher Scientific cat# 24073290); 2) culture medium was removed from the cell plate using the Bluewasher plate washer (gentle spin; BlueCatBio); 3) 14 m 1 of compound/stimulation buffer mixture was added to the cell plate using a Bravo liquid handler (Agilent) prior to incubating cell plates at 37°C with 5% CO 2 and 85% humidity for 1 or 2 hours (OX1R and OX2R, respectively). During this incubation, IP-one detection reagents were prepared (38:1:1 lysis buffer:D2:AB-cryptate reagents). Six mL of mixed detection reagents were added to the cell plate using a Multidrop Combi (small cassette, Thermo Fisher Scientific cat #24073290) and incubated 60 minutes at room temperature in the dark. Fluorescence signal was detected using an Envision plate reader (Perkin Elmer) [LANCE/DELFIA Dual Enh (Em: APC 665; Ex: Cy5 620)].

For each compound, data were fit to a four parameter logistic fit (ActivityBase software) and the EC 50 was reported as the inflection point of the resulting curve. Percent effect for each test compound was determined as the percentage of sample raw value/mean max effect, where the mean max effect was derived from the mean raw value of 32 control wells per assay plate (using Orexin A (cat# 003-30) at 1 mM for human OX1R and a reference compound at 1 uM with 100% activity previously established by comparison to Orexin A for human OX2R).

The intrinsic orexin receptor agonist activity of a compound which may be used in the present invention may be determined by these assays.

All of the final compounds of the following examples had activity in agonizing the human orexin-2 receptor in the aforementioned IPOne assay with an EC 50 of about 0.01 nM to 5000 nM. Additional data is provided in the following Examples. Such a result is indicative of the intrinsic activity of the compounds in use as agonists of orexin- 1 receptor and/or the orexin-2 receptor. In general, one of ordinary skill in the art would appreciate that a substance is considered to effectively agonize the orexin receptor if it has an EC 50 in the IPOne assay of less than about 50 mM, or more specifically less than about 1000 nM.

The orexin receptors have been implicated in a wide range of biological functions. This has suggested a potential role for these receptors in a variety of disease processes in humans or other species. The compounds of the present invention could therefore potentially have utility in treating, preventing, ameliorating, controlling or reducing the risk of a variety of disorders associated with orexin receptors, including one or more of the following conditions or diseases: narcolepsy, narcolepsy syndrome accompanied by narcolepsy-like symptoms, cataplexy in narcolepsy, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in narcolepsy, hypersomnia, idiopathic hypersomnia, repeatability hypersomnia, intrinsic hypersomnia, hypersomnia accompanied by daytime hypersomnia, interrupted sleep, sleep apnea, wakefulness, nocturnal myoclonus, disturbances of consciousness, such as coma, REM sleep interruptions, jet-lag, excessive daytime sleepiness, shift workers' sleep disturbances, dyssomnias, sleep disorders, sleep disturbances, hypersomnia associated with depression, emotional/mood disorders, Alzheimer's disease or cognitive impairment, Parkinson’s disease, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Kleine Levin syndrome, and sleep disorders which accompany aging; Alzheimer's sundowning; conditions associated with circadian rhythmicity as well as mental and physical disorders associated with travel across time zones and with rotating shift-work schedules; fibromyalgia; cardiac failure; diseases related to bone loss; sepsis; syndromes which are manifested by non restorative sleep and muscle pain or sleep apnea which is associated with respiratory disturbances during sleep; conditions which result from a diminished quality of sleep; and other diseases related to general orexin system dysfunction.

Thus, in certain embodiments the present invention may provide methods for: treating or controlling narcolepsy, narcolepsy syndrome accompanied by narcolepsy-like symptoms, cataplexy in narcolepsy, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in narcolepsy, hypersomnia, idiopathic hypersomnia, repeatability hypersomnia, intrinsic hypersomnia, hypersomnia accompanied by daytime hypersomnia, interrupted sleep, sleep apnea, disturbances of consciousness, REM sleep interruptions, jet-lag, shift workers' sleep disturbances, dyssomnias, night terror, insomnias associated with depression, emotional/mood disorders, Alzheimer's disease or cognitive impairment; treating or controlling sleep disturbances associated with diseases such as neurological disorders including neuropathic pain and restless leg syndrome; treating or controlling addiction disorders; treating or controlling psychoactive substance use and abuse; enhancing cognition; increasing memory retention; treating or controlling obesity; treating or controlling diabetes and appetite, taste, eating, or drinking disorders; treating or controlling insulin resistance syndrome; treating or controlling hypothalamic diseases; treating or controlling depression; treating, controlling, ameliorating or reducing the risk of epilepsy, including absence epilepsy; treating or controlling pain, including neuropathic pain; treating or controlling Parkinson's disease; treating or controlling Guillain-Barre syndrome; treating or controlling Klein Levin syndrome; treating or controlling psychosis; treating or controlling dysthymic, mood, psychotic and anxiety disorders; treating side effects or complications due to anesthesia; reversal of anesthesia; reversal of anesthesia following surgery; treating or controlling depression, including major depression and major depression disorder; treating or controlling bipolar disorder; or treating, controlling, ameliorating or reducing the risk of schizophrenia, in a mammalian subject which comprises administering to the subject a compound of the present invention.

The compounds of the present invention may also potentially have utility in treating, preventing, ameliorating, controlling or reducing the risk of a variety of other disorders associated with orexin receptors, including one or more of the following conditions or diseases including enhancing sleep quality, improving sleep quality, increasing sleep efficiency, augmenting sleep maintenance; increasing the value which is calculated from the time that a subject sleeps divided by the time that a subject is attempting to sleep; improving sleep initiation; decreasing sleep latency or onset (the time it takes to fall asleep); decreasing difficulties in falling asleep; increasing sleep continuity; decreasing the number of awakenings during sleep; decreasing intermittent wakings during sleep; decreasing nocturnal arousals; decreasing the time spent awake following the initial onset of sleep; increasing the total amount of sleep; reducing the fragmentation of sleep; altering the timing, frequency or duration of REM sleep bouts; altering the timing, frequency or duration of slow wave (i.e. stages 3 or 4) sleep bouts; increasing the amount and percentage of stage 2 sleep; promoting slow wave sleep; enhancing EEG-delta activity during sleep; decreasing nocturnal arousals, especially early morning awakenings; increasing daytime alertness; reducing daytime drowsiness; treating or reducing excessive daytime sleepiness; increasing satisfaction with the intensity of sleep; increasing sleep maintenance; idiopathic insomnia; sleep problems; insomnia; night terror, insomnias associated with depression, emotional/mood disorders, Alzheimer's disease or cognitive impairment, as well as sleep walking and enuresis, and sleep disorders which accompany aging; Alzheimer's sundowning; conditions associated with circadian rhythmicity as well as mental and physical disorders associated with travel across time zones and with rotating shift-work schedules, conditions due to drugs which cause reductions in REM sleep as a side effect; fibromyalgia; syndromes which are manifested by non-restorative sleep and muscle pain or sleep apnea which is associated with respiratory disturbances during sleep; conditions which result from a diminished quality of sleep; increasing learning; augmenting memory; increasing retention of memory; eating disorders associated with excessive food intake and complications associated therewith, compulsive eating disorders, obesity (due to any cause, whether genetic or environmental), obesity-related disorders overeating, anorexia, bulimia, cachexia, dysregulated appetite control, hypertension, diabetes, elevated plasma insulin concentrations and insulin resistance, dyslipidemias, hyperlipidemia, endometrial, breast, prostate and colon cancer, osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea, cholelithiasis, gallstones, heart disease, lung disease, abnormal heart rhythms and arrythmias, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, acute and congestive heart failure; hypotension; hypertension; urinary retention; osteoporosis; angina pectoris; myocardinal infarction; ischemic or haemorrhagic stroke; subarachnoid haemorrhage; ulcers; allergies; benign prostatic hypertrophy; chronic renal failure; renal disease; impaired glucose tolerance; sudden death, polycystic ovary disease, craniopharyngioma, the Prader-Willi Syndrome, Frohlich’s syndrome, GH-deficient subjects, normal variant short stature, Turner’s syndrome, and other pathological conditions showing reduced metabolic activity or a decrease in resting energy expenditure as a percentage of total fat- free mass, e.g, children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, metabolic syndrome, also known as syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, reproductive hormone abnormalities, sexual and reproductive dysfunction, such as impaired fertility, infertility, hypogonadism in males and hirsutism in females, fetal defects associated with maternal obesity, gastrointestinal motility disorders, intestinal motility dyskinesias, obesity-related gastro-esophageal reflux, hypothalmic diseases, hypophysis diseases, respiratory disorders, such as obesity-hypoventilation syndrome (Pickwickian syndrome), breathlessness, cardiovascular disorders, inflammation, such as systemic inflammation of the vasculature, arteriosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, hyperuricaemia, lower back pain, gallbladder disease, gout, kidney cancer, increased anesthetic risk, reducing the risk of secondary outcomes of obesity, such as reducing the risk of left ventricular hypertrophy; diseases or disorders where abnormal oscillatory activity occurs in the brain, including depression, migraine, neuropathic pain, Parkinson's disease, psychosis and schizophrenia, as well as diseases or disorders where there is abnormal coupling of activity, particularly through the thalamus; enhancing cognitive function, including cognitive dysfunctions that comprise deficits in all types of attention, learning and memory functions occurring transiently or chronically in the normal, healthy, young, adult or aging population, and also occurring transiently or chronically in psychiatric, neurologic, cardiovascular and immune disorders; treating or controlling Guillain- Barre syndrome; treating or controlling Klein Levin syndrome; treating or controlling psychosis; treating or controlling dysthymic, mood, psychotic and anxiety disorders; treating complications due to anesthesia; enhancing memory; increasing memory retention; increasing immune response; increasing immune function; hot flashes; night sweats; extending life span; schizophrenia; muscle-related disorders that are controlled by the excitation/relaxation rhythms imposed by the neural system such as cardiac rhythm and other disorders of the cardiovascular system; conditions related to proliferation of cells such as vasodilation or vasorestriction and blood pressure; cancer; cardiac arrhythmia; hypertension; congestive heart failure; conditions of the genital/urinary system; disorders of sexual function and fertility; adequacy of renal function; responsivity to anesthetics; mood disorders, such as depression or more particularly depressive disorders, for example, single episodic or recurrent major depressive disorders and dysthymic disorders, or bipolar disorders, for example, bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder and cyclothymic disorder, mood disorders due to a general medical condition, and substance-induced mood disorders; affective neurosis; depressive neurosis; anxiety neurosis; anxiety disorders including acute stress disorder, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic attack, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, substance-induced anxiety disorder and anxiety due to a general medical condition; acute neurological and psychiatric disorders such as cerebral deficits subsequent to cardiac bypass surgery and grafting, stroke, ischemic stroke, cerebral ischemia, spinal cord trauma, head trauma, perinatal hypoxia, cardiac arrest, hypoglycemic neuronal damage; Huntington's Chorea; Huntington's disease and Tourette syndrome; Cushing's syndrom e/disease; basophile adenoma; prolactinoma; hyperprolactinemia; hypophysis tumor/adenoma; hypothalamic diseases; inflammatory bowel disease; gastric diskinesia; gastric ulcers; Froehlich's syndrome; adrenohypophysis disease; hypophysis disease; adrenohypophysis hypofunction; adrenohypophysis hyperfunction; hypothalamic hypogonadism; Kallman's syndrome (anosmia, hyposmia); functional or psychogenic amenorrhea; hypopituitarism; hypothalamic hypothyroidism; hypothalamic- adrenal dysfunction; idiopathic hyperprolactinemia; hypothalamic disorders of growth hormone deficiency; idiopathic growth deficiency; dwarfism; gigantism; acromegaly; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; multiple sclerosis; ocular damage; retinopathy; cognitive disorders; idiopathic and drug-induced Parkinson's disease; muscular spasms and disorders associated with muscular spasticity including tremors, epilepsy, convulsions, seizure disorders, absence seisures, complex partial and generalized seizures; Lennox-Gastaut syndrome; cognitive disorders including dementia (associated with Alzheimer’s disease, ischemia, trauma, vascular problems or stroke, HIV disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Pick’s disease, Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, perinatal hypoxia, other general medical conditions or substance abuse); delirium, amnestic disorders or age related cognitive decline; schizophrenia or psychosis including schizophrenia (paranoid, disorganized, catatonic or undifferentiated), schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, shared psychotic disorder, psychotic disorder due to a general medical condition and substance-induced psychotic disorder; dissociative disorders including multiple personality syndromes and psychogenic amnesias; substance-related disorders, substance use, substance abuse, substance seeking, substance reinstatement, all types of psychological and physical addictions and addictive behaviors, reward-related behaviors (including substance-induced delirium, persisting dementia, persisting amnestic disorder, psychotic disorder or anxiety disorder; tolerance, addictive feeding, addictive feeding behaviors, binge/purge feeding behaviors, dependence, withdrawal or relapse from substances including alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, inhalants, morphine, nicotine, opioids, phencyclidine, sedatives, hypnotics or anxiolytics); appetite, taste, eating or drinking disorders; movement disorders, including akinesias and akinetic-rigid syndromes (including Parkinson’s disease, drug-induced parkinsonism, postencephalitic parkinsonism, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, corticobasal degeneration, parkinsonism-ALS dementia complex and basal ganglia calcification), chronic fatigue syndrome, fatigue, including Parkinson's fatigue, multiple sclerosis fatigue, fatigue caused by a sleep disorder or a circadian rhythm disorder, medication-induced parkinsonism (such as neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, neuroleptic-induced acute dystonia, neuroleptic-induced acute akathisia, neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia and medication-induced postural tremor), Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome, epilepsy, and dyskinesias [including tremor (such as rest tremor, essential tremor, postural tremor and intention tremor), chorea (such as Sydenham’s chorea, Huntington’s disease, benign hereditary chorea, neuroacanthocytosis, symptomatic chorea, drug-induced chorea and hemiballism), myoclonus (including generalised myoclonus and focal myoclonus), tics (including simple tics, complex tics and symptomatic tics), restless leg syndrome and dystonia (including generalised dystonia such as iodiopathic dystonia, drug-induced dystonia, symptomatic dystonia and paroxymal dystonia, and focal dystonia such as blepharospasm, oromandibular dystonia, spasmodic dysphonia, spasmodic torticollis, axial dystonia, dystonic writer’s cramp and hemiplegic dystonia); neurodegenerative disorders including nosological entities such as disinhibition-dementia-parkinsonism-amyotrophy complex; pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration; epilepsy; seizure disorders; attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); conduct disorder; migraine (including migraine headache); headache; hyperalgesia; pain; enhanced or exaggerated sensitivity to pain such as hyperalgesia, causalgia, and allodynia; acute pain; burn pain; atypical facial pain; neuropathic pain; back pain; complex regional pain syndrome I and II; arthritic pain; sports injury pain; pain related to infection e.g. HIV, post chemotherapy pain; post-stroke pain; post-operative pain; neuralgia; emesis, nausea, vomiting; gastric dyskinesia; gastric ulcers; Kallman's syndrome (anosmia); asthma; cancer; conditions associated with visceral pain such as irritable bowel syndrome, and angina; eating disorders; urinary incontinence; substance tolerance, substance withdrawal (including, substances such as opiates, nicotine, tobacco products, alcohol, benzodiazepines, cocaine, sedatives, hypnotics, etc.); psychosis; schizophrenia; anxiety (including generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder); mood disorders (including depression, mania, bipolar disorders); trigeminal neuralgia; hearing loss; tinnitus; neuronal damage including ocular damage; retinopathy; macular degeneration of the eye; emesis; brain edema; pain, including acute and chronic pain states, severe pain, intractable pain, inflammatory pain, neuropathic pain, post- traumatic pain, bone and joint pain (osteoarthritis), repetitive motion pain, dental pain, cancer pain, myofascial pain (muscular injury, fibromyalgia), perioperative pain (general surgery, gynecological), chronic pain, neuropathic pain, post-traumatic pain, trigeminal neuralgia, migraine and migraine headache and other diseases related to general orexin system dysfunction.

The subject compounds could further be of potential use in a method for the prevention, treatment, control, amelioration, or reduction of risk of the diseases, disorders and conditions noted herein. The dosage of active ingredient in the compositions of this invention may be varied, however, it is necessary that the amount of the active ingredient be such that a suitable dosage form is obtained. The active ingredient may be administered to subjects (animals and human) in need of such treatment in dosages that will provide optimal pharmaceutical efficacy. The selected dosage depends upon the desired therapeutic effect, on the route of administration, and on the duration of the treatment. The dose will vary from subject to subject depending upon the nature and severity of disease, the subject's weight, special diets then being followed by a subject, concurrent medication, and other factors which those skilled in the art will recognize.

Generally, dosage levels of between 0.0001 to 100 mg/kg. of body weight daily are administered to the subject, e.g., humans, adolescent humans and elderly humans, to obtain effective agonism of orexin receptors. The dosage range will generally be about 0.5 mg to 10.0 g. per subject per day which may be administered in single or multiple doses. In one embodiment, the dosage range will be about 0.5 mg to 500 mg per subject per day; in another embodiment about 0.5 mg to 200 mg per subject per day; and in yet another embodiment about 5 mg to 50 mg per subject per day. Pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention may be provided in a solid dosage formulation such as comprising about 0.5 mg to 500 mg active ingredient, or comprising about 1 mg to 250 mg active ingredient. The pharmaceutical composition may be provided in a solid dosage formulation comprising about 1 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 25 mg, 30 mg, 50 mg, 80 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg or 250 mg active ingredient. For oral administration, the compositions may be provided in the form of tablets containing 1.0 to 1000 milligrams of the active ingredient, such as 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 400, 500, 600, 750, 800, 900, and 1000 milligrams of the active ingredient for the symptomatic adjustment of the dosage to the subject to be treated. The compounds may be administered on a regimen of 1 to 4 times per day, such as once or twice per day. The compounds may be administered once or multiple times during the day. The compounds may be administered upon awakening or otherwise in the morning, or during waking hours. For example, the compounds may be administered about 1 hour after awakening, about 30 minutes after awakening or immediately after awakening.

The compounds of the present invention may be used in combination with one or more other drugs in the treatment, prevention, control, amelioration, or reduction of risk of diseases or conditions for which compounds of the present invention or the other drugs may have utility, where the combination of the drugs together are safer or more effective than either drug alone. Such other drug(s) may be administered, by a route and in an amount commonly used therefor, contemporaneously or sequentially with a compound of the present invention. When a compound of the present invention is used contemporaneously with one or more other drugs, a pharmaceutical composition in unit dosage form containing such other drugs and the compound of the present invention is contemplated. However, the combination therapy may also include therapies in which the compound of the present invention and one or more other drugs are administered on different overlapping schedules. It is also contemplated that when used in combination with one or more other active ingredients, the compounds of the present invention and the other active ingredients may be used in lower doses than when each is used singly. Accordingly, the pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention include those that contain one or more other active ingredients, in addition to a compound of the present invention. The above combinations include combinations of a compound of the present invention not only with one other active compound, but also with two or more other active compounds.

The weight ratio of the compound of the present invention to the second active ingredient may be varied and will depend upon the effective dose of each ingredient. Generally, an effective dose of each will be used. Thus, for example, when a compound of the present invention is combined with another agent, the weight ratio of the compound of the present invention to the other agent will generally range from about 1000: 1 to about 1 : 1000, such as about 200: 1 to about 1 :200. Combinations of a compound of the present invention and other active ingredients will generally also be within the aforementioned range, but in each case, an effective dose of each active ingredient should be used. In such combinations the compound of the present invention and other active agents may be administered separately or in conjunction.

In addition, the administration of one element may be prior to, concurrent to, or subsequent to the administration of other agent(s).

The compounds of the present invention may be administered in combination with compounds which are known in the art to be useful for treating or controlling narcolepsy, including e.g., methylphenidate, amphetamine, pemoline, phenelzine, protriptyline, gamma- hydroxybutyric acid, sodium oxybate, or other oxybate salts, modafmil, armodafmil, caffeine, and salts thereof, and combinations thereof, and the like, The compounds of the present invention may be administered in combination with compounds which are known in the art to be useful for preventing and treating sleep disorders and sleep disturbances, including e.g., sedatives, hypnotics, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, antianxiety agents, antihistamines, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, cyclopyrrolones, GABA agonists, 5HT-2 antagonists including 5HT-2A antagonists and 5HT-2A/2C antagonists, histamine antagonists including histamine H3 antagonists, histamine H3 inverse agonists, imidazopyridines, minor tranquilizers, melatonin agonists and antagonists, melatonergic agents, orexin antagonists, other orexin agonists, prokineticin agonists and antagonists, pyrazolopyrimidines, T-type calcium channel antagonists, triazolopyridines, and the like, such as: adinazolam, allobarbital, alonimid, alprazolam, amitriptyline, amobarbital, amoxapine, armodafinil, APD-125, bentazepam, benzoctamine, brotizolam, bupropion, busprione, butabarbital, butalbital, capromorelin, capuride, carbocloral, chloral betaine, chloral hydrate, chlordiazepoxide, clomipramine, clonazepam, cloperidone, clorazepate, clorethate, clozapine, conazepam, cyprazepam, desipramine, dexclamol, diazepam, dichloralphenazone, divalproex, diphenhydramine, doxepin, EMD-281014, eplivanserin, estazolam, eszopiclone, ethchlorynol, etomidate, fenobam, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, fosazepam, gaboxadol, glutethimide, halazepam, hydroxyzine, ibutamoren, imipramine, indiplon, lithium, lorazepam, lormetazepam, LY-156735, maprotiline, MDL-100907, mecloqualone, melatonin, mephobarbital, meprobamate, methaqualone, methyprylon, midaflur, midazolam, modafmil, nefazodone, NGD-2-73, nisobamate, nitrazepam, nortriptyline, omortriptyline, oxazepam, paraldehyde, paroxetine, pentobarbital, perlapine, perphenazine, phenelzine, phenobarbital, prazepam, promethazine, propofol, protriptyline, quazepam, ramelteon, reclazepam, roletamide, secobarbital, sertraline, suproclone, TAK-375, temazepam, thioridazine, tiagabine, tracazolate, tranylcypromaine, trazodone, triazolam, trepipam, tricetamide, triclofos, trifluoperazine, trimetozine, trimipramine, uldazepam, venlafaxine, zaleplon, zolazepam, zopiclone, zolpidem, and salts thereof, and combinations thereof, and the like, or the compound of the present invention may be administered in conjunction with the use of physical methods such as with light therapy or electrical stimulation.

In another embodiment, the subject compound may be employed in combination with other compounds which are known in the art, either administered separately or in the same pharmaceutical compositions, including, but are not limited to: insulin sensitizers including (i) PPARy antagonists such as glitazones (e.g. ciglitazone; darglitazone; englitazone; isaglitazone (MCC-555); pioglitazone; rosiglitazone; troglitazone; tularik; BRL49653; CLX-0921; 5-BTZD), GW-0207, LG- 100641, and LY-300512, and the like); (iii) biguanides such as metformin and phenformin; (b) insulin or insulin mimetics, such as biota, LP-100, novarapid, insulin detemir, insulin lispro, insulin glargine, insulin zinc suspension (lente and ultralente); Lys-Pro insulin, GLP-1 (73-7) (insulintropin); and GLP-1 (7-36)-NH 2 ); (c) sulfonylureas, such as acetohexamide; chlorpropamide; diabinese; glibenclamide; glipizide; glyburide; glimepiride; gliclazide; glipentide; gliquidone; glisolamide; tolazamide; and tolbutamide; (d) a-glucosidase inhibitors, such as acarbose, adiposine; camiglibose; emiglitate; miglitol; voglibose; pradimicin-Q; salbostatin; CKD-711; MDL-25,637; MDL-73,945; and MOR 14, and the like; (e) cholesterol lowering agents such as (i) HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (atorvastatin, itavastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, rivastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin, and other statins), (ii) bile acid absorbers/sequestrants, such as cholestyramine, colestipol, dialkylaminoalkyl derivatives of a cross-linked dextran; Colestid®; LoCholest®, and the like, (ii) nicotinyl alcohol, nicotinic acid or a salt thereof, (iii) proliferator-activater receptor a agonists such as fenofibric acid derivatives (gemfibrozil, clofibrate, fenofibrate and benzafibrate), (iv) inhibitors of cholesterol absorption such as stand esters, beta-sitosterol, sterol glycosides such as tiqueside; and azetidinones such as ezetimibe, and the like, and (acyl CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT)) inhibitors such as avasimibe, and melinamide, (v) anti -oxidants, such as probucol, (vi) vitamin E, and (vii) thyromimetics; (f) PPARa agonists such as beclofibrate, benzafibrate, ciprofibrate, clofibrate, etofibrate, fenofibrate, and gemfibrozil; and other fibric acid derivatives, such as Atromid®, Lopid® and Tricor®, and the like, and PPARa agonists as described in WO 97/36579; (g) PPAR 6 agonists, such as those disclosed in W097/28149; (h) PPAR a/d agonists, such as muraglitazar, and the compounds disclosed in US 6,414,002; (i) anti -obesity agents, such as (1) growth hormone secretagogues, growth hormone secretagogue receptor agonists/antagonists, such as NN703, hexarelin, MK-0677, SM-130686, CP-424,391, L-692,429, and L-163,255, and such as those disclosed in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,536,716, and 6,358,951, U.S. Patent Application Nos. 2002/049196 and 2002/022637, and PCT Application Nos. WO 01/56592 and WO 02/32888; (2) protein tyrosine phosphatase- IB (PTP-1B) inhibitors; (3) cannabinoid receptor ligands, such as cannabinoid CBi receptor antagonists or inverse agonists, such as rimonabant, taranabant, AMT-251, and SR-14778 and SR 141716A (Sanofi Synthelabo), SLV-319 (Solvay), BAY 65-2520 (Bayer) and those disclosed in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,532,237, 4,973,587, 5,013,837, 5,081,122, 5,112,820, 5,292,736, 5,624,941, 6,028,084, PCT Application Nos. WO 96/33159, WO 98/33765, W098/43636, W098/43635, WO 01/09120, W098/31227, W098/41519, WO98/37061, WO00/10967, WO00/10968, WO97/29079, WO99/02499, WO 01/58869, WO 01/64632, WO 01/64633, WO 01/64634, W002/076949, WO 03/007887, WO 04/048317, and WO 05/000809; (4) anti-obesity serotonergic agents, such as fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, phentermine, and sibutramine; (5) b3 -adrenoreceptor agonists, such as AD9677/TAK677 (Dainippon/Takeda), CL-316,243, SB 418790, BRL-37344, L-796568, BMS-196085, BRL- 35135A, CGP12177A, BTA-243, Trecadrine, Zeneca D7114, SR 59119A; (6) pancreatic lipase inhibitors, such as orlistat (Xenical®), Triton WR1339, RHC80267, lipstatin, tetrahydrolipstatin, teasaponin, diethylumbelliferyl phosphate, and those disclosed in PCT Application No. WO 01/77094; (7) neuropeptide Y1 antagonists, such as BIBP3226, J-115814, BIBO 3304, LY- 357897, CP-671906, GI-264879A, and those disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 6,001,836, and PCT Patent Publication Nos. WO 96/14307, WO 01/23387, WO 99/51600, WO 01/85690, WO 01/85098, WO 01/85173, and WO 01/89528; (8) neuropeptide Y5 antagonists, such as GW- 569180A, GW-594884A, GW-587081X, GW-548118X, FR 2 26928, FR 240662, FR 2 52384, 1229U91, GI-264879A, CGP71683A, LY-377897, PD-160170, SR-120562A, SR-120819A and JCF-104, and those disclosed in U.S. Patent Nos. 6,057,335; 6,043,246; 6,140,354; 6,166,038;

6,180,653; 6,191,160; 6,313,298; 6,335,345; 6,337,332; 6,326,375; 6,329,395; 6,340,683;

6,388,077; 6,462,053; 6,649,624; and 6,723,847, European Patent Nos. EP-01010691, and EP- 01044970; and PCT International Patent Publication Nos. WO 97/19682, WO 97/20820, WO

97/20821, WO 97/20822, WO 97/20823, WO 98/24768; WO 98/25907; WO 98/25908; WO 98/27063, WO 98/47505; WO 98/40356; WO 99/15516; WO 99/27965; WO 00/64880, WO 00/68197, WO 00/69849, WO 01/09120, WO 01/14376; WO 01/85714, WO 01/85730, WO 01/07409, WO 01/02379, WO 01/02379, WO 01/23388, WO 01/23389, WO 01/44201, WO 01/62737, WO 01/62738, WO 01/09120, WO 02/22592, WO 0248152, and WO 02/49648; WO 02/094825; WO 03/014083; WO 03/10191; WO 03/092889; WO 04/002986; and WO

04/031175; (9) melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) receptor antagonists, such as those disclosed in WO 01/21577 and WO 01/21169; (10) melanin-concentrating hormone 1 receptor (MCH1R) antagonists, such as T-226296 (Takeda), and those disclosed in PCT Patent Application Nos. WO 01/82925, WO 01/87834, WO 02/051809, WO 02/06245, WO 02/076929, WO 02/076947, WO 02/04433, WO 02/51809, WO 02/083134, WO 02/094799, WO 03/004027;

(11) melanin-concentrating hormone 2 receptor (MCH2R) agonist/antagonists; (12) orexin receptor antagonists, such as SB-334867-A, and those disclosed in patent publications herein; (13) serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline; (14) melanocortin agonists, such as Melanotan II; (15) Mc4r (melanocortin 4 receptor) agonists, such as CHIR86036 (Chiron), ME- 10142, and ME-10145 (Melacure), CHIR86036 (Chiron); PT-141, and PT-14 (Palatin); (16) 5HT-2 agonists; (17) 5HT2C (serotonin receptor 2C) agonists, such as BVT933, DPCA37215, WAY161503, R-1065, and those disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 3,914,250, and PCT Application Nos. WO 02/36596, WO 02/48124, WO 02/10169, WO 01/66548, WO 02/44152, WO 02/51844, WO 02/40456, and WO 02/40457; (18) galanin antagonists; (19) CCK agonists; (20) CCK -A (cholecystokinin-A) agonists, such as AR-R 15849, GI 181771, JMV-180, A-71378, A-71623 and SR14613, and those discribed in U.S. Patent No. 5,739,106; (21) GLP-1 agonists; (22) corticotropin-releasing hormone agonists; (23) histamine receptor-3 (H3) modulators; (24) histamine receptor-3 (H3) antagonists/inverse agonists, such as hioperamide, 3- (1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl N-(4-pentenyl)carbamate, clobenpropit, iodophenpropit, imoproxifan, GT2394 (Gliatech), and 0-[3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanol]-carbamates; (25) b-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase- 1 inhibitors (b-HSD-l); (26) PDE (phosphodiesterase) inhibitors, such as theophylline, pentoxifylline, zaprinast, sildenafil, amrinone, milrinone, cilostamide, rolipram, and cilomilast; (27) phosphodiesterase-3B (PDE3B) inhibitors; (28) NE (norepinephrine) transport inhibitors, such as GW 320659, despiramine, talsupram, and nomifensine; (29) ghrelin receptor antagonists, such as those disclosed in PCT Application Nos. WO 01/87335, and WO 02/08250; (30) leptin, including recombinant human leptin (PEG-OB, Hoffman La Roche) and recombinant methionyl human leptin (Amgen); (31) leptin derivatives; (32) BRS3 (bombesin receptor subtype 3) agonists such as [D-Phe6,beta-Alal l,Phel3,Nlel4]Bn(6-14) and [D- Phe6,Phel3]Bn(6-13)propylamide, and those compounds disclosed in Pept. Sci. 2002 Aug; 8(8): 461-75); (33) CNTF (Ciliary neurotrophic factors), such as GI-181771 (Glaxo-SmithKline), SR146131 (Sanofi Synthelabo), butabindide, PD170,292, and PD 149164 (Pfizer); (34) CNTF derivatives, such as axokine (Regeneron); (35) monoamine reuptake inhibitors, such as sibutramine; (36) UCP-1 (uncoupling protein-1), 2, or 3 activators, such as phytanic acid, 4-[(E)- 2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-napthalenyl)-1-p ropenyl]benzoic acid (TTNPB), retinoic acid; (37) thyroid hormone b agonists, such as KB-2611 (KaroBioBMS); (38) FAS (fatty acid synthase) inhibitors, such as Cerulenin and CIS; (39) DGAT1 (diacyl glycerol acyltransf erase 1) inhibitors; (40) DGAT2 (diacyl glycerol acyltransferase 2) inhibitors; (41) ACC2 (acetyl -CoA carboxylase-2) inhibitors; (42) glucocorticoid antagonists; (43) acyl- estrogens, such as oleoyl -estrone, disclosed in del Mar-Grasa, M. et ak, Obesity Research, 9:202- 9 (2001); (44) dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DP-IV) inhibitors, such as isoleucine thiazolidide, valine pyrrolidide, NVP-DPP728, LAF237, P93/01, TSL 225, TMC-2A/2B/2C, FE 999011, P9310/K364, VIP 0177, SDZ 274-444, sitagliptin; and the compounds disclosed in US 6,699,871, WO 03/004498; WO 03/004496; EP 1 258 476; WO 02/083128; WO 02/062764;

WO 03/000250; WO 03/002530; WO 03/002531; WO 03/002553; WO 03/002593; WO 03/000180; and WO 03/000181; (46) dicarboxylate transporter inhibitors; (47) glucose transporter inhibitors; (48) phosphate transporter inhibitors; (49) Metformin (Glucophage®);

(50) Topiramate (Topimax®); (50) peptide YY, PYY 3-36, peptide YY analogs, derivatives, and fragments such as BIM-43073D, BIM-43004C (Olitvak, D.A. et ak, Dig. Dis. Sci. 44(3):643-48 (1999)); (51) Neuropeptide Y2 (NPY2) receptor agonists such NPY3-36, N acetyl [Leu(28,31)] NPY 24-36, TASP-V, and cyclo-(28/32)-Ac-[Lys28-Glu32]-(25-36)-pNPY; (52) Neuropeptide Y4 (NPY4) agonists such as pancreatic peptide (PP), and other Y4 agonists such as 1229U91; (54) cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors such as etoricoxib, celecoxib, valdecoxib, parecoxib, lumiracoxib, BMS347070, tiracoxib or JTE522, ABT963, CS502 and GW406381; (55) Neuropeptide Y1 (NPY1) antagonists such as BIBP3226, J-115814, BIBO 3304, LY-357897, CP-671906, GI-264879A; (56) Opioid antagonists such as nalmefene (Revex ®), 3- methoxynaltrexone, naloxone, naltrexone; (57) 11 b HSD-1 (11-beta hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase type 1) inhibitors such as BVT 3498, BVT 2733, and those disclosed in WO 01/90091, WO 01/90090, WO 01/90092, US 6,730,690 and US 2004-0133011; (58) aminorex; (59) amphechloral; (60) amphetamine; (61) benzphetamine; (62) chlorphentermine; (63) clobenzorex; (64) cloforex; (65) clominorex; (66) clortermine; (67) cyclexedrine; (68) dextroamphetamine; (69) diphemethoxidine, (70) N-ethylamphetamine; (71) fenbutrazate; (72) fenisorex; (73) fenproporex; (74) fludorex; (75) fluminorex; (76) furfurylmethylamphetamine; (77) levamfetamine; (78) levophacetoperane; (79) mefenorex; (80) metamfepramone; (81) methamphetamine; (82) norpseudoephedrine; (83) pentorex; (84) phendimetrazine; (85) phenmetrazine; (86) picilorex; (87) phytopharm 57; and (88) zonisamide., (89) neuromedin U and analogs or derivatives thereof, (90) oxyntomodulin and analogs or derivatives thereof, and (91) Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK-1 antagonists) such as the compounds disclosed in: U.S. Patent Nos. 5,162,339, 5,232,929, 5,242,930, 5,373,003, 5,387,595, 5,459,270, 5,494,926, 5,496,833, and 5,637,699.

In another embodiment, the subject compound may be employed in combination with an anti-depressant or anti -anxiety agent, including norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (including tertiary amine tricyclics and secondary amine tricyclics), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (RIMAs), serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) antagonists, a-adrenoreceptor antagonists, neurokinin- 1 receptor antagonists, atypical anti-depressants, benzodiazepines, 5-HT 1A agonists or antagonists, especially 5-HT 1A partial agonists, and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) antagonists. Specific agents include: amitriptyline, clomipramine, doxepin, imipramine and trimipramine; amoxapine, desipramine, maprotiline, nortriptyline and protriptyline; citalopram, duloxetine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine and sertraline; isocarboxazid, phenelzine, tranylcypromine and selegiline; moclobemide: venlafaxine; aprepitant; bupropion, lithium, nefazodone, trazodone and viloxazine; alprazolam, chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, chlorazepate, diazepam, halazepam, lorazepam, oxazepam and prazepam; buspirone, flesinoxan, gepirone and ipsapirone, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

In another embodiment, the subject compound may be employed in combination with anti-Alzheimer's agents; beta- seer etase inhibitors, such as verubecestat; gamma-secretase inhibitors; growth hormone secretagogues; recombinant growth hormone; HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors; NSAID's including ibuprofen; vitamin E; anti -amyloid antibodies; CB-1 receptor antagonists or CB-1 receptor inverse agonists; antibiotics such as doxycycline and rifampin; N- methyl-D-aspartate (NMD A) receptor antagonists, such as memantine; cholinesterase inhibitors such as galantamine, rivastigmine, donepezil, and tacrine; growth hormone secretagogues such as ibutamoren, ibutamoren mesylate, and capromorelin; histamine H3 antagonists; AMPA agonists; PDE IV inhibitors; GABAA inverse agonists; or neuronal nicotinic agonists.

In another embodiment, the subject compound may be employed in combination with sedatives, hypnotics, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, antianxiety agents, cyclopyrrolones, imidazopyridines, pyrazolopyrimidines, minor tranquilizers, melatonin agonists and antagonists, melatonergic agents, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, 5HT-2 antagonists, and the like, such as: adinazolam, allobarbital, alonimid, alprazolam, amitriptyline, amobarbital, amoxapine, bentazepam, benzoctamine, brotizolam, bupropion, busprione, butabarbital, butalbital, capuride, carbocloral, chloral betaine, chloral hydrate, chlordiazepoxide, clomipramine, clonazepam, cloperidone, clorazepate, clorethate, clozapine, cyprazepam, desipramine, dexclamol, diazepam, dichloralphenazone, divalproex, diphenhydramine, doxepin, estazolam, ethchlorvynol, etomidate, fenobam, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, fosazepam, glutethimide, halazepam, hydroxyzine, imipramine, lithium, lorazepam, lormetazepam, maprotiline, mecloqualone, melatonin, mephobarbital, meprobamate, methaqualone, midaflur, midazolam, nefazodone, nisobamate, nitrazepam, nortriptyline, oxazepam, paraldehyde, paroxetine, pentobarbital, perlapine, perphenazine, phenelzine, phenobarbital, prazepam, promethazine, propofol, protriptyline, quazepam, reclazepam, roletamide, secobarbital, sertraline, suproclone, temazepam, thioridazine, tracazolate, tranylcypromaine, trazodone, triazolam, trepipam, tricetamide, triclofos, trifluoperazine, trimetozine, trimipramine, uldazepam, venlafaxine, zaleplon, zolazepam, zolpidem, and salts thereof, and combinations thereof, and the like, or the subject compound may be administered in conjunction with the use of physical methods such as with light therapy or electrical stimulation.

In another embodiment, the subject compound may be employed in combination with acetophenazine, alentemol, benzhexol, bromocriptine, biperiden, chlorpromazine, chlorprothixene, clozapine, diazepam, fenoldopam, fluphenazine, haloperidol, levodopa, levodopa with benserazide, levodopa with carbidopa, lisuride, loxapine, mesoridazine, molindolone, naxagolide, olanzapine, pergolide, perphenazine, pimozide, pramipexole, risperidone, sulpiride, tetrabenazine, trihexyphenidyl, thioridazine, thiothixene or trifluoperazine.

In another embodiment, the subject compound may be employed in combination with a compound from the phenothiazine, thioxanthene, heterocyclic dibenzazepine, butyrophenone, diphenylbutylpiperidine and indolone classes of neuroleptic agent. Suitable examples of phenothiazines include chlorpromazine, mesoridazine, thioridazine, acetophenazine, fluphenazine, perphenazine and trifluoperazine. Suitable examples of thioxanthenes include chlorprothixene and thiothixene. An example of a dibenzazepine is clozapine. An example of a butyrophenone is haloperidol. An example of a diphenylbutylpiperidine is pimozide. An example of an indolone is molindolone. Other neuroleptic agents include loxapine, sulpiride and risperidone.

In another embodiment, the subject compound may be employed in combination with a nicotine agonist or a nicotine receptor partial agonist such as varenicline, opioid antagonists (e.g., naltrexone (including naltrexone depot), antabuse, and nalmefene), dopaminergic agents (e.g., apomorphine), ADD/ ADHD agents (e.g., methylphenidate hydrochloride (e.g., Ritalin® and Concerta®), atomoxetine (e.g., Strattera®), a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), amphetamines (e.g., Adderall®)) and anti-obesity agents, such as apo- B/MTP inhibitors, 11 Beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase- 1 (UBeta-HSD type 1) inhibitors, peptide YY3-36 or analogs thereof, MCR-4 agonists, CCK-A agonists, monoamine reuptake inhibitors, sympathomimetic agents, b3 adrenergic receptor agonists, dopamine receptor agonists, melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor analogs, 5-HT2c receptor agonists, melanin concentrating hormone receptor antagonists, leptin, leptin analogs, leptin receptor agonists, galanin receptor antagonists, lipase inhibitors, bombesin receptor agonists, neuropeptide-Y receptor antagonists (e.g., NPY Y5 receptor antagonists), thyromimetic agents, dehydroepiandrosterone or analogs thereof, glucocorticoid receptor antagonists, orexin receptor antagonists, such as suvorexant, other orexin agonists, glucagon-like peptide- 1 receptor agonists, ciliary neurotrophic factors, human agouti -related protein antagonists, ghrelin receptor antagonists, histamine 3 receptor antagonists or inverse agonists, and neuromedin U receptor agonists, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

In another embodiment, the subject compound may be employed in combination with an agent such as aminorex, amphechloral, amphetamine, benzphetamine, chlorphentermine, clobenzorex, cloforex, clominorex, clortermine, cyclexedrine, dexfenfluramine, dextroamphetamine, diethylpropion, diphemethoxidine, N-ethylamphetamine, fenbutrazate, fenfluramine, fenisorex, fenproporex, fludorex, fluminorex, furfurylmethylamphetamine, levamfetamine, levophacetoperane, mazindol, mefenorex, metamfepramone, methamphetamine, norpseudoephedrine, pentorex, phendimetrazine, phenmetrazine, phentermine, phenylpropanolamine, picilorex and sibutramine; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI); halogenated amphetamine derivatives, including chlorphentermine, cloforex, clortermine, dexfenfluramine, fenfluramine, picilorex and sibutramine; and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

In another embodiment, the subject compound may be employed in combination with an opiate agonist, a lipoxygenase inhibitor, such as an inhibitor of 5 -lipoxygenase, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, such as a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, an interleukin inhibitor, such as an interleukin- 1 inhibitor, an NMDA antagonist, an inhibitor of nitric oxide or an inhibitor of the synthesis of nitric oxide, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent, or a cytokine-suppressing antiinflammatory agent, for example with a compound such as acetaminophen, asprin, codiene, fentanyl, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketorolac, morphine, naproxen, phenacetin, piroxicam, a steroidal analgesic, sufentanyl, sunlindac, tenidap, and the like. Similarly, the subject compound may be administered with a pain reliever; a potentiator such as caffeine, an H2-antagonist, simethicone, aluminum or magnesium hydroxide; a decongestant such as phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine, pseudophedrine, oxymetazoline, ephinephrine, naphazoline, xylometazoline, propylhexedrine, or levo-desoxy-ephedrine; an antiitussive such as codeine, hydrocodone, caramiphen, carbetapentane, or dextramethorphan; a diuretic; and a sedating or non-sedating antihistamine.

The compounds of the present invention may be administered by oral, parenteral (e.g., intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intravenous, ICV, intraci sternal injection or infusion, subcutaneous injection, or implant), by inhalation spray, nasal, vaginal, rectal, sublingual, or topical routes of administration and may be formulated, alone or together, in suitable dosage unit formulations containing conventional non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, adjuvants and vehicles appropriate for each route of administration. In addition to the treatment of warm blooded animals such as mice, rats, horses, cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, monkeys, etc., the compounds of the invention may be effective for use in humans.

The pharmaceutical compositions for the administration of the compounds of this invention may conveniently be presented in dosage unit form and may be prepared by any of the methods well known in the art of pharmacy. All methods include the step of bringing the active ingredient into association with the carrier which constitutes one or more accessory ingredients.

In general, the pharmaceutical compositions are prepared by uniformly and intimately bringing the active ingredient into association with a liquid carrier or a finely divided solid carrier or both, and then, if necessary, shaping the product into the desired formulation. In the pharmaceutical composition the active object compound is included in an amount sufficient to produce the desired effect upon the process or condition of diseases. As used herein, the term "composition" is intended to encompass a product comprising the specified ingredients in the specified amounts, as well as any product which results, directly or indirectly, from combination of the specified ingredients in the specified amounts.

Pharmaceutical compositions intended for oral use may be prepared according to any method known to the art for the manufacture of pharmaceutical compositions and such compositions may contain one or more agents selected from the group consisting of sweetening agents, flavoring agents, coloring agents and preserving agents in order to provide pharmaceutically elegant and palatable preparations. Tablets contain the active ingredient in admixture with non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable excipients which are suitable for the manufacture of tablets. These excipients may be for example, inert diluents, such as calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, lactose, calcium phosphate or sodium phosphate; granulating and disintegrating agents, for example, corn starch, or alginic acid; binding agents, for example starch, gelatin or acacia, and lubricating agents, for example magnesium stearate, stearic acid or talc. The tablets may be uncoated or they may be coated by known techniques to delay disintegration and absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby provide a sustained action over a longer period. Compositions for oral use may also be presented as hard gelatin capsules wherein the active ingredient is mixed with an inert solid diluent, for example, calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate or kaolin, or as soft gelatin capsules wherein the active ingredient is mixed with water or an oil medium, for example peanut oil, liquid paraffin, or olive oil. Aqueous suspensions contain the active materials in admixture with excipients suitable for the manufacture of aqueous suspensions. Oily suspensions may be formulated by suspending the active ingredient in a suitable oil. Oil-in-water emulsions may also be employed. Dispersible powders and granules suitable for preparation of an aqueous suspension by the addition of water provide the active ingredient in admixture with a dispersing or wetting agent, suspending agent and one or more preservatives. Pharmaceutical compositions of the present compounds may be in the form of a sterile injectable aqueous or oleagenous suspension. The compounds of the present invention may also be administered in the form of suppositories for rectal administration. For topical use, creams, ointments, jellies, solutions or suspensions, etc., containing the compounds of the present invention may be employed. The compounds of the present invention may also be formulated for administered by inhalation. The compounds of the present invention may also be administered by a transdermal patch by methods known in the art.

Several methods for preparing the compounds of this invention are illustrated in the following Schemes and Examples. Starting materials are made according to procedures known in the art or as illustrated herein. The following abbreviations are used herein: Me: methyl; Et: ethyl; t-Bu: /er/-butyl; Ar: aryl; Ph: phenyl; BINAP: 2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphino)- I,G-binaphthyl; Bn: benzyl; Ac: acetyl; Boc: tert-butyloxy carbonyl; BSA: bovine serum albumin; CbzCl: benzyl chi oroformate; CDI: carbonyl diimidazole; DCM (CH 2 CI 2 ): dichloromethane; DCE: dichloroethane; DEAD: diethylazodicarboxylate; DIPEA: N,N- diisopropylethylamine; DMF: N,N-dimethylformamide; DMSO: dimethylsulfoxide; EDC: N-(3- Dimethylaminopropyl)-N’-ethylcarbodiimide; Et 3 N: triethylamine; EtOAc: ethyl acetate; EtOH: ethanol; HATU: l-[Bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyri dinium 3-oxid hexafluorophosphate aka. N-[(Dimethylamino)-1H-1,2,3-triazolo-[4,5-b]pyridin-1-ylmeth ylene]- N-methyl-methanaminium hexafluorophosphate N-oxide; HCl: hydrogen chloride; HO At: 1- hydroxy-7-aza-benzotriazole; HOBT: hydroxybenzotri azole hydrate; HPLC: high performance liquid chromatography; Hunig's base: N,N-diisopropylethylamine; MeOH: methanol; MgSO 4 : magnesium sulfate; Ms: methanesulfonyl; MTBE: methyl tert-butyl ether; NaHCO 3 : sodium bicarbonate; NaOH: sodium hydroxide; NMM: N-methylmorpholine; PtO 2 : platinum oxide; PyClu: 1 -(chloro-1-pyrrolidinylmethylene)-pyrrolidinium hexafluorophosphate; rt: room temperature; SOCl 2 : thionyl chloride; T3P: 2,4,6-tripropyl-1,3,5,2,4,6-trioxatriphosphorinane- 2, 4, 6-trioxide; THF: tetrahydrofuran; TFA: trifluoracetic acid; X-Phos: 2-(dicyclohexyl- phosphino)-2',4',6'-triisopropylbiphenyl.

The compounds of the present invention can be prepared in a variety of fashions. In some cases the final product may be further modified, for example, by manipulation of substituents. These manipulations may include, but are not limited to, reduction, oxidation, alkylation, acylation, and hydrolysis reactions which are commonly known to those skilled in the art. In some cases the order of carrying out the foregoing reaction schemes may be varied to facilitate the reaction or to avoid unwanted reaction products. The following examples are provided so that the invention might be more fully understood. These examples are illustrative only and should not be construed as limiting the invention in any way.

INTERMEDIATE A

(CIS)-4-Phenylcvclohexanol

To a mixture of 4-phenylcyclohexanone (A-l) (10.50 g, 60.3 mmol) in THF (201 ml) at - 78 °C was added L-Selectride (102 ml, 102 mmol) in THF over 20 min. The mixture was stirred at -78 °C for 3 hours before warming to 0 °C and stirring for an additional 2 hours. The reaction was quenched with a saturated solution of NH4C1 (200 mL), extracted with EtOAc (250 mL x 3), dried over Na2S04, and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica (2% to 60% EtO Ac/hexanes) to afford the title compound. MS: 199.9 (M+23).

INTERMEDIATE B

INTERMEDIATE A INTERMEDIATE B

To a mixture of (CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexanol (INTERMEDIATE A) (5.00 g, 28.4 mmol) in DCM (28.4 ml) at ambient temperature was added PARAFORMALDEHYDE (0.937 g, 31.2 mmol) followed by the dropwise addition of TMS-C1 (10.88 ml, 85 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 2 hours before concentrating, taking up in DCM (50 mL), drying over Na2S04, and reconcentrating, and then placed under vacuum. The resulting residue was used directly without any further purification. INTERMEDIATE C

Benzyl (CIS)-3-amino-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcvclohexyl )oxy)methyl l-pyrrolidine- l -carboxyl ate Step 1: 1-benzyl 3-ethyl 4-oxo-5-(T(TCTS)-4-phenylcvclohexyl )oxy)methyl )pyrrolidine-l .3- dicarboxylate (C-2)

To a mixture of 1-benzyl 3-ethyl 4-oxopyrrolidine-1,3-dicarboxylate (C-l) (7.50 g, 25.7 mmol) in THF (129 ml)/DMPU (12.42 ml, 103 mmol) at -78 °C was added LDA (28.3 ml, 56.6 mmol) in THF dropwise. The mixture was stirred for 15 min before adding ((CIS)- 4- (chloromethoxy)cyclohexyl)benzene (INTERMEDIATE B) (6.36 g, 28.3 mmol) in THF (15 mL). The mixture was stirred for another 20 min before quenching with a saturated solution of NH4C1 (100 mL). The mixture was warmed to ambeint temperature, extracted with EtOAc (3x @ 200 mL), dried over Na2S04, and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica (2% to 100% EtOAc/hexanes) to afford the title compound. MS: 480.5 (M+l).

Step 2: benzyl 3-oxo-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcvclohexyl )oxy)methyl )pyrrolidine- l -carboxyl ate (C-3) To a mixture of 1-benzyl 3-ethyl 4-oxo-5-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidine-1,3-dicarboxylate (C-2) (4.00 g, 8.34 mmol) in DMSO (25.3 ml) was added SODIUM CHLORIDE (0.975 g, 16.68 mmol) and H2O (3.01 ml, 167 mmol). The mixture was heated to 130 °C and stirred for 2 hours before cooling to ambient temperature. The mixture was purified directly by column chromatography on Cl 8 (5-95% MeCN/water with 0.05% TFA modifier) to afford the title compound. MS: 408.5 (M+l).

Step 3: benzyl (CIS)-3-amino-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcvclohexyl )oxy)methyl )pyrrolidine- l - carboxyl ate INTERMEDIATE C

To a mixture of benzyl 3-oxo-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidine-1-carboxylate (C-3) (6.00 g, 14.72 mmol) in Methanol (294 ml)) at ambient temperature was added AMMONIUM ACETATE (34.0 g, 442 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 1 hour. NaCNBH4 (0.925 g, 14.72 mmol) was added to the mixture for 16 more hours before it was concentrated. Take up in DCM (250 mL) and basify with a saturated solution of NaHCO3 (250 mL). Extract with DCM (3x @ 250 mL), dry over Na2S04, and concentrate. The resulting residue was purified by column chromatography on Cl 8 (5-95% MeCN/water with 0.05% TFA modifier) to afford the title compound. MS: 409.5 (M+l).

INTERMEDIATE D N-((CIS)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcvclohexyl )oxy)methyl )pyrrolidin-3-yl imethanesulfonamide

Step 1: benzyl -3 -(methyl sulfonami do )-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcvclohexyl )oxy)methyl )- pyrrolidine- 1-carboxylate (D-l) To a mixture of benzyl 3-amino-2-((((C/5)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidine -

1-carboxylate (INTERMEDIATE C) (1.00 g, 2.448 mmol) in DCM (12.24 ml) at ambeint temperature was added TRIETHYLAMINE (0.682 ml, 4.90 mmol) and METHANE SULFONYL CHLORIDE (0.229 ml, 2.94 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 2 hours before quenching with a saturated solution of NaHCO3 (25 mL). The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3x @ 25 mL), dried over Na2S04, and conentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica (5% to 70% 3:1 EtOAc:EtOH/hexanes) to afford the title compound. MS: 487.4 (M+l). Step 2: N-((CIS)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcvclohexyl )oxy)methyl )pyrrolidin-3-yl imethanesulfonamide (INTERMEDIATE D

To a mixture benzyl (CIS)-3 -(methyl sulfonami do)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenyl cy cl ohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidine- 1-carboxylate (D-l) (756 mg, 1.554 mmol) in MeOH

(10.400 mL) at ambeint temperature was added Pd/C (165 mg, 0.155 mmol). A ballon of H2 was added (vacuum purge 3x) and the mixture was stirred for 2 hours. The resulting mixture was filtered through a pad of celite and the filtrate was concentrated to afford the title compound.

MS: 353.3 (M+l).

INTERMEDIATE E

Benzyl (2R.3S)-3-((tert-butoxycarbonyl )amino)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcvclohexyl )oxy)methyl )- pyrrolidine- 1-carboxylate

Step 1: Benzyl ritert-butoxycarbonyl )amino)-2-( -4-phenylcvclohexyl )oxy)- methvnpyrrolidine-1-carboxylate (E-l)

To a mixture of benzyl (CIS)-3-amino-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)- pyrrolidine- 1-carboxylate (37 g, 90.6 mmol), DIEA (23.44 g, 181.2 mmol) in DCM (370 ml) ,was added to the mixture of (39.60 g, 181.2 mmol) (Boc)20 in DCM (180 ml). The mixture was stirred for 1 hour before it was concentrated. The residue was applied onto a silica gel column with ethyl acetate/petroleum ether (15:85). The collected fractions were combined and concentrated under vacuum to obtain the title compound. Step 2: benzyl (2R.3S)-3-((tert-butoxycarbonyl )amino)-2-((( -4- phenylcvclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidine- 1-carboxylate (INTERMEDIATE E) and benzyl (2S.3R)-3-((tert-butoxycarbonyl )amino)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcvclohexyl )oxy)methyl ipyrrolidine- 1-carboxylate (E-2)

The product benzyl (CIS)-3-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenyl cy cl ohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidine- 1-carboxylate (E-l) (37 g) was purified by Prep-SFC with the following conditions : Column, Lux 3u Cellulose-3 4.6*100 mm 3um; mobile phase, EtOH (20mMNH3): 10%/CO2: 90%; Detector, 220 nm. Benzyl (2S,3R)-3-((tert- butoxycarbonyl)arnino)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)rn ethyl )-pyrrolidine-l -carboxyl ate (E-2): (ES, m/z): 509 [M+l]+; H-NMR-PH-BK-SW10-180-6497-0: (400 MHz, Chloroform-d, ppm): d 7.60 - 7.28 (m, 7H), 7.22 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 3H), 5.63 - 5.32 (m, 1H), 5.18 (d, J = 22.6 Hz, 2H), 4.37 (s, 1H), 4.09 (s, 1H), 3.91 (d, J = 10.3 Hz, 1H), 3.70 - 3.50 (m, 3H), 3.41 (p, J = 10.3 Hz, 1H), 2.54 (s, 1H), 2.36 - 2.21 (m, 1H), 2.12 - 1.83 (m, 3H), 1.82 - 1.58 (m, 5H), 1.45 (s, 10H). Benzyl (2R,3S)-3-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcy clohexyl)oxy)- methyl)pyrrolidine-1-carboxylate (INTERMEDIATE E): (ES, m/z): 509 [M+l]+; H-NMR-PH- BK-SW 10-180-6497-100: (400 MHz, Chloroform-d, ppm): d 7.34 (dt, J = 18.2, 7.0 Hz, 7H), 7.22 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 3H), 5.50 (dd, J = 62.5, 8.6 Hz, 1H), 5.18 (d, J = 22.6 Hz, 2H), 4.37 (s, 1H), 4.08 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 3.91 (dd, J = 10.3, 4.1 Hz, 1H), 3.50 - 3.28 (m, 1H), 2.55 (t, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 2.28 (dt, J = 13.2, 7.6 Hz, 1H), 2.17 - 1.84 (m, 3H), 1.73 (t, J = 13.5 Hz, 4H), 1.45 (d, J = 3.1 Hz, 10H).

INTERMEDIATE F

N-(T2R.3S)-2-((((C IS )-4-Phenyl cyclohexyl )oxy)methyl )pyrrolidin-3-yl imethanesulfonamide

Step 1: benzyl (2R.3S)-3-amino-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcvclohexyl )oxy)methyl )pyrrolidine-l - carboxyl ate (F-1) To a mixture of benzyl (2R,3S)-3-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidine-1-carboxylate (INTERMEDIATE E) (4000 mg, 7.86 mmol) in DCM (2.62E+04 ml) at ambeint temperature was added TFA (6058 ml, 79 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 1 hour before concentrating to obtain the title compound. MS: 409.4 (M+l). Step 2: benzyl (2R.3S)-3-(methylsulfonamido)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcvclohexyl )oxy)- methvnpyrrolidine-1-carboxylate (F-2)

To a mixture of benzyl (2R,3S)-3-amino-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)- methyl)pyrrolidine-1-carboxylate (F-l) (3.82 g, 7.86 mmol) in DCM (39.3 ml) at ambient temperature was added TRIF.THYI.AMINF. (3.29 ml, 23.58 mmol) and Ms-Cl (0.612 ml, 7.86 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 1 hour before quenching with a saturated solution of NaHCO3 (100 mL), extracting with DCM (3x @ 100 mL), drying over Na2S04, and concentrating. The resulting residue was purified by column chromatography on silica (2% to 90% 3:1 EtOAc:EtOH/hexanes) to obtain the title compound. MS: 487.3 (M+l).

Step 3 : N-(Y2R 3 S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenyl cvclohexyDoxylm ethyl )pyrrolidin-3- ylmethanesulfonamide (INTERMEDIATE F)

To a mixture of benzyl (2R,3S)-3-(methylsulfonamido)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidine-1-carboxylate (F-2) (3827 mg, 7.86 mmol) in MeOH (5.24E+04 ml) was added Pd/C (837 mg, 0.786 mmol). The mixture had a balloon added (vacuum purge 3x) and the mixture was stirred for 20 hours. The mixture was filtered through a pad of celite and the filtrate was concentrated. The resulting residue was purified by column chromatography on Cl 8 (5-95% MeCN/water with 0.05% TFA modifier) to afford the title compound. MS: 353.3 (M+l).

INTERMEDIATE G

Cbz INTERMEDIATE G

Step 1: methyl -5-((Ybenzyloxy)carbonyl )amino)-3-oxohexanoate (G-2)

To a solution of (R)-3-(((benzyloxy)carbonyl)amino)butanoic acid (G-1) (6.25 g, 26.3 mmol) in anhydrous THF (100 ml) under N2 was added di (1 //-i m i dazol - 1 -yl )m eth an on e (6.41 g, 39.5 mmol). After stirring at rt for 1 h, pre-mixed MgCl 2 (4.64 ml, 52.7 mmol) and potassium 3- methoxy-3-oxopropanoate (8.23 g, 52.7 mmol) was added. The resulting mixture was stirred at rt for additional 18 h under N2. The solvent was evaporated and the residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate (100 mL) and washed with brine (20 mL). The organic layer was dried over MgSCE, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography (silica gel, 0-100% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford the title compound. LC-MS 294 (M+l).

Step 2: methyl ( /0-5-(((benzyl oxy (carbonyl )ami no )-2-diazo-3 -oxohexanoate (G-3)

To a solution of methyl (R)-5-(((benzyloxy)carbonyl)amino)-3-oxohexanoate (G-

2) (6.2g, 21.14 mmol) in CH 2 CI 2 (200 ml) was added Et 3 N (6.42 g, 63.4 mmol) and 4- acetamidobenzene-sulfonyl azide (5.08 g, 21.14 mmol) at rt under N2. The reaction mixture was stirred for 12h. LC-MS shown reaction completed. The crude was diluted with 200 ml of DCM, then was washed with 50 ml of H2O. The organic phase was collected and dried over MgSCE, concentrated and chromatographed over silica gel (0-100% Ethyl acetate in hexanes) to give the title compound. LC-MS 320 (M+l).

Step 3: 1-benzyl 2-methyl (5/0-5-methyl-3-oxopyrrolidine-l 2-di carboxyl ate (INTERMEDIATE G)

To a solution of methyl (R)-5-(((benzyloxy)carbonyl)amino)-2-diazo-3- oxohexanoate (G-3) (2.0 g, 6.26 mmol) in toluene (50 ml) was added diacetoxyrhodium (0.138 g, 0.313 mmol) under N2 at rt. The reaction mixture was degassed for 10 min, then was stirred at 80 °C for 2h. LC-MS shown reaction completed. The reaction mixture was concentrated and chromatographed over silica gel (0-100% EtOAc in hexanes) to give the title compound. LC-MS 292.28 (M+l).

INTERMEDIATE H

1 -Benzyl 2-methyl (5/0-3 -(benzyl oxy)-5-m ethyl pyrrol idine-1 2-di carboxyl ate

H-2 INTERMEDIATE H

Stepl: 1-benzyl 2-methyl (5R)-3 -hydroxy-5 -methyl pyrrol i di ne-1.2-di carboxyl ate (H-l)

To a solution of 1-benzyl 2-methyl (5R)-5-methyl-3-oxopyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate (INTERMEDIATE G) (9.7 g, 33.3 mmol) in MeOH (20 ml) and THF (50 ml) was added NaBH4 (1.0 g, 26.4 mmol) little by little at 0°C over 15 min under N2. The reaction mixture was stirred for 0.5 h. LC-MS shown reaction comleted. The reaction was quenched by dropwise addition of 2N KHSO4 at 0°C until pH < 2. The mixture was extrated by 2 portions of 50 ml of EtOAc. The organic phase was collected, dried over MgSCri, concentrated and chromatographed over silica gel with 0-50 % EtOAc in hexanes as eluent to give title compound. LC-MS 294 (M+l).

Step 2: 1-benzyl 2-methyl -3-(benzyloxy)-5-methylpyrrolidine-E2-dicarboxylate (H-2)

To a solution of 1-benzyl 2-methyl (5 R)-3 -hydroxy-5 -methyl pyrrol idine-1 ,2- dicarboxylate (H-l) (2000 mg, 6.82 mmol) and benzyl bromide (0.892 ml, 7.50 mmol) in DMF (30 ml) was added NaH (355 mg, 8.86 mmol) at 0°C under N2. The reaction mixture bubbled for a few minutes, then turned clear. After stirring for 10 min, LC-MS shown reaction completed. The reaction mixture was quenched by addition of sat. aq. NH4CI, then to the suspension was added 10 ml of EtOAc. After stirring for 30 min, the organic phase was collected, dried (MgS0 4 ), concentrated and chromatographed over silic gel with 0-100% EtOAc in hexanes as eluent to give title compound. LC-MS 384 (M+l).

Step 3: benzyl 3 -(benzyl oxy)-2-(hvdroxym ethyl )-5-methyl pyrrol idine-1 -carboxyl ate (H-3)

To a solution of 1-benzyl 2-methyl (5 R)-3 -(benzyl oxy)-5 -methyl pyrrol idine-1 ,2- dicarboxylate (H-2) (2000 mg, 5.22 mmol) in THF (30 ml) was added L1AIH4 (5.22 ml, 5.22 mmol) dropwise at -15°C under N2. The reaction mixture was stirred for 5 min. LC-MS shown formation of the desired product. The reaction was quenched by sequential addition of 2 ml of H2O, 2ml of IN NaOH and 6 ml of H2O. After stirring for 30 min, the reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was collected, dried over MgS04, concentrated and purified by chromatography on silica gel with 0-50% ethyl acetat in hexanes as eluent to give the title compound. LC-MS 356 (M+l).

Step 4: benzyl (5 A0-3 -(benzyl ox v)-2-formyl -5-methyl pyrrol idine-1 -carboxyl ate (INTERMDIEATE II) To a solution of oxalyl chloride (0.394 mL, 4.50 mmol) in CH 2 CI 2 (30 mL) was added

DMSO (0.639 mL, 9.00 mmol) in CH 2 CI 2 (5 mL) at -78°C under N2. When finished, the reaction mixture was stirred for 5 min before addition of benzyl (5A*)-3 -(benzyl oxy)-2-(hydroxym ethyl )-5- methylpyrrolidine-1-carboxylate (H-3) (800 mg, 2.251 mmol) in 2 ml of CH 2 CI 2 . The reaction was stirred for 30 min until no starting material left. A solution of Et 3 N (1.255 mL, 9.00 mmol) in 2 ml of DCM was added, and the reaction mixture was allowed to raise to rt, followed by addition of 2 ml of sat. aq. NaHCO 3 . The organic phase was collected and dried over MgSO 4 , filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated to give the title compound. LC-MS 354 (M+l).

INTERMEDIATE I N-((CIS)-2-((((CIS)-4-PhenylcvclohexyDoxy)methylpiperidin-3- ylmethanesulfonamide

Stepl : 3-Bromo-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcvclohexyDoxy)methylpyridine (1-2)

3-Bromo-2-(bromomethyl)pyridine (1-1) (2.02 g, 8.05 mmol) was added to a stirred mixture of (CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexan-1-ol (INTERMEDIATE A) (2.197 g, 12.46 mmol), sodium hydride (0.419 g, 10.47 mmol) in THF (15 ml) and the mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Water (100 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x80 mL). The combined organic fractions were washed with brine (saturated, 50 mL), dried (Na 2 SO 4 ), filtered and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel (EtOAc:EtOH3: 1/hexane 0-30%) to afford the title compound. MS: 346.1 (M+l).

Step 2: N-(2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcvclohexyloxy)methylpyridin-3-ylmethan esulfonamide (1-3)

The mixture of 3-bromo-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyridine (1-2)

(1.1218 g, 3.24 mmol), METHANESULF ON AMIDE (0.462 g, 4.86 mmol), TBUXPHOS PD G3 (0.257 g, 0.324 mmol) and CESIUM CARBONATE (3.17 g, 9.72 mmol) in DME (20 ml) was stirred under N2 at 100 °C for 6 h.. The mixture was cooled, water (100 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate ( 3x 80 mL). The combined organic fractions were washed with brine (saturated, 50 mL), dried (Na 2 SO 4 ), filtered and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica (EtOAc:EtOH 3: 1/hexane) to afford the title compound. MS: 362.3 (M+l).

Step 3 : N- -2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl )oxy)methyl )piperidin-3-yl imethanesulfonamide (INTERMEDIATE

RHODIUM (1.226 g, 0.596 mmol) was added to a stirred mixture of N-(2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyridin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide (1-3) (1.074 g, 2.98 mmol), ACETIC ACID (0.171 ml, 2.98 mmol) in MeOH (10 ml) and the mixture was stirred under H2 (ballon) at room temperature for overnight. The mixture was filtered, washing with methanol, the solution was concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel ( CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH (9:1)) to give product with inpurity. The residue was repurified by preparative HPLC Reverse phase (C-18), eluting with Acetonitrile/Water + 0.1% TFA, to afford the title compound. MS: 367.2 (M+l).

INTERMEDIATE J

Benzyl (2R.3 S.5 R)-3-((N.N-di methyl sulfamoyl )(4-methoxybenzyl )amino)-5-methyl-2-

(((triethylsilvOoxy)methvOpynOlidine- 1 -

Step 1: methyl (R)-5-(((benzyloxy (carbonyl )amino)-3-oxohexanoate (J-1)

To a solution of 1-benzyl 2-methyl (5A)-5-methyl-3-oxopyrrolidine- l ,2-di carboxyl ate (INTERMEDIATE G) (5000 mg, 17.16 mmol) in DCM (100 mL) was added 4- methoxybenzylamine (2.467 mL, 18.88 mmol) and catalytic amount of acetic acid (0.049 mL, 0.858 mmol). The mixture was stirred at rt for 30 mins, then sodium triacetoxyborohydride (4.37 g, 20.6 mmol) was added to the mixture. The reaction was stirred at rt overnight. The reaction was quenched with sat. aq. NaHCO 3 (50 mL), extracted with DCM (3 x 50 mL ). The combined organic phases were dried over MgSO 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel (EtOAc in Hexane 0-100%) to afford the title compound. LC-MS 413 (M+l).

Step 2: 1-benzyl 2-methyl (2R,3S,5R)-3-((N,N-dimethylsulfamoyl)(4-methoxybenzyl)amino) -5-

Into a 2000-mL 4-necked round-bottom flask, was placed DCM (450 ml), 1 -benzyl 2- methyl (5R)-3-((4-methoxybenzyl)amino)-5-methylpyrrolidine-1,2-dica rboxylate (J-1) (150g, leq) and l-(N,N-dimethylsulfamoyl)-3-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium trifluoromethanesulfonate (370 g, 3 equiv), The resulting solution was stirred for 3 d at 80 °C in an oil bath. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and concentrated. The residue was applied onto a silica gel column with ethyl acetate/petroleum ether (1/5-1/4) to give the desired product.

Step 3: benzyl (2R,3S,5R)-3-((N,N-dimethylsulfamoyl)(4-methoxybenzyl)amino) -2-

Into a 2000-mL 3 -necked round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed a solution of 1 -benzyl 2-methyl (2R,3S,5R)-3-((N,N- dimethylsulfamoyl)(4-methoxybenzyl)amino)-5-methylpyrrolidin e-1,2-dicarboxylate (J-2) (40 g, 80 mmol) in THF (400 ml). This was followed by the addition of LiBH4 (7 g, 315 mmol) with stirring at 0°C. The resulting solution was stirred at 40 °C for 16 h. The reaction was then quenched by the addition of water/ice. The resulting solution was extracted with 3x500 ml of EA and the organic layers combined and dried over NaiSCri and concentrated to give the desired product. (ESI, m/z): (M+Na) + : 514

Step 4: benzyl (2R.3S.5R)-3-((N.N-dimethylsulfamoyl )(4-methoxybenzyl )amino)-5-methyl-2- (Y(triethylsilvOoxy)methvOpynOlidine- 1 -carboxylate (INTERMEDIATE J)

Into a 1000-mL 3 -necked round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed a solution of benzyl (2R,3S,5R)-3-((N,N- dimethylsulfamoyl)(4-methoxybenzyl)amino)-2-(hydroxymethyl)- 5-methylpyrrolidine-1- carboxylate (J-3) (34 g, 69 mmol) in DMF (340 ml) was added TEA (8.36 g, 83 mmol) at r.t under N2. Then add DMAP (1.68 g, 14 mmol) to the system. This was followed by the addition of TESC1 (12.5 g, 83 mmol) dropwise with stirring at 0°C. The resulting solution was stirred at 25°C for 3h. The reaction was then quenched by the addition of water/ice. The resulting solution was extracted with 2x300 mL of EA. The organic layer was washed with 200 mL of brine and the organic layers combined and dried over NaiSCE and concentrated. The residue was applied onto a silica gel column with petroleum ether/ethyl acetate (15/1) to give the desired product. (ESI, m/z): (M+Na) + :606.

INTERMEDIATE K

Benzyl (2R.3S.5R)-3-(N-(4-methoxybenzyl )methylsulfonamido)-5-methyl-2-

(((triethylsilyloxy)methylpynOlidine- 1 -carboxylate

INTERMEDIATE K

Benzyl (2R,3S,5R)-3-(N-(4-methoxybenzyl)methylsulfonamido)-5-methyl -2- (((triethylsilyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidine-l -carboxylate (INTERMEDIATE K) was prepared according to the same procedure provided in INTERMEDIATE J by substituting the appropriate reagent with methyl sulfonyl chloride.

INTERMEDIATE L Benzyl (2R.3S.5S)-5-(methoxymethyl )-2-(((tri ethyl si lyl )oxy)methyl )-3-(2.2.2-trifluoro-N-(4- methoxybenzvOacetamido)pyrrolidine-1-carboxylate

Step 1: tert-butyl (3S)-3-[[(benzyloxy)carbonyl1amino1-4-hvdroxybutanoate (L-2)

Into a 20-L 4-necked round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed a solution of (2S)-2-[[(benzyloxy)carbonyl]amino]-4-(tert-butoxy)-4- oxobutanoic acid monohydrate (L-1) (800.00 g, 2.34 mol, 1.00 equiv) in THF (8 L). To the mixture was added CDI (760. Olg, 4.68 mol, 2.00 equiv). The resulting solution was stirred for 1.5 h at 0 C in an ice/salt bath. After that the mixture was added to a solution of NaBH4 (177.3 g, 4.68 mol, 2.00 equiv) in H2O (4 L). The resulting solution was allowed to react, with stirring, for an additional 3 hr at room temperature. The resulting mixture was concentrated. The resulting solution was extracted with 3x4 L of ethyl acetate and the organic layers combined. The resulting mixture was washed with 2x4 L of brine. The mixture was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to afford the title compound. Step 2: tert-butyl 3S)-3- [[benzyloxy)carbonyl1amino1-4-methoxybutanoate (L-3)

To a mixture of tert-butyl (3S)-3-[[(benzyloxy)carbonyl]amino]-4-hydroxybutanoate (L- 2) (650 g, 2.10 mol, 1.00 equiv) in DCM (6.5 L) at 0 °C was added iodomethane (477.16 g, 3.36 mol, 1.60 equiv), 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylpyridine (862.88 g, 4.20 mol, 2.00 equiv) and silver trifluoromethanesulfonate (863.74 g, 3.36 mol, 1.60 equiv). The mixture was allowed to warm to ambient temperature and stirred overnight. The resulting mixture was filtered through a pad of celite and concentrated. The resulting residue was purified on column with a solvent system of 2% to 75% EtO Ac/PE to obtain the title compound.

Step 3: CS)-3-IT(benzyloxy)carbonvnaminol-4-methoxybutanoic acid (L-4)

Into a 5-L 4-necked round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed a solution of tert-butyltert-butyl (3S)-3-[[(benzyloxy)carbonyl]amino]-4- methoxybutanoate (L-3) (425 g, 1.314 mol, 1.00 equiv) in DCM (2.20 L). This was followed by the addition of TFA (224.78 g, 1.971 mol, 1.50 equiv) dropwise with stirring at room temperature. The resulting solution was stirred for 4 h at room temperature. The reaction was then quenched by the addition of 2 L of water/ice. The resulting mixture was washed with 3x1.2 L of H2O. The mixture was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was applied onto a silica gel column with ethyl acetate/petroleum ether (0%-25%) to afford the title compoud.

Step 4: ethyl (5S)-5-IT(benzyloxy)carbonvnaminol-6-methoxy-3-oxohexanoate (L-5)

Into a 10-L 4-necked round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed a solution of (3S)-3-[[(benzyloxy)carbonyl]amino]-4-methoxybutanoic acid (L-4) (270 g, 1.010 mol, 1.00 equiv) in THF (2.7 L). This was followed by the addition of CDI (245.7 g, 1.51 mol, 1.50 equiv) dropwise with stirring at room temperature. The resulting solution was stirred for 3 h at room temperature. This was followed by the addition of MgC12 (192.36 g, 2.020 mol, 2.00 equiv) and 1-ethyl 3-potassium propanedioate (343.87 g, 2.020 mol, 2.00 equiv) dropwise with stirring at room temperature. The resulting solution was allowed to react, with stirring, for an additional 2 days at room temperature. The resulting solution was diluted with 1.4 L of EA. The reaction was then quenched by the addition of 1 L of water/ice.

The resulting mixture was washed with 2x2 L of NaHCO 3 . The resulting solution was extracted with 2x1 L of ethyl acetate and the organic layers combined. The resulting mixture was washed with 1x2 L of brine. The mixture was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to afford the title compound.

Step 5: ethyl (5S)-5-[[(benzyloxy)carbonyl1amino1-2-diazo-6-methoxy-3-oxoh exanoate (L-6) Into a 5 L 4-necked round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed a solution of ethyl (5S)-5-[[(benzyloxy)carbonyl]amino]-6-methoxy-3- oxohexanoate (L-5) (220.0 g, crude) in DCM (2.2 L). This was followed by the addition of triethylamine (197.96 g, 1.956 mol, 3.00 equiv) and 4-acetamidobenzenesulfonyl azide (156.66 g, 0.652 mol, 1.00 equiv) in portion wise with stirring at room temperature The resulting solution was stirred overnight at room temperature. The solids were filtered out. The filtrate was washed with 2x660 mL of H2O. The resulting mixture was washed with 1 x660 mL of citric acid and 1x1.4 L of brine. The mixture was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to afford the title compound.

Step 6: 1-benzyl 2-ethyl -5-(methoxymethyl )-3-oxopyrrolidine- l 2-di carboxyl ate (L-7)

Into a 3 L 3 -necked round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed a solution of ethyl (5S)-5-[[(benzyloxy)carbonyl]amino]-2-diazo-6- m ethoxy-3 -ox ohexanoate (L-6) (116 g, crude) in toluene (1.2 L) and (acetyl oxy)rhodio acetate (7.05 g, 31.92 mmol, 0.10 equiv). The resulting solution was stirred for 3 h at 80oC in an oil bath. The reaction mixture was cooled with a water bath. The solids were filtered out. The filtrate was concentrated. The residue was applied onto a silica gel column with ethyl acetate/petroleum ether (0%-20%) to afford the title compound.

Step 7: 1-benzyl 2-ethyl (2R.3S.5S)-5-(methoxymethyl )-3-ri(4- methoxyphenyl Imethyllaminolpyrrolidine- 1 2-di carboxyl ate (L-8)

Into a 2 L 3 -necked round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed a solution of 1-benzyl 2-ethyl (5S)-5-(methoxymethyl)-3-oxopyrrolidine- 1,2-dicarboxylate (L-7) (95.0 g, 283.28 mmol, 1.00 equiv) in THF (1 L), (4- methoxyphenyl)methanamine (46.63 g, 339.94 mmol, 1.20 equiv). This was followed by the addition of Ti(Oi-Pr)4 (80.51 g, 283.27 mmol, 1.00 equiv) dropwise with stirring at OoC. The resulting solution was stirred overnight at room temperature. To this was added STAB (420.27 g, 1982.96 mmol, 7.00 equiv) in several batches. The resulting solution was allowed to react, with stirring, for an additional 2 days at room temperature. The resulting solution was diluted with 500 mL of EA. The reaction was then quenched by the addition of 1 L of NaHCO3 (aq.). The solids were filtered out. The resulting solution was extracted with 2x500 mL of ethyl acetate and the organic layers combined. The resulting mixture was washed with 2x1 L of brine. The mixture was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was applied onto a silica gel column with ethyl acetate/petroleum ether (0%-45%) to give the title compound.

Step 8: benzyl (2R.3S.5S)-2-(hvdroxymethyl )-5-(methoxymethyl )-3-ri(4- methoxyphenyl Imethyllaminolpyrrolidine- 1 -carboxylate (L-9) Into a 2 L 3 -necked round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed a solution of 1-benzyl 2-ethyl (2R,3S,5S)-5-(methoxymethyl)-3-[[(4- methoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]pyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate (L-8) (106 g, 232.18mmol, 1.00 equiv) in THF (0.6 L). This was followed by the addition of LiBH4 (15.17 g, 696.38 mmol, 3.00 equiv) dropwise with stirring at room temperature. The resulting solution was stirred overnight at room temperature. The reaction was then quenched by the addition of 300 mL of EA. The resulting solution was diluted with 600 mL of H2O/ice. The resulting solution was extracted with 2x300 mL of ethyl acetate and the organic layers combined. The resulting mixture was washed with 2x600 mL of brine. The mixture was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The crude product was purified by Prep-HPLC with MeCN/H2O 35%-57% to obtain the title compound.

Step 9: benzyl (2R.3S.5S)-5-(methoxymethyl )-3-ri(4-methoxyphenyl )methyllaminol-2- riftri ethyl si lyl ioxylmethyllpyrrolidine- 1 -carboxylate (L-10)

Into a 1 L 3 -necked round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed a solution of benzyl (2R,3S,5S)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-5-(methoxymethyl)- 3 -[[(4-methoxyphenyl (methyl ]amino]pyrrolidine-l -carboxylate (L-9) (54.00 g, 130.28 mmol, 1.00 equiv) in DCM (540 mL), TEA (17.14 g, 169.36 mmol, 1.30 equiv), DMAP (1.59 g, 13.03 mmol, 0.10 equiv). This was followed by the addition of chlorotriethylsilane (21.6 g, 143.31 mmol, 1.10 equiv) dropwise with stirring at 0 C. The resulting solution was stirred for 2 h at room temperature. The reaction was then quenched by the addition of 540 mL of water/ice. The resulting solution was extracted with 2x260 mL of DCM and the organic layers combined. The resulting mixture was washed with 2x540 mL of brine. The mixture was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to afford the title compound.

Step 10: benzyl (2R.3S.5S)-5-(methoxymethyl )-2-[[(trithyl si lyl )oxylmethyll-3- trifluoro- N-r(4-methoxyphenylmethyllacetamidolpynOlidine-l -carboxylate (INTERMEDIATE L)

Into a 2 L 3 -necked round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed a solution of benzyl (2R,3S,5S)-5-(methoxymethyl)-3-[[(4- methoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-[[(triethylsilyl)oxy]methyl]py rrolidine-l -carboxylate (L-10) (67.50 g, 127.66 mmol, 1.00 equiv) in DCM (680 mL), TEA (25.84 g, 255.36 mmol, 2.00 equiv). This was followed by the addition of TFAA (32.17 g, 153.17 mmol, 1.20 equiv) dropwise with stirring at OoC. The resulting solution was stirred for 2 h at room temperature. The resulting mixture was concentrated. The crude product was purified by Prep-HPLC with MeCN/H2O=87%-100% to obtain the title compound. (ES, m/z): 625 [M+l]+. 1H-NMR: (300 MHz, CDC13, ppm): d 7.36 (s, 5H), 7.03 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 2H), 6.90 (d, J=8.7 Hz, 2H), 5.26-5.00 (m, 2H), 4.94-4.80 (m, 2H), 4.67-4.37 (m, 2H), 3.98-3.71 (m, 6H), 3.60-3.44 (m, 1H), 3.40-3.15 (m, 4H), 2.42-2.07 (m, 1H), 1.85 (m, J=12.9, 7.1 Hz, 1H), 0.96 (t, J=8.0 Hz, 9H), 0.71-0.52 (m, 6H).

INTERMEDIATE M tert-butyl (2R.3S)-3-amino-2-(((tert-butyldimethylsilyl )oxy)methyl Ipyrrolidine- 1 - carboxyl ate o o (2 eq) Et 3 N (3 eq), p-AcNHphenyl- MeO A^ A ^OK sulfonylazide (1 05 eq) [(CH3 CN )4Cu]PF6

B

LiBH c r.

Boc 2 O 5 . , C, - E M

M-7 o/n Step 1: methyl 5-[[(tert-butoxy)carbonyllaminol-3-oxopentanoate (M-2)

Into a 20-L 4-necked round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed CDI (514 g, 1.2 equiv) in THF (5 L). This was followed by the addition of 3-[[(tert-butoxy)carbonyl]amino]propanoic acid (500 g, 1 equiv). The mixture was stirred for 3 h at room temperature. To this was added 1-methyl 3-potassium propanedioate (825 g, 2 equiv) and MgC12 (250 g, 1 equiv). The resulting solution was stirred for overnight at room temperature. The resulting solution was diluted with 10 L of EA. The pH value of the solution was adjusted to 4 with aqueous KHS04 (5 %). The organic layer was separated and washed with aqueous NaHCO3 (3 L), then H2O (3 L). The EA layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to give the title compound. Step 2: methyl 5-[[(tert-butoxy)carbonyl1amino1-2-diazo-3-oxopentano-ate (M-3)

Into a 20-L 4-necked round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed methyl 5-[[(tert-butoxy)carbonyl]amino]-3-oxopentanoate (M-2) (650 g,

1 equiv) in DCE (6.5 L). Then, 4-acetamidobenzene-1-sulfonyl azide (669 g, 1.05 equiv) was added. This was followed by the addition of triethylamine (805 g, 3 equiv) dropwise with stirring in 1 hr at 5 C. The resulting solution was stirred for 2 h at 25 C. The solids were filtered out. The pH value of the solution was adjusted to 2 with aqueous HC1 (1 mol/L). The resulting solution was extracted with of DCE and the organic layers combined. The resulting mixture was washed with 2 L of aqueous NaHCO3 and 2 L of aqueous NH4C1. The mixture was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and used for next step directly.

Step 3: 1-tert-butyl 2-methyl 3-oxopyrrolidine-E2-dicarboxylate (M-4)

Into a 10-L 4-necked round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed [(CH3CN)4Cu]PF6 (12 g, 0.012 equiv) in DCE (150 ml). The mixture was warmed to 75 C. Followed by the addition of the solution of methyl 5-[[(tert- butoxy)carbonyl]amino]-2-diazo-3-oxopentano-ate (M-3) (719 g, 1 equiv) in DCE (7.5 L) dropwise with stirring. The resulting solution was stirred for 2 h at 75 C. Concentrated and the residue was purified by column chromatography with EA:PE=15% to afford the title compound. Step 4: l-(tert-butyl 2-methyl (2R.3S)-3-(((S)- l -phenylethyl )amino)pyrrolidine- l 2 dicarboxylate (M-5) and l-(tert-butyl) 2-methyl (2S.3R)-3-(((S)-l - phenyl ethylamino)pyrrolidine-E2-dicarboxylate (M-6)

Into a 2 L four-neck round flask purged and maintained with nitrogen was charged 1-tert- butyl 2-methyl 3-oxopyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate (M-3) (80 g, 0.33 mol, 1 equiv) in DCM (800 ml). (S)-l -phenyl ethan-1 -amine (43 g, 0.36 mol, 1.1 equiv) and AcOH (9.9 g, 0.165 mol, 0.5 equiv) were added at room temperature. The mixture was stirred for 30 min. Then STAB (206 g, 0.99 mol, 3 equiv) was added. The mixture was stirred for another 2 h. The solution was quenched by 1 L water and exacted with with DCM (2 x 1 L). The organic layer was washed with brine (300 ml) and dried with Na2S04 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column with (EA:PE=0%-30%) to give a mixture of the title compounds.

Step 5: l-(tert-butyl 2-methyl (2R.3S)-3-(((S)- l -phenylethyl )amino)pyrrolidine-l 2 di carboxyl ate (M-5)

The mixture of compound M-5 and M-6 (50 g) was separated by Prep-SFC (column: CHIRALPAK IG5*25cm,10um; C02: IPA(2mM NH3-MeOH)=80 : 20; Flow Rate=160 g/min) to provide purified M-5. Step 6: tert-butyl (2R.3S)-2-(Tivdroxymethyl )-3-((YS)- l -phenyl ethyl )amino)pyrrolidine- 1 - carboxylate (M-7)

Into a 1 L four-neck round flask purged and maintained with nitrogen was charged 1- (tert-butyl) 2-methyl (2R,3S)-3-(((S)-1-phenylethyl)amino)pyrrolidine-1,2-dicarbox ylate (M-5) (27 g, 76 mmol, 1 equiv) in THF (257 ml). LiBH4 in THF (110.5 ml, 2 mol/L, 221 mmol, 2 equiv) was added dropwise at room temperature. The mixture was stirred for overnight. The solution was quenched by 257 ml MeOH, concentrated and the residue was dissolved with EA (2 x 200 mL). The organic layer was washed with H2O (100 ml) and brine (30 ml), dried with Na2S04 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column with (EA:PE=20%-50%) to give the title compound.

Step 7: tert-butyl (2RJ S)-3-amino-2-(hvdroxym ethyl )pyrrolidine-l -carboxylate (M-8)

Into a 500 mL 3-neck round flask purged was charged tert-butyl (2R,3S)-2- (hydroxymethyl)-3-(((S)-l -phenyl ethyl)amino)pyrrolidine-l -carboxylate (M-7) (20 g , 62.5 mmol, 1 equiv) in MeOH (200 ml). Pd/C (4 g, 20 w/w%) was added, and hydrogen was added. Then the mixture was stirred for overnight under hydrogen. The mixture was filtered and the filtration was concentrated to give the title compound. LC-MS: (m/z): 239.1 [M+Na]+. 1H- NMR: (400 MHz, DMSO-d6, ppm): d 3.61-3.62 (m, 2H), 3.11-3.44 (m, 6H), 1.88-1.90 (m, 1H), 1.62-1.71 (m, 1H), 1.39 (s, 9H).

Step 8: tert-butyl (2R.3S)-3-amino-2-[[(tert-butyldimethylsilyl )oxylmethyllpyrrolidine- l - carboxylate (INTERMEDIATE Ml

Into a 500-mL 3-necked round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed tert-butyl (2R,3S)-3-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)pyrrolidine-1- carboxylate (M-8) (37.00 g, 171.074 mmol, 1.00 equiv), DMF (111.00 mL).The imidazole (23.29 g, 342.147 mmol, 2.00 equiv) was then added at 0 degrees C. This was followed by the addition of a solution of TBSC1 (25.78 g, 171.074 mmol, 1.00 equiv) in DMF (74 mL) dropwise with stirring at 0 degrees C in 30 min. The resulting solution was allowed to react, with stirring, for an additional 16 min at 25 degrees C. The reaction was then quenched by the addition of 500 mL of water/ice. The resulting solution was extracted with 2x500 mL of MTBE and the organic layers combined. The resulting mixture was washed with 3 x300 ml of Water. The organic was dried by Na2S04. The crude product was applied onto a silica gel column with dichloromethane/methanol (10/1) to afford the title compound. LC-MS: (ES, m/z): 331.15 [M+H]+. 1HNMR: (300 MHz, Chloroform-d, ppm): d 4.16 - 3.81 (m, 2H), 3.74 - 3.16 (m, 4H), 2.06 (q, J = 10.4, 7.0 Hz, 1H), 1.91 (p, J = 10.4 Hz, 1H), 1.47 (s, 11H), 0.90 (s, 9H), 0.06 (d, J = 1.9 Hz, 6H). INTERMEDIATE N

4-C -fluorophenyl )cvclohexan- 1 -one

Step 1: 8-C-fluorophenyl-E4-dioxaspiror4.51dec-7-ene (N-1) A suspension of l-bromo-3-fluorobenzene (2.4 g, 13.71 mmol), l,l'-bis(diphenyl- phosphino)-ferrocene-palladium(ii)dichloride dichloromethane complex (2.240 g, 2.74 mmol), sodium carbonate (4.36 g, 41.1 mmol) and 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-2-(l,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]dec-7-en-8- yl)-1,3,2-dioxaborolane (4.38 g, 16.46 mmol) in DME (54 ml) and H2O (18 ml) was degassed for 10 mins. The reaction mixture was sealed and heated at 100°C for overnight. The reaction mixture was cooled down to rt, then was diluted with 70 mL of EtOAc. The organic phase was collected and the aqueous layer was extracted with 2x20 ml of EtOAc. The combined organic phase was dried over MgS04, concentrated, and the residue was purified by silica chromatography (0-10% EtOAc in hexane) to give the title compound. LC-MS 235 (M+l).

Step 2: 8-C-fluorophenyl-E4-dioxaspiror4.51decane (N-2) To a solution of 8-(3-fluorophenyl)-1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]dec-7-ene (N-l) (3.17 g, 13.53 mmol) in MeOH (60 ml) was added 10% Pd on C (1.152 g, 1.083 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred under a H2 balloon for overnight. The reaction mixture was filtered through a celite pad and the filtrate was concentrated to give the title compound. LC-MS 237 (M+l).

Step 3: 4-C-fluorophenylcvclohexan-1-one (INTERMEDIATE N) To a solution of 8-(3-fhiorophenyl)-1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane (N-2) (3.18 g, 13.46 mmol) in acetone (35 ml) was added 2M HC1 in water (16.82 ml, 33.6 mmol). The reaction mixture was heated at 70 C for 3 hrs. The reaction was concentrated to remove acetone. The residue was extracted with 3 portions of 30 ml of EtOAc, dried over MgS04, and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica chromatography (0-12% EtOAc in hexane) to give the title compound. LC-MS 193 (M+l).

INTERMEDIATE OA. OB

4-(2.3.6-tri fluorophenyl )cyclohexan- l -one (OA). -1-one

(OB)

Each of the intermediate compounds were prepared by following the same procedure as INTERMEDIATE N using the correct corresponding commercially available starting material.

INTERMEDIATE P

2-bromo-3 -fluoro- 1 -m ethyl pyridin-4( 1H)-one INTERMEDIATE P

To a mixture of 2-bromo-3-fluoropyridin-4-ol (1.00 g, 5.21 mmol) in acetonitrile (26.0 ml) at ambeint temperature was added methyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (1.238 ml, 10.94 mmol) dropwise. The mixture was warmed to 80 °C and stirred for 1 hour. The mixture was cooled, and quenched with solid NaHCO3, filtered, and concentrated. The resulting mixture was purified by column chromatography on silica (100% 3:1 EtOAc:EtOH) to isolate the title compound.

INTERMEDIATE OA. OB. and PC

2-bromo-1-methylpyridin-4(TH)-one (QA). 2-bromo-5-fluoro-1-methylpyridin-4(TH)-one (QB). and 2-bromo- 1 - difl

Each of the intermediate compounds were prepared by following the same procedure as INTERMEDIATE P using the corresponding commercially available starting material. INTERMEDIATE R

N-(T2R.3S.5S)-2-((((CIS)-4-t3-fluorophenyl )cvclohexyl )oxy)methyl )-5-(methoxymethyl )- pyrrolidin-3-vnmethanesulfonamide

Step 1: benzyl i2R.3S.5S)-2-((((CIS)-4-C-fluorophenyl )cvclohexyl )oxy)methyl )-5-(methoxy- m ethyl )-3- trif1uoro-N-(4-methoxybenzyl )acetamido)pyrrolidine- l -carboxyl ate (R-l)

To a mixture of benzyl (2R,3S,5S)-5-(methoxymethyl)-2-(((triethylsilyl)oxy)methyl)- 3- (2,2,2-trifluoro-N-(4-methoxybenzyl)acetamido)pyrrolidine-1- carboxylate (INTERMEDIATE L) (1.40 g, 2.241 mmol) in MeCN (40.3 ml)/DCM (4.48 ml) at ambeint temperature was added 4-(3-fluorophenyl)cyclohexan-1-one (INTERMEDIATE N) (0.862 g, 4.48 mmol) and triisopropylsilane (0.918 ml, 4.48 mmol). The mixture was cooled to -30 °C and TMS-OTf (0.405 ml, 2.241 mmol) was added dropwise. The mixture was warmed to 0 °C and stirred for 10 min before quenching with a sat'd solution of NaHCO3 (10 mL), extract with DCM (3x @ 10 mL), dry over Na2S04, and concentrate. The resulting residue was purified using column chromatography on silica (0% to 80% EtO Ac/hexanes) to obtain the title compound. MS: 687.4 (M+l).

Step 2: benzyl (2R.3S.5S)-2-((((CIS)-4-C-fluorophenyl level ohexyl )oxy)methyl )-3-(Y4- methoxybenzylaminoVS-rinethoxymethylpyrrolidine- 1 -carboxylate (R-2)

To a mixture of benzyl (2R,3S,5S)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3-fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methy l)- 5-(methoxymethyl)-3-(2,2,2-trifluoro-N-(4-methoxybenzyl)acet amido)pyrrolidine-1-carboxylate (R-l) (1.54 g, 2.242 mmol) in THF (11.21 ml)/MeOH (11.21 ml) was added 3.0M LiOH (1.495 ml, 4.48 mmol). The mixture stirred for 3 hours before quenching with H2O (20 mL), extracting with EtO Ac (3x @ 20 mL), drying over Na2S04, and concentrating. The resulting residue was purified using column chromatography on silica (5-100% 3:1 EtOAc:EtOH/hexanes) to obtain the title compound. MS: 591.5 (M+l).

Step 3: benzyl (2R.3S.5S)-3-amino-2-((((CIS)-4-C-fluorophenyl level ohexyl )oxy)methyl )-5- (methoxym ethyl Ipyrrolidine- 1 -carboxylate (R-3)

To a mixtrure of benzyl (2R,3S,5S)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-3-((4-methoxybenzyl)amin o)-5-

(m ethoxym ethyl )pyrrolidine-l -carboxylate (R-2) (1.15 g, 1.947 mmol) in MeCN (8.70 ml)/Water (4.28 ml) was added CERIC AMMONIUM NITRATE (2.67 g, 4.87 mmol). The mixture stirred overnight before adding a sat'd solution of NaHCO3 (20 mL) and EtO Ac (20 mL). The mixture stirred for 1 hour before extracting with EtO Ac (3x @ 20 mL), dried over Na2S04, and concentrating. The resulting mixture was concentrated, and the residue was purified by column chromatography on C18 (5-95% MeCN/water with 0.05% TFA modifier) to afford the title compound. MS: 471.4 (M+l).

Step 4: benzyl (2R.3S.5S)-2-((((CIS)-4-C-fluorophenyl level ohexyl )oxy)methyl )-5- (methoxymethyl)-3-(methylsulfonamido)pynOlidine-1-carboxylat e (R-4)

To a mixture of benzyl (2R,3S,5S)-3-amino-2-((((CIS)-4-(3- fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-5-(methoxymethyl)pyrroli dine-l -carboxylate (R-3) (450 mg, 0.956 mmol) in DCM (2898 ml) at ambient temperature was added TRIETHYLAMINE (267 ml, 1.913 mmol) and Ms-Cl (97 ml, 1.243 mmol). The reaction stirred for 1 hour before concentrating. The resulting mixture was concentrated, and the residue was purified by column chromatography on C18 (5-95% MeCN/water with 0.05% TFA modifier) to afford the title compound. MS: 549.4 (M+l). Step 5: N-((2R.3S.5S)- -4-C-fluorophenyl icyclohexyl )oxy)methyl )-5- (methoxymethylpynOlidin-3-ylmethanesulfonamide (INTERMEDIATE R)

To a mixture of benzyl (2R,3S,5S)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3-fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methy l)- 5-(methoxymethyl)-3-(methylsulfonamido)pyrrolidine-1-carboxy late (R-4) (175 mg, 0.319 mmol) in THF (1595 ml) at ambient temperature was added Pd/C (67.9 mg, 0.064 mmol). A balloon of H2 (0.643 mg, 0.319 mmol) was added (vacuum purge 3x) and the mixture was stirred for 1 hour. The mixture was filtered through a pad of celite and the Titrate was concentrated to give the title compound. MS: 415.4 (M+l).

INTERMEDIATE S

INTERMEDIATE S was prepared according to the same procedure provided in INTERMEDIATE R by using the appropriate reagent to form the sulfamide.

INTERMEDIATE T Benzyl (2R.3S)-2-(((tert-butyldimethylsilyl )oxy)methyl )-3-(N-(4-methoxybenzyl )m ethyl - sulfonamidoipyrrolidine- 1 -carboxylate

Step 1 : Tert-butyl (2R.3S)-2-(((tert-butyldimethylsilyl )oxy)methyl )-3-(Y4- methoxybenzvOamino)pyrrolidine-l -carboxylate (T-1)

4-METHOXYBENZYL CHLORIDE (0.972 ml, 7.14 mmol) was added to a stirred mixture of tert-butyl (2R,3S)-3-amino-2-(((tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy)methyl)pyrr olidine-1- carboxylate (INTERMEDIATE M) (2.36 g, 7.14 mmol), K2CO3 (2.96 g, 21.42 mmol) and KI (1.185 g, 7.14 mmol) in DMA (20 ml) and the mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Water (100 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x80 mL). The combined organic fractions were washed with brine (saturated, 80 mL), dried (Na 2 SO 4 ), filtered and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel eluting with EtOAc:EtOH3: 1/hexane (0-20%) to give the title compound. MS 451.4 (M+l).

Step 2: Tert-butyl (2R.3S)-2-(((tert-butyldimethylsilyl )oxy)methyl )-3-(N-(4- methoxybenzyl )methylsulfonamido)pyrrolidine- 1 -carboxylate (T-2)

1-METHYLIMID AZOLE (1.390 ml, 17.44 mmol) was added to a stirred, cooled 0 °C mixture of tert-butyl (2R,3S)-2-(((tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy)methyl)-3-((4-metho xybenzyl)- amino)pyrrolidine-l -carboxylate (T-1) (2.62 g, 5.81 mmol) in DCM (30 ml), then added METHANESULFONYL CHLORIDE (0.540 ml, 6.98 mmol) slowly. After 15 minutes, DIPEA (4.06 ml, 23.25 mmol) was added slowly and the mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 2 h. Concentrated and directly loaded on pre-column, purified by column chromatography on silica gel eluting with EtOAc:EtOH3: 1/hexane (0-20%) to give the title compound. MS 529.8 (M+l). Step 3 : N-(Y2R 3 S)-2-(((tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)methylpyrrolidin-3-yl-N-( 4- methoxybenzylmethanesulfonamide (T-3)

TRIMETHYLSILYL TRIFLUOROMETHANESULFONATE (2.99 ml, 16.51 mmol) was added slowly to a stirred, cooled 0 °C mixture of tert-butyl (2R,3S)-2-(((tert- butyldimethylsilyl)oxy)methyl)-3-(N-(4-methoxybenzyl)methyls ulfonamido)pyrrolidine-1- carboxylate (T-2) (2.91 g, 5.50 mmol) and 2,6-DIMETHYLPYRIDINE (5.13 ml, 44.0 mmol) in CH2C12 (20 ml) and the mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 10 min. Poured into aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate (sat. 50 mL), and the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 80 mL). The combined organic fractions were washed with brine (saturated, 60 mL), dried (Na 2 SO 4 ), filtered and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel eluting with EtOAc:EtOH3 : 1/hexane (0-100%) to give the title compound. MS 429.3 (M+l).

Step 4: Benzyl (2R.3S)-2-(((tert-butyldimethylsilyl )oxy)methyl )-3-(N-(4- methoxybenzvnmethylsulfonamido)pyrrolidine- 1 -carboxylate (INTERMEDIATE T)

BENZYL CHLOROFORMATE (0.506 ml, 3.53 mmol) was added to a stirred mixture of N-((2R,3S)-2-(((tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidi n-3-yl)-N-(4- methoxybenzyl)methanesulfonamide (T-3) (1.26 g, 2.94 mmol), DIPEA (2.054 ml, 11.76 mmol) in Tetrahydrofuran (15 ml) and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. Water (80 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic fractions were washed with brine (saturated, 30 mL), dried (Na 2 SO 4 ), filtered and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel eluting with EtOAc:EtOH3: 1/hexane (0-25%) to give the title compound. MS 563.3 (M+l).

INTERMEDIATE U

N-(T2R.3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-C-fluorophenyl level ohexyl )oxy)methyl )pyrrolidin-3- ylmethanesulfonamide

Step 1: benzyl (2R.3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-C-f1uorophenyl )cvclohexyl )oxy)methyl )-3-(N-(4- methoxybenzvOmethylsulfonamidolpynOlidine- 1 -carboxylate (U-l)

4-(3-Fluorophenyl)cyclohexan-1-one (INTERMEDIATE N) (165 mg, 0.859 mmol) and TRHSOPROPYLSILANE (0.271 ml, 1.322 mmol) were added to a stirred, cooled 0 °C mixture of benzyl (2R,3S)-2-(((tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy)methyl)-3-(N-(4-met hoxybenzyl)methyl- sulfonamido)pyrrolidine-l -carboxylate (INTERMEDIATE T) (372 mg, 0.661 mmol) in Acetonitrile (10 ml). The reaction mixture was cooled to -30 °C and TRIMETHYLSILYL TRIFLUOROMETHANESULFONATE (0.120 ml, 0.661 mmol) was added. Then the reaction mixture was stirred at -30 °C. for 30 min, aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate (saturated, 30 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x30 mL). The combined organic fractions were washed with brine (saturated, 30mL), dried (Na 2 SC>4), filtered and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel eluting with EtOAc:EtOH3: 1/hexane (0-30%) to give the title compound. MS 625.3 (M+l).

Step 2: Benzyl (2R.3S)- -4-C-fluorophenyl icyclohexyl )oxy)methyl )-3- (methylsulfonamido)pyrrolidine- 1 -carboxylate (U-2)

METHANE SULFONIC ACID (0.142 ml, 2.190 mmol) was added to a stirred mixture of benzyl (2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3-fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)- 3-(N-(4-methoxybenzyl)- methylsulfonamido)pyrrolidine-1-carboxylate (U-l) (273.7 mg, 0.438 mmol) in DCM (3 ml) and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 90 min. It was concentrated, and the residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel eluting with EtOAc:EtOH3: 1/hexane (0-50%) to give the title compound. MS 505.4 (M+l).

Step 3: N-((2R.3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-C-fluorophenyl icyclohexyl )oxy)methyl )pyrrolidin-3- ylmethanesulfonamide (INTERMEDIATE U) Pd/C (69.4 mg, 0.065 mmol) was added to a stirred mixture of benzyl (2R,3S)-2- ((((CIS)-4-(3-fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-3-(methyls ulfonamido)pyrrolidine-1- carboxylate (U-2) (164.5 mg, 0.326 mmol) in MeOH (5 ml) and the mixture was stirred under H2 (ballon) at room temperature for 1 h. The mixture was filtered, washed with methanol, then the solution was concentrated, and dried to give the title compound. MS 371.3 (M+l).

INTERMEDIATE V

INTERMEDIATE V was prepared according to the same procedure provided in INTERMEDIATE U by using the appropriate intermediates.

INTERMEDIATE W

2-bromo-3-fluoro-4-(Y4-methoxybenzyloxy)pyridine

INTERMEDIATE W

4-METHOXYBENZYL CHLORIDE (E359 ml, 10.02 mmol) was added to a stirred mixture of 2-BROMO-3-FLUOROPYRIDIN-4-OL (962 mg, 5.01 mmol) and K2CO3 (2078 mg, 15.03 mmol) in DMF (10 ml) and the mixture was stirred at 50 °C overnight. Water (50 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x50 mL). The combined organic fractions were washed with brine (saturated, 30 mL), dried (Na 2 SO 4 ), filtered and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel eluting with EtO Ac/isohexane (0-25%) give the title compound. MS 314.1 (M+l).

INTERMEDIATE XA and XB

2-bromo-5-fluoro-4-(Y4-methoxybenzyloxy)pyridine . 2-bromo-5-chloro-4-(Y4- methoxybenzyloxy)pyridin

Each of the intermediate compounds were prepared by following the same procedure as INTERMEDIATE W using the correct corresponding commercially available starting material.

INTERMEDIATE YA AND YB

2-bromo-3.5-difluoro-4-methoxypyridine (YA). 2.6-dibromo-3.5-difluoro-4-methoxypyridine

(YB) To a mixture of 2-(dimethylamino)ethan-1-ol (1.367 ml, 13.59 mmol) in Hexane ( 10 ml) at 0 °C was added nBuLi (10.87 ml, 27.2 mmol). After stirring for 30 min, add 3,5-difluoro-4- methoxypyridine (986 mg, 6.79 mmol) and continue to stir for 1 hour. The mixture was cooled down to -78 °C and CBr4 (2253 mg, 6.79 mmol) in hexanes (5 mL) was added dropwise. The mixture was allowed to slowly warm to 0 °C over 1 hour aqueous ammonium chloride (saturated, 50 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with 1,2-dichloroethane ( 3 x 80 mL), the cominde solution was dried (Na 2 SC>4), filtered and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel eluting with DCM/hexane (0-30%) to give the title compound YA. MS 226.0 (M+l) and YB MS 303.9 (M+l).

INTERMEDIATE Z

2.6-dibromo-3.5 -difluoropyridin-4-ol

PYRROLIDINE (0.111 ml, 1.334 mmol) was added to a stirred mixture of 2,6-dibromo- 3,5-difluoro-4-methoxypyridine (5018431-0202-2) (134.7 mg, 0.445 mmol), Cs2CO3 (724 mg, 2.224 mmol) in DMF (3 ml) and the mixture was stirred at 100 °C for 2 h. The mixture was cooled, filtered, The solution was purified by preparative HPLC Reverse phase (C-18), eluting with Acetonitrile/Water + 0.1% TFA, to give the title compound. MS 389.8 (M+l).

EXAMPLE 1

N-((CIS)-2-((((CIS)-4-PhenylcvclohexyOoxy)methvO-1-(5-phe nylpyridin-3-vOpynOlidin-3- ylmethanesulfonamide

To a one mL vial (placed in a 24 well gold aluminum block) containing a stir bar was added 3-bromo-5-phenyl pyridine (20 ml of 0.5M DMSO solution, 2.34 mg, 0.01 mmol), 2- fluoro-6-(piperidine-1-sulfonyl)anilino(oxo)acetic acid (8 ml of 1.0 M DMSO solution, 2.64 mg, 0.008 mmol), copper (I) oxide (16 ml of 0.5 M DMSO solution, 1.13 mg, 0.008 mmol), I-((CIS)-

2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl) methanesulfonamide (20 ml of 0.5 M DMSO solution, 4.66 mg, 0.01 mmol), DMSO (30 ml), 2-tert-butyl-1,l,3,3-tetramethyl guanidine (6 ml, 0.03 mmol). The plate was sealed and the reaction mixture was stirred at 100 °C for 14 h. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool to room temperature, diluted with about 1 mL of DMSO and filtered. The filtrate was chromatographed using preparative HPLC reverse phase C18 (Acetonitrile/ Water + 0.16% TFA) to afford the title compound. MS: 506.24 (M+l). 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) d 8.44 (d, J = 1.26, 1H), 8.29 (d, J = 2.60, 1H), 7.97 (s, 1H), 7.84 (dd, J = 7.75, 1.30, 2H), 7.59 - 7.52 (m, 4H), 7.20-7.12 (m, 3H), 6.89 (d, J = 7.00 Hz, 2H), 4.54 - 4.51 (td, J = 7.50, 3.23, 1H), 4.13 - 4.08 (m, 1H), 3.87 - 3.43 (m, 5H), 3.09 (s, 3H), 2.46 - 2.35 (m, 2H), 2.28 - 2.19 (m, 1H), 1.92-1.79 (m, 2H), 1.56 - 1.28 (m, 6H).

The following compounds were prepared according to the general procedure provided in Example 1, and procedures herein, by substituting the appropriate aryl halide. The starting materials were either prepared as described in the intermediates section, commercially available, or were prepared from commercially available reagents using conventional reactions well known in the art. For example 8, pH 10 ammonium hydroxide modifier and Xbridge C18 column was used for chromatographic purification.

EXAMPLE 14

N-((2R.3S)-1-(1 -Methyl- 1H-1.2.4-tri azol-3-vO-2-(((( -4-phenylcvcl ohexyOoxylmethvO- pyiTolidin-3-ylmethanesulfonamide

To a one mL vial (placed in a 96 well gold aluminum block) containing a stir bar was added 3-bromo-1-methyl-1H-1, 2, 4-triazole (18 ml of 0.5 M DMSO solution, 1.45 mg, 0.009 mmol), 2-fluoro-6-(piperidine-1-sulfonyl)anilino(oxo)acetic acid (12 ml of 0.5 M DMSO solution, 1.98 mg, 0.006 mmol), copper (I) oxide (12 ml of 0.5 M DMSO solution, 0.85 mg, 0.006 mmol), I-((CIS)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)piperidin- 3- yl)methanesulfonamide (2.40 mg, 0.005 mmol), DMSO (8 ml), 2-tert-butyl-1,l,3,3-tetramethyl guanidine (4.1 ml, 0.02 mmol). The plate was sealed and the reaction mixture was stirred at 100 °C for 48 h. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool to room temperature, diluted with about 1000 mL of DMSO and filtered. The filtrate was chromatographed using preparative HPLC reverse phase C18 (Acetonitrile/ Water + 0.1% TFA) to afford the title compound. MS: 434.21 (M+l).

The following compounds were prepared according to the general procedures herein, by substituting the appropriate aryl halide. The starting materials were either prepared as described in the intermediates section, commercially available, or were prepared from commercially available reagents using conventional reactions well known in the art.

EXAMPLE 76

N-(T2R.3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-Phenylcyclohexyl )oxy)methyl )- 1 -P H-pyrazol-4-yl )pyrrolidin-3- yl)methanesulfonamide To a one mL vial (placed in a 24 well gold aluminum block) containing a stir bar was added I-((CIS)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pynOlidin- 3-yl)methanesulfonamide (4.66 mg, 0.01 mmol), 4-bromo-1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole (20 ml of 0.5 M DMSO solution, 2.66 mg, 0.01 mmol), 2-fluoro-6-(piperidine-1-sulfonyl)anilino(oxo)acetic acid (8 ml of 1.0 M DMSO solution, 2.64 mg, 0.008 mmol), copper (I) oxide (16 ml of 0.5 M DMSO solution, 1.13 mg, 0.008 mmol), , DMSO (54 ml), 2-tert-butyl-1,l,3,3-tetramethyl guanidine (6 ml, 0.03 mmol). The plate was sealed and the reaction mixture was stirred at 100 °C for 22 h. The crude reaction mixture was filtered eluting with about 1 mL of DMSO. The filtrate was concentrated in a 4 mL vial and 100 ml of trifluoroacetic acid and a stir bar were added. The vial was secured with a cap and the resulting mixture was heated/stirred on the tumble stirrer at 80 °C for 2 h. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool to room temperaure and then concentrated. The crude mixture was chromatographed using preparative HPLC reverse phase Cl 8 (Acetonitrile/ Water + 0.16% TFA) to afford the title compound. MS: 418.98 (M+l).

EXAMPLE 77

N- -4-Phenylcvclohexyloxy)methvO-1-(5-phenylpyridin-3-vOpiperid in-3- yl Imethanesulfonamide

To a one mL vial (placed in a 24 well gold aluminum block) containing a stir bar was added 3-bromo-5-phenyl pyridine (3.51 mg, 0.015 mmol), 2-fluoro-6-(piperidine-1- sulfonyl)anilino(oxo)acetic acid (2.64 mg, 0.008 mmol), copper (I) oxide (16 ml of 0.5 M DMSO solution, 1.13 mg, 0.008 mmol), I-((CIS)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)piperidin- 3- yl)methanesulfonamide (4.80 mg, 0.01 mmol), 2-tert-butyl-1,l,3,3-tetramethyl guanidine (6 ml, 0.03 mmol). The plate was sealed and the reaction mixture was stirred at 100 °C for 24 h. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool to room temperature, diluted with about 1084 mL of DMSO and filtered. The filtrate was chromatographed using preparative HPLC reverse phase C18 (Acetonitrile/Water + 0.1% TFA) to afford the title compound. MS: 520.18 (M+l).

EXAMPLE 78 N-((CIS)-1-(5-Methyl-T3.4-thiadiazol-2-vO-2-((((CIS)-4-pheny lcvclohexyOoxy)methvO- piperidin-3-ylmethanesulfonamide

To a one mL vial (placed in a 24 well gold aluminum block) containing a stir bar was added 2-bromo-5-methyl 1,3,4-thiadiazole (30 ml of 0.5 M DME solution, 2.69 mg, 0.015 mmol), allylchloro[l,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene ]palladium(II) (20 ml of 0.2 M DME solution, 2.29 mg, 0.004 mmol), I-((CIS)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)piperidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamid e (4.80 mg, 0.01 mmol), 2-tert- butyl-1,l,3,3-tetramethyl guanidine (50 ml of 0.5 M DME solution, 0.025 mmol). The plate was sealed and the reaction mixture was stirred at 80 °C for 24 h. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool to room temperature, diluted with about 1000 mL of DMSO and filtered. The filtrate was chromatographed using preparative HPLC reverse phase C18 (Acetonitrile/Water + 0.16% TFA) to afford the title compound. MS: 465.10 (M+l).

EXAMPLE 79 N- -2-((((CIS)-4-Phenylcvclohexyl )oxy)methyl )-l -P .2.4-thiadiazol-5-yl )piperidin-3- ylmethanesulfonamide

To a one mL vial (placed in a 24 well gold aluminum block) containing a stir bar was added 5-bromo-1,2,4-thiadiazole (18 ml of 0.5 M DMSO solution, 1.49 mg, 0.009 mmol), 2- fluoro-6-(piperidine-1-sulfonyl)anilino(oxo)acetic acid (12 ml of 0.5 M DMSO solution, 1.98 mg, 0.006 mmol), copper (I) oxide (12 ml of 0.5 M DMSO solution, 0.85 mg, 0.006 mmol), I-((CIS)-

2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)piperidin-3-yl)m ethanesulfonamide (2.40 mg, 0.005 mmol), DMSO (8 ml), 2-tert-butyl-1,l,3,3-tetramethyl guanidine (4.1 ml, 0.02 mmol). The plate was sealed and the reaction mixture was stirred at 100 °C for 48 h. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool to room temperature, diluted with about 1000 mL of DMSO and filtered. The filtrate was chromatographed using preparative HPLC reverse phase Cl 8 (Acetonitrile/ Water + 0.16% TFA) to afford the title compound. MS: 450.96 (M+l).

EXAMPLE 80

N * -((2//.3A5 R)-5-Methyl-l -(Ί -methyl - 1 H-tetrazol-5-yl )-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcvclohexyl )oxy)- methylpyrrolidin-3-ylmethanesulfonamide

INTERMEDIATE H 80-1

80-2

Step 1: benzyl (2S' 5R )-3 -(benzyl oxy)-5-rnethyl-2-((((1 s.4R-4-phenylcvclohexyl )oxy)methyl )- pyrrolidine- 1-carboxylate (80-1)

To a solution of benzyl (5 R)-3 -(benzyl oxy)-2-form yl -5-methyl pyrrol idine- 1 - carboxylate (INTERMEDIATE H) (400 mg, 1.132 mmol) and (Cis)-4-phenylcyclohexan-1-ol (INTERMEDIATE A) (299 mg, 1.698 mmol) in 2 ml of acetonitrile was added chlorodimethylsilane (161 mg, 1.698 mmol) at 0°C under N2. The reaction mixture was raised to rt and stirred for 8 h. LC-MS shown formation of the desired product. The reaction was quenched by sat. aq. NaHCO3, and the mixture was diluted with 5ml of DCM, drived by MgS04, filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by column chromatography on Cl 8 with 10-100% acetonitrile in ThO as eluent to give the title compound. LC-MS 514 (M+l).

Step 2: (2V.5R )-3-(benzyloxy)-5-methyl-2-(((n .s.4/^)-4-phenylcvclohexyl )oxy)methyl )- pyrrolidine (80-2) To a solution of benzyl (2S,5R)-3-(benzyloxy)-5-methyl-2-((((1s,4R)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-pyrrolidine-1-carboxylate (80-1, 500 mg, 0.973 mmol) in THF (8.0 ml) was added 10% palladium on carbon (104 mg, 0.097 mmol). The reaction mixture was degassed and refilled with ¾ from balloon for three times. The reaction mixture was stirred at rt under hydrogen ballon for 2 hrs. The reaction mixture was filtered through a celite pad. The filtrate was concentrated to leave a yellow oil. The residue was purified by prep silica gel TLC eluent with 5% 7N NH3 in MeOH/DCM to afford the title compound. MS: 380.8 (M+l).

Step 3 : 5-((2L' 5 R )-3 -(benzyl oxy)-5-methyl-2-(((1.s.4R^)-4-phenylcvclohexyl )oxy)- methylpyrrolidin-1 -yl-1 -methyl- 1H-tetrazole (80-3)

To a solution of (2S,5R)-3-(benzyloxy)-5-methyl-2-((((ls,4R)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidine (80-2, 192 mg, 0.506 mmol) in DMSO (4.0 ml) in the reaction vial was added 5-bromo-l -methyl- 1H-tetrazole (148 mg, 0.911 mmol) followed by 2- ((2-fluoro-6-(piperidin-1-ylsulfonyl)phenyl)amino)-2-oxoacet ic acid (201 mg, 0.607 mmol), 2- TERT-BUTYL-1, 1,3,3-TETRAMETHYLGUANIDINE (260 mg, 1.518 mmol), and COPPER(I) OXIDE (87 mg, 0.607 mmol). Purged with nitrogen for 5 mins and sealed it. The reaction mixture was heated at 120°C for 3 days. The reaction mixture was partitined between EtOAc and water. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc twice. The combined organic layer was dried with MgS04, concentrated to leave brown oil. The residue was purified by prep silica gel TLC eluent with 4% MeOH/DCM to afford the title compound. MS: 462.4 (M+l).

Step 4: (2A5 R)-5-methyl- l -(Ί -methyl - 1 H-tetrazol-5-yl )-2-(((( \ .s.4//)-4-phenylcvclo hexyloxy)methylpyrrolidin-3-one (80-4)

To a solution of 5-((2L',5//)-3 -(benzyl oxy)-5-methyl-2-((((1 s,4R)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)-l -methyl- liT-tetrazole (80-3, 141 mg, 0.305 mmol) in MeOH (3.0 ml) was added 20% dihydroxypalladium on carbon (32.2 mg, 0.046 mmol) followed by 3 drops of HC1 (37% aq.). The reaction mixture was degassed and refilled with ¾ for 3 times, then stirred at rt under hydrogen balloon for 35 mins. The reaction mixture was filtered through a celite pad. The filtrate was concentrated to afford the title compound. MS:

373.3 (M+l).

Step 5 : (2S5 R)-5-methyl- 1 -(1 -methyl- 1H--tetrazol-5-yl )-2-((((1.s.4//)-4-phenylcvclohexyl )oxy)- methyl-pyrrolidin-3-ol (80-5) To a solution of (2,,5/i)-5-methyl- 1 -( 1 -methyl- 1H/-tetrazol-5-yl)-2-((((l y4//)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-ol (80-4, 113 mg, 0.304 mmol) in CH 2 CI 2 (3 ml) at 0°C was added Dess-Martin Periodinane solution (194 mg, 0.456 mmol in DCM). The reaction mixture was stirried at 0°C for 5 mins, and then allowed to warm to rt slowly and stirred at rt for 1.5 h. LCMS indicated completion. The reaction mixture was washed with sat. aq.NaHCO3. The organic layer was dried with MgSO 4 , concentrated to leave white solid. The residue was purified by prep silica gel TLC eluent with 4% MeOH/DCM to provide the title compound. MS: 370.2 (M+l).

Step 6: (2/ri3ri.5/^)-N-(4-methoxybenzyl )-5-methyl- l -(Ί -methyl - tetrazol-5-yl )-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcvclohexyloxy)methylpyrrolidin-3 -amine (80-6)

To a solution of (2S,',5R)-5-methyl-l -( 1 -m ethyl - 1 //-tetrazol-5-yl )-2-(((( 1 s,4R)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-one (45-5, 85 mg, 0.230 mmol) in DCM (3.0 ml) was added (4-methoxyphenyl)methanamine (0.036 ml, 0.276 mmol) followed by MgS04 (27.7 mg, 0.230 mmol) and catalytic amount of acetic acid (6.59 ml, 0.115 mmol). The mixture was stirred at rt for 2 hrs, then sodium triacetoxyborohydride (58.5 mg, 0.276 mmol) was added to the mixture. The reaction was stirred at rt overnight. The reaction was quenched with saturated NaHCO3 solution (10 ml), extracted with DCM (3 X 5 ml ). The combined organic was dried over MgSCri. Filtered and concentrated, the residue was purified by prep silica gel TLC eluent with 5% MeOH/DCM to provide the title compound. MS: 491.3 (M+l).

Step 7: (2/ri3X5 R)-5-methyl- l -(Ί -methyl- tetrazol-5-yl )-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcvclohexyDoxy)methyl-pyrrolidin-3 -amine (80-7)

To a solution of (2i?,3S,5R)-N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-5-methyl-1-(l -methyl- 1H- tetrazol-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrr olidin-3-amine (80-6, 47 mg, 0.096 mmol) in MeOH (1.5 ml) was added 20% dihydroxypalladium on carbon (33.6 mg, 0.048 mmol), followed by addition of 2 drops of cone. HC1. The reaction mixture was stirred under ¾ balloon for 2 days. The reaction mixture was filtered through a celite pad. The filtrate was quenched with TEA (0.2 ml) and then concentrated to leave colorless film. The residue was purified by prep silica gel TLC eluent with 5% 7N NH3 in MeOH/DCM to provide the title compound. MS:

371.4 (M+l). Step 8: N ((2R3 V.5/^)-5-methyl- 1 -( -ethyl- 1H -tetrazol -5 -yl )-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcvclohexyloxy)-methylpyrrlidin-3-ylmethanesulfonamide (80)

To a solution of (2R,,3,S , ,5R )-5-methyl-1-(l-methyl-l1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-2-((((CIS)-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)-methyl)pyrrolidin-3-amine (80-7, 15 mg, 0.040 mmol) in CH 2 CI 2 (0.7 ml) was added TEA (11 ml, 0.081 mmol) followed by addition of methanesulfonyl chloride (6.96 mg, 0.061 mmol). After stirring for 15 mins at 0°C, LC-MS indicated completion. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo to leave white film. The residue was purified by HPLC (Cl 8, MeCN/H20 with TFA modifier) to provide the title compound. MS: 449.3 (M+l). 1H NMR (500 MHz, Methanol -d4) d 7.23 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 7.13 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 1H), 7.03 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 2H), 4.43 (td, J = 8.2, 4.2 Hz, 1H), 4.23 - 4.08 (m, 5H), 3.87 (dd, J = 9.7, 3.7 Hz, 1H), 3.72 (s, 1H), 3.63 (t, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 3.04 (s, 3H), 2.63 (dt, J = 14.7, 7.6 Hz, 1H), 2.57 - 2.47 (m, 1H), 2.05 (s, 4H), 1.91 - 1.81 (m, 1H), 1.69 - 1.50 (m, 6H), 1.42 (d, J = 6.1 Hz, 3H).

EXAMPLE 81

N-((2R.3S)- 1 -(4-Methylpyridin-3-yl )-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcvclohexyl )oxy)methyl )pyrrolidin-3- yl)methanesulfonamide

To a mixture of N-((2R,3S)-2-((((CIS)-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolid in-3- yl)methanesulfonamide (INTERMEDIATE F) (25 mg, 0.071 mmol) in DMSO (473 ml) at ambient temperature was added 3 -bromo-4-methyl pyridine (21.96 mg, 0.128 mmol), 2-((2- fluoro-6-(piperidin-1-ylsulfonyl)phenyl)amino)-2-oxoacetic acid (28.1 mg, 0.085 mmol), 2-(tert- butyl)-1,l,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (36.4 mg, 0.213 mmol), and copper(I) oxide (12.18 mg, 0.085 mmol). The mixture was purged with N2 for 5 min. The mixture was heated to 120 °C and stirred overnight. The mixture was cooled, diluted with DMSO (0.5 mL), and filtered. The filtrate was chromatographed using mass directed HPLC reverse phase C18 (Acetonitrile/Water + 0.1% TFA) to afford the title compound. MS: 444.1 (M+l). 1HNMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) d 8.36 (s, 1H), 8.17 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H), 7.66 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 7.42 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.28 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 7.16 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 1H), 6.98 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 2H), 4.45 - 4.36 (m, 1H), 4.19 (p, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 3.80 (q, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 3.10-3.03 (m, 1H), 3.02 (s, 3H), 2.55 (s, 3H), 2.39 (t, J = 9.7 Hz, 1H), 2.24 (dq, J = 15.5, 7.6 Hz, 1H), 1.98 - 1.89 (m, 1H), 1.75 (d, J = 13.7 Hz, 1H), 1.65

(d, J = 13.2 Hz, 1H), 1.45-1.31 (m, 4H), 1.27 - 1.12 (m, 2H).

The following compounds were prepared according to the general procedures herein, by substituting the appropriate aryl halide. The starting materials were either prepared as described in the intermediates section, commercially available, or were prepared from commercially available reagents using conventional reactions well known in the art.

EXAMPLE 85

N-(T2R.3S.5S)-1 -(5-f1uoro-4-hvdroxypyridin-2-yl )-2- -4-C-fluorophenyl )cvclohexyl )- oxy)methvn-5-(methoxymethvnpyrrolidin-3-vnmethanesulfonamide Step 1 : N-(T2R.3S.5S)-1 -(5-fluoro-4-(T4-methoxybenzyl )oxy)pyridin-2-yl )-2-((((CIS)-4-C- fluorophenylylclohexyloxylmethyl-5-(methoxymethylpyrrolidin- S-ylmethanesulfonamide

(85-11

To a mixture of N-((2R,3S,5S)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3-fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)me thyl)-5- (methoxymethyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide (INTERMEDIATE R) (50 mg, 0.121 mmol) in DMSO (402 ml) at ambient temperature was added 2-bromo-5-fluoro-4-((4- methoxybenzyl)oxy)pyridine (67.8 mg, 0.217 mmol), 2-((2-fluoro-6-(piperidin-1- ylsulfonyl)phenyl)amino)-2-oxoacetic acid (47.8 mg, 0.145 mmol), 2-(tert-butyl)-1, 1,3,3- tetramethylguanidine (72.9 ml, 0.362 mmol), and copper(I) oxide (20.71 mg, 0.145 mmol). The mixture was purged with N2 for 5 min. The mixture was heated to 120 °C and stirred overnight. The mixture was cooled, filtered, and then the mixture was purified directly by column chromatography on C18 (5-95% MeCN/water with 0.05% TFA modifier) to afford the title compound. MS: 646.4 (M+l). Step 2: N-((2R.3S.5S)-1 -(5-fluoro-4-hvdroxypyridin-2-yl )-2-((((CIS)-4-C- fluorophenylcvclohexyooxy)methyl)-5-(methoxymethyl)pynOlidin -3-yl)methanesulfonamide

(85)

To a mixture of N-((2R,3S,5S)-1-(5-fluoro-4-((4-methoxybenzyl)oxy)pyridin-2- yl)-2- ((((CIS)-4-(3-fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)-5-(methoxy methyl)pyrrolidin-3- yl)methanesulfonamide (85-1) (40 mg, 0.062 mmol) in DCM (310 ml) at ambient temperature was added TFA (47.7 ml, 0.619 mmol). The mixture stirred for 30 min before the mixture was concentrated. The resulting residue was purified by column chromatography on Cl 8 (5-95% MeCN/water with 0.05% TFA modifier) to afford the title compound. MS: 526.4 (M+l). 1H NMR (500 MHz, Chloroform-d) d 7.49 (s, 1H), 7.27 (s, 1H), 6.97 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.89 (dd, J = 24.0, 9.2 Hz, 2H), 5.71 (s, 1H), 4.28 (d, J = 37.0 Hz, 3H), 3.96 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 1H), 3.82 (s,

1H), 3.72 (d, J = 9.1 Hz, 2H), 3.65 (s, 2H), 3.46 (s, 3H), 3.05 (s, 3H), 2.64 (d, J = 10.6 Hz, 2H), 2.06 (d, J = 14.2 Hz, 3H), 1.87 - 1.75 (m, 2H), 1.64 (ddt, J = 35.8, 23.8, 13.0 Hz, 4H).

The following compounds were prepared according to the general procedures herein, by substituting the appropriate aryl halide. The starting materials were either prepared as described in the intermediates section, commercially available, or prepared from commercially available reagents using conventional reactions well known in the art.

N-(Y2RJS)- 1 -C-f1uoro-4-hvdroxypyridin-2-yl )-2-(((4-2(2-(trifluorom ethyl iphenyl level ohexyl )- oxy)methvOpynOlidin-3-vOmethanesulfonamide

Step 1 : N-(T2R.3S)-2-(Y(tert-butyldimethylsilyl loxylmethyl 1-1 -C-fluoro-4-(T4-methoxybenzyl )- oxy)pyridin-2-ylpynOlidin-3-vO-N-(4-methoxybenzvOmethanesulf onamide (160-1)

The mixture of N-((2R,3 S)-2-(((tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)- N-(4- methoxybenzyl)methanesulfonamide (T-3) (70.2 mg, 0.164 mmol), 2-bromo-3-fluoro-4-((4- methoxybenzyl)oxy)pyridine (INTERMEDIATE W) (61.3 mg, 0.197 mmol), 2-((2-fluoro-6- (piperidin-1-ylsulfonyl)phenyl)amino)-2-oxoacetic acid (54.1 mg, 0.164 mmol), 2-TERT- BUT YL- 1,1, 3 ,3 -TETRAMETHYLGUANIDINE (84 mg, 0.491 mmol)and COPPER(I) OXIDE (23.43 mg, 0.164 mmol) in DMSO (2 ml) and the mixture was stirred under N2 at 100 °C for Overnight. The mixture was cooled, water (30 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 20 mL). The combined organic fractions were washed with brine (saturated, x mL), dried (Na 2 SO 4 ), filtered and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel eluting with EtO Ac :EtOH3:l /hexane (0-25%) to give the title compound. MS: 660.4 (M+l). Step 2: N- - 1 -C-f1uoro-4-hvdroxypyridin-2-yl )-2-(((4-2-( ' trifluorom ethyl )phenyl )- cvclohexyloxy)methylpynOlidin-3-ylmethanesulfonamide (160)

4-(2-(Trifluoromethyl)phenyl)cyclohexan-1-one (OB) (18.37 mg, 0.076 mmol) and TRIISOPROPYLSILANE (0.026 ml, 0.126 mmol) were added to a stirred, cooled 0 °C mixture of N-((2R,3S)-2-(((tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy)methyl)-1-(3-flu oro-4-((4-methoxybenzyl)oxy)- pyridin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)-N-(4-methoxybenzyl)methanesulf onamide (160-1) (41.7 mg, 0.063 mmol) in Acetonitrile (10 ml). The reaction mixture was then cooled to -30 °C and TRIMETHYLSILYL TRIFLUOROMETHANESULFONATE (0.011 ml, 0.063 mmol) was added. Then the reaction mixture was stirred at -30 °C to room temperature for 1 h, aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate (saturated, 30 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x30 mL). The combined organic fractions were washed with brine (saturated, 30mL), dried (Na 2 SO 4 ), filtered and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC Reverse phase (C-18), eluting with A cet on it rile/ Water + 0.1% TFA, to give the title compound. MS: 532.3 (M+l). 1H NMR (500 MHz, Methanol-d4) d 7.59 (m, 3H), 7.33 (m, 1H), 7.24 (m, 1H), 6.59 (m, 1H), 4.74 (m, 1H), 4.24 (m, 1H), 4.06 (m, 1H), 3.98 - 3.68 (m, 4H), 3.07 (s, 3H), 2.93 (m, 1H), 2.46(m, 1H), 2.16 (m, 1H), 2.02 (m, 2H), 1.72 - 1.40 (m, 5H), 1.05 (m, 1H).

The following compounds were prepared according to the general procedures herein, by substituting the appropriate corresponding intermediate.

EXAMPLE 163

N-((2R3S)- 1 - dif1uoro-4-hvdroxypyridin-2-yl )-2-(T(TCIS)-4-C- fluorophenylcvclohexyloxy)methylpynolidin-3-ylmethanesulfona mide

A mixture of N-((2R,3 S)-2-(((4-(3-fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)m ethyl )pyrrolidin-3- yl)methanesulfonamide (INTERMEDIATE U) (68.4 mg, 0.185 mmol), 2-bromo-3,5-difluoro-4- methoxypyridine (YA), 2-((2-fluoro-6-(piperidin-1-ylsulfonyl)phenyl)amino)-2-oxoac etic acid (61.0 mg, 0.185 mmol), 2-TERT -BUTYL- 1 , 1 ,3 , 3 -TETRAMETHYLGUANIDINE (95 mg, 0.554 mmol) and COPPER(I) OXIDE (26.4 mg, 0.185 mmol) in DMSO (2 ml) was stirred under N2 at 100 °C overnight. The reaction mixture was filtered, and the solution was purified by preparative HPLC Reverse phase (C-18), eluting with Acetonitrile/ Water + 0.1% TFA, to give the title compound. MS: 532.3 (M+l). 1HNMR (500 MHz, Methanol-d4) d 7.57 (s, 1H), 7.28 (s, 1H), 6.91 (m, 3H), 4.54 (m, 1H), 4.20 (m, 1H), 3.91 (m, 1H), 3.80 (m, 1H), 3.67 (m, 3H), 3.06 (s, 3H),

2.54 (m, 1H),2.37 (m, 1H), 2.22 (m, 1H), 1.95 (m, 2H), 1.56 (m, 6H).

EXAMPLE 164 N-((2R.3S.5R)- 1 -C-fluoro-4-oxo-l .4-dihvdropyridin-2-yl )-2-((((CIS)-4-C- fluorophenylcvclohexyloxy)methyl-5-methylpynOlidin-3-ylmetha nesulfonamide

Step 1: Benzyl 3 S.5 R)-2-((((C IS )-4-C -fluorophenyl level ohexyloxyimethyl )-5-methyl-3- (methylsulfonamido)pyrrolidine-1-carboxylate ( 164-1)

To a solution of benzyl (2R,3S,5R)-3-(N-(4-methoxybenzyl)methylsulfonamido)-5- methyl-2-(((triethylsilyl)oxy)methyl)pyrrolidine-1-carboxyla te (300 mg, 0.520 mmol) in Acetonitrile (6.0 ml) at 0°C was added 4-(3-fluorophenyl)cyclohexan-1-one (140 mg, 0.728 mmol) followed by triisopropylsilane (0.213 ml, 1.040 mmol) under N2. After stirring 5 mins at 0°C, trimethyl silyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (0.094 ml, 0.520 mmol) was added. The mixture was continued to stir at 0°C for 25 mins. More triisopropylsilane (0.213 ml, 1.040 mmol, 2 eq) was added. After stirring 5 mins at 0°C, trimethyl silyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (0.094 ml, 0.520 mmol, leq ) was added. Stirring at 0°C was continued for 2 more hrs, then the mixture was allowed to gradually warm up to rt and then stirred at rt overnight. The reaction mixture was quenched with sat. NaHCO3, then extracted by 2 portions of 10 ml of DCM. The combined organic phase was collected and concentrated to leave an oil. The residue was purified by prep silica gel TLC eluent with 4% MeOH/DCM to afford the title compound. MS: 519.3. Step 2: N-((2R 3 S.5 R)-2-((((C IS )-4-C -fluorophenyl level ohexyl )oxy)methyl )-5-methyl pyrrol idin- 3-ylmethanesulfonamide 2) To a solution of benzyl (2R,3S,5R)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3-fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)- methyl)-5-methyl-3-(methylsulfonamido)pyrrolidine-1-carboxyl ate (164-1, 113 mg, 0.218 mmol) in THF (3 ml) was added 10% palladium on carbon (23.19 mg, 0.022 mmol). The reaction mixture was degassed and refilled with H2 from a balloon for three times. The reaction mixture was stirred at rt under a hydrogen ballon for 2.5 hrs, then the reaction mixture was filtered through a celite pad. The filtrate was concentrated to leave colorless oil and the residue was purified by prep silica gel TLC eluent with 5% 7 N NH3 in MeOH/DCM to afford the title compound. MS: 385.3.

Step 3: N-((2R.3S.5R)- 1 -C-fluoro-4-oxo- l .4-dihvdropyridin-2-yl )-2-((((CIS)-4-C- fluorophenylcvclohexyooxy)methyl-5-methylpynOlidin-3-ylmetha nesulfonamide (164)

To a solution of N-((2R,3S,5R)-2-((((CIS)-4-(3-fluorophenyl)cyclohexyl)oxy)me thyl)-5- methylpyrrolidin-3-yl)methanesulfonamide (164-2, 17 mg, 0.044 mmol) in DMSO (0.5 ml) in a reaction vial was added 2-bromo-3-fluoropyridin-4(1H)-one (15.28 mg, 0.080 mmol) followed by 2-((2-fluoro-6-(piperidin-1-ylsulfonyl)phenyl)amino)-2-oxoac etic acid (17.53 mg, 0.053 mmol), 2-TERT -BUTYL- 1 , 1 ,3 , 3 -TETRAMETHYLGUANIDINE (22.72 mg, 0.133 mmol), and COPPER(I) OXIDE (7.59 mg, 0.053 mmol). The reaction vial was purged with nitrogen for 5 mins and sealed. The reaction mixture was heated at 110°C for 2 days. The reaction mixture was purified by column chromatography on C18 (5-95% MeCN/water with 0.05% TFA modifier) to afford the title compound. MS: 496.4 (M+l). 1HNMR (500 MHz, Methanol-d4) d 7.69 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 1H), 7.24 (q, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 6.89 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 2H), 6.75 (d, J = 10.2 Hz, 1H), 6.68 (t, J = 6.7 Hz, 1H), 4.68 - 4.52 (m, 2H), 4.23 - 4.12 (m, 1H), 4.09 - 4.00 (m, 1H), 3.85 (s, 1H), 3.75 (t, J = 9.8 Hz, 1H), 3.05 (s, 3H), 2.78 - 2.57 (m, 2H), 2.13 (d, J = 12.5 Hz, 2H), 2.05 (s, 1H),

1.94 (q, J = 12.1 Hz, 1H), 1.76 - 1.46 (m, 6H), 1.31 (s, 2H).

The following table shows representative data for the compounds of the Examples as orexin receptor agonists as determined by the assays described herein.

With respect to other compounds such as those disclosed i US 2017/0226137,

WO 2017/135306, WO 2018/164191, WO 2018/164192, WO 2019/027003, WO 2019/027058, US 9,527,807, US 10,287,305, US 10,428,023, or US 10,508,083, it would be desirable that the present compounds exhibit unexpected properties, such as better drug-like properties and better physical and pharmacokinetic properties. For example, in contrast to compounds of US

2017/0226137, WO 2017/135306, WO 2018/164191, WO 2018/164192, WO 2019/027003, WO 2019/027058, US 9,527,807, US 10,287,305, US 10,428,023, or US 10,508,083, the compounds of the present examples may possess improved potency and better solubility.

As indicated by the data herein, the compounds of the present examples provide unexpected potency as orexin receptor agonists. The distinction in potency as orexin receptor agonists provides greater functional activity and potential for enhanced in vivo efficacy and may provide benefits over other orexin receptor agonists that are known in the art.

While the invention has been described and illustrated with reference to certain particular embodiments thereof, those skilled in the art will appreciate that various adaptations, changes, modifications, substitutions, deletions, or additions of procedures and protocols may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.