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Title:
HSP90-TARGETING CONJUGATES AND FORMULATIONS THEREOF
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2020/056205
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Conjugates of an active agent attached to a targeting moiety, such as an HSP90 binding moiety, via a linker, and particles comprising such conjugates have been designed. Such conjugates and particles can provide improved temporospatial delivery of the active agent, improved biodistribution and penetration in tumor, and/or decreased toxicity. Methods of making the conjugates, the particles, and the formulations thereof are provided. Methods of administering the formulations to a subject in need thereof are provided, for example, to treat or prevent cancer.

Inventors:
WHITE BRIAN H (US)
MOREAU BENOÎT (US)
CIPRIANI TYLER (US)
BILODEAU MARK T (US)
Application Number:
US2019/050916
Publication Date:
March 19, 2020
Filing Date:
September 13, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
TARVEDA THERAPEUTICS INC (US)
International Classes:
A61K31/4184; A61K47/50; A61K47/55
Domestic Patent References:
WO2018112176A12018-06-21
WO2017197241A12017-11-16
WO2019118830A12019-06-20
Foreign References:
Other References:
SIMIONI, C ET AL.: "Synergistic effects of selective inhibitors targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway or NUP214-ABL1 fusion protein in human Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia", ONCOTARGET, vol. 7, no. 48, 3 November 2016 (2016-11-03), pages 79842 - 79853, XP055693930
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ZHU, Heng et al. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

We claim:

1. A conjugate comprising an active agent coupled, via a linker, to an HSP90 targeting moiety, wherein the active agent is a PI3K inhibitor and wherein the PI3K inhibitor is selected from the group consisting of BGT-226 (NVP-BGT226), PF- 05212384, PF-04691502, and fragments/derivatives/analogs thereof.

2. The conjugate of claim 1, wherein the HSP90 targeting moiety is an HSP90 inhibitor.

3. The conjugate of claim 2, wherein the HSP90 inhibitor is a small molecule.

4. The conjugate of claim 3, wherein the HSP90 inhibitor is selected from the group consisting of Ganetespib, Luminespib (AUY-922, NVP-AUY922), Debio- 0932, MPC-3100, or Onalespib (AT-13387), SNX-2112, 17-amino-gel danamycin hydroquinone, PU-H71, AT13387, and derivatives/analogs thereof.

5. The conjugate of claim 1, wherein the HSP90 targeting moiety is ganetespib or a derivative thereof.

6. The conjugate of claim 1, wherein the HSP90 targeting moiety comprises a

structure

7. The conjugate of claim 1, wherein the linker comprises an ester group, a disulfide group, an amide group, an acylhydrazone group, an ether group, a carbamate group, a carbonate group, or an urea group.

8 The conjugate of claim 1, wherein the linker is a cleavable linker.

9. The conjugate of claim 1, wherein the conjugate has a molecular weight of less than about 50,000 Da, less than about 40,000 Da, less than about 30,000 Da, less than about 20,000 Da, less than about 15,000 Da, less than about 10,000 Da, less than about 8,000 Da, less than about 5,000 Da, less than about 3,000 Da, less than 2000 Da, less than 1500 Da, less than 1000 Da, or less than 500 Da.

10. The conjugate of claim 1, wherein the conjugate comprises PF-05212384 or its fragment/derivative/analog and ganetespib or its derivative.

11. The conjugate of claim 10, wherein the conjugate is selected from the group consisting of Conjugate 18, Conjugate 19, Conjugate 20, and Conjugate 21, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

12. The conjugate of claim 1, wherein the conjugate comprises BGT-226 or its fragment/derivatve/analog and ganetespib or its derivatve.

13. The conjugate of claim 12, wherein the conjugate is selected from the group conssting of Conjugate22, Conjugate 23, Conjugate 24, Conjugate 25, and Conjugate 26, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

14. The conjugate of claim 1, further comprising a permeability modulating unit.

15. The conjugate of claim 1, further comprising a pharmacokinetic modulating unit.

16. A pharmaceutical composition comprising the conjugate of any of claims 1-15 and at least one pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

17. A method of reducing cell proliferation comprising administering a

therapeutically effective amount of at least one conjugate of any of claims 1-15 to the cell.

18. The method of claim 17, wherein the cell is a cancer cell.

19. The method of claim 18, wherein the cancer cell is a small-cell lung cancer cell, a non-small-cell lung cancer cell, a sarcoma cell, a pancreatic cancer cell, a breast cancer cell, or a colon cancer cell.

20. A method of treating cancer, comprising administering the pharmaceutical composition of claim 16.

21. The method of claim 20, wherein the cancer is small-cell lung cancer cell, a non-small-cell lung cancer cell, a sarcoma cell, a pancreatic cancer cell, a breast cancer cell, or a colon cancer cell.

Description:
HSP90-TARGETING CONJUGATES AND FORMULATIONS THEREOF

REFERENCED TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] The present application claims priority to ET.S. Provisional Patent

Application No. 62/731,545, filed September 14, 2018, entitled HSP90-TARGETING CONJUGATES AND FORMULATIONS THEREOF, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety.

FIELD OF THE DISCLOSURE

[0002] The invention generally relates to the field of targeting ligands, conjugates thereof, and particles for drug delivery. More particularly, the invention relates to the use of molecules targeting heat shock proteins including heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), e.g., for treating cancer.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is an intracellular chaperone protein that assists protein folding, stabilizes proteins against heat stress, and aids in protein degradation. It is upregulated in many types of cancer. Many Hsp90 client proteins are over-expressed in cancer, often in mutated forms, and are responsible for unrestricted cancer cell proliferation and survival. HSP90 is activated in cancer tissues and latent in normal tissues. HSP90 derived from tumour cells has higher binding affinity to HSP90 inhibitors than the latent form in normal cells, allowing specific targeting of HSP90 inhibitors to tumour cells with little inhibition of HSP90 function in normal cells. Further, HSP90 has also been recently identified as an important extracellular mediator for tumour invasion. Therefore, HSP90 is considered a major therapeutic target for anticancer drug development.

[0004] Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems are attractive for systemic drug delivery because they may be able to prolong the half-life of a drug in circulation, reduce non-specific uptake of a drug, and improve accumulation of a drug at tumors, e.g., through an enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. There are limited examples of therapeutics formulated for delivery as nanoparticles, which include DOXIL® (liposomal encapsulated doxyrubicin) and ABRAXANE® (albumin bound paclitaxel nanoparticles). [0005] The development of nanotechnologies for effective delivery of drugs or drug candidates to specific diseased cells and tissues, e.g., to cancer cells, in specific organs or tissues, in a temporospatially regulated manner potentially can overcome or ameliorate therapeutic challenges, such as systemic toxicity. However, while targeting of the delivery system may preferentially deliver drug to a site where therapy is needed, the drug released from the nanoparticle may not for example, remain in the region of the targeted cells in efficacious amounts or may not remain in the circulation in a relatively non-toxic state for a sufficient amount of time to decrease the frequency of treatment or permit a lower amount of drug to be administered while still achieving a therapeutic effect. Accordingly, there is a need in the art for improved drug targeting and delivery, including identification of targeting molecules that can be incorporated into particles and whose presence does not substantially interfere with efficacy of the drug.

SUMMARY

[0006] The present application provides a conjugate comprising an active agent coupled to an HSP90 targeting moiety by a linker and a pharmaceutical composition comprising such a conjugate.

[0007] Methods of making and using such conjugates are also provided.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0008] Applicants have designed HSP90 targeting conjugates comprising an active agent and novel particles comprising such conjugates. Such targeting can, for example, improve the amount of active agent at a site and decrease active agent toxicity to the subject. HSP90 targeting conjugates of the present invention have deep and rapid tumor penetration and do not require receptor internalization. High accumulation and long retention time of HSP90 targeting conjugates enable the use of cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic payloads, such as chemotherapeutic agents, kinase inhibitors, or immuno-oncology modulators.

[0009] As used herein,“toxicity” refers to the capacity of a substance or composition to be harmful or poisonous to a cell, tissue organism or cellular environment. Low toxicity refers to a reduced capacity of a substance or composition to be harmful or poisonous to a cell, tissue organism or cellular environment. Such reduced or low toxicity may be relative to a standard measure, relative to a treatment or relative to the absence of a treatment.

[0010] Toxicity may further be measured relative to a subject’s weight loss where weight loss over 15%, over 20% or over 30% of the body weight is indicative of toxicity. Other metrics of toxicity may also be measured such as patient presentation metrics including lethargy and general malaiase. Neutropenia or thrombopenia may also be metrics of toxicity.

[0011] Pharmacologic indicators of toxicity include elevated AST/ALT levels, neurotoxicity, kidney damage, GI damage and the like.

[0012] The conjugates are released after administration of the particles. The targeted drug conjugates utilize active molecular targeting in combination with enhanced permeability and retention effect (EPR) and improved overall

biodistribution of the particles to provide greater efficacy and tolerability as compared to administration of targeted particles or encapsulated untargeted drug.

[0013] In addition, the toxicity of a conjugate containing an HSP90 targeting moiety linked to an active agent for cells that do not overexpress HSP90 is predicted to be decreased compared to the toxicity of the active agent alone. Without committing to any particular theory, applicants believe that this feature is because the ability of the conjugated active agent to be retained in a normal cell is decreased relative to a tumor cell.

[0014] It is an object of the invention to provide improved compounds, compositions, and formulations for temporospatial drug delivery.

[0015] It is further an object of the invention to provide methods of making improved compounds, compositions, and formulations for temporospatial drug delivery.

[0016] It is also an object of the invention to provide methods of administering the improved compounds, compositions, and formulations to individuals in need thereof.

I. Conjugates

[0017] Conjugates include an active agent or prodrug thereof attached to a targeting moiety, e.g., a molecule that can bind to HSP90, by a linker. The conjugates can be a conjugate between a single active agent and a single targeting moiety, e.g., a conjugate having the structure X-Y-Z where X is the targeting moiety, Y is the linker, and Z is the active agent.

[0018] In some embodiments the conjugate contains more than one targeting moiety, more than one linker, more than one active agent, or any combination thereof. The conjugate can have any number of targeting moieties, linkers, and active agents. The conjugate can have the structure X-Y-Z-Y-X, (X-Y)n-Z, X-(Y-Z) n , Xn-Y-Z, X-Y- Zn, (X-Y-Z)n, (X-Y-Z-Y)n-Z, where X is a targeting moiety, Y is a linker, Z is an active agent, and n is an integer between 1 and 50, between 2 and 20, for example, between 1 and 5. Each occurrence of X, Y, and Z can be the same or different, e.g., the conjugate can contain more than one type of targeting moiety, more than one type of linker, and/or more than one type of active agent.

[0019] The conjugate can contain more than one targeting moiety attached to a single active agent. For example, the conjugate can include an active agent with multiple targeting moieties each attached via a different linker. The conjugate can have the structure X-Y-Z-Y-X where each X is a targeting moiety that may be the same or different, each Y is a linker that may be the same or different, and Z is the active agent.

[0020] The conjugate can contain more than one active agent attached to a single targeting moiety. For example the conjugate can include a targeting moiety with multiple active agents each attached via a different linker. The conjugate can have the structure Z-Y-X-Y-Z where X is the targeting moiety, each Y is a linker that may be the same or different, and each Z is an active agent that may be the same or different.

A. Active Agents

[0021] A conjugate as described herein contains at least one active agent (a first active agent). The conjugate can contain more than one active agent, that can be the same or different from the first active agent. The active agent can be a therapeutic, prophylactic, diagnostic, or nutritional agent. A variety of active agents are known in the art and may be used in the conjugates described herein. The active agent can be a protein or peptide, small molecule, nucleic acid or nucleic acid molecule, lipid, sugar, glycolipid, glycoprotein, lipoprotein, or combination thereof. In some embodiments, the active agent is an antigen, an adjuvant, radioactive, an imaging agent (e.g., a fluorescent moiety) or a polynucleotide. In some embodiments the active agent is an organometallic compound. [0022] In certain embodiments, the active agent of the conjugate comprises a predetermined molar weight percentage from about 1% to about 10%, or about 10% to about 20%, or about 20% to about 30%, or about 30% to about 40%, or about 40% to about 50%, or about 50% to about 60%, or about 60% to about 70%, or about 70% to about 80%, or about 80% to about 90%, or about 90% to about 99% such that the sum of the molar weight percentages of the components of the conjugate is 100%.

The amount of active agent(s) of the conjugate may also be expressed in terms of proportion to the targeting ligand(s). For example, the present teachings provide a ratio of active agent to ligand of about 10: 1, 9: 1, 8: 1, 7: 1, 6:1, 5: 1, 4: 1, 3: 1, 2: 1, 1 : 1, 1 :2, 1 :3, 1 :4; 1 :5, 1 :6, 1 :7, 1 :8, 1 :9, or 1 : 10.

[0023] In some embodiments, the active agent can be a cancer therapeutic. Cancer therapeutics include, for example, death receptor agonists such as the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or Fas ligand or any ligand or antibody that binds or activates a death receptor or otherwise induces apoptosis. Suitable death receptors include, but are not limited to, TNFR1, Fas, DR3, DR4, DR5, DR6, LTpR and combinations thereof.

[0024] Cancer therapeutics such as chemotherapeutic agents, cytokines, chemokines, and radiation therapy agents can be used as active agents.

Chemotherapeutic agents include, for example, alkylating agents, antimetabolites, anthracyclines, plant alkaloids, topoisomerase inhibitors, and other antitumor agents. Such agents typically affect cell division or DNA synthesis and function. Additional examples of therapeutics that can be used as active agents include monoclonal antibodies and the tyrosine kinase inhibitors e.g. imatinib mesylate, which directly targets a molecular abnormality in certain types of cancer (e.g., chronic myelogenous leukemia, gastrointestinal stromal tumors).

[0025] Chemotherapeutic agents include, but are not limited to cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin, mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, vincristine, vinblastine, vinorelbine, vindesine, taxol and derivatives thereof, irinotecan, topotecan, amsacrine, etoposide, etoposide phosphate, teniposide, epipodophyllotoxins, trastuzumab, cetuximab, and rituximab, bevacizumab, and combinations thereof. Any of these may be used as an active agent in a conjugate.

[0026] The small molecule active agents used in this invention (e.g.

antiproliferative (cytotoxic and cytostatic) agents) include cytotoxic compounds (e.g., broad spectrum), angiogenesis inhibitors, cell cycle progression inhibitors, PBK/m- TOR/ ART pathway inhibitors, MAPK signaling pathway inhibitors, kinase inhibitors, protein chaperones inhibitors, HD AC inhibitors, PARP inhibitors, Wnt/Hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitors, RNA polymerase inhibitors and proteasome inhibitors. The small molecule active agents in some embodiments the active agent is an analog, derivative, prodrug, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0027] Broad spectrum cytotoxins include, but are not limited to, DNA-binding or alkylating drugs, microtubule stabilizing and destabilizing agents, platinum

compounds, and topoisomerase I or II inhibitors.

[0028] Exemplary DNA-binding or alkylating drugs include, CC-1065 and its analogs, anthracyclines (doxorubicin, epirubicin, idarubicin, daunorubicin) and its analogs, alkylating agents, such as calicheamicins, dactinomycines, mitromycines, pyrrolobenzodiazepines, and the like.

[0029] Exemplary doxorubicin analogs include nemorubicin metabolite or analog drug moiety disclosed in ETS 20140227299 to Cohen et ak, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

[0030] Exemplary CC-1065 analogs include duocarmycin SA, duocarmycin Cl, duocarmycin C2, duocarmycin B2, DET-86, KW-2189, bizelesin, seco-adozelesin, and those described in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,475,092; 5,595,499; 5,846,545; 6,534,660; 6,586,618; 6,756,397 and 7,049,316. Doxorubicin and its analogs include PNU- 159682 and those described in ET.S. Patent No.6, 630, 579 and nemorubicin metabolite or analog drugs disclosed in ETS 20140227299 to Cohen et ak, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

[0031] Calicheamicins include those described in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,714,586 and 5,739,116. Duocarmycins include those described in U.S. Patent Nos.5, 070, 092; 5, 101,038; 5, 187,186; 6,548,530; 6,660,742; and 7,553,816 B2; and Li et ak, Tet Letts., 50:2932 - 2935 (2009). Pyrrolobenzodiazepines include SG2057 and those described in Denny, Exp. Opin. Ther. Patents., l0(4):459-474 (2000), Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 2009, 9, 1-31; WO 2011/130613 Al; EP 2 789 622 Al; Blood 2013, 122, 1455; J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2012, 67, 1683-1696; Cancer Res. 2004, 64, 6693-6699; WO 2013041606; US 8481042; WO 2013177481; WO 2011130613; W02011130598

[0032] Exemplary microtubule stabilizing and destabilizing agents include taxane compounds, such as paclitaxel, docetaxel, cabazitaxel; maytansinoids, auristatins and analogs thereof, tubulysin A and B derivatives, vinca alkaloid derivatives, epothilones, PM060184 and cryptophycins.

[0033] Exemplary maytansinoids or maytansinoid analogs include maytansinol and maytansinol analogs, maytansine or DM-l and DM-4 are those described in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,208,020; 5,416,064; 6,333.410; 6,441,163; 6,716,821; RE39,l5l and 7,276,497. In certain embodiments, the cytotoxic agent is a maytansinoid, another group of anti-tubulin agents (ImmunoGen, Inc.; see also Chari et ah, 1992, Cancer Res. 52: 127-131), maytansinoids or maytansinoid analogs. Examples of suitable maytansinoids include maytansinol and maytansinol analogs. Suitable maytansinoids are disclosed in U.S. Patent Nos. 4,424,219; 4,256,746; 4,294,757; 4,307,016;

4,313,946; 4,315,929; 4,331,598; 4,361,650; 4,362,663; 4,364,866; 4,450,254;

4,322,348; 4,371,533; 6,333,410; 5,475,092; 5,585,499; and 5,846,545.

[0034] Exemplary auristatins include auristatin E (also known as a derivative of dolastatin-lO), auristatin EB (AEB), auristatin EFP (AEFP), monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), monomethyl auristatin F (MMAF), auristatin F and dolastatin. Suitable auristatins are also described in U.S. Publication Nos. 2003/0083263, 2011/0020343, and 2011/0070248; PCT Application Publication Nos. WO 09/117531, WO

2005/081711, WO 04/010957; W002/088172 and WOOl/24763, and U.S. Patent

Nos. 7,498,298; 6,884,869; 6,323,315; 6,239,104; 6,124,431; 6,034,065; 5,780,588; 5,767,237; 5,665,860; 5,663,149; 5,635,483; 5,599,902;5,554,725; 5,530,097;

5,521,284; 5,504,191; 5,410,024; 5,138,036; 5,076,973; 4,986,988; 4,978,744;

4,879,278; 4,816,444; and 4,486,414, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

[0035] Exemplary tubulysin compounds include compounds described in U.S. Patent Nos. 7,816,377; 7,776,814; 7,754,885; U.S. Publication Nos. 2011/0021568;

2010/004784; 2010/0048490; 2010/00240701; 2008/0176958; and PCT Application Nos. WO 98/13375; WO 2004/005269; WO 2008/138561; WO 2009/002993; WO 2009/055562; WO 2009/012958; WO 2009/026177; WO 2009/134279; WO

2010/033733; WO 2010/034724; WO 2011/017249; WO 2011/057805; the disclosures of which are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.

[0036] Exemplary vinca alkaloids include vincristine, vinblastine, vindesine, and navelbine (vinorelbine). Suitable Vinca alkaloids that can be used in the present invention are also disclosed in U.S. Publication Nos. 2002/0103136 and 2010/0305149, and in U.S. Patent No. 7,303,749 Bl, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

[0037] Exemplary epothilone compounds include epothilone A, B, C, D, E and F, and derivatives thereof. Suitable epothilone compounds and derivatives thereof are described, for example, in ET.S. Patent Nos. 6,956,036; 6,989,450; 6,121,029;

6,117,659; 6,096,757; 6,043,372; 5,969,145; and 5,886,026; and WO 97/19086; WO 98/08849; WO 98/22461; WO 98/25929; WO 98/38192; WO 99/01124; WO

99/02514; WO 99/03848; WO 99/07692; WO 99/27890; and WO 99/28324; the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

[0038] Exemplary cryptophycin compounds are described in ET.S. Patent Nos. 6,680,311 and 6,747,021, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

[0039] Exemplary platinum compounds include cisplatin (PLATINOL®), carboplatin (PARAPLATIN®), oxaliplatin (ELOX ATINE®), iproplatin, ormaplatin, and tetraplatin.

[0040] Exemplary topoisomerase I inhibitors include camptothecin, camptothecin, derivatives, camptothecin analogs and non-natural camptothecins, such as, for example, CPT-l l (irinotecan), SN-38, topotecan, 9-aminocamptothecin, rubitecan, gimatecan, karenitecin, silatecan, lurtotecan, exatecan, diflomotecan, belotecan, lurtotecan and S39625. Other camptothecin compounds that can be used in the present invention include those described in, for example, J. Med. Chem., 29:2358-2363 (1986); J. Med. Chem., 23:554 (1980); J. Med. Chem., 30: 1774 (1987).

[0041] Exemplary topoisomerase II inhibitors include azonafide and etoposide.

[0042] Additional agents acting on DNA include Lurbinectedin (PM01183), Trabectedin (also known as ecteinascidin 743 or ET-743) and analogs as described in WO 200107711, WO 2003014127.

[0043] Angiogenesis inhibitors include, but are not limited to, MetAP2 inhibitors.

[0044] Exemplary MetAP2 inhibitors include fumagillol analogs, meaning any compound that includes the fumagillin core structure, including fumagillamine, that inhibits the ability of MetAP-2 to remove NEb-terminal methionines from proteins as described in Rodeschini et ah, /. Org. Chem., 69, 357-373, 2004 and Liu, et ah,

Science 282, 1324-1327, 1998. Non limiting examples of "fumagillol analogs" are disclosed in /. Org. Chem., 69, 357, 2004; J.Org. Chem., 70, 6870, 2005; European Patent Application 0 354 787; /. Med. Chem., 49, 5645, 2006; Bioorg. Med. Chem., 11, 5051, 2003; Bioorg. Med. Chem., 14, 91, 2004; Tet. Lett. 40, 4797, 1999;

W099/61432; U.S. Patent Nos. 6,603,812; 5,789,405; 5,767,293; 6,566,541; and 6,207,704.

[0045] Exemplary cell cycle progression inhibitors include CDK inhibitors such as BMS-387032 and PD0332991; Rho-kinase inhibitors such as GSK429286;

checkpoint kinase inhibitors such as AZD7762; aurora kinase inhibitors such as AZD1152, MLN8054 and MLN8237; PLK inhibitors such as BI 2536, BI6727 (Volasertib), GSK461364, ON-01910 (Estybon); and KSP inhibitors such as SB 743921, SB 715992 (ispinesib), MK-0731, AZD8477, AZ3146 and ARRY-520.

[0046] Exemplary PBK/m-TOR/AKT signaling pathway inhibitors include phosphoinositide 3 -kinase (PI3K) inhibitors, GSK-3 inhibitors, ATM inhibitors, DNA-PK inhibitors and PDK-l inhibitors.

[0047] Exemplary PI3 kinase inhibitors are disclosed in LT.S. Patent No.

6,608,053, and include BEZ235, BGT226, BKM120, CAL101, CAL263,

demethoxyviridin, GDC-0941, GSK615, IC87114, LY294002, Palomid 529, perifosine, PF-04691502, PX-866, SAR245408, SAR245409, SF1126, Wortmannin, XL147, XL765, GSK2126458 (Omipalisib), GDC-0326, GDC-0032 (Taselisib, RG7604), PF-05212384 (Gedatolisib, PKI-587), BAY 80-6946 (copanlisib), PF- 04691502, PF-04989216, PI-103, PKI-402 VS-5584 (SB2343), GDC-0941, NVP- BEZ235 (Dactoslisib), BGT226, NVP-BKM120 (Buparlisib), NVP-BYL719

(alpelisib), GSK2636771, AMG-319, GSK2269557, PQR309, PWT143, TGR-1202 (RP5264), PX-866, GDC-0980 (apitolisib), AZD8835, MLN1117, DS-7423,

ZSTK474, CUDC-907, IPI-145 (INK-1197, Duvelisib), AZD8186, XL147

(SAR245408), XL765 (SAR245409), CAL-101 (Idelalisib, GS-1101), GS-9820 (Acalisib) and KA2237.

[0048] Exemplary ART inhibitors include, but are not limited to, AT7867, MK- 2206, Perifosine, GSK690693, Ipatasertib, AZD5363, TIC10, Afuresertib, SC79, AT13148, PHT-427, A-674563, and CCT128930.

[0049] Exemplary MAPK signaling pathway inhibitors include MEK, Ras, INK, B-Raf and p38 MAPK inhibitors.

[0050] Exemplary MEK inhibitors are disclosed in LT.S. Patent No. 7,517,994 and include GDC-0973, GSK1120212, MSC1936369B, AS703026, R05126766 and R04987655, PD0325901, AZD6244, AZD 8330 and GDC-0973.

[0051] Exemplary B-raf inhibitors include CDC-0879, PLX-4032, and SB590885. [0052] Exemplary B p38 MAPK inhibitors include BIRB 796, LY2228820 and SB202190

[0053] Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) are cell surface receptors which are often associated with signaling pathways stimulating uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells and neoangiogenesis. Many RTKs, which over express or have mutations leading to constitutive activation of the receptor, have been identified, including, but not limited to, VEGFR, EGFR, FGFR, PDGFR, EphR and RET receptor family receptors. Exemplary RTK specific targets include ErbB2, FLT-3, c-Kit, c-Met, and HIF.

[0054] Exemplary inhibitors of ErbB2 receptor (EGFR family) include but not limited to AEE788 (NVP-AEE 788), BIBW2992 (Afatinib), Lapatinib, Erlotinib (Tarceva), and Gefitinib (Iressa).

[0055] Exemplary RTK inhibitors targeting more then one signaling pathway (multitargeted kinase inhibitors) include AP24534 (Ponatinib) that targets FGFR, FLT-3, VEGFR-PDGFR and Bcr-Abl receptors; ABT-869 (Linifanib) that targets FLT-3 and VEGFR- PDGFR receptors; AZD2171 that targets VEGFR-PDGFR, Flt-l and VEGF receptors; CHR-258 (Dovitinib) that targets VEGFR-PDGFR, FGFR, Fit- 3, and c-Kit receptors.

[0056] Exemplary kinase inhibtiors include inhibitors of the kinases ATM, ATR,

CHK1, CHK2, WEE1, and RSK.

[0057] Exemplary protein chaperon inhibitors include HSP90 inhibitors.

Exemplary HSP90 inhibitors include 17AAG derivatives, BIIB021, BIIB028, SNX- 5422, NVP-AUY-922, and KW-2478.

[0058] Exemplary HD AC inhibitors include Belinostat (PXD101), CUDC-101, Doxinostat, ITF2357 (Givinostat, Gavinostat), JNJ-26481585, LAQ824 (NVP- LAQ824, Dacinostat), LBH-589 (Panobinostat), MC1568, MGCD0103

(Mocetinostat), MS-275 (Entinostat), PCI-24781, Pyroxamide (NSC 696085), SB939, Trichostatin A, and Vorinostat (SAHA).

[0059] Exemplary PARP inhibitors include iniparib (BSI 201), olaparib (AZD- 2281), ABT-888 (Veliparib), AG014699, CEP 9722, MK 4827, KU-0059436

(AZD2281), LT-673, 3- aminobenzamide, A-966492, and AZD2461.

[0060] Exemplary Wnt/Hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitors include vismodegib (RG3616/GDC-0449), cyclopamine (1 l-deoxojervine) (Hedgehog pathway inhibitors), and XAV-939 (Wnt pathway inhibitor). [0061] Exemplary RNA polymerase inhibitors include amatoxins. Exemplary amatoxins include a- amanitins, b- amanitins, g- amanitins, e-amanitins, amanullin, amanullic acid, amaninamide, amanin, and proamanullin.

[0062] Exemplary proteasome inhibitors include bortezomib, carfilzomib, ONX 0912, CEP- 18770, and MLN9708.

[0063] In one embodiment, the drug of the invention is a non-natural

camptothecin compound, vinca alkaloid, kinase inhibitor (e.g., PI3 kinase inhibitor (GDC-0941 and PI- 103)), MEK inhibitor, KSP inhibitor, RNA polymerse inhibitor, PARP inhibitor, docetaxel, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, duocarmycin, tubulysin, auristatin or a platinum compound. In specific embodiments, the drug is a derivative of SN-38, vindesine, vinblastine, PI- 103, AZD 8330, auristatin E, auristatin F, a duocarmycin compound, tubulysin compound, or ARRY-520.

[0064] In another embodiment, the drug used in the invention is a combination of two or more drugs, such as, for example, PI3 kinases and MEK inhibitors; broad spectrum cytotoxic compounds and platinum compounds; PARP inhibitors and platinum compounds; broad spectrum cytotoxic compounds and PARP inhibitors.

[0065] The active agent can be a cancer therapeutic. The cancer therapeutics may include death receptor agonists such as the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or Fas ligand or any ligand or antibody that binds or activates a death receptor or otherwise induces apoptosis. Suitable death receptors include, but are not limited to, TNFR1, Fas, DR3, DR4, DR5, DR6, LTpR and combinations thereof.

[0066] The active agent can be a DNA minor groove binders such as lurbectidin and trabectidin.

[0067] The active agent can be E3 ubiquitin ligase inhibitors, adeubiquitinase inhibitors or an NFkB pathway inhibitor.

[0068] The active agent can be a phopsphatase inhibitors including inhibitors of PTP1B, SHP2, LYP, FAP-l, CD45, STEP, MKP-l, PRL, LMWPTP or CDC25.

[0069] The active agent can be an inhibitor of tumor metabolism, such as an inhibitor of GAPDH, GLUT1, HK II, PFK, GAPDH, PK, LDH orMCTs

[0070] The active agent can target epigenetic targets including EZH2, MLL,

DOT 1 -like protein (DOT1L), bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), BRD2, BRD3, NUT, ATAD2, or SMYD2.

[0071] The active agent can target the body's immune system to help fight cancer, including moecules targeting IDOl, ID02, TDO, CD39, CD73, A2A antagonists, STING activators, TLR agonists (TLR 1-13), ALK5, CBP/EP300 bromodomain, ARG1, ARG2, iNOS, PDE5, P2X7, P2Y11, COX2, EP2 Receptor, or EP4 receptor,

[0072] The active agent can target Bcl-2, IAP, or fatty acid synthase.

[0073] In some embodiments, the active agent can be 20-epi-l,25

dihydroxyvitamin D3, 4-ipomeanol, 5-ethynyluracil, 9-dihydrotaxol, abiraterone, acivicin, aclarubicin, acodazole hydrochloride, acronine, acylfulvene, adecypenol, adozelesin, aldesleukin, all-tk antagonists, altretamine, ambamustine, ambomycin, ametantrone acetate, amidox, amifostine, aminoglutethimide, aminolevulinic acid, amrubicin, amsacrine, anagrelide, anastrozole, andrographolide, angiogenesis inhibitors, antagonist D, antagonist G, antarelix, anthramycin, anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein- 1, antiestrogen, antineoplaston, antisense oligonucleotides, aphidicolin glycinate, apoptosis gene modulators, apoptosis regulators, apurinic acid, ARA-CDP-DL-PTBA, arginine deaminase, asparaginase, asperlin, asulacrine, atamestane, atrimustine, axinastatin 1, axinastatin 2, axinastatin 3, azacitidine, azasetron, azatoxin, azatyrosine, azetepa, azotomycin, baccatin III derivatives, balanol, batimastat, benzochlorins, benzodepa, benzoylstaurosporine, beta lactam derivatives, beta-alethine, betaclamycin B, betulinic acid, BFGF inhibitor, bicalutamide, bisantrene, bisantrene hydrochloride, bisaziridinylspermine, bisnafide, bisnafide dimesylate, bistratene A, bizelesin, bleomycin, bleomycin sulfate, BRC/ ABL antagonists, breflate, brequinar sodium, bropirimine, budotitane, busulfan, buthionine sulfoximine, cabazitaxel, cactinomycin, calcipotriol, calphostin C, calusterone, camptothecin, camptothecin derivatives, canarypox IL-2, capecitabine, caracemide, carbetimer, carboplatin, carboxamide-amino-triazole,

carboxyamidotriazole, carest M3, carmustine, earn 700, cartilage derived inhibitor, carubicin hydrochloride, carzelesin, casein kinase inhibitors, castano spermine, cecropin B, cedefmgol, cetrorelix, chlorambucil, chlorins, chloroquinoxaline sulfonamide, cicaprost, cirolemycin, cisplatin, cis-porphyrin, cladribine, clomifene analogs, clotrimazole, collismycin A, collismycin B, combretastatin A4,

combretastatin analog, conagenin, crambescidin 816, crisnatol, crisnatol mesylate, cryptophycin 8, cryptophycin A derivatives, curacin A, cyclopentanthraquinones, cyclophosphamide, cycloplatam, cypemycin, cytarabine, cytarabine ocfosfate, cytolytic factor, cytostatin, dacarbazine, dacliximab, dactinomycin, daunorubicin hydrochloride, decitabine, dehydrodidemnin B, deslorelin, dexifosfamide, dexormaplatin, dexrazoxane, dexverapamil, dezaguanine, dezaguanine mesylate, diaziquone, didemnin B, didox, diethylnorspermine, dihydro-5-azacytidine, dioxamycin, diphenyl spiromustine, docetaxel, docosanol, dolasetron, doxifluridine, doxorubicin, doxorubicin hydrochloride, droloxifene, droloxifene citrate,

dromostanolone propionate, dronabinol, duazomycin, duocarmycin SA, ebselen, ecomustine, edatrexate, edelfosine, edrecolomab, eflornithine, eflornithine

hydrochloride, elemene, elsamitrucin, emitefur, enloplatin, enpromate, epipropidine, epirubicin, epirubicin hydrochloride, epristeride, erbulozole, erythrocyte gene therapy vector system, esorubicin hydrochloride, estramustine, estramustine analog, estramustine phosphate sodium, estrogen agonists, estrogen antagonists, etanidazole, etoposide, etoposide phosphate, etoprine, exemestane, fadrozole, fadrozole hydrochloride, fazarabine, fenretinide, filgrastim, finasteride, flavopiridol,

flezelastine, floxuridine, fluasterone, fludarabine, fludarabine phosphate,

fluorodaunorunicin hydrochloride, fluorouracil, flurocitabine, forfenimex, formestane, fosquidone, fostriecin, fostriecin sodium, fotemustine, gadolinium texaphyrin, gallium nitrate, galocitabine, ganirelix, gelatinase inhibitors, gemcitabine, gemcitabine hydrochloride, glutathione inhibitors, hepsulfam, heregulin, hexamethylene bisacetamide, hydroxyurea, hypericin, ibandronic acid, idarubicin, idarubicin hydrochloride, idoxifene, idramantone, ifosfamide, ilmofosine, ilomastat,

imidazoacridones, imiquimod, immunostimulant peptides, insulin-like growth factor- 1 receptor inhibitor, interferon agonists, interferon alpha-2A, interferon alpha-2B, interferon alpha-Nl, interferon alpha-N3, interferon beta-IA, interferon gamma-IB, interferons, interleukins, iobenguane, iododoxorubicin, iproplatin, irinotecan, irinotecan hydrochloride, iroplact, irsogladine, isobengazole, isohomohalicondrin B, itasetron, jasplakinolide, kahalalide F, lamellarin-N triacetate, lanreotide, larotaxel, lanreotide acetate, leinamycin, lenograstim, lentinan sulfate, leptolstatin, letrozole, leukemia inhibiting factor, leukocyte alpha interferon, leuprolide acetate,

leuprolide/estrogen/progesterone, leuprorelin, levamisole, liarozole, liarozole hydrochloride, linear polyamine analog, lipophilic disaccharide peptide, lipophilic platinum compounds, lissoclinamide 7, lobaplatin, lombricine, lometrexol, lometrexol sodium, lomustine, lonidamine, losoxantrone, losoxantrone hydrochloride, lovastatin, loxoribine, lurtotecan, lutetium texaphyrin, lysofylline, lytic peptides, maitansine, mannostatin A, marimastat, masoprocol, maspin, matrilysin inhibitors, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, maytansine, maytansinoid, mertansine (DM1), mechlorethamine hydrochloride, megestrol acetate, melengestrol acetate, melphalan, menogaril, merbarone, mercaptopurine, meterelin, methioninase, methotrexate, methotrexate sodium, metoclopramide, metoprine, meturedepa, microalgal protein kinase C inhibitors, MIF inhibitor, mifepristone, miltefosine, mirimostim, mismatched double stranded RNA, mitindomide, mitocarcin, mitocromin, mitogillin,

mitoguazone, mitolactol, mitomalcin, mitomycin, mitomycin analogs, mitonafide, mitosper, mitotane, mitotoxin fibroblast growth factor-saporin, mitoxantrone, mitoxantrone hydrochloride, mofarotene, molgramostim, monoclonal antibody, human chorionic gonadotrophin, monophosphoryl lipid a/myobacterium cell wall SK, mopidamol, multiple drug resistance gene inhibitor, multiple tumor suppressor 1 - based therapy, mustard anticancer agent, mycaperoxide B, mycobacterial cell wall extract, mycophenolic acid, myriaporone, n-acetyldinaline, nafarelin, nagrestip, naloxone/pentazocine, napavin, naphterpin, nartograstim, nedaplatin, nemorubicin, neridronic acid, neutral endopeptidase, nilutamide, nisamycin, nitric oxide

modulators, nitroxide antioxidant, nitrullyn, nocodazole, nogalamycin, n-substituted benzamides, 06-benzylguanine, octreotide, okicenone, oligonucleotides, onapristone, ondansetron, oracin, oral cytokine inducer, ormaplatin, osaterone, oxaliplatin, oxaunomycin, oxisuran, paclitaxel, paclitaxel analogs, paclitaxel derivatives, palauamine, palmitoylrhizoxin, pamidronic acid, panaxytriol, panomifene, parabactin, pazelliptine, pegaspargase, peldesine, peliomycin, pentamustine, pentosan polysulfate sodium, pentostatin, pentrozole, peplomycin sulfate, perflubron, perfosfamide, perillyl alcohol, phenazinomycin, phenylacetate, phosphatase inhibitors, picibanil, pilocarpine hydrochloride, pipobroman, piposulfan, pirarubicin, piritrexim, piroxantrone hydrochloride, placetin A, placetin B, plasminogen activator inhibitor, platinum(IV) complexes, platinum compounds, platinum-triamine complex, plicamycin, plomestane, porftmer sodium, porfiromycin, prednimustine, procarbazine

hydrochloride, propyl bis-acridone, prostaglandin J2, prostatic carcinoma

antiandrogen, proteasome inhibitors, protein A-based immune modulator, protein kinase C inhibitor, protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors, purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitors, puromycin, puromycin hydrochloride, purpurins, pyrazofurin, pyrazoloacridine, pyridoxylated hemoglobin polyoxy ethylene conjugate, RAF antagonists, raltitrexed, ramosetron, RAS farnesyl protein transferase inhibitors, RAS inhibitors, RAS-GAP inhibitor, retelliptine demethylated, rhenium RE 186 etidronate, rhizoxin, riboprine, ribozymes, RII retinamide, RNAi, rogletimide, rohitukine, romurtide, roquinimex, rubiginone Bl, ruboxyl, safmgol, safmgol hydrochloride, saintopin, sarcnu, sarcophytol A, sargramostim, SDI 1 mimetics, semustine, senescence derived inhibitor 1 , sense oligonucleotides, siRNA, signal transduction inhibitors, signal transduction modulators, simtrazene, single chain antigen binding protein, sizofiran, sobuzoxane, sodium borocaptate, sodium phenylacetate, solverol, somatomedin binding protein, sonermin, sparfosate sodium, sparfosic acid, sparsomycin, spicamycin D, spirogermanium hydrochloride, spiromustine, spiroplatin, splenopentin, spongistatin 1, squalamine, stem cell inhibitor, stem-cell division inhibitors, stipiamide, streptonigrin, streptozocin, stromelysin inhibitors, sulfmosine, sulofenur, superactive vasoactive intestinal peptide antagonist, suradista, suramin, swainsonine, synthetic glycosaminoglycans, talisomycin, tallimustine, tamoxifen methiodide, tauromustine, tazarotene, tecogalan sodium, tegafur, tellurapyrylium, telomerase inhibitors, teloxantrone hydrochloride, temoporfm, temozolomide, teniposide, teroxirone, testolactone, tetrachlorodecaoxide, tetrazomine, thaliblastine, thalidomide, thiamiprine, thiocoraline, thioguanine, thiotepa, thrombopoietin, thrombopoietin mimetic, thymalfasin, thymopoietin receptor agonist, thymotrinan, thyroid stimulating hormone, tiazofurin, tin ethyl etiopurpurin, tirapazamine, titanocene dichloride, topotecan hydrochloride, topsentin, toremifene, toremifene citrate, totipotent stem cell factor, translation inhibitors, trestolone acetate, tretinoin, triacetyluridine, triciribine, triciribine phosphate, trimetrexate, trimetrexate glucuronate, triptorelin, tropisetron, tubulozole

hydrochloride, turosteride, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, tyrphostins, UBC inhibitors, ubenimex, uracil mustard, uredepa, urogenital sinus-derived growth inhibitory factor, urokinase receptor antagonists, vapreotide, variolin B, velaresol, veramine, verdins, verteporfm, vinblastine sulfate, vincristine sulfate, vindesine, vindesine sulfate, vinepidine sulfate, vinglycinate sulfate, vinleurosine sulfate, vinorelbine, vinorelbine tartrate, vinrosidine sulfate, vinxaltine, vinzolidine sulfate, vitaxin, vorozole, zanoterone, zeniplatin, zilascorb, zinostatin, zinostatin stimalamer, or zorubicin hydrochloride.

[0074] The active agent can be an inorganic or organometallic compound containing one or more metal centers. In some examples, the compound contains one metal center. The active agent can be, for example, a platinum compound, a ruthenium compound (e.g., /ra//.s-[RuCb (DMSO) 4 ], or /ra//.s-[RuCl 4(1 midazole) 2, etc.), cobalt compound, copper compound, or iron compounds. [0075] In some embodiments, the active agent is a small molecule. In some embodiments, the active agent is a small molecule cytotoxin. In one embodiment, the active agent is cabazitaxel, or an analog, derivative, prodrug, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In another embodiment, the active agent is mertansine (DM1) or DM4, or an analog, derivative, prodrug, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. DM1 or DM4 inhibits the assembly of microtubules by binding to tubulin. Structure of DM1 is shown below:

[0076] In some embodiments, the active agent Z is Monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), or an analog, derivative, prodrug, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. Structure of MMAE is shown below:

(MMAE).

[0077] In some embodiments, the active agent Z is a sequence-selective DNA minor-groove binding crosslinking agent. For example, Z may be

pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD), a PBD dimer, or an analog, derivative, prodrug, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. Structures of PBD and PBD dimer are shown below:

dimer).

[0078] In some embodiments, the active agent Z is a topoisomerase I inhibitor, such as camptothecin, irinotecan, SN-38, or an analog, derivative, prodrug, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

-Ethyl- 10-hydroxy-camptothecin)

[0079] Any cytotoxic moiety disclosed in WO2013158644, WO2015038649, W02015066053, WO2015116774, WO2015134464, W02015143004,

WO2015184246, the contents of each of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety, such as bendamustine, VDA, doxorubicin, pemetrexed, vorinostat, lenalidomide, docetaxel, 17-AAG, 5-FU, abiraterone, crizotinib, KW-2189, BUMB2, DC1, CC-1065, adozelesin, or derivatives/analogs thereof, may be used as an active agent in conjugates of the present invention.

PI3K Inhibitors

[0080] The PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling network (PI3K pathway) controls most hallmarks of cancer: cell cycle, survival, metabolism, motility and genomic stability. The PI3K pathway is the most frequently altered pathway in human cancer.

Activation of PI3K has been directly linked to cancer through mutations or amplifications of PIK3CA, and loss of function tumor suppressor PTEN. PIK3CA gene is the 2 nd most frequently mutated oncogene. PTEN is among the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes. Pathway inhibitors demonstrate antitumor efficacy in xenograft models, but toxicity limits clinical benefit in patients.

Conjugating a PI3K inhibitor with a HSP90 targeting moiety provides a method to delivery PI3K inhibitors for sufficient PI3K inhibition in tumors with reduced toxicity.

[0081] Conjugates comprising PI3K inhibitors may be used to treat hematological malignancies and solid tumors. In some embodiments, conjugates comprising PI3K inhibitors are used to treat colorectal cancer, multiple myeloma, leukemia, lymphoma, colon cancer, gastric cancer, kidney cancer, lung cancer, or breast cancers including metastatic breast cancer. In some embodiments, conjugates comprising PI3K inhibitors are used to treat PIK3CA-altered cancers or HER2 positive cancers.

[0082] Any PI3K inhibitor may be used as an active agent. In some embodiments, the PI3K inhibitor may be a small molecule. Non-limiting examples include

Omipalisib (GSK2126458, GSK458), BAY 80-6946 (Copanlisib), PF-04691502, PI- 103, BGT226 (NVP-BGT226), Apitolisib (GDC-0980, RG7422), Duvelisib (IPI-145, INK1197), AZD8186, Pilaralisib (XL147), PIK-93, Idelalisib (GS-1101), MLN1117, VS-5584, SB2343, GDC-0941, BM120, NVP-BKM120, Buparlisib, AZD8835, XL765 (SAR245409), GS-9820 Acalisib, GSK2636771, AMG-319, IPI-549,

Perifosine, Alpelisib, TGR 1202 (RP5264), PX-866, AMG-319, GDC-0980, GDC- 0941, Sanofi XL147, XL499, XL756, XL147, PF-46915032, BKM 120, CAL 263, SF1126, PX-886, KA2237, a dual PI3K inhibitor (e.g., Novartis BEZ235), an isoquinolinone, or derivatives/analogs thereof.

[0083] In some embodiments, the PI3K inhibitor may be an inhibitor of delta and gamma isoforms of PI3K. In some embodiments, the PI3K inhibitor is an inhibitor of alpha isoforms of PI3K. In other embodiments, the PI3K inhibitor is an inhibitor of one or more alpha, beta, delta and gamma isoforms of PI3K. Non-limiting examples of PI3K inhibitors include compounds disclosed in US 9,546,180 (Infinity

Pharmaceuticals), WO 2009088990 (Intellikine Inc.), WO 2011008302 (Intellikine Inc.), WO 2010036380 (Intellikine Inc.), WO 2010/006086 (Intellikine Inc.), WO 2005113556 (Icos Corp.), US 2011/0046165 (Intellikine Inc.), or US 20130315865 (Pfizer), the contents of each of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

[0084] In some embodiments, the PI3K inhibitor is selected from the group of Omipalisib (GSK458) or its derivatives/analogs, BAY 80-6946 (Copanlisib) or its derivatives/analogs, PF-04691502 or its derivatives/analogs, PI-103 or its derivatives/analogs, BGT226 (NVP-BGT226) or its derivatives/analogs, Apitolisib (GDC-0980, RG7422) or its derivatives/analogs, Duvelisib (IPI-145, INK1197) or its derivatives/analogs, AZD8186 or its derivatives/analogs, Pilaralisib (XL147) or its derivatives/analogs, and PIK-93 or its derivatives/analogs.

Pilaralisib (XL147) PIK-93 Idelalisib (GS-1101) [0085] In particular, the conjugates of the present application may comprise an HSP90 targeting moiety connected to BGT-226 or its fragments/derivatives/analogs, PF-05212384 or its fragments/derivatives/analogs, or PF-04691502 or its

derivatives/analogs.

B. HSP90 Targeting Moieties

[0086] Targeting ligands (also referred to as targeting moieties) as described herein include any molecule that can bind one or more HSP90 proteins. Such targeting ligands can be peptides, antibody mimetics, nucleic acids (e.g., aptamers), polypeptides (e.g., antibodies), glycoproteins, small molecules, carbohydrates, or lipids.

[0087] The targeting moiety, X, can be any HSP90 binding moiety such as, but not limited to, natural compounds (e.g., geldanamycin and radicicol), and synthetic compounds such as geldanamycin analogue 17-AAG (i.e., 17- allylaminogeldanamycin), a purine-scaffold HSP90 inhibitor series including

PU24FC1 (He H., et al, ./. Med. Chem ., vol.49:381 (2006), the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety), BIIB021 (Lundgren K., et al, Mol. Cancer Ther ., vol.8(4):92l (2009), the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety), 4,5- diarylpyrazoles (Cheung K.M., et al, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., vol.15:3338 (2005), the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety), 3- aryl, 4-carboxamide pyrazoles (Brough P.A., et al, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., vol.15: 5197 (2005), the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety), 4,5-diarylisoxazoles (Brough P.A., et al, J. Med. Chem., vol.51 : 196 (2008), the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety), 3,4-diaryl pyrazole resorcinol derivative (Dymock B.W., et al, J. Med. Chem., vol.48:4212 (2005), the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety), thieno[2,3- djpyrimidine (W02005034950 to VERNALIS et al., the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety), aryl triazole derivatives of Formula I in EP2655345 to Giannini et al., the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety, or any other example of HSP90 binding ligands or their derivatives/analogs.

[0088] In some embodiments, the HSP90 binding moiety may be heterocyclic derivatives containing three heteroatoms. W02009134110 to MATULIS et al., the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety, discloses 4,5- diaryl thiadiazoles which demonstrate good HSP90 binding affinity. Even though they have rather modest cell growth inhibition, they may be used as HSP90 binding moiety in conjugates of the present invention. Another class of aza-heterocyclic adducts, namely triazole derivatives or their analogs, may be used as HSP90 binding moiety in conjugates of the present invention. For example, the 1,2, 4-triazole scaffold has been profusely documented as possessing HSP90 inhibiting properties. WO2009139916 to BURLISON et al. (Synta Pharmaceuticals Corp.), the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety, discloses tricyclic 1,2, 4-triazole derivatives inhibiting HSP90 at high micromolar concentrations. Any tricyclic 1, 2,4- triazole derivatives disclosed in WO2009139916 or their derivatives/analogs may be used as HSP90 binding moiety in conjugates of the present invention. Any tri substituted 1,2,4- triazole derivatives disclosed in WO 2010017479 and WO 2010017545 (Synta Pharmaceuticals Corp.) or their derivatives/analogs, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety, may be used as HSP90 binding moiety in conjugates of the present invention. In another example, a triazolone-containing HSP90 inhibitor named ganetespib (previously referred as to STA-9090, or as its highly soluble phosphate prodrug STA- 1474) disclosed in W02006055760 (Synta Pharmaceuticals Corp.), the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety, or its derivatives/analogs may be used as HSP90 binding moiety in conjugates of the present invention.

Ganetespib

[0089] In some embodiments, ganetespib or its derivatives/analogs may be used a targeting moiety. Non-limiting examples of ganetespib derivatives/analogs are shown below.

[0090] In some embodiments, Onalespib (AT13387) or its derivatives/analogs may be used as a targeting moiety in the conjugates of the present invention. Onalespib and non-limiting examples of Onalespib derivatives/analogs are shown below.

[0091] Any HSP90 ligand or HSP90 inhibitor disclosed in WO2013158644, WO2015038649, W02015066053, WO2015116774, WO2015134464,

WO2015143004, WO2015184246, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety, or their derivatives/analogs may be used as HSP90 binding moiety in the conjugates of the present invention, such as:

[0092] Formula wherein Rl may be alkyl, aryl, halide, carboxamide or sulfonamide; R2 may be alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl or heteroaryl, wherein when R2 is a 6 membered aryl or heteroaryl, R2 is substituted at the 3- and 4- positions relative to the connection point on the triazole ring, through which a linker L is attached; and R3 may be SH, OH, -CONHR4, aryl or heteroaryl, wherein when R3 is a 6 membered aryl or heteroaryl, R3 is substituted at the 3 or 4 position;

[0093] Formula wherein Rl may be alkyl, aryl, halo, carboxamido, sulfonamido; and R2 may be optionally substituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl or heteroaryl. Examples of such compounds include 5-(2,4-dihydroxy-5- isopropylphenyl)-N-(2-morpholinoethyl)-4-(4-(morpholinomethy l)phenyl)-4H- 1,2,4- triazole-3 -carboxamide and 5-(2,4-dihydroxy-5-isopropylphenyl)-4-(4-(4- methylpiperazin-l-yl)phenyl)-N-(2, 2, 2-trifluoroethyl)-4H- 1,2, 4-tri azole-3 - carboxamide; [0094] Formula I , wherein X, Y, and Z may

independently be CH, N, O or S (with appropriate substitutions and satisfying the valency of the corresponding atoms and aromaticity of the ring); Rl may be alkyl, aryl, halide, carboxamido or sulfonamido; R2 may be substituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl or heteroaryl, where a linker L is connected directly or to the extended substitutions on these rings; R3 may be SH, OH, NR4R5 AND -CONHR6, to which an effector moiety may be connected; R4 and R5 may independently be H, alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl; and R6 may be alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl, having a minimum of one functional group to which an effector moiety may be connected; or

[0095] Formula , wherein Rl may be alkyl, aryl, halo, carboxamido or sulfonamido; R2 and R3 are independently C1-C5 hydrocarbyl groups optionally substituted with one or more of hydroxy, halogen, C1-C2 alkoxy, amino, mono- and di-Cl-C2 alkylamino; 5- to 12- membered aryl or heteroaryl groups; or, R2 and R3, taken together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form a 4- to 8- membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, of which up to 5 ring members are selected from O, N and S. Examples of such compounds include AT-13387.

[0096] The HSP90 targeting moiety may be Ganetespib, Luminespib (AUY-922, NVP-AUY922), Debio-0932, MPC-3100, Onalespib (AT-13387), SNX-2112, 17- amino-geldanamycin hydroquinone, PU-H71, AT13387, or derivatives/analogs thereof.

AT-13387

SNX-2112 17-amino-geldanamycin hydroquinone

[0097] The HSP90 targeting moiety may be SNX5422 (PF-04929113), or any other HSP90 inhibitors disclosed in US 8080556 (Pfizer), W02008096218 (Pfizer), W02006117669 (Pfizer), W02008059368 (Pfizer), W02008053319 (Pfizer), W02006117669 (Pfizer), EP1885701 (Novartis), EP1776110 (Novartis), EP2572709 (Novartis), WO2012131413 (Debiopharm), or WO2012131468 (Debiopharm), the contents of each of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

SNX5422

[0098] The HSP90 targeting moiety may also be PU-H71, an HSP90 inhibitor that is 124 I radiolabeled for PET imaging or its derivatives/analogs.

[0099] Conjugates comprising SNX-2112, 17-amino-geldanamycin

hydroquinone, PU-H71, or AT13387 may have a structure of: Active Agent

l7-amino-geldanamycin hydroquinone Conjugate

[0100] In some embodiments, the HSP90 targeting moiety comprises a

Sansalvamide A derivative. Sansalvamide A (San A) is a cyclic pentapeptide isolated from a marine fungus and binds to HSP90. Any Di-Sansalvamide A derivative (dimerized San A molecules) disclosed in Alexander et al., JMed Chem ., vol.52(24):7927 (2009), the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety, for example, the Di-San A molecules in Figure 1 of Alexander, may be used as a targeting moiety of the conjugate of the current disclosure.

[0101] In certain embodiments, the targeting moiety or moieties of the conjugate are present at a predetermined molar weight percentage from about 0.1 % to about 10%, or about 1% to about 10%, or about 10% to about 20%, or about 20% to about 30%, or about 30% to about 40%, or about 40% to about 50%, or about 50% to about 60%, or about 60% to about 70%, or about 70% to about 80%, or about 80% to about 90%, or about 90% to about 99% such that the sum of the molar weight percentages of the components of the conjugate is 100%. The amount of targeting moieties of the conjugate may also be expressed in terms of proportion to the active agent(s), for example, in a ratio of ligand to active agent of about 10: 1, 9: 1, 8: 1, 7: 1, 6: 1, 5: 1, 4:1, 3: 1, 2: 1, 1 : 1, 1 :2, 1 :3, 1 :4; 1 :5, 1 :6, 1 :7, 1 :8, 1 :9, or 1 : 10.

C. Linkers

[0102] The conjugates contain one or more linkers attaching the active agents and targeting moieties. The linker, Y, is bound to one or more active agents and one or more targeting ligands to form a conjugate. The linker Y is attached to the targeting moiety X and the active agent Z by functional groups independently selected from an ester bond, disulfide, amide, acylhydrazone, ether, carbamate, carbonate, and urea. Alternatively the linker can be attached to either the targeting ligand or the active drug by a non-cleavable group such as provided by the conjugation between a thiol and a maleimide, an azide and an alkyne. The linker is independently selected from the group consisting alkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl, wherein each of the alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl groups optionally is substituted with one or more groups, each independently selected from halogen, cyano, nitro, hydroxyl, carboxyl, carbamoyl, ether, alkoxy, aryloxy, amino, amide, carbamate, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, wherein each of the carboxyl, carbamoyl, ether, alkoxy, aryloxy, amino, amide, carbamate, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroaryl, or heterocyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more groups, each independently selected from halogen, cyano, nitro, hydroxyl, carboxyl, carbamoyl, ether, alkoxy, aryloxy, amino, amide, carbamate, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl.

[0103] In some embodiments, the linker comprises a cleavable functionality that is cleavable. The cleavable functionality may be hydrolyzed in vivo or may be designed to be hydrolyzed enzymatically, for example by Cathepsin B. A“cleavable” linker, as used herein, refers to any linker which can be cleaved physically or chemically.

Examples for physical cleavage may be cleavage by light, radioactive emission or heat, while examples for chemical cleavage include cleavage by re- dox-reactions, hydrolysis, pH-dependent cleavage or cleavage by enzymes. For example, the cleavable functionality may be a disulfide bond or a carbamate bond.

[0104] In some embodiments the alkyl chain of the linker may optionally be interrupted by one or more atoms or groups selected from -0-, -C(=0)-, -NR, -O- C(=0)-NR-, -S-, -S-S-. The linker may be selected from dicarboxylate derivatives of succinic acid, glutaric acid or diglycolic acid. In some embodiments, the linker Y may be X’-R^Y’-R^Z’ and the conjugate can be a compound according to Formula Ia:

X R1 R2 Z

V v V Ia

wherein X is a targeting moiety defined above; Z is an active agent; X’, R 1 , Y’, R 2 and Z’ are as defined herein.

[0105] X’ is either absent or independently selected from carbonyl, amide, urea, amino, ester, aryl, arylcarbonyl, aryloxy, arylamino, one or more natural or unnatural amino acids, thio or succinimido; R 1 and R 2 are either absent or comprised of alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, polyethylene glycol (2-30 units); Y’ is absent, substituted or unsubstituted l,2-diaminoethane, polyethylene glycol (2-30 units) or an amide; Z’ is either absent or independently selected from carbonyl, amide, urea, amino, ester, aryl, arylcarbonyl, aryloxy, arylamino, thio or succinimido. In some embodiments, the linker can allow one active agent molecule to be linked to two or more ligands, or one ligand to be linked to two or more active agent molecule.

[0106] In some embodiments, the linker Y may be Am and the conjugate can be a compound according to Formula lb: lb

wherein A is defined herein, m=0-20.

[0107] A in Formula Ia is a spacer unit, either absent or independently selected from the following substituents. For each substituent, the dashed lines represent substitution sites with X, Z or another independently selected unit of A wherein the X, Z, or A can be attached on either side of the substituent: ein z = 0-40, R is H or an optionally substituted alkyl group, and R’ is any side chain found in either natural or unnatural amino acids.

[0108] In some embodiments, the conjugate may be a compound according to Formula Ic:

Ic

wherein A is defined above, m=0-40, n=0-40, x=l-5, y=l-5, and C is a branching element defined herein.

[0109] C in Formula Ic is a branched unit containing three to six functionalities for covalently attaching spacer units, ligands, or active drugs, selected from amines, carboxylic acids, thiols, or succinimides, including amino acids such as lysine, 2,3- diaminopropanoic acid, 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and cysteine.

Non-Limiting Examples of Conjugates

PI3K Inhibitors as Active Agents

[0110] In some embodiments, the active agent Z is a PI3K inhibitor and the HSP90 targeting moiety X is Ganetespib or its fragments/derivatives/analogs, wherein the active agent Z and the targeting moiety X are connected with a linker. [0111] In some embodiments, the HSP90 targeting moiety X may comprise a

[0112] In some embodiments, the PI3K inhibitor is PF-05212384 (gedatolisib or PKI-587) or its fragments/derivatives/analogs. The PF-05212384

fragments/derivatives/analogs may comprise a structure of

-limiting examples include:

[0113] In some embodiments, the PI3K inhibitor is BGT-226 or its fragments/derivatives/analogs. The BGT-226 fragments/derivatives/analogs may

comprise a structure -limiting examples include:

[0114] In some embodiments, the PI3K inhibitor is PF-04691502 or its fragments/derivatives/analogs. The PF-04691502 fragments/derivatives/analogs may

comprise a structure

D. Masking Moiety

[0115] The disclosure also provides activatable compositions that include conjugates that are coupled to a masking moiety where the ability of the conjugate to bind to HSP90. Such conjugates are refered to as masked conjugates. The binding of the targeting moiety to HSP90 may be inhibited or hindered by the masking moiety. For example, the binding may be sterically hindered by the presence of the masking moiety or may be inhibited by the charge of the masking moiety.

[0116] Cleavage of the masking moiety, a conformation change, or a chemical transformation may unmask/activate the conjugate. The masking/unmasking process may be reversible or irreversible. When the masked conjugates are activated, the ability to bind to HSP90 is at least comparable to the corresponding, un-masked conjugate.

[0117] In some embodiments, the masking moiety contains a peptide sequence that includes a substrate for a protease. The protease may be produced by a tumor cell. Once the masking moiety is cleaved by the protease, the masking moiety no longer interferes with the binding of the conjugate to HSP90, thereby activating the conjugates of the present invention. The masking moiety prevents binding of the conjugates of the present invention at nontreatment sites. Such conjugates can further provide improved biodistribution characteristics.

[0118] In some embodiments, the masking moiety comprises a peptide that may be a substrate for an enzyme selected from the group consisting of MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP8, MMP9, MMP14, plasmin, PSA, PSMA, CATHEPSIN D,

CATHEPSIN K, CATHEPSIN S, ADAM 10, ADAM12, AD AMTS, Caspase-l, Caspase-2, Caspase-3, Caspase-4, Caspase-5, Caspase-6, Caspase-7, Caspase-8, Caspase-9, Caspase-lO, Caspase-l 1, Caspase-l 2, Caspase-l 3, Caspase-l 4, and TACE. For example, the masking moiety may comprise a protease substrate such as a plasmin substrate, a caspase substrate or a matrix metalloprotease (MMP) substrate (e.g., a substrate ofMMP-l, MMP-2, MMP-9, or MMP-l4).

[0119] In some embodiments, the masking moiety is connected to any place of the conjugate by a cleavable linker that is cleaved in the chemical environment of the tumor, for example in the acidic or reducing environment of a tumor. The masked conjugates are stable in circulation, activated at intended sites of therapy and/or diagnosis, but not in normal tissues. For example, the cleavable linker may comprise a cysteine-cysteine pair capable of forming a reducible disulfide bond, which may be cleaved by a reducing agent. Reducing agents of particular interest include cellular reducing agents such as proteins or other agents that are capable of reducing a disulfide bond under physiological conditions, e.g., glutathione, thioredoxin, NADPH, flavins, and ascorbate. In another example, the masking moiety or the linker may be acid-cleavable and the conjugate becomes unmasked in the acidic tumor

microenvironment.

E. Pharmacokinetic Modulating Unit

[0120] The conjugates of the present invention may further comprise at least one external linker connected to a reacting group that reacts with a functional group on a protein or an engineered protein or derivatives/analogs/mimics thereof, or comprise at least one external linker connected to a pharmacokinetic modulating unit. The external linkers connecting the conjugates and the reacting group or the

pharmacokinetic modulating units may be cleavable linkers that allow release of the conjugates. Hence, the conjugates may be separated from the protein or

pharmacokinetic modulating units as needed.

[0121] Any reacting group or PMU (such as PMUs comprising polymers) disclosed in WO2017/197241, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety, may be attached to the conjugates of the present disclosure.

F. Permeability Modulating Unit

[0122] The conjugates of the present invention may further comprise at least one permeability modulating unit. In some embodiments, the permeability modulating unit is attached to the payload of the conjugate, wherein the permeablity modulating unit regulates the cell membrane permeability of the payload. In some embodiments, the permeability modulating unit reduces the permeability of the payload. Not willing to be bound by any theory, once the payload is released from the conjugate, the permability modulating unit that is attached to the payload reduces the cell membrane permability of the payload, increases the retention time of the payload in target cells, improves the intracellular accumulation of the payload, and improves its efficacy.

[0123] In some embodiments, the permeability modulation unit does not adversely impact the permeability of the conjugate or the binding capability of the targeting moiety. In some embodiments, the permeability modulation unit is active only after the payload is released from the conjugate, e.g., after the cleavable linker between the payload and the targeting moiety is cleaved.

[0124] In some embodiments, the permeability modulating unit is a functional group that is covalently attached to the payload of the conjugate. In some

embodiments, the permeability modulating unit is an integral part of the payload. [0125] In some embodiments, the permeability modulating unit is attached to the payload via an external linker. The external linker may be a non-cleavable linker.

[0126] The passive permeation of a payload through the biological cell membranes is strongly dependent on the molecule physicochemical properties. Important factors that influence cell memberane permeation include the acid-base character of the molecule (which influences the charge of the molecule at the specific pH), its lipophilicity (which affects its partition between aqueous and lipid environments), and its solubility. For a payload to be permeable, there should be an appropriate balance between the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity. In some embodiments, the permeability moduclating unit is hydrophilic. In some embodiments, the permeability moduclating unit is hydrophobic. In some embodiments, the permeability

moduclating unit is polar. In some embodiments, the permeability moduclating unit is charged at physiological pH. For example, the permeability modulating unit may be positively charged, negatively charged, or a combination of multiple charges.

[0127] Non-limiting examples of the permability modulating unit include a functional group that has at least one nitrogen, such as a piperazine functional group.

II. Particles

[0128] Particles containing one or more conjugates can be polymeric particles, lipid particles, solid lipid particles, inorganic particles, or combinations thereof (e.g., lipid stabilized polymeric particles). In some embodiments, the particles are polymeric particles or contain a polymeric matrix. The particles can contain any of the polymers described herein or derivatives or copolymers thereof. The particles generally contain one or more biocompatible polymers. The polymers can be biodegradable polymers. The polymers can be hydrophobic polymers, hydrophilic polymers, or amphiphilic polymers. In some embodiments, the particles contain one or more polymers having an additional targeting moiety attached thereto.

[0129] The size of the particles can be adjusted for the intended application. The particles can be nanoparticles or microparticles. The particle can have a diameter of about 10 nm to about 10 microns, about 10 nm to about 1 micron, about 10 nm to about 500 nm, about 20 nm to about 500 nm, or about 25 nm to about 250 nm. In some embodiments the particle is a nanoparticle having a diameter from about 25 nm to about 250 nm. It is understood by those in the art that a plurality of particles will have a range of sizes and the diameter is understood to be the median diameter of the particle size distribution.

[0130] In various embodiments, a particle may be a nanoparticle, i.e., the particle has a characteristic dimension of less than about 1 micrometer, where the

characteristic dimension of a particle is the diameter of a perfect sphere having the same volume as the particle. The plurality of particles can be characterized by an average diameter (e.g., the average diameter for the plurality of particles). In some embodiments, the diameter of the particles may have a Gaussian-type distribution. In some embodiments, the plurality of particles have an average diameter of less than about 300 nm, less than about 250 nm, less than about 200 nm, less than about 150 nm, less than about 100 nm, less than about 50 nm, less than about 30 nm, less than about 10 nm, less than about 3 nm, or less than about 1 nm. In some embodiments, the particles have an average diameter of at least about 5 nm, at least about 10 nm, at least about 30 nm, at least about 50 nm, at least about 100 nm, at least about 150 nm, or greater. In certain embodiments, the plurality of the particles have an average diameter of about 10 nm, about 25 nm, about 50 nm, about 100 nm, about 150 nm, about 200 nm, about 250 nm, about 300 nm, about 500 nm, or the like. In some embodiments, the plurality of particles have an average diameter between about 10 nm and about 500 nm, between about 50 nm and about 400 nm, between about 100 nm and about 300 nm, between about 150 nm and about 250 nm, between about 175 nm and about 225 nm, or the like. In some embodiments, the plurality of particles have an average diameter between about 10 nm and about 500 nm, between about 20 nm and about 400 nm, between about 30 nm and about 300 nm, between about 40 nm and about 200 nm, between about 50 nm and about 175 nm, between about 60 nm and about 150 nm, between about 70 nm and about 130 nm, or the like. For example, the average diameter can be between about 70 nm and 130 nm. In some embodiments, the plurality of particles have an average diameter between about 20 nm and about 220 nm, between about 30 nm and about 200 nm, between about 40 nm and about 180 nm, between about 50 nm and about 170 nm, between about 60 nm and about 150 nm, or between about 70 nm and about 130 nm. In one embodiment, the particles have a size of 40 to 120 nm with a zeta potential close to 0 mV at low to zero ionic strengths (1 to 10 mM), with zeta potential values between + 5 to - 5 mV, and a zero/neutral or a small -ve surface charge. A. Conjugates

[0131] The particles contain one or more conjugates as described above. The conjugates can be present on the interior of the particle, on the exterior of the particle, or both. The particles may comprise hydrophobic ion-pairing complexes or hydrophobic ion-pairs formed by one or more conjugates described above and counterions.

[0132] Hydrophobic ion-pairing (HIP) is the interaction between a pair of oppositely charged ions held together by Coulombic attraction. HIP, as used here in, refers to the interaction between the conjugate of the present invention and its counterions, wherein the counterion is not H + or HO ions. Hydrophobic ion-pairing complex or hydrophobic ion-pair, as used herein, refers to the complex formed by the conjugate of the present invention and its counterions. In some embodiments, the counterions are hydrophobic. In some embodiments, the counterions are provided by a hydrophobic acid or a salt of a hydrophobic acid. In some embodiments, the counterions are provided by bile acids or salts, fatty acids or salts, lipids, or amino acids. In some embodiments, the counterions are negatively charged (anionic). Non limited examples of negative charged counterions include the counterions sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT), sodium oleate, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), human serum albumin (HSA), dextran sulphate, sodium deoxycholate, sodium cholate, anionic lipids, amino acids, or any combination thereof. Without wishing to be bound by any theory, in some embodiments, HIP may increase the hydrophobicity and/or lipophilicity of the conjugate of the present invention. In some embodiments, increasing the hydrophobicity and/or lipophilicity of the conjugate of the present invention may be beneficial for particle formulations and may provide higher solubility of the conjugate of the present invention in organic solvents. Without wishing to be bound by any theory, it is believed that particle formulations that include HIP pairs have improved formulation properties, such as drug loading and/or release profile. Without wishing to be bound by any theory, in some embodiments, slow release of the conjugate of the invention from the particles may occur, due to a decrease in the conjugate’s solubility in aqueous solution. In addition, without wishing to be bound by any theory, complexing the conjugate with large hydrophobic counterions may slow diffusion of the conjugate within a polymeric matrix. In some emobodiments, HIP occurs without covalent confutation of the counterion to the conjugate of the present invention. [0133] Without wishing to be bound by any theory, the strength of HIP may impact the drug load and release rate of the particles of the invention. In some embodiments, the strength of the HIP may be increased by increasing the magnitude of the difference between the pKa of the conjugate of the present invention and the pKa of the agent providing the counterion. Also without wishing to be bound by any theory, the conditions for ion pair formation may impact the drug load and release rate of the particles of the invention.

[0134] In some embodiments, any suitable hydrophobic acid or a combination thereof may form an HIP pair with the conjugate of the present invention. In some embodiments, the hydrophobic acid may be a carboxylic acid (such as but not limited to a monocarboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, tricarboxylic acid), a sulfmic acid, a sulfenic acid, or a sulfonic acid. In some embodiments, a salt of a suitable

hydrophobic acid or a combination thereof may be used to form a HIP pair with the conjugate of the present invention. Examples of hydrophobic acids, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, aromatic acids, bile acid, polyelectrolyte, their dissociation constant in water (pKa) and logP values were disclosed in

WO20l4/043,625, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. The strength of the hydrophobic acid, the difference between the pKa of the hydrophobic acid and the pKa of the conjugate of the present invention, logP of the hydrophobic acid, the phase transition temperature of the hydrophobic acid, the molar ratio of the hydrophobic acid to the conjugate of the present invention, and the concentration of the hydrophobic acid were also disclosed in WO20l4/043,625, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

[0135] In some embodiments, particles of the present invention comprising an HIP complex and/or prepared by a process that provides a counterion to form HIP complex with the conjugate may have a higher drug loading than particles without an HIP complex or prepared by a process that does not provide any counterion to form an HIP complex with the conjugate. In some embodiments, drug loading may increase 50%, 100%, 2 times, 3 times, 4 times, 5 times, 6 times, 7 times, 8 times, 9 times, or 10 times.

[0136] In some embodiments, the particles of the invention may retain the conjugate for at least about 1 minute, at least about 15 minutes, at least about 1 hour, when placed in a phosphate buffer solution at 37°C. [0137] In some embodiments, the weight percentage of the conjugate in the particles is at least about 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, or 50% such that the sum of the weight percentages of the components of the particles is 100%. In some embodiments, the weight percentage of the conjugate in the particles is from about 0.5% to about 10%, or about 10% to about 20%, or about 20% to about 30%, or about 30% to about 40%, or about 40% to about 50%, or about 50% to about 60%, or about 60% to about 70%, or about 70% to about 80%, or about 80% to about 90%, or about 90% to about 99% such that the sum of the weight percentages of the components of the particles is 100%.

[0138] In some instances, a conjugate may have a molecular weight of less than about 50,000 Da, less than about 40,000 Da, less than about 30,000 Da, less than about 20,000 Da, less than about 15,000 Da, less than about 10,000 Da, less than about 8,000 Da, less than about 5,000 Da, less than about 3,000 Da, less than 2000 Da, less than 1500 Da, less than 1000 Da, or less than 500 Da. In some cases, the conjugate may have a molecular weight of between about 1,000 Da and about 50,000 Da, between about 1,000 Da and about 40,000 Da, in some embodiments between about 1,000 Da and about 30,000 Da, in some embodiments bout 1,000 Da and about 50,000 Da, between about 1,000 Da and about 20,000 Da, in some embodiments between about 1,000 Da and about 15,000 Da, in some embodiments between about 1,000 Da and about 10,000 Da, in some embodiments between about 1,000 Da and about 8,000 Da, in some embodiments between about 1,000 Da and about 5,000 Da, and in some embodiments between about 1,000 Da and about 3,000 Da. The molecular weight of the conjugate may be calculated as the sum of the atomic weight of each atom in the formula of the conjugate multiplied by the number of each atom.

It may also be measured by mass spectrometry, NMR, chromatography, light scattering, viscosity, and/or any other methods known in the art. It is known in the art that the unit of molecular weight may be g/mol, Dalton (Da), or atomic mass unit (amu), wherein 1 g/mol = 1 Da = 1 amu.

B. Polymers

[0139] The particles may contain one or more polymers. Polymers may contain one more of the following polyesters: homopolymers including glycolic acid units, referred to herein as "PGA", and lactic acid units, such as poly-L4actic acid, poly-D- lactic acid, poly-D,L-lactic acid, poly-L-lactide, poly-D-lactide, and poly-D,L-lactide, collectively referred to herein as "PLA", and caprolactone units, such as poly(s- caprolactone), collectively referred to herein as "PCL"; and copolymers including lactic acid and glycolic acid units, such as various forms of poly(lactic acid-co- gly colic acid) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) characterized by the ratio of lactic acid:glycolic acid, collectively referred to herein as "PLGA"; and polyacrylates, and derivatives thereof. Exemplary polymers also include copolymers of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and the aforementioned polyesters, such as various forms of PLGA- PEG or PLA-PEG copolymers, collectively referred to herein as "PEGylated polymers". In certain embodiments, the PEG region can be covalently associated with polymer to yield "PEGylated polymers" by a cleavable linker.

[0140] The particles may contain one or more hydrophilic polymers. Hydrophilic polymers include cellulosic polymers such as starch and polysaccharides; hydrophilic polypeptides; poly(amino acids) such as poly-L-glutamic acid (PGS), gamma- polyglutamic acid, poly-L-aspartic acid, poly-L-serine, or poly-L-lysine; polyalkylene glycols and polyalkylene oxides such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), polypropylene glycol (PPG), and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO); poly(oxyethylated polyol);

poly(olefmic alcohol); polyvinylpyrrolidone); poly(hydroxyalkylmethacrylamide); poly(hydroxyalkylmethacrylate); poly(saccharides); poly(hydroxy acids); poly(vinyl alcohol);polyoxazoline; and copolymers thereof.

[0141] The particles may contain one or more hydrophobic polymers. Examples of suitable hydrophobic polymers include polyhydroxyacids such as poly(lactic acid), poly(glycolic acid), and poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acids); polyhydroxyalkanoates such as poly3-hydroxybutyrate or poly4-hydroxybutyrate; polycaprolactones;

poly(orthoesters); polyanhydrides; poly(phosphazenes); poly(lactide-co- caprolactones); polycarbonates such as tyrosine polycarbonates; polyamides

(including synthetic and natural polyamides), polypeptides, and poly(amino acids); polyesteramides; polyesters; poly(dioxanones); poly(alkylene alkylates); hydrophobic polyethers; polyurethanes; polyetheresters; polyacetals; polycyanoacrylates;

polyacrylates; polymethylmethacrylates; polysiloxanes;

poly(oxyethylene)/poly(oxypropylene) copolymers; polyketals; polyphosphates; polyhydroxyvalerates; polyalkylene oxalates; polyalkylene succinates; poly(maleic acids), as well as copolymers thereof.

[0142] In certain embodiments, the hydrophobic polymer is an aliphatic polyester. In some embodiments, the hydrophobic polymer is poly(lactic acid), poly(glycolic acid), or poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid). [0143] The particles can contain one or more biodegradable polymers.

Biodegradable polymers can include polymers that are insoluble or sparingly soluble in water that are converted chemically or enzymatically in the body into water-soluble materials. Biodegradable polymers can include soluble polymers crosslinked by hydolyzable cross-linking groups to render the crosslinked polymer insoluble or sparingly soluble in water.

[0144] Biodegradable polymers in the particle can include polyamides, polycarbonates, polyalkylenes, polyalkylene glycols, polyalkylene oxides, polyalkylene terepthalates, polyvinyl alcohols, polyvinyl ethers, polyvinyl esters, polyvinyl halides, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyglycolides, polysiloxanes, polyurethanes and copolymers thereof, alkyl cellulose such as methyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose, hydroxyalkyl celluloses such as hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxy-propyl methyl cellulose, and hydroxybutyl methyl cellulose, cellulose ethers, cellulose esters, nitro celluloses, cellulose acetate, cellulose propionate, cellulose acetate butyrate, cellulose acetate phthalate, carboxylethyl cellulose, cellulose triacetate, cellulose sulphate sodium salt, polymers of acrylic and methacrylic esters such as poly (methyl methacrylate), poly(ethylmethacrylate), poly(butylmethacrylate),

poly(isobutylmethacrylate), poly(hexlmethacrylate), poly(isodecylmethacrylate), poly(lauryl methacrylate), poly (phenyl methacrylate), poly(methyl acrylate), poly(isopropyl acrylate), poly(isobutyl acrylate), poly(octadecyl acrylate), polyethylene, polypropylene polyethylene glycol), poly(ethylene oxide),

poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(vinyl alcohols), poly(vinyl acetate, poly vinyl chloride polystyrene and polyvinylpryrrolidone, derivatives thereof, linear and branched copolymers and block copolymers thereof, and blends thereof. Exemplary biodegradable polymers include polyesters, poly(ortho esters), polyethylene imines), poly(caprolactones), poly(hydroxyalkanoates), poly(hydroxyvalerates),

polyanhydrides, poly(acrylic acids), polyglycolides, poly(urethanes), polycarbonates, polyphosphate esters, polyphosphazenes, derivatives thereof, linear and branched copolymers and block copolymers thereof, and blends thereof. In some embodiments the particle contains biodegradable polyesters or polyanhydrides such as poly(lactic acid), poly(glycolic acid), and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid).

[0145] The particles can contain one or more amphiphilic polymers. Amphiphilic polymers can be polymers containing a hydrophobic polymer block and a hydrophilic polymer block. The hydrophobic polymer block can contain one or more of the hydrophobic polymers above or a derivative or copolymer thereof. The hydrophilic polymer block can contain one or more of the hydrophilic polymers above or a derivative or copolymer thereof. In some embodiments the amphiphilic polymer is a di-block polymer containing a hydrophobic end formed from a hydrophobic polymer and a hydrophilic end formed of a hydrophilic polymer. In some embodiments, a moiety can be attached to the hydrophobic end, to the hydrophilic end, or both. The particle can contain two or more amphiphilic polymers.

C. Lipids

[0146] The particles may contain one or more lipids or amphiphilic compounds. For example, the particles can be liposomes, lipid micelles, solid lipid particles, or lipid-stabilized polymeric particles. The lipid particle can be made from one or a mixture of different lipids. Lipid particles are formed from one or more lipids, which can be neutral, anionic, or cationic at physiologic pH. The lipid particle, in some embodiments, incorporates one or more biocompatible lipids. The lipid particles may be formed using a combination of more than one lipid. For example, a charged lipid may be combined with a lipid that is non-ionic or uncharged at physiological pH.

[0147] The particle can be a lipid micelle. Lipid micelles for drug delivery are known in the art. Lipid micelles can be formed, for instance, as a water-in-oil emulsion with a lipid surfactant. An emulsion is a blend of two immiscible phases wherein a surfactant is added to stabilize the dispersed droplets. In some embodiments the lipid micelle is a microemulsion. A microemulsion is a thermodynamically stable system composed of at least water, oil and a lipid surfactant producing a transparent and thermodynamically stable system whose droplet size is less than 1 micron, from about 10 nm to about 500 nm, or from about 10 nm to about 250 nm. Lipid micelles are generally useful for encapsulating hydrophobic active agents, including hydrophobic therapeutic agents, hydrophobic prophylactic agents, or hydrophobic diagnostic agents.

[0148] The particle can be a liposome. Liposomes are small vesicles composed of an aqueous medium surrounded by lipids arranged in spherical bilayers. Liposomes can be classified as small unilamellar vesicles, large unilamellar vesicles, or multi- lamellar vesicles. Multi-lamellar liposomes contain multiple concentric lipid bilayers. Liposomes can be used to encapsulate agents, by trapping hydrophilic agents in the aqueous interior or between bilayers, or by trapping hydrophobic agents within the bilayer. [0149] The lipid micelles and liposomes typically have an aqueous center. The aqueous center can contain water or a mixture of water and alcohol. Suitable alcohols include, but are not limited to, methanol, ethanol, propanol, (such as isopropanol), butanol (such as «-butanol, isobutanol, sec-butanol, tert- butanol, pentanol (such as amyl alcohol, isobutyl carbinol), hexanol (such as l-hexanol, 2-hexanol, 3-hexanol), heptanol (such as l-heptanol, 2-heptanol, 3-heptanol and 4-heptanol) or octanol (such as 1 -octanol) or a combination thereof.

[0150] The particle can be a solid lipid particle. Solid lipid particles present an alternative to the colloidal micelles and liposomes. Solid lipid particles are typically submicron in size, i.e. from about 10 nm to about 1 micron, from 10 nm to about 500 nm, or from 10 nm to about 250 nm. Solid lipid particles are formed of lipids that are solids at room temperature. They are derived from oil-in-water emulsions, by replacing the liquid oil by a solid lipid.

[0151] Suitable neutral and anionic lipids include, but are not limited to, sterols and lipids such as cholesterol, phospholipids, lysolipids, lysophospholipids, sphingolipids or pegylated lipids. Neutral and anionic lipids include, but are not limited to, phosphatidylcholine (PC) (such as egg PC, soy PC), including 1 ,2-diacyl- glycero-3-phosphocholines; phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol (PI); glycolipids; sphingophospholipids such as sphingomyelin and sphingogly colipids (also known as l-ceramidyl glucosides) such as ceramide galactopyranoside, gangliosides and cerebrosides; fatty acids, sterols, containing a carboxylic acid group for example, cholesterol; 1 , 2-diacyl-sn-gly cero-3 - phosphoethanolamine, including, but not limited to, 1 ,2-dioleylphosphoethanolamine (DOPE), 1 ,2-dihexadecylphosphoethanolamine (DHPE), 1 ,2- distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC), 1 ,2-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), and 1 ,2-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). The lipids can also include various natural (e.g., tissue derived L-a-phosphatidyl: egg yolk, heart, brain, liver, soybean) and/or synthetic (e.g., saturated and unsaturated 1 ,2-di acyl - v//-gl y cero-3 - phosphocholines, l-acyl-2-acyl-s«-glycero-3-phosphocholines, l,2-diheptanoyl-SN- gly cero-3 -phosphocholine) derivatives of the lipids.

[0152] Suitable cationic lipids include, but are not limited to, N-[l-(2,3- dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethyl ammonium salts, also references as TAP lipids, for example methylsulfate salt. Suitable TAP lipids include, but are not limited to, DOTAP (dioleoyl-), DMTAP (dimyristoyl-), DPTAP (dipalmitoyl-), and DSTAP (distearoyl-). Suitable cationic lipids in the liposomes include, but are not limited to, dimethyldioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDAB), 1 ,2-diacyloxy-3- trimethylammonium propanes, N-[l-(2,3-dioloyloxy)propyl]-N,N-dimethyl amine (DODAP), 1 ,2-diacyloxy-3-dimethylammonium propanes, N-[l-(2,3- dioleyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (DOTMA), 1 ,2-dialkyloxy- 3-dimethylammonium propanes, dioctadecylamidoglycylspermine (DOGS), 3 -[N- (N',N'-dimethylamino-ethane)carbamoyl]cholesterol (DC-Chol); 2,3-dioleoyloxy-N- (2-(sperminecarboxamido)-ethyl)-N,N-dimethyl- 1 -propanaminium trifluoro-acetate (DOSPA), b-alanyl cholesterol, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), diCi 4 - amidine, N-ferf-butyl-N'-tetradecyl-3-tetradecylamino-propionamidine, N-(alpha- trimethylammonioacetyl)didodecyl-D-glutamate chloride (TMAG), ditetradecanoyl- N-(trimethylammonio-acetyl)diethanolamine chloride, 1 ,3-dioleoyloxy-2-(6-carboxy- spermyl)-propylamide (DOSPER), and N , N , N' , N'-tetramethyl- , N'-bis(2- hydroxylethyl)-2,3-dioleoyloxy-l ,4-butanediammonium iodide. In one embodiment, the cationic lipids can be l-[2-(acyloxy)ethyl]2-alkyl(alkenyl)-3 -(2-hydroxy ethyl)- imidazolinium chloride derivatives, for example, l-[2-(9(Z)-octadecenoyloxy)ethyl]- 2-(8(Z)-heptadecenyl-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)imidazolinium chloride (DOTIM), and l-[2- (hexadecanoyloxy)ethyl]-2-pentadecyl-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)imida zolinium chloride (DPTIM). In one embodiment, the cationic lipids can be 2,3-dialkyloxypropyl quaternary ammonium compound derivatives containing a hydroxyalkyl moiety on the quaternary amine, for example, 1 ,2-dioleoyl-3 -dimethyl-hydroxy ethyl ammonium bromide (DORI), 1 ,2-dioleyloxypropyl-3 -dimethyl-hydroxy ethyl ammonium bromide (DORIE), 1 ,2-dioleyloxypropyl-3-dimetyl-hydroxypropyl ammonium bromide (DORIE-HP), 1 ,2-dioleyl-oxy-propyl-3-dimethyl-hydroxybutyl ammonium bromide (DORIE-HB), 1 ,2-dioleyloxypropyl-3-dimethyl-hydroxypentyl ammonium bromide (DORIE-Hpe), 1 ,2-dimyristyloxypropyl-3-dimethyl-hydroxylethyl ammonium bromide (DMRIE), 1 ,2-dipalmityloxypropyl-3 -dimethyl-hydroxy ethyl ammonium bromide (DPRIE), and 1 ,2-disteryloxypropyl-3-dimethyl-hydroxyethyl ammonium bromide (DSRIE).

[0153] Suitable solid lipids include, but are not limited to, higher saturated alcohols, higher fatty acids, sphingolipids, synthetic esters, and mono-, di-, and triglycerides of higher saturated fatty acids. Solid lipids can include aliphatic alcohols having 10-40, for example, 12-30 carbon atoms, such as cetostearyl alcohol. Solid lipids can include higher fatty acids of 10-40, for example, 12-30 carbon atoms, such as stearic acid, palmitic acid, decanoic acid, and behenic acid. Solid lipids can include glycerides, including monoglycerides, diglycerides, and triglycerides, of higher saturated fatty acids having 10-40, for example, 12-30 carbon atoms, such as glyceryl monostearate, glycerol behenate, glycerol palmitostearate, glycerol trilaurate, tricaprin, trilaurin, trimyristin, tripalmitin, tristearin, and hydrogenated castor oil. Suitable solid lipids can include cetyl palmitate, beeswax, or cyclodextrin.

[0154] Amphiphilic compounds include, but are not limited to, phospholipids, such as 1,2 distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DSPE),

dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC), diarachidoylphosphatidylcholine (DAPC), dibehenoylphosphatidylcholine (DBPC), ditricosanoylphosphatidylcholine (DTPC), and dilignoceroylphatidylcholine (DLPC), incorporated at a ratio of between 0.01-60 (weight lipid/w polymer), for example, between 0.1-30 (weight lipid/w polymer). Phospholipids that may be used include, but are not limited to, phosphatidic acids, phosphatidyl cholines with both saturated and unsaturated lipids, phosphatidyl ethanolamines, phosphatidylglycerols,

phosphatidyl serines, phosphatidylinositols, lysophosphatidyl derivatives, cardiolipin, and b-acyl-y-alkyl phospholipids. Examples of phospholipids include, but are not limited to, phosphatidylcholines such as dioleoylphosphatidylcholine,

dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, dipentadecanoylphosphatidylcholine

dilauroylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC),

distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC), diarachidoylphosphatidylcholine (DAPC), dibehenoylphosphatidylcho- line (DBPC), ditricosanoylphosphatidylcholine (DTPC), dilignoceroylphatidylcholine (DLPC); and phosphatidylethanolamines such as dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine or 1 -hexadecyl-2-palmitoylglycerophos- phoethanolamine. Synthetic phospholipids with asymmetric acyl chains (e.g., with one acyl chain of 6 carbons and another acyl chain of 12 carbons) may also be used.

D. Additional Active Agents

[0155] The particles can contain one or more additional active agents in addition to those in the conjugates. The additional active agents can be therapeutic, prophylactic, diagnostic, or nutritional agents as listed above. The additional active agents can be present in any amount, e.g. from about 0.5% to about 90%, from about 0.5% to about 50%, from about 0.5% to about 25%, from about 0.5% to about 20%, from about 0.5% to about 10%, or from about 5% to about 10% (w/w) based upon the weight of the particle. In one embodiment, the agents are incorporated in an about 0.5% to about 10% loading w/w.

E. Additional Targeting Moieties

[0156] The particles can contain one or more targeting moieties targeting the particle to a specific organ, tissue, cell type, or subcellular compartment in addition to the targeting moieties of the conjugate. The additional targeting moieties can be present on the surface of the particle, on the interior of the particle, or both. The additional targeting moieties can be immobilized on the surface of the particle, e.g., can be covalently attached to polymer or lipid in the particle. In some embodiments, the additional targeting moieties are covalently attached to an amphiphilic polymer or a lipid such that the targeting moieties are oriented on the surface of the particle.

F. Methods of Making Particles

[0157] In various embodiments, a method of making the particles includes providing any method disclosed in W02014/106208 and W02016/004043, the contents of each of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

III. Formulations

[0158] In some embodiments, compositions are administered to humans, human patients or subjects. For the purposes of the present disclosure, the phrase“active ingredient” generally refers to the conjugate or particles comprising the conjugates to be delivered as described herein.

[0159] Although the descriptions of pharmaceutical compositions provided herein are principally directed to pharmaceutical compositions which are suitable for administration to humans, it will be understood by the skilled artisan that such compositions are generally suitable for administration to any other animal, e.g., to non-human animals, e.g. non-human mammals. Modification of pharmaceutical compositions suitable for administration to humans in order to render the

compositions suitable for administration to various animals is well understood, and the ordinarily skilled veterinary pharmacologist can design and/or perform such modification with merely ordinary, if any, experimentation. Subjects to which administration of the pharmaceutical compositions is contemplated include, but are not limited to, humans and/or other primates; mammals, including commercially relevant mammals such as cattle, pigs, horses, sheep, cats, dogs, mice, and/or rats; and/or birds, including commercially relevant birds such as poultry, chickens, ducks, geese, and/or turkeys.

[0160] Formulations of the pharmaceutical compositions described herein may be prepared by any method known or hereafter developed in the art of pharmacology. In general, such preparatory methods include the step of bringing the active ingredient into association with an excipient and/or one or more other accessory ingredients, and then, if necessary and/or desirable, dividing, shaping and/or packaging the product into a desired single- or multi-dose unit.

[0161] A pharmaceutical composition in accordance with the invention may be prepared, packaged, and/or sold in bulk, as a single unit dose, and/or as a plurality of single unit doses. As used herein, a“unit dose” is discrete amount of the

pharmaceutical composition comprising a predetermined amount of the active ingredient. The amount of the active ingredient is generally equal to the dosage of the active ingredient which would be administered to a subject and/or a convenient fraction of such a dosage such as, for example, one-half or one-third of such a dosage.

[0162] Relative amounts of the active ingredient, the pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, and/or any additional ingredients in a pharmaceutical composition in accordance with the invention will vary, depending upon the identity, size, and/or condition of the subject treated and further depending upon the route by which the composition is to be administered. By way of example, the composition may comprise between 0.1% and 100%, e.g., between .5 and 50%, between 1-30%, between 5-80%, at least 80% (w/w) active ingredient.

[0163] The conjugates or particles of the present invention can be formulated using one or more excipients to: (1) increase stability; (2) permit the sustained or delayed release (e.g., from a depot formulation of the monomaleimide); (3) alter the biodistribution (e.g., target the monomaleimide compounds to specific tissues or cell types); (4) alter the release profile of the monomaleimide compounds in vivo. Non limiting examples of the excipients include any and all solvents, dispersion media, diluents, or other liquid vehicles, dispersion or suspension aids, surface active agents, isotonic agents, thickening or emulsifying agents, and preservatives. Excipients of the present invention may also include, without limitation, lipidoids, liposomes, lipid nanoparticles, polymers, lipoplexes, core-shell nanoparticles, peptides, proteins, hyaluronidase, nanoparticle mimics and combinations thereof. Accordingly, the formulations of the invention may include one or more excipients, each in an amount that together increases the stability of the monomaleimide compounds.

Excipients

[0164] Pharmaceutical formulations may additionally comprise a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, which, as used herein, includes any and all solvents, dispersion media, diluents, or other liquid vehicles, dispersion or suspension aids, surface active agents, isotonic agents, thickening or emulsifying agents, preservatives, solid binders, lubricants and the like, as suited to the particular dosage form desired. Remington’s The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 2 lst Edition, A. R. Gennaro (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 2006; incorporated herein by reference in its entirety) discloses various excipients used in formulating pharmaceutical

compositions and known techniques for the preparation thereof. Except insofar as any conventional excipient medium is incompatible with a substance or its derivatives, such as by producing any undesirable biological effect or otherwise interacting in a deleterious manner with any other component(s) of the pharmaceutical composition, its use is contemplated to be within the scope of this invention.

[0165] In some embodiments, a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient is at least 95%, at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98%, at least 99%, or 100% pure. In some embodiments, an excipient is approved for use in humans and for veterinary use. In some embodiments, an excipient is approved by ETnited States Food and Drug Administration. In some embodiments, an excipient is pharmaceutical grade. In some embodiments, an excipient meets the standards of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP), the European Pharmacopoeia (EP), the British Pharmacopoeia, and/or the International Pharmacopoeia.

[0166] Pharmaceutically acceptable excipients used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical compositions include, but are not limited to, inert diluents, dispersing and/or granulating agents, surface active agents and/or emulsifiers, disintegrating agents, binding agents, preservatives, buffering agents, lubricating agents, and/or oils. Such excipients may optionally be included in pharmaceutical compositions.

[0167] Exemplary diluents include, but are not limited to, calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, calcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, calcium sulfate, calcium hydrogen phosphate, sodium phosphate lactose, sucrose, cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, kaolin, mannitol, sorbitol, inositol, sodium chloride, dry starch, cornstarch, powdered sugar, etc., and/or combinations thereof.

[0168] Exemplary granulating and/or dispersing agents include, but are not limited to, potato starch, corn starch, tapioca starch, sodium starch glycolate, clays, alginic acid, guar gum, citrus pulp, agar, bentonite, cellulose and wood products, natural sponge, cation-exchange resins, calcium carbonate, silicates, sodium carbonate, cross- linked poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) (crospovidone), sodium carboxymethyl starch (sodium starch glycolate), carboxymethyl cellulose, cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (croscarmellose), methylcellulose, pregelatinized starch (starch 1500), microcrystalline starch, water insoluble starch, calcium carboxymethyl cellulose, magnesium aluminum silicate (VEEGUM®), sodium lauryl sulfate, quaternary ammonium compounds, etc., and/or combinations thereof.

[0169] Exemplary surface active agents and/or emulsifiers include, but are not limited to, natural emulsifiers (e.g. acacia, agar, alginic acid, sodium alginate, tragacanth, chondrux, cholesterol, xanthan, pectin, gelatin, egg yolk, casein, wool fat, cholesterol, wax, and lecithin), colloidal clays (e.g. bentonite [aluminum silicate] and VEEGUM® [magnesium aluminum silicate]), long chain amino acid derivatives, high molecular weight alcohols (e.g. stearyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, oleyl alcohol, triacetin monostearate, ethylene glycol distearate, glyceryl monostearate, and propylene glycol monostearate, polyvinyl alcohol), carbomers (e.g. carboxy polymethylene, polyacrylic acid, acrylic acid polymer, and carboxyvinyl polymer), carrageenan, cellulosic derivatives (e.g. carboxymethylcellulose sodium, powdered cellulose, hydroxymethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methylcellulose), sorbitan fatty acid esters (e.g. polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate [TWEEN®20], polyoxyethylene sorbitan [TWEEN®60], polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate

[TWEEN®80], sorbitan monopalmitate [SPAN®40], sorbitan monostearate

[SPAN®60], sorbitan tristearate [SPAN®65], glyceryl monooleate, sorbitan monooleate [SPAN®80]), polyoxyethylene esters (e.g. polyoxyethylene monostearate [MYRJ®45], polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil, polyethoxylated castor oil, polyoxymethylene stearate, and SOLUTOL®), sucrose fatty acid esters, polyethylene glycol fatty acid esters (e.g. CREMOPHOR®), polyoxyethylene ethers, (e.g.

polyoxyethylene lauryl ether [BRIJ®30]), poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone), di ethylene glycol monolaurate, triethanolamine oleate, sodium oleate, potassium oleate, ethyl oleate, oleic acid, ethyl laurate, sodium lauryl sulfate, PLUORINC®F 68, POLOXAMER®l88, cetrimonium bromide, cetylpyridinium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, docusate sodium, etc. and/or combinations thereof.

[0170] Exemplary binding agents include, but are not limited to, starch (e.g.

cornstarch and starch paste); gelatin; sugars (e.g. sucrose, glucose, dextrose, dextrin, molasses, lactose, lactitol, mannitol,); natural and synthetic gums (e.g. acacia, sodium alginate, extract of Irish moss, panwar gum, ghatti gum, mucilage of isapol husks, carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, ethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, cellulose acetate, poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone), magnesium aluminum silicate (Veegum®), and larch arabogalactan); alginates; polyethylene oxide; polyethylene glycol;

inorganic calcium salts; silicic acid; polymethacrylates; waxes; water; alcohol; etc.; and combinations thereof.

[0171] Exemplary preservatives may include, but are not limited to, antioxidants, chelating agents, antimicrobial preservatives, antifungal preservatives, alcohol preservatives, acidic preservatives, and/or other preservatives. Exemplary antioxidants include, but are not limited to, alpha tocopherol, ascorbic acid, acorbyl palmitate, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, monothioglycerol, potassium metabi sulfite, propionic acid, propyl gallate, sodium ascorbate, sodium bisulfite, sodium metabi sulfite, and/or sodium sulfite. Exemplary chelating agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid monohydrate, disodium edetate, dipotassium edetate, edetic acid, fumaric acid, malic acid, phosphoric acid, sodium edetate, tartaric acid, and/or trisodium edetate. Exemplary antimicrobial preservatives include, but are not limited to, benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, benzyl alcohol, bronopol, cetrimide, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine, chlorobutanol, chlorocresol, chloroxylenol, cresol, ethyl alcohol, glycerin, hexetidine, imidurea, phenol, phenoxyethanol, phenylethyl alcohol, phenylmercuric nitrate, propylene glycol, and/or thimerosal. Exemplary antifungal preservatives include, but are not limited to, butyl paraben, methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, propyl paraben, benzoic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, potassium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium propionate, and/or sorbic acid. Exemplary alcohol preservatives include, but are not limited to, ethanol, polyethylene glycol, phenol, phenolic compounds, bisphenol, chlorobutanol, hydroxybenzoate, and/or phenylethyl alcohol. Exemplary acidic preservatives include, but are not limited to, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, citric acid, acetic acid, dehydroacetic acid, ascorbic acid, sorbic acid, and/or phytic acid. Other preservatives include, but are not limited to, tocopherol, tocopherol acetate, deteroxime mesylate, cetrimide, butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluened (BHT), ethylenediamine, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), sodium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite, potassium sulfite, potassium metabi sulfite, GLYDANT PLUS®, PHENONIP®, methylparaben, GERMALL® 115, GERMABEN®II, NEOLONE™, KATHON™, and/or EUXYL®.

[0172] Exemplary buffering agents include, but are not limited to, citrate buffer solutions, acetate buffer solutions, phosphate buffer solutions, ammonium chloride, calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, calcium citrate, calcium glubionate, calcium gluceptate, calcium gluconate, D-gluconic acid, calcium glycerophosphate, calcium lactate, propanoic acid, calcium levulinate, pentanoic acid, dibasic calcium phosphate, phosphoric acid, tribasic calcium phosphate, calcium hydroxide phosphate, potassium acetate, potassium chloride, potassium gluconate, potassium mixtures, dibasic potassium phosphate, monobasic potassium phosphate, potassium phosphate mixtures, sodium acetate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride, sodium citrate, sodium lactate, dibasic sodium phosphate, monobasic sodium phosphate, sodium phosphate mixtures, tromethamine, magnesium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide, alginic acid, pyrogen-free water, isotonic saline, Ringer’s solution, ethyl alcohol, etc., and/or combinations thereof.

[0173] Exemplary lubricating agents include, but are not limited to, magnesium stearate, calcium stearate, stearic acid, silica, talc, malt, glyceryl behanate, hydrogenated vegetable oils, polyethylene glycol, sodium benzoate, sodium acetate, sodium chloride, leucine, magnesium lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, etc., and combinations thereof.

[0174] Exemplary oils include, but are not limited to, almond, apricot kernel, avocado, babassu, bergamot, black current seed, borage, cade, camomile, canola, caraway, carnauba, castor, cinnamon, cocoa butter, coconut, cod liver, coffee, com, cotton seed, emu, eucalyptus, evening primrose, fish, flaxseed, geraniol, gourd, grape seed, hazel nut, hyssop, isopropyl my ri state, jojoba, kukui nut, lavandin, lavender, lemon, litsea cubeba, macademia nut, mallow, mango seed, meadowfoam seed, mink, nutmeg, olive, orange, orange roughy, palm, palm kernel, peach kernel, peanut, poppy seed, pumpkin seed, rapeseed, rice bran, rosemary, safflower, sandalwood, sasquana, savoury, sea buckthorn, sesame, shea butter, silicone, soybean, sunflower, tea tree, thistle, tsubaki, vetiver, walnut, and wheat germ oils. Exemplary oils include, but are not limited to, butyl stearate, caprylic triglyceride, capric triglyceride, cyclomethicone, diethyl sebacate, dimethicone 360, isopropyl myristate, mineral oil, octyl dodecanol, oleyl alcohol, silicone oil, and/or combinations thereof.

[0175] Excipients such as cocoa butter and suppository waxes, coloring agents, coating agents, sweetening, flavoring, and/or perfuming agents can be present in the composition, according to the judgment of the formulator.

Administration

[0176] The conjugates or particles of the present invention may be administered by any route which results in a therapeutically effective outcome. These include, but are not limited to enteral, gastroenteral, epidural, oral, transdermal, epidural (peridural), intracerebral (into the cerebrum), intracerebroventricular (into the cerebral ventricles), epicutaneous (application onto the skin), intradermal, (into the skin itself), subcutaneous (under the skin), nasal administration (through the nose), intravenous (into a vein), intraarterial (into an artery), intramuscular (into a muscle), intracardiac (into the heart), intraosseous infusion (into the bone marrow), intrathecal (into the spinal canal), intraperitoneal, (infusion or injection into the peritoneum), intravesical infusion, intravitreal, (through the eye), intracavernous injection, ( into the base of the penis), intravaginal administration, intrauterine, extra-amniotic administration, transdermal (diffusion through the intact skin for systemic distribution), transmucosal (diffusion through a mucous membrane), insufflation (snorting), sublingual, sublabial, enema, eye drops (onto the conjunctiva), or in ear drops. In specific embodiments, compositions may be administered in a way which allows them cross the blood-brain barrier, vascular barrier, or other epithelial barrier.

[0177] The formulations described herein contain an effective amount of conjugates or particles in a pharmaceutical carrier appropriate for administration to an individual in need thereof. The formulations may be administered parenterally (e.g., by injection or infusion). The formulations or variations thereof may be administered in any manner including enterally, topically (e.g., to the eye), or via pulmonary administration. In some embodiments the formulations are administered topically.

A. Parenteral Formulations

[0178] The conjugates or particles can be formulated for parenteral delivery, such as injection or infusion, in the form of a solution, suspension or emulsion. The formulation can be administered systemically, regionally or directly to the organ or tissue to be treated. [0179] Parenteral formulations can be prepared as aqueous compositions using techniques is known in the art. Typically, such compositions can be prepared as injectable formulations, for example, solutions or suspensions; solid forms suitable for using to prepare solutions or suspensions upon the addition of a reconstitution medium prior to injection; emulsions, such as water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions, oil-in water (o/w) emulsions, and microemulsions thereof, liposomes, or emulsomes.

[0180] The carrier can be a solvent or dispersion medium containing, for example, water, ethanol, one or more polyols (e.g., glycerol, propylene glycol, and liquid polyethylene glycol), oils, such as vegetable oils (e.g., peanut oil, corn oil, sesame oil, etc.), and combinations thereof. The proper fluidity can be maintained, for example, by the use of a coating, such as lecithin, by the maintenance of the required particle size in the case of dispersion and/or by the use of surfactants. In some cases, an isotonic agent is included, for example, one or more sugars, sodium chloride, or other suitable agent known in the art.

[0181] Solutions and dispersions of the conjugates or particles can be prepared in water or another solvent or dispersing medium suitably mixed with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients including, but not limited to, surfactants, dispersants, emulsifiers, pH modifying agents, and combinations thereof.

[0182] Suitable surfactants may be anionic, cationic, amphoteric or nonionic surface active agents. Suitable anionic surfactants include, but are not limited to, those containing carboxylate, sulfonate and sulfate ions. Examples of anionic surfactants include sodium, potassium, ammonium of long chain alkyl sulfonates and alkyl aryl sulfonates such as sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate; dialkyl sodium sulfosuccinates, such as sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate; dialkyl sodium sulfosuccinates, such as sodium bis-(2-ethylthioxyl)-sulfosuccinate; and alkyl sulfates such as sodium lauryl sulfate. Cationic surfactants include, but are not limited to, quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, cetrimonium bromide, stearyl dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride, polyoxyethylene and coconut amine. Examples of nonionic surfactants include ethylene glycol monostearate, propylene glycol myristate, glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl stearate, polyglyceryl-4- oleate, sorbitan acylate, sucrose acylate, PEG- 150 laurate, PEG-400 monolaurate, polyoxyethylene monolaurate, polysorbates, polyoxyethylene octylphenyl ether, PEG- 1000 cetyl ether, polyoxyethylene tridecyl ether, polypropylene glycol butyl ether, Poloxamer® 401, stearoyl monoisopropanolamide, and polyoxyethylene hydrogenated tallow amide. Examples of amphoteric surfactants include sodium N- dodecyl-P-alanine, sodium N-lauryl-b-ί mi nodi propionate, myristoamphoacetate, lauryl betaine and lauryl sulfobetaine.

[0183] The formulation can contain a preservative to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Suitable preservatives include, but are not limited to, parabens, chlorobutanol, phenol, sorbic acid, and thimerosal. The formulation may also contain an antioxidant to prevent degradation of the active agent(s) or particles.

[0184] The formulation is typically buffered to a pH of 3-8 for parenteral administration upon reconstitution. Suitable buffers include, but are not limited to, phosphate buffers, acetate buffers, and citrate buffers. If using 10% sucrose or 5% dextrose, a buffer may not be required.

[0185] Water soluble polymers are often used in formulations for parenteral administration. Suitable water-soluble polymers include, but are not limited to, polyvinylpyrrolidone, dextran, carboxymethylcellulose, and polyethylene glycol.

[0186] Sterile injectable solutions can be prepared by incorporating the conjugates or particles in the required amount in the appropriate solvent or dispersion medium with one or more of the excipients listed above, as required, followed by filtered sterilization. Generally, dispersions are prepared by incorporating the various sterilized conjugates or particles into a sterile vehicle which contains the basic dispersion medium and the required other ingredients from those listed above. In the case of sterile powders for the preparation of sterile injectable solutions, examples of methods of preparation include vacuum-drying and freeze-drying techniques that yield a powder of the particle plus any additional desired ingredient from a previously sterile-filtered solution thereof. The powders can be prepared in such a manner that the particles are porous in nature, which can increase dissolution of the particles. Methods for making porous particles are known in the art.

[0187] Pharmaceutical formulations for parenteral administration can be in the form of a sterile aqueous solution or suspension of conjugates or particles formed from one or more polymer-drug conjugates. Acceptable solvents include, for example, water, Ringer's solution, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and isotonic sodium chloride solution. The formulation may also be a sterile solution, suspension, or emulsion in a nontoxic, parenterally acceptable diluent or solvent such as 1,3- butanediol. [0188] In some instances, the formulation is distributed or packaged in a liquid form. Alternatively, formulations for parenteral administration can be packed as a solid, obtained, for example by lyophilization of a suitable liquid formulation. The solid can be reconstituted with an appropriate carrier or diluent prior to

administration.

[0189] Solutions, suspensions, or emulsions for parenteral administration may be buffered with an effective amount of buffer necessary to maintain a pH suitable for ocular administration. Suitable buffers are well known by those skilled in the art and some examples of useful buffers are acetate, borate, carbonate, citrate, and phosphate buffers.

[0190] Solutions, suspensions, or emulsions for parenteral administration may also contain one or more tonicity agents to adjust the isotonic range of the formulation. Suitable tonicity agents are well known in the art and some examples include glycerin, sucrose, dextrose, mannitol, sorbitol, sodium chloride, and other electrolytes.

[0191] Solutions, suspensions, or emulsions for parenteral administration may also contain one or more preservatives to prevent bacterial contamination of the ophthalmic preparations. Suitable preservatives are known in the art, and include polyhexamethylenebiguanidine (PHMB), benzalkonium chloride (BAK), stabilized oxychloro complexes (otherwise known as Purite®), phenylmercuric acetate, chlorobutanol, sorbic acid, chlorhexidine, benzyl alcohol, parabens, thimerosal, and mixtures thereof.

[0192] Solutions, suspensions, or emulsions for parenteral administration may also contain one or more excipients known art, such as dispersing agents, wetting agents, and suspending agents.

B. Mucosal Topical Formulations

[0193] The conjugates or particles can be formulated for topical administration to a mucosal surface Suitable dosage forms for topical administration include creams, ointments, salves, sprays, gels, lotions, emulsions, liquids, and transdermal patches. The formulation may be formulated for transmucosal transepithelial, or

transendothelial administration. The compositions contain one or more chemical penetration enhancers, membrane permeability agents, membrane transport agents, emollients, surfactants, stabilizers, and combination thereof. In some embodiments, the conjugates or particles can be administered as a liquid formulation, such as a solution or suspension, a semi-solid formulation, such as a lotion or ointment, or a solid formulation. In some embodiments, the conjugates or particles are formulated as liquids, including solutions and suspensions, such as eye drops or as a semi-solid formulation, to the mucosa, such as the eye or vaginally or rectally.

[0194] “ Surfactants” are surface-active agents that lower surface tension and thereby increase the emulsifying, foaming, dispersing, spreading and wetting properties of a product. Suitable non-ionic surfactants include emulsifying wax, glyceryl monooleate, polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivatives, polysorbate, sorbitan esters, benzyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate,

cyclodextrins, glycerin monostearate, poloxamer, povidone and combinations thereof. In one embodiment, the non-ionic surfactant is stearyl alcohol.

[0195] “Emulsifiers” are surface active substances which promote the suspension of one liquid in another and promote the formation of a stable mixture, or emulsion, of oil and water. Common emulsifiers are: metallic soaps, certain animal and vegetable oils, and various polar compounds. Suitable emulsifiers include acacia, anionic emulsifying wax, calcium stearate, carbomers, cetostearyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cholesterol, diethanolamine, ethylene glycol palmitostearate, glycerin monostearate, glyceryl monooleate, hydroxpropyl cellulose, hypromellose, lanolin, hydrous, lanolin alcohols, lecithin, medium-chain triglycerides, methylcellulose, mineral oil and lanolin alcohols, monobasic sodium phosphate, monoethanolamine, nonionic emulsifying wax, oleic acid, poloxamer, poloxamers, polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivatives, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid esters, polyoxyethylene stearates, propylene glycol alginate, self-emulsifying glyceryl monostearate, sodium citrate dehydrate, sodium lauryl sulfate, sorbitan esters, stearic acid, sunflower oil, tragacanth, triethanolamine, xanthan gum and combinations thereof. In one embodiment, the emulsifier is glycerol stearate.

[0196] Suitable classes of penetration enhancers are known in the art and include, but are not limited to, fatty alcohols, fatty acid esters, fatty acids, fatty alcohol ethers, amino acids, phospholipids, lecithins, cholate salts, enzymes, amines and amides, complexing agents (liposomes, cyclodextrins, modified celluloses, and diimides), macrocyclics, such as macrocylic lactones, ketones, and anhydrides and cyclic ureas, surfactants, N-methyl pyrrolidones and derivatives thereof, DMSO and related compounds, ionic compounds, azone and related compounds, and solvents, such as alcohols, ketones, amides, polyols (e.g., glycols). Examples of these classes are known in the art. Dosing

[0197] The present invention provides methods comprising administering conjugates or particles containing the conjugate as described herein to a subject in need thereof. Conjugates or particles containing the conjugates as described herein may be administered to a subject using any amount and any route of administration effective for preventing or treating or imaging a disease, disorder, and/or condition (e.g., a disease, disorder, and/or condition relating to working memory deficits). The exact amount required will vary from subject to subject, depending on the species, age, and general condition of the subject, the severity of the disease, the particular composition, its mode of administration, its mode of activity, and the like.

[0198] Compositions in accordance with the invention are typically formulated in dosage unit form for ease of administration and uniformity of dosage. It will be understood, however, that the total daily usage of the compositions of the present invention may be decided by the attending physician within the scope of sound medical judgment. The specific therapeutically effective, prophylactically effective, or appropriate imaging dose level for any particular patient will depend upon a variety of factors including the disorder being treated and the severity of the disorder; the activity of the specific compound employed; the specific composition employed; the age, body weight, general health, sex and diet of the patient; the time of

administration, route of administration, and rate of excretion of the specific compound employed; the duration of the treatment; drugs used in combination or coincidental with the specific compound employed; and like factors well known in the medical arts.

[0199] In some embodiments, compositions in accordance with the present invention may be administered at dosage levels sufficient to deliver from about 0.0001 mg/kg to about 100 mg/kg, from about 0.001 mg/kg to about 0.05 mg/kg, from about 0.005 mg/kg to about 0.05 mg/kg, from about 0.001 mg/kg to about 0.005 mg/kg, from about 0.05 mg/kg to about 0.5 mg/kg, from about 0.01 mg/kg to about 50 mg/kg, from about 0.1 mg/kg to about 40 mg/kg, from about 0.5 mg/kg to about 30 mg/kg, from about 0.01 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg, from about 0.1 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg, or from about 1 mg/kg to about 25 mg/kg, from about 25 mg/kg to about 50 mg/kg, from about 50 mg/kg to about 100 mg/kg, from about 100 mg/kg to about 125 mg/kg, from about 125 mg/kg to about 150 mg/kg, from about 150 mg/ to about 175 mg/kg, from about 175 mg/kg to about 200 mg/kg, from about 200 mg/kg to about 250 mg/kg of subject body weight per day, one or more times a day, to obtain the desired therapeutic, diagnostic, prophylactic, or imaging effect. The desired dosage may be delivered three times a day, two times a day, once a day, every other day, every third day, every week, every two weeks, every three weeks, or every four weeks. In some embodiments, the desired dosage may be delivered using multiple administrations (e.g., two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, or more administrations). When multiple administrations are employed, split dosing regimens such as those described herein may be used.

[0200] The concentration of the conjugates or particles of the present invention may be between about 0.01 mg/mL to about 50 mg/mL, about 0.1 mg/mL to about 25 mg/mL, about 0.5 mg/mL to about 10 mg/mL, or about 1 mg/mL to about 5 mg/mL in the pharmaceutical composition.

[0201] As used herein, a“split dose” is the division of single unit dose or total daily dose into two or more doses, e.g, two or more administrations of the single unit dose. As used herein, a“single unit dose” is a dose of any therapeutic administed in one dose/at one time/single route/single point of contact, i.e., single administration event. As used herein, a“total daily dose” is an amount given or prescribed in 24 hr period. It may be administered as a single unit dose. In one embodiment, the monomaleimide compounds of the present invention are administed to a subject in split doses. The monomaleimide compounds may be formulated in buffer only or in a formulation described herein.

Dosage Forms

[0202] A pharmaceutical composition described herein can be formulated into a dosage form described herein, such as a topical, intranasal, intratracheal, or injectable (e.g., intravenous, intraocular, intravitreal, intramuscular, intracardiac, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous).

Liquid dosage forms

[0203] Liquid dosage forms for parenteral administration include, but are not limited to, pharmaceutically acceptable emulsions, microemulsions, solutions, suspensions, syrups, and/or elixirs. In addition to active ingredients, liquid dosage forms may comprise inert diluents commonly used in the art including, but not limited to, water or other solvents, solubilizing agents and emulsifiers such as ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl carbonate, ethyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, propylene glycol, 1, 3-butylene glycol, dimethylformamide, oils (in particular, cottonseed, groundnut, com, germ, olive, castor, and sesame oils), glycerol, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, polyethylene glycols and fatty acid esters of sorbitan, and mixtures thereof. In certain embodiments for parenteral administration, compositions may be mixed with solubilizing agents such as CREMOPHOR®, alcohols, oils, modified oils, glycols, polysorbates, cyclodextrins, polymers, and/or combinations thereof.

Injectable

[0204] Injectable preparations, for example, sterile injectable aqueous or oleaginous suspensions may be formulated according to the known art and may include suitable dispersing agents, wetting agents, and/or suspending agents. Sterile injectable preparations may be sterile injectable solutions, suspensions, and/or emulsions in nontoxic parenterally acceptable diluents and/or solvents, for example, a solution in l,3-butanediol. Among the acceptable vehicles and solvents that may be employed include, but are not limited to, water, Ringer's solution, U.S.P., and isotonic sodium chloride solution. Sterile, fixed oils are conventionally employed as a solvent or suspending medium. For this purpose any bland fixed oil can be employed including synthetic mono- or diglycerides. Fatty acids such as oleic acid can be used in the preparation of injectables.

[0205] Injectable formulations can be sterilized, for example, by filtration through a bacterial-retaining filter, and/or by incorporating sterilizing agents in the form of sterile solid compositions which can be dissolved or dispersed in sterile water or other sterile injectable medium prior to use.

[0206] In order to prolong the effect of an active ingredient, it may be desirable to slow the absorption of the active ingredient from subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. This may be accomplished by the use of a liquid suspension of crystalline or amorphous material with poor water solubility. The rate of absorption of the monomaleimide compounds then depends upon its rate of dissolution which, in turn, may depend upon crystal size and crystalline form. Alternatively, delayed absorption of a parenterally administered monomaleimide compound may be accomplished by dissolving or suspending the monomalimide in an oil vehicle. Injectable depot forms are made by forming microencapsule matrices of the monomaleimide compounds in biodegradable polymers such as polylactide-polyglycolide. Depending upon the ratio of monomaleimide compounds to polymer and the nature of the particular polymer employed, the rate of monomaleimide compound release can be controlled. Examples of other biodegradable polymers include, but are not limited to, poly(orthoesters) and poly(anhydrides). Depot injectable formulations may be prepared by entrapping the monomaleimide compounds in liposomes or microemulsions which are compatible with body tissues.

Pulmonary

[0207] Formulations described herein as being useful for pulmonary delivery may also be used for intranasal delivery of a pharmaceutical composition. Another formulation suitable for intranasal administration may be a coarse powder comprising the active ingredient and having an average particle from about 0.2 pm to 500 pm. Such a formulation may be administered in the manner in which snuff is taken, i.e. by rapid inhalation through the nasal passage from a container of the powder held close to the nose.

[0208] Formulations suitable for nasal administration may, for example, comprise from about as little as 0.1% (w/w) and as much as 100% (w/w) of active ingredient, and may comprise one or more of the additional ingredients described herein. A pharmaceutical composition may be prepared, packaged, and/or sold in a formulation suitable for buccal administration. Such formulations may, for example, be in the form of tablets and/or lozenges made using conventional methods, and may, for example, contain about 0.1% to 20% (w/w) active ingredient, where the balance may comprise an orally dissolvable and/or degradable composition and, optionally, one or more of the additional ingredients described herein. Alternately, formulations suitable for buccal administration may comprise a powder and/or an aerosolized and/or atomized solution and/or suspension comprising active ingredient. Such powdered, aerosolized, and/or aerosolized formulations, when dispersed, may have an average particle and/or droplet size in the range from about 0.1 nm to about 200 nm, and may further comprise one or more of any additional ingredients described herein.

[0209] General considerations in the formulation and/or manufacture of pharmaceutical agents may be found, for example, in Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy 2lst ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005 (incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

Coatings or Shells

[0210] Solid dosage forms of tablets, dragees, capsules, pills, and granules can be prepared with coatings and shells such as enteric coatings and other coatings well known in the pharmaceutical formulating art. They may optionally comprise opacifying agents and can be of a composition that they release the active

ingredient(s) only, or preferentially, in a certain part of the intestinal tract, optionally, in a delayed manner. Examples of embedding compositions which can be used include polymeric substances and waxes. Solid compositions of a similar type may be employed as fillers in soft and hard-filled gelatin capsules using such excipients as lactose or milk sugar as well as high molecular weight polyethylene glycols and the like.

VI. Methods of Using the Conjugates and Particles

[0211] The conjugates or particles as described herein can be administered to treat any hyperproliferative disease, metabolic disease, infectious disease, or cancer, as appropriate. Formulations may be administered by injection, orally, or topically, typically to a mucosal surface (lung, nasal, oral, buccal, sublingual, vaginally, rectally) or to the eye (intraocularly or transocularly).

[0212] In various embodiments, methods for treating a subject having a cancer are provided, wherein the method comprises administering a therapeutically-effective amount of the conjugates, salt forms thereof, or particles comprising such conjugates, as described herein, to a subject having a cancer, suspected of having cancer, or having a predisposition to a cancer. According to the present invention, cancer embraces any disease or malady characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation, e.g., hyperproliferation. Cancers may be characterized by tumors, e.g., solid tumors or any neoplasm.

[0213] In some embodiments, the cancer is a solid tumor. Large drug molecules have limited penetration in solid tumors. The penetration of large drug molecules is slow. On the other hand, small molecules such as conjugates of the present invention may penetrate solid tumors rapidly and more deeply. Regarding penetration depth of the drugs, larger molecules penetrate less, despite having more durable

pharmacokinetics. Small molecules such as conjugates of the present invention penetrate deeper. Dreher et al. (Dreher et ah, JNCI, vol.98(5):335 (2006), the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety) studied penetration of dextrans with different sizes into a tumor xenograft. As summarized in Fig. 6 and Table 1 of Dreher, Dextrans with a molecular weight of 3.3kDa or lOkDa showed rapid deep penetration into the tumor tissue (>35um from the vascular surface of the tumor). However, 40kDa, 70kDa or 2mDa sized dextrans penetrated much less than the 3.3kDa or lOkDa dextran. The 70kDa dextran reached only about l5um from the vascular surface of the tumor. Conjugates of the present invention have a molecule weight comparable to the 3.3kDa and lOkDa dextrans, while antibody drug conjugates have a molecule weight at least as big as the 70kDa dextran. Therefore, conjugates of the present invention may penetrate deep and rapidly into the core/center of the solid tumor.

[0214] In one embodiment, conjugates of the present invention reach at least about 25 pm, about 30 pm, about 35 pm, about 40 pm, about 45 pm, about 50 pm, about 75 pm, about 100 pm, about 150 pm, about 200 pm, about 250 pm, about 300 pm, about 400 pm, about 500 pm, about 600 pm, about 700 pm, about 800 pm, about 900 pm, about 1000 pm, about 1100 pm, about 1200 pm, about 1300 pm, about 1400 pm or about 1500 pm into the solid tumor from the vascular surface of the tumor. Zero distance is defined as the vascular surface of the tumor, and every distance greater than zero is defined as the distance measured in three dimensions to the nearest vascular surface.

[0215] In another embodiment, conjugates of the present invention penetrate to the core of the tumor.“Core” of the tumor, as used herein, refers to the central area of the tumor. The distance from any part of the core area of the tumor to the vascular surface of the tumor is between about 30% to about 50% of the length or width of the tumor. The distance from any part of the core area of the tumor to the center point of the tumor is less than about 20% of the length or width of the tumor. The core area of the tumor is roughly the center 1/3 of the tumor.

[0216] In another embodiment, conjugates of the present invention conjugates of the present invention penetrate to the middle of the solid tumor.“Middle” of the tumor, as sued herein, refers to the middle area of the tumor. The distance from any part of the middle area of the tumor to the vascular surface of the tumor is between about 15% and about 30% of the length or the width of the tumor. The distance from any part of the middle area of the tumor to the center point of the tumor is between about 20% to about 35% of the length or width of the tumor. The middle area of the tumor is roughly between the center 1/3 of the tumor and the outer 1/3 of the tumor.

[0217] In some embodiments, the subject may be otherwise free of indications for treatment with the conjugates or particles. In some embodiments, methods include use of cancer cells, including but not limited to mammalian cancer cells. In some instances, the mammalian cancer cells are human cancer cells. [0218] In some embodiments, the conjugates or particles of the present teachings have been found to inhibit cancer and/or tumor growth. They may also reduce, including cell proliferation, invasiveness, and/or metastasis, thereby rendering them useful for the treatment of a cancer.

[0219] In some embodiments, the conjugates or particles of the present teachings may be used to prevent the growth of a tumor or cancer, and/or to prevent the metastasis of a tumor or cancer. In some embodiments, compositions of the present teachings may be used to shrink or destroy a cancer.

[0220] In some embodiments, the conjugates or particles provided herein are useful for inhibiting proliferation of a cancer cell. In some embodiments, the conjugates or particles provided herein are useful for inhibiting cellular proliferation, e.g., inhibiting the rate of cellular proliferation, preventing cellular proliferation, and/or inducing cell death. In general, the conjugates or particles as described herein can inhibit cellular proliferation of a cancer cell or both inhibiting proliferation and/or inducing cell death of a cancer cell. In some embodiments, cell proliferation is reduced by at least about 25%, about 50%, about 75%, or about 90% after treatment with conjugates or particles of the present invention compared with cells with no treatment. In some embodiments, cell cycle arrest marker phospho histone H3 (PH3 or PHH3) is increased by at least about 50%, about 75%, about 100%, about 200%, about 400% or about 600% after treatment with conjugates or particles of the present invention compared with cells with no treatment. In some embodiments, cell apoptosis marker cleaved caspase-3 (CC3) is increased by at least 50%, about 75%, about 100%, about 200%, about 400% or about 600% after treatment with conjugates or particles of the present invention compared with cells with no treatment.

[0221] Furthermore, in some embodiments, conjugates or particles of the present invention are effective for inhibiting tumor growth, whether measured as a net value of size (weight, surface area or volume) or as a rate over time, in multiple types of tumors.

[0222] In some embodiments the size of a tumor is reduced by about 60 % or more after treatment with conjugates or particles of the present invention. In some embodiments, the size of a tumor is reduced by at least about 20%, at least about 30%, at least about 40%, at least about 50%, at least about 60%, at least about 70%, at least about 80%, at least about 90%, at least about 95%, at least about 96%, at least about 97%, at least about 98%, at least about 99%, at least about 100%, by a measure of weight, and/or area and/or volume.

[0223] The cancers treatable by methods of the present teachings generally occur in mammals. Mammals include, for example, humans, non-human primates, dogs, cats, rats, mice, rabbits, ferrets, guinea pigs horses, pigs, sheep, goats, and cattle. In various embodiments, Cancers include, but are not limited to, acoustic neuroma, acute leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myelocytic leukemia (monocytic, myeloblastic, adenocarcinoma, angiosarcoma, astrocytoma, myelomonocytic and promyelocytic), acute T-cell leukemia, basal cell carcinoma, bile duct carcinoma, bladder cancer, brain cancer, breast cancer, bronchogenic carcinoma, cervical cancer, chondrosarcoma, chordoma, choriocarcinoma, chronic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelocytic (granulocytic) leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, colon cancer, colorectal cancer, craniopharyngioma, cystadenocarcinoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma, dysproliferative changes (dysplasias and metaplasias), embryonal carcinoma, endometrial cancer,

endotheliosarcoma, ependymoma, epithelial carcinoma, erythroleukemia, esophageal cancer, estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer, essential thrombocythemia, Ewing’s tumor, fibrosarcoma, follicular lymphoma, germ cell testicular cancer, glioma, heavy chain disease, hemangioblastoma, hepatoma, hepatocellular cancer, hormone insensitive prostate cancer, leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma, lung cancer,

lymphagioendotheliosarcoma, lymphangiosarcoma, lymphoblastic leukemia, lymphoma (Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s), malignancies and hyperproliferative disorders of the bladder, breast, colon, lung, ovaries, pancreas, prostate, skin, and uterus, lymphoid malignancies of T-cell or B-cell origin, leukemia, lymphoma, medullary carcinoma, medulloblastoma, melanoma, meningioma, mesothelioma, multiple myeloma, myelogenous leukemia, myeloma, myxosarcoma, neuroblastoma, non-small cell lung cancer, oligodendroglioma, oral cancer, osteogenic sarcoma, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, papillary adenocarcinomas, papillary carcinoma, pinealoma, polycythemia vera, prostate cancer, rectal cancer, renal cell carcinoma, retinoblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, sarcoma, sebaceous gland carcinoma, seminoma, skin cancer, small cell lung carcinoma, solid tumors (carcinomas and sarcomas), small cell lung cancer, stomach cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, synovioma, sweat gland carcinoma, thyroid cancer, Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia, testicular tumors, uterine cancer, and Wilms’ tumor. Other cancers include primary cancer, metastatic cancer, oropharyngeal cancer, hypopharyngeal cancer, liver cancer, gall bladder cancer, bile duct cancer, small intestine cancer, urinary tract cancer, kidney cancer, urothelium cancer, female genital tract cancer, uterine cancer, gestational

trophoblastic disease, male genital tract cancer, seminal vesicle cancer, testicular cancer, germ cell tumors, endocrine gland tumors, thyroid cancer, adrenal cancer, pituitary gland cancer, hemangioma, sarcoma arising from bone and soft tissues, Kaposi’s sarcoma, nerve cancer, ocular cancer, meningial cancer, glioblastomas, neuromas, neuroblastomas, Schwannomas, solid tumors arising from hematopoietic malignancies such as leukemias, metastatic melanoma, recurrent or persistent ovarian epithelial cancer, fallopian tube cancer, primary peritoneal cancer, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, melanoma, glioblastoma multiforme, non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer, malignant glioma, epithelial ovarian cancer, primary peritoneal serous cancer, metastatic liver cancer,

neuroendocrine carcinoma, refractory malignancy, triple negative breast cancer, HER2- amplified breast cancer, nasopharageal cancer, oral cancer, biliary tract, hepatocellular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN), non-medullary thyroid carcinoma, recurrent glioblastoma multiforme,

neurofibromatosis type 1, CNS cancer, liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, salivary gland cancer, mucosal melanoma, acral/ lentiginous melanoma, paraganglioma, pheochromocytoma, advanced metastatic cancer, solid tumor, triple negative breast cancer, colorectal cancer, sarcoma, melanoma, renal carcinoma, endometrial cancer, thyroid cancer, rhabdomysarcoma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, glioblastoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, mantle cell lymphoma, and refractory malignancy.

[0224] In one embodiment, the conjugates or particles as described herein or formulations containing the conjugates or particles as described herein are used to treat small cell lung cancer. About 12%- 15% of patients having lung cancer have small cell lung cancer. Survival in metastatic small cell lung cancer is poor. Survival rate is below 5% five years after diagnosis. US incidence of small cell lung cancer is about 26K-30K.

[0225] In some embodiments, the conjugates or particles as described herein or formulations containing the conjugates or particles as described herein are used to treat patients with tumors that express or over-express the HSP90.

[0226] A feature of conjugates or particles of the present invention is relatively low toxicity to an organism while maintaining efficacy at inhibiting, e.g. slowing or stopping tumor growth. As used herein,“toxicity” refers to the capacity of a substance or composition to be harmful or poisonous to a cell, tissue organism or cellular environment. Low toxicity refers to a reduced capacity of a substance or composition to be harmful or poisonous to a cell, tissue organism or cellular environment. Such reduced or low toxicity may be relative to a standard measure, relative to a treatment or relative to the absence of a treatment. For example, conjugates or particles of the present invention may have lower toxicity than the active agent moiety Z

administered alone. For conjugates comprising DM1, their toxicity is lower than DM1 administered alone.

[0227] Toxicity may further be measured relative to a subject’s weight loss where weight loss over 15%, over 20% or over 30% of the body weight is indicative of toxicity. Other metrics of toxicity may also be measured such as patient presentation metrics including lethargy and general malaiase. Neutropenia, thrombopenia, white blood cell (WBC) count, complete blood cell (CBC) count may also be metrics of toxicity. Pharmacologic indicators of toxicity include elevated aminotransferases (AST/ALT) levels, neurotoxicity, kidney damage, GI damage and the like. In one embodiment, conjugates or particles of the present invention do not cause a significant change of a subject’s body weight. The body weight loss of a subject is less about 30%, about 20%, about 15%, about 10%, or about 5% after treatment with conjugates or particles of the present invention. In another embodiment, conjugates or particles of the present invention do not cause a significant increase of a subject’s AST/ALT levels. The AST or ALT level of a subject is increased by less than about 30%, about 20%, about 15%, about 10%, or about 5% after treatment with conjugates or particles of the present invention. In yet another embodiment, conjugates or particles of the present invention do not cause a significant change of a subject’s CBC or WBC count after treatment with conjugates or particles of the present invention. The CBC or WBC level of a subject is decreased by less than about 30%, about 20%, about 15%, about 10%, or about 5% after treatment with conjugates or particles of the present invention.

[0228] In some embodiments, conjugates or particles of the present invention are combined with at least one additional active agent. The active agent may be any suitable drug. The conjugates and the at least one additional active agent may be administered simultaneously, sequentially, or at any order. The conjugates and the at least one additional active agent may be administered at different dosages, with different dosing frequencies, or via different routes, whichever is suitable. The additional active agent may be selected from any active agent described herein such as a drug for treating cancer. It may also be a cancer symptom relief drug. Non limiting examples of symptom relief drugs include: octreotide or lanreotide;

interferon, cypoheptadine or any other antihistamines. In some embodiments, conjugates or particles of the present invention do not have drug-drug interference with the additional active agent. In one embodiment, conjugates or particles of the present invention do not inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes. CYP isozymes may include CYP3 A4 Midazolam, CYP3 A4 Testosterone, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2B6, and CYP2C19. The additional active agent may be administered concomitantly with conjugates or particles of the present invention.

[0229] In another example, conjugates or particles of the present invention may be combined with a moderate dose of chemotherapy agents such as mitomycin C, vinblastine and cisplatin ( see Ellis et al., Br J Cancer, vol.7l(2): 366-370 (1995), the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety).

[0230] In yet another example, a patient may first receive a pharmaceutically effective dose of an unconjugated active agent, followed by a pharmaceutically effective dose of a conjugate comprising the same active agent.

[0231] The conjugates or particles as described herein or formulations containing the conjugates or particles as described herein can be used for the selective tissue delivery of a therapeutic, prophylactic, or diagnostic agent to an individual or patient in need thereof. For example, DM1 conjugates or particles of the present invention are used to deliver DM1 to selective tissues. These tissues may be tumor tissues. Dosage regimens may be adjusted to provide the optimum desired response (e.g., a therapeutic or prophylactic response). For example, a single bolus may be

administered, several divided doses may be administered over time or the dose may be proportionally reduced or increased as indicated by the exigencies of the therapeutic situation. Dosage unit form as used herein refers to physically discrete units suited as unitary dosages for the mammalian subjects to be treated; each unit containing a predetermined quantity of active compound calculated to produce the desired therapeutic.

[0232] In various embodiments, a conjugate contained within a particle is released in a controlled manner. The release can be in vitro or in vivo. For example, particles can be subject to a release test under certain conditions, including those specified in the U.S. Pharmacopeia and variations thereof.

[0233] In various embodiments, less than about 90%, less than about 80%, less than about 70%, less than about 60%, less than about 50%, less than about 40%, less than about 30%, less than about 20% of the conjugate contained within particles is released in the first hour after the particles are exposed to the conditions of a release test. In some embodiments, less that about 90%, less than about 80%, less than about 70%, less than about 60%, or less than about 50% of the conjugate contained within particles is released in the first hour after the particles are exposed to the conditions of a release test. In certain embodiments, less than about 50% of the conjugate contained within particles is released in the first hour after the particles are exposed to the conditions of a release test.

[0234] With respect to a conjugate being released in vivo , for instance, the conjugate contained within a particle administered to a subject may be protected from a subject’s body, and the body may also be isolated from the conjugate until the conjugate is released from the particle.

[0235] Thus, in some embodiments, the conjugate may be substantially contained within the particle until the particle is delivered into the body of a subject. For example, less than about 90%, less than about 80%, less than about 70%, less than about 60%, less than about 50%, less than about 40%, less than about 30%, less than about 20%, less than about 15%, less than about 10%, less than about 5%, or less than about 1% of the total conjugate is released from the particle prior to the particle being delivered into the body, for example, a treatment site, of a subject. In some embodiments, the conjugate may be released over an extended period of time or by bursts (e.g., amounts of the conjugate are released in a short period of time, followed by a periods of time where substantially no conjugate is released). For example, the conjugate can be released over 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, or 48 hours. In certain embodiments, the conjugate is released over one week or one month.

V. Kits and Devices

[0236] The invention provides a variety of kits and devices for conveniently and/or effectively carrying out methods of the present invention. Typically kits will comprise sufficient amounts and/or numbers of components to allow a user to perform multiple treatments of a subject(s) and/or to perform multiple experiments. [0237] In one embodiment, the present invention provides kits for inhibiting tumor cell growth in vitro or in vivo, comprising a conjugate and/or particle of the present invention or a combination of conjugates and/or particles of the present invention, optionally in combination with any other active agents.

[0238] The kit may further comprise packaging and instructions and/or a delivery agent to form a formulation composition. The delivery agent may comprise a saline, a buffered solution, or any delivery agent disclosed herein. The amount of each component may be varied to enable consistent, reproducible higher concentration saline or simple buffer formulations. The components may also be varied in order to increase the stability of the conjugates and/or particles in the buffer solution over a period of time and/or under a variety of conditions.

[0239] The present invention provides for devices which may incorporate conjugates and/or particles of the present invention. These devices contain in a stable formulation available to be immediately delivered to a subject in need thereof, such as a human patient. In some embodiments, the subject has cancer.

[0240] Non-limiting examples of the devices include a pump, a catheter, a needle, a transdermal patch, a pressurized olfactory delivery device, iontophoresis devices, multi-layered microfluidic devices. The devices may be employed to deliver conjugates and/or particles of the present invention according to single, multi- or split-dosing regiments. The devices may be employed to deliver conjugates and/or particles of the present invention across biological tissue, intradermal,

subcutaneously, or intramuscularly.

VI. Definitions

[0241] The term“compound”, as used herein, is meant to include all

stereoisomers, geometric isomers, tautomers, and isotopes of the structures depicted. In the present application, compound is used interechangably with conjugate.

Therefore, conjugate, as used herein, is also meant to include all stereoisomers, geometric isomers, tautomers, and isotopes of the structures depicted.

[0242] The compounds described herein can be asymmetric (e.g., having one or more stereocenters). All stereoisomers, such as enantiomers and diastereomers, are intended unless otherwise indicated. Compounds of the present disclosure that contain asymmetrically substituted carbon atoms can be isolated in optically active or racemic forms. Methods on how to prepare optically active forms from optically active starting materials are known in the art, such as by resolution of racemic mixtures or by stereoselective synthesis. Many geometric isomers of olefins, C=N double bonds, and the like can also be present in the compounds described herein, and all such stable isomers are contemplated in the present disclosure. Cis and trans geometric isomers of the compounds of the present disclosure are described and may be isolated as a mixture of isomers or as separated isomeric forms.

[0243] Compounds of the present disclosure also include tautomeric forms.

Tautomeric forms result from the swapping of a single bond with an adjacent double bond and the concomitant migration of a proton. Tautomeric forms include prototropic tautomers which are isomeric protonation states having the same empirical formula and total charge. Examples prototropic tautomers include ketone - enol pairs, amide - imidic acid pairs, lactam - lactim pairs, amide - imidic acid pairs, enamine - imine pairs, and annular forms where a proton can occupy two or more positions of a heterocyclic system, such as, 1H- and 3H-imidazole, 1H-, 2H- and 4H- 1,2, 4-triazole, 1H- and 2H- isoindole, and 1H- and 2H-pyrazole. Tautomeric forms can be in equilibrium or sterically locked into one form by appropriate substitution.

[0244] Compounds of the present disclosure also include all of the isotopes of the atoms occurring in the intermediate or final compounds.“Isotopes” refers to atoms having the same atomic number but different mass numbers resulting from a different number of neutrons in the nuclei. For example, isotopes of hydrogen include tritium and deuterium.

[0245] The compounds and salts of the present disclosure can be prepared in combination with solvent or water molecules to form solvates and hydrates by routine methods.

[0246] The terms "subject" or "patient", as used herein, refer to any organism to which the particles may be administered, e.g., for experimental, therapeutic, diagnostic, and/or prophylactic purposes. Typical subjects include animals (e.g., mammals such as mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, dogs, cats, hamsters, lamas, non-human primates, and humans).

[0247] The terms "treating" or“preventing”, as used herein, can include preventing a disease, disorder or condition from occurring in an animal that may be predisposed to the disease, disorder and/or condition but has not yet been diagnosed as having the disease, disorder or condition; inhibiting the disease, disorder or condition, e.g., impeding its progress; and relieving the disease, disorder, or condition, e.g., causing regression of the disease, disorder and/or condition. Treating the disease, disorder, or condition can include ameliorating at least one symptom of the particular disease, disorder, or condition, even if the underlying pathophysiology is not affected, such as treating the pain of a subject by administration of an analgesic agent even though such agent does not treat the cause of the pain.

[0248] A“target”, as used herein, shall mean a site to which targeted constructs bind. A target may be either in vivo or in vitro. In certain embodiments, a target may be cancer cells found in leukemias or tumors (e.g., tumors of the brain, lung (small cell and non-small cell), ovary, prostate, breast and colon as well as other carcinomas and sarcomas). In still other embodiments, a target may refer to a molecular structure to which a targeting moiety or ligand binds, such as a hapten, epitope, receptor, dsDNA fragment, carbohydrate or enzyme. A target may be a type of tissue, e.g., neuronal tissue, intestinal tissue, pancreatic tissue, liver, kidney, prostate, ovary, lung, bone marrow, or breast tissue.

[0249] The“target cells” that may serve as the target for the method or conjugates or particles, are generally animal cells, e.g., mammalian cells. The present method may be used to modify cellular function of living cells in vitro , i.e., in cell culture, or in vivo , in which the cells form part of or otherwise exist in animal tissue. Thus, the target cells may include, for example, the blood, lymph tissue, cells lining the alimentary canal, such as the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, cells forming the villi of the small intestine, cells lining the large intestine, cells lining the respiratory system (nasal passages/lungs) of an animal (which may be contacted by inhalation of the subject invention), dermal/epidermal cells, cells of the vagina and rectum, cells of internal organs including cells of the placenta and the so-called blood/brain barrier, etc. In general, a target cell expresses at least one type of HSP90. In some

embodiments, a target cell can be a cell that expresses an HSP90 and is targeted by a conjugate described herein, and is near a cell that is affected by release of the active agent of the conjugate. For example, a blood vessel expressing an HSP90 that is in proximity to a tumor may be the target, while the active agent released at the site will affect the tumor.

[0250] The term "therapeutic effect" is art-recognized and refers to a local or systemic effect in animals, particularly mammals, and more particularly humans caused by a pharmacologically active substance. The term thus means any substance intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease, disorder or condition in the enhancement of desirable physical or mental development and conditions in an animal, e.g., a human.

[0251] The term“modulation” is art-recognized and refers to up regulation (i.e., activation or stimulation), down regulation (i.e., inhibition or suppression) of a response, or the two in combination or apart. The modulation is generally compared to a baseline or reference that can be internal or external to the treated entity.

[0252] “Parenteral administration”, as used herein, means administration by any method other than through the digestive tract (enteral) or non-invasive topical routes. For example, parenteral administration may include administration to a patient intravenously, intradermally, intraperitoneally, intrapleurally, intratracheally, intraossiously, intracerebrally, intrathecally, intramuscularly, subcutaneously, subjunctivally, by injection, and by infusion.

[0253] “Topical administration”, as used herein, means the non-invasive administration to the skin, orifices, or mucosa. Topical administration can be delivered locally, i.e., the therapeutic can provide a local effect in the region of delivery without systemic exposure or with minimal systemic exposure. Some topical formulations can provide a systemic effect, e.g., via adsorption into the blood stream of the individual. Topical administration can include, but is not limited to, cutaneous and transdermal administration, buccal administration, intranasal administration, intravaginal administration, intravesical administration, ophthalmic administration, and rectal administration.

[0254] “Enteral administration”, as used herein, means administration via absorption through the gastrointestinal tract. Enteral administration can include oral and sublingual administration, gastric administration, or rectal administration.

[0255] “Pulmonary administration”, as used herein, means administration into the lungs by inhalation or endotracheal administration. As used herein, the term “inhalation” refers to intake of air to the alveoli. The intake of air can occur through the mouth or nose.

[0256] The terms“sufficient” and“effective”, as used interchangeably herein, refer to an amount (e.g., mass, volume, dosage, concentration, and/or time period) needed to achieve one or more desired result(s). A“therapeutically effective amount” is at least the minimum concentration required to effect a measurable improvement or prevention of at least one symptom or a particular condition or disorder, to effect a measurable enhancement of life expectancy, or to generally improve patient quality of life. The therapeutically effective amount is thus dependent upon the specific biologically active molecule and the specific condition or disorder to be treated. Therapeutically effective amounts of many active agents, such as antibodies, are known in the art. The therapeutically effective amounts of compounds and compositions described herein, e.g., for treating specific disorders may be determined by techniques that are well within the craft of a skilled artisan, such as a physician.

[0257] The terms“bioactive agent” and“active agent”, as used interchangeably herein, include, without limitation, physiologically or pharmacologically active substances that act locally or systemically in the body. A bioactive agent is a substance used for the treatment (e.g., therapeutic agent), prevention (e.g., prophylactic agent), diagnosis (e.g., diagnostic agent), cure or mitigation of disease or illness, a substance which affects the structure or function of the body, or pro-drugs, which become biologically active or more active after they have been placed in a predetermined physiological environment.

[0258] The term "prodrug" refers to an agent, including a small organic molecule, peptide, nucleic acid or protein, that is converted into a biologically active form in vitro and/or in vivo. Prodrugs can be useful because, in some situations, they may be easier to administer than the parent compound (the active compound). For example, a prodrug may be bioavailable by oral administration whereas the parent compound is not. The prodrug may also have improved solubility in pharmaceutical compositions compared to the parent drug. A prodrug may also be less toxic than the parent. A prodrug may be converted into the parent drug by various mechanisms, including enzymatic processes and metabolic hydrolysis. Harper, N.J. (1962) Drug Latentiation in Jucker, ed. Progress in Drug Research, 4:221-294; Morozowich et al. (1977) Application of Physical Organic Principles to Prodrug Design in E. B. Roche ed. Design of Biopharmaceutical Properties through Prodrugs and Analogs , APhA; Acad. Pharm. Sci.; E. B. Roche, ed. (1977) Bioreversible Carriers in Drug in Drug Design, Theory and Application, APhA; H. Bundgaard, ed. (1985 ) Design of

Prodrugs, Elsevier; Wang et al. (1999) Prodrug approaches to the improved delivery of peptide drug, Curr. Pharm. Design. 5(4):265-287; Pauletti et al. (1997)

Improvement in peptide bioavailability: Peptidomimetics and Prodrug Strategies,

Adv. Drug. Delivery Rev. 27:235-256; Mizen et al. (1998). The ETse of Esters as Prodrugs for Oral Delivery of b-Lactam antibiotics, Pharm. Biotech. 11 :345-365; Gaignault et al. (1996) Designing Prodrugs and Bioprecursors I. Carrier Prodrugs, Pract. Med. Chem. 671-696; M. Asgharnejad (2000). Improving Oral Drug Transport Via Prodrugs, in G. L. Amidon, P. I. Lee and E. M. Topp, Eds., Transport Processes in Pharmaceutical Systems , Marcell Dekker, p. 185-218; Balant et al. (1990) Prodrugs for the improvement of drug absorption via different routes of administration, Eur. J DrugMetab. Pharmacokinet ., 15(2): 143-53; Balimane and Sinko (1999).

Involvement of multiple transporters in the oral absorption of nucleoside analogues, Adv. Drug Delivery Rev., 39(l-3): l83-209; Browne (1997). Fosphenytoin (Cerebyx), Clin. Neuropharmacol . 20(1): 1-12; Bundgaard (1979). Bioreversible derivatization of drugs— principle and applicability to improve the therapeutic effects of drugs, Arch. Pharm. Chemi. 86(1): 1-39; H. Bundgaard, ed. (1985) Design of Prodrugs, New York: Elsevier; Fleisher et al. (1996) Improved oral drug delivery: solubility limitations overcome by the use of prodrugs, Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 19(2): 115-130; Fleisher et al. (1985) Design of prodrugs for improved gastrointestinal absorption by intestinal enzyme targeting , Methods Enzymol . 112: 360-81; Farquhar D, et al. (1983) Biologically Reversible Phosphate-Protective Groups, J. Pharm. Sci., 72(3): 324-325; Han, H.K. et al. (2000) Targeted prodrug design to optimize drug delivery, AAPS PharmSci., 2(1): E6; Sadzuka Y. (2000) Effective prodrug liposome and conversion to active metabolite, Curr. Drug Metab., l(l):31-48; D.M. Lambert (2000) Rationale and applications of lipids as prodrug carriers, Eur. J. Pharm. Sci., 11 Suppl. 2: S 15-27; Wang, W. et al. (1999) Prodrug approaches to the improved delivery of peptide drugs. Curr. Pharm. Des., 5(4):265-87.

[0259] The term“biocompatible”, as used herein, refers to a material that along with any metabolites or degradation products thereof that are generally non-toxic to the recipient and do not cause any significant adverse effects to the recipient.

Generally speaking, biocompatible materials are materials which do not elicit a significant inflammatory or immune response when administered to a patient.

[0260] The term“biodegradable” as used herein, generally refers to a material that will degrade or erode under physiologic conditions to smaller units or chemical species that are capable of being metabolized, eliminated, or excreted by the subject. The degradation time is a function of composition and morphology. Degradation times can be from hours to weeks.

[0261] The term“pharmaceutically acceptable”, as used herein, refers to compounds, materials, compositions, and/or dosage forms that are, within the scope of sound medical judgment, suitable for use in contact with the tissues of human beings and animals without excessive toxicity, irritation, allergic response, or other problems or complications commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio, in accordance with the guidelines of agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug

Administration. A“pharmaceutically acceptable carrier”, as used herein, refers to all components of a pharmaceutical formulation that facilitate the delivery of the composition in vivo. Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers include, but are not limited to, diluents, preservatives, binders, lubricants, disintegrators, swelling agents, fillers, stabilizers, and combinations thereof.

[0262] The term“molecular weight”, as used herein, generally refers to the mass or average mass of a material. If a polymer or oligomer, the molecular weight can refer to the relative average chain length or relative chain mass of the bulk polymer.

In practice, the molecular weight of polymers and oligomers can be estimated or characterized in various ways including gel permeation chromatography (GPC) or capillary viscometry. GPC molecular weights are reported as the weight-average molecular weight (M w ) as opposed to the number-average molecular weight (M n ). Capillary viscometry provides estimates of molecular weight as the inherent viscosity determined from a dilute polymer solution using a particular set of concentration, temperature, and solvent conditions.

[0263] The term“small molecule”, as used herein, generally refers to an organic molecule that is less than 2000 g/mol in molecular weight, less than 1500 g/mol, less than 1000 g/mol, less than 800 g/mol, or less than 500 g/mol. Small molecules are non-polymeric and/or non-oligomeric.

[0264] The term“hydrophilic”, as used herein, refers to substances that have strongly polar groups that readily interact with water.

[0265] The term“hydrophobic”, as used herein, refers to substances that lack an affinity for water; tending to repel and not absorb water as well as not dissolve in or mix with water.

[0266] The term“lipophilic”, as used herein, refers to compounds having an affinity for lipids.

[0267] The term“amphiphilic”, as used herein, refers to a molecule combining hydrophilic and lipophilic (hydrophobic) properties.“Amphiphilic material” as used herein refers to a material containing a hydrophobic or more hydrophobic oligomer or polymer (e.g., biodegradable oligomer or polymer) and a hydrophilic or more hydrophilic oligomer or polymer. [0268] The term "targeting moiety", as used herein, refers to a moiety that binds to or localizes to a specific locale. The moiety may be, for example, a protein, nucleic acid, nucleic acid analog, carbohydrate, or small molecule. The locale may be a tissue, a particular cell type, or a subcellular compartment. In some embodiments, a targeting moiety can specifically bind to a selected molecule.

[0269] The term“reactive coupling group”, as used herein, refers to any chemical functional group capable of reacting with a second functional group to form a covalent bond. The selection of reactive coupling groups is within the ability of those in the art. Examples of reactive coupling groups can include primary amines (-NEh) and amine-reactive linking groups such as isothiocyanates, isocyanates, acyl azides, NHS esters, sulfonyl chlorides, aldehydes, glyoxals, epoxides, oxiranes, carbonates, aryl halides, imidoesters, carbodiimides, anhydrides, and fluorophenyl esters. Most of these conjugate to amines by either acylation or alkylation. Examples of reactive coupling groups can include aldehydes (-COH) and aldehyde reactive linking groups such as hydrazides, alkoxyamines, and primary amines. Examples of reactive coupling groups can include thiol groups (-SH) and sulfhydryl reactive groups such as maleimides, haloacetyls, and pyridyl disulfides. Examples of reactive coupling groups can include photoreactive coupling groups such as aryl azides or diazirines. The coupling reaction may include the use of a catalyst, heat, pH buffers, light, or a combination thereof.

[0270] The term“protective group”, as used herein, refers to a functional group that can be added to and/or substituted for another desired functional group to protect the desired functional group from certain reaction conditions and selectively removed and/or replaced to deprotect or expose the desired functional group. Protective groups are known to the skilled artisan. Suitable protective groups may include those described in Greene and Wuts, Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, (1991). Acid sensitive protective groups include dimethoxytrityl (DMT), tert- butylcarbamate (tBoc) and trifluoroacetyl (tFA). Base sensitive protective groups include 9- fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc), isobutyrl (iBu), benzoyl (Bz) and phenoxyacetyl (pac). Other protective groups include acetamidomethyl, acetyl, tert- amyloxy carbonyl, benzyl, benzyloxy carbonyl, 2-(4-biphenylyl)-2-propy!oxy carbonyl, 2- bromobenzyloxycarbonyl, tert-butyb tert-butyloxycarbonyl, l-carbobenzoxamido- 2,2.2- trifluoroethyl, 2,6-dichlorobenzyl, 2-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2- propyloxycarbonyl, 2,4- dinitrophenyl, dithiasuccinyl, formyl, 4- methoxybenzenesulfonyl, 4-methoxybenzyl, 4- methylbenzyl, o-nitrophenylsulfenyl, 2-phenyl-2-propyloxycarbonyl, a-2,4,5- tetramethylbenzyloxycarbonyl, p- toluenesulfonyl, xanthenyl, benzyl ester, N- hydroxysuccinimide ester, p-nitrobenzyl ester, p-nitrophenyl ester, phenyl ester, p- nitrocarbonate, p-nitrobenzylcarbonate, trimethylsilyl and pentachlorophenyl ester.

[0271] The term“activated ester”, as used herein, refers to alkyl esters of carboxylic acids where the alkyl is a good leaving group rendering the carbonyl susceptible to nucleophilic attack by molecules bearing amino groups. Activated esters are therefore susceptible to aminolysis and react with amines to form amides. Activated esters contain a carboxylic acid ester group -CO2R where R is the leaving group.

[0272] The term "alkyl" refers to the radical of saturated aliphatic groups, including straight-chain alkyl groups, branched-chain alkyl groups, cycloalkyl (alicyclic) groups, alkyl-substituted cycloalkyl groups, and cycloalkyl-substituted alkyl groups.

[0273] In some embodiments, a straight chain or branched chain alkyl has 30 or fewer carbon atoms in its backbone (e.g., C1-C30 for straight chains, C3-C30 for branched chains), 20 or fewer, 12 or fewer, or 7 or fewer. Likewise, in some embodiments cycloalkyls have from 3-10 carbon atoms in their ring structure, e.g., have 5, 6 or 7 carbons in the ring structure. The term "alkyl" (or "lower alkyl") as used throughout the specification, examples, and claims is intended to include both "unsubstituted alkyls" and "substituted alkyls", the latter of which refers to alkyl moieties having one or more substituents replacing a hydrogen on one or more carbons of the hydrocarbon backbone. Such substituents include, but are not limited to, halogen, hydroxyl, carbonyl (such as a carboxyl, alkoxycarbonyl, formyl, or an acyl), thiocarbonyl (such as a thioester, a thioacetate, or a thioformate), alkoxyl, phosphoryl, phosphate, phosphonate, a hosphinate, amino, amido, amidine, imine, cyano, nitro, azido, sulfhydryl, alkylthio, sulfate, sulfonate, sulfamoyl, sulfonamido, sulfonyl, heterocyclyl, aralkyl, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic moiety.

[0274] Unless the number of carbons is otherwise specified, "lower alkyl" as used herein means an alkyl group, as defined above, but having from one to ten carbons, or from one to six carbon atoms in its backbone structure. Likewise, "lower alkenyl" and "lower alkynyl" have similar chain lengths. In some embodiments, alkyl groups are lower alkyls. In some embodiments, a substituent designated herein as alkyl is a lower alkyl.

[0275] It will be understood by those skilled in the art that the moieties substituted on the hydrocarbon chain can themselves be substituted, if appropriate. For instance, the substituents of a substituted alkyl may include halogen, hydroxy, nitro, thiols, amino, azido, imino, amido, phosphoryl (including phosphonate and phosphinate), sulfonyl (including sulfate, sulfonamido, sulfamoyl and sulfonate), and silyl groups, as well as ethers, alkylthios, carbonyls (including ketones, aldehydes, carboxylates, and esters), -CF 3 , -CN and the like. Cycloalkyls can be substituted in the same manner.

[0276] The term“heteroalkyl”, as used herein, refers to straight or branched chain, or cyclic carbon-containing radicals, or combinations thereof, containing at least one heteroatom. Suitable heteroatoms include, but are not limited to, O, N, Si, P, Se, B, and S, wherein the phosphorous and sulfur atoms are optionally oxidized, and the nitrogen heteroatom is optionally quaternized. Heteroalkyls can be substituted as defined above for alkyl groups.

[0277] The term "alkylthio" refers to an alkyl group, as defined above, having a sulfur radical attached thereto. In some embodiments, the "alkylthio" moiety is represented by one of -S-alkyl, -S-alkenyl, and -S-alkynyl. Representative alkylthio groups include methylthio, and ethylthio. The term“alkylthio” also encompasses cycloalkyl groups, alkene and cycloalkene groups, and alkyne groups.“Arylthio” refers to aryl or heteroaryl groups. Alkylthio groups can be substituted as defined above for alkyl groups.

[0278] The terms "alkenyl" and "alkynyl", refer to unsaturated aliphatic groups analogous in length and possible substitution to the alkyls described above, but that contain at least one double or triple bond respectively.

[0279] The terms "alkoxyl" or "alkoxy" as used herein refers to an alkyl group, as defined above, having an oxygen radical attached thereto. Representative alkoxyl groups include methoxy, ethoxy, propyloxy, and tert-butoxy. An "ether" is two hydrocarbons covalently linked by an oxygen. Accordingly, the substituent of an alkyl that renders that alkyl an ether is or resembles an alkoxyl, such as can be represented by one of -O-alkyl, -O-alkenyl, and -O-alkynyl. Aroxy can be represented by -O-aryl or O-heteroaryl, wherein aryl and heteroaryl are as defined below. The alkoxy and aroxy groups can be substituted as described above for alkyl. [0280] The terms "amine" and "amino" are art-recognized and refer to both unsubstituted and substituted amines, e.g., a moiety that can be represented by the general formula:

wherein R9, Rio, and io each independently represent a hydrogen, an alkyl, an alkenyl, -(CTh -Rs or R9 and Rio taken together with the N atom to which they are attached complete a heterocycle having from 4 to 8 atoms in the ring structure; Rx represents an aryl, a cycloalkyl, a cycloalkenyl, a heterocycle or a polycycle; and m is zero or an integer in the range of 1 to 8. In some embodiments, only one of R9 or Rio can be a carbonyl, e.g., R9, Rio and the nitrogen together do not form an imide. In still other embodiments, the term“amine” does not encompass amides, e.g., wherein one of R9 and Rio represents a carbonyl. In additional embodiments, R9 and Rio (and optionally RTo) each independently represent a hydrogen, an alkyl or cycloalkly, an alkenyl or cycloalkenyl, or alkynyl. Thus, the term "alkylamine" as used herein means an amine group, as defined above, having a substituted (as described above for alkyl) or unsubstituted alkyl attached thereto, i.e., at least one of R9 and Rio is an alkyl group.

[0281] The term "amido" is art-recognized as an amino-substituted carbonyl and includes a moiety that can be represented by the general formula:

wherein R9 and Rio are as defined above.

[0282] “Aryl”, as used herein, refers to Cs-Cio-membered aromatic, heterocyclic, fused aromatic, fused heterocyclic, biaromatic, or bihetereocyclic ring systems.

Broadly defined,“aryl”, as used herein, includes 5-, 6-, 7-, 8-, 9-, and lO-membered single-ring aromatic groups that may include from zero to four heteroatoms, for example, benzene, pyrrole, furan, thiophene, imidazole, oxazole, thiazole, triazole, pyrazole, pyridine, pyrazine, pyridazine and pyrimidine, and the like. Those aryl groups having heteroatoms in the ring structure may also be referred to as“aryl heterocycles” or“heteroaromatics”. The aromatic ring can be substituted at one or more ring positions with one or more substituents including, but not limited to, halogen, azide, alkyl, aralkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, hydroxyl, alkoxyl, amino (or quaternized amino), nitro, sulfhydryl, imino, amido, phosphonate, phosphinate, carbonyl, carboxyl, silyl, ether, alkylthio, sulfonyl, sulfonamido, ketone, aldehyde, ester, heterocyclyl, aromatic or heteroaromatic moieties, -CF3, -CN; and combinations thereof.

[0283] The term“aryl” also includes polycyclic ring systems having two or more cyclic rings in which two or more carbons are common to two adjoining rings (i.e., “fused rings”) wherein at least one of the rings is aromatic, e.g., the other cyclic ring or rings can be cycloalkyls, cycloalkenyls, cycloalkynyls, aryls and/or heterocycles. Examples of heterocyclic rings include, but are not limited to, benzimidazolyl, benzofuranyl, benzothiofuranyl, benzothiophenyl, benzoxazolyl, benzoxazolinyl, benzthiazolyl, benztriazolyl, benztetrazolyl, benzisoxazolyl, benzisothiazolyl, benzimidazolinyl, carbazolyl, 4aH carbazolyl, carbolinyl, chromanyl, chromenyl, cinnolinyl, decahydroquinolinyl, 2HbH- \ ,5,2-dithiazinyl, dihydrofuro[2,3

bjtetrahydrofuran, furanyl, furazanyl, imidazolidinyl, imidazolinyl, imidazolyl, 1 H- indazolyl, indolenyl, indolinyl, indolizinyl, indolyl, 3iT-indolyl, isatinoyl,

isobenzofuranyl, isochromanyl, isoindazolyl, isoindolinyl, isoindolyl, isoquinolinyl, isothiazolyl, isoxazolyl, methylenedioxyphenyl, morpholinyl, naphthyridinyl, octahydroisoquinolinyl, oxadiazolyl, l,2,3-oxadiazolyl, l,2,4-oxadiazolyl, 1,2,5- oxadiazolyl, l,3,4-oxadiazolyl, oxazolidinyl, oxazolyl, oxindolyl, pyrimidinyl, phenanthridinyl, phenanthrolinyl, phenazinyl, phenothiazinyl, phenoxathinyl, phenoxazinyl, phthalazinyl, piperazinyl, piperidinyl, piperidonyl, 4-piperidonyl, piperonyl, pteridinyl, purinyl, pyranyl, pyrazinyl, pyrazolidinyl, pyrazolinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridazinyl, pyridooxazole, pyridoimidazole, pyridothi azole, pyridinyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrrolidinyl, pyrrolinyl, 2H-pyrrolyl, pyrrolyl, quinazolinyl, quinolinyl, 4//-quinolizinyl, quinoxalinyl, quinuclidinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydroisoquinolinyl, tetrahydroquinolinyl, tetrazolyl, 6//- 1 ,2,5-thiadiazinyl, 1,2,3- thiadiazolyl, l,2,4-thiadiazolyl, l,2,5-thiadiazolyl, l,3,4-thiadiazolyl, thianthrenyl, thiazolyl, thienyl, thienothiazolyl, thienooxazolyl, thienoimidazolyl, thiophenyl and xanthenyl. One or more of the rings can be substituted as defined above for“aryl”. [0284] The term "aralkyl", as used herein, refers to an alkyl group substituted with an aryl group (e.g., an aromatic or heteroaromatic group).

[0285] The term "carbocycle", as used herein, refers to an aromatic or non aromatic ring in which each atom of the ring is carbon.

[0286] “Heterocycle” or“heterocyclic”, as used herein, refers to a cyclic radical attached via a ring carbon or nitrogen of a monocyclic or bicyclic ring containing 3-10 ring atoms, for example, from 5-6 ring atoms, consisting of carbon and one to four heteroatoms each selected from the group consisting of non-peroxide oxygen, sulfur, and N(Y) wherein Y is absent or is H, O, (Ci-Cio) alkyl, phenyl or benzyl, and optionally containing 1-3 double bonds and optionally substituted with one or more substituents. Examples of heterocyclic rings include, but are not limited to, benzimidazolyl, benzofuranyl, benzothiofuranyl, benzothiophenyl, benzoxazolyl, benzoxazolinyl, benzthiazolyl, benztriazolyl, benztetrazolyl, benzisoxazolyl, benzisothiazolyl, benzimidazolinyl, carbazolyl, 4a//-carbazolyf carbolinyl, chromanyl, chromenyl, cinnolinyl, decahydroquinolinyl, 2//,6//- l ,5,2-dithiazinyl, dihydrofuro[2,3-Z>]tetrahydrofuran, furanyl, furazanyl, imidazolidinyl, imidazolinyl, imidazolyl, liT-indazolyl, indolenyl, indolinyl, indolizinyl, indolyl, 3H-indolyl, isatinoyl, isobenzofuranyl, isochromanyl, isoindazolyl, isoindolinyl, isoindolyl, isoquinolinyl, isothiazolyl, isoxazolyl, methylenedioxyphenyl, morpholinyl, naphthyridinyl, octahydroisoquinolinyl, oxadiazolyl, l,2,3-oxadiazolyl, 1,2,4- oxadiazolyl, l,2,5-oxadiazolyl, l,3,4-oxadiazolyl, oxazolidinyl, oxazolyl, oxepanyl, oxetanyl, oxindolyl, pyrimidinyl, phenanthridinyl, phenanthrolinyl, phenazinyl, phenothiazinyl, phenoxathinyl, phenoxazinyl, phthalazinyl, piperazinyl, piperidinyl, piperidonyl, 4-piperidonyl, piperonyl, pteridinyl, purinyl, pyranyl, pyrazinyl, pyrazolidinyl, pyrazolinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridazinyl, pyridooxazole, pyridoimidazole, pyridothiazole, pyridinyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrrolidinyl, pyrrolinyl, 2H-pyrrolyl, pyrrolyl, quinazolinyl, quinolinyl, 4//-quinolizinyl, quinoxalinyl, quinuclidinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydroisoquinolinyl, tetrahydropyranyl, tetrahydroquinolinyl, tetrazolyl, 6//- 1 ,2,5-thiadiazinyl, l,2,3-thiadiazolyl, l,2,4-thiadiazolyl, 1,2,5- thiadiazolyl, l,3,4-thiadiazolyl, thianthrenyl, thiazolyl, thienyl, thienothiazolyl, thienooxazolyl, thienoimidazolyl, thiophenyl and xanthenyl. Heterocyclic groups can optionally be substituted with one or more substituents at one or more positions as defined above for alkyl and aryl, for example, halogen, alkyl, aralkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, hydroxyl, amino, nitro, sulfhydryl, imino, amido, phosphate, phosphonate, phosphinate, carbonyl, carboxyl, silyl, ether, alkylthio, sulfonyl, ketone, aldehyde, ester, a heterocyclyl, an aromatic or heteroaromatic moiety, -CF3, and -CN.

[0287] The term "carbonyl" is art-recognized and includes such moieties as can be represented by the general formula:

wherein X is a bond or represents an oxygen or a sulfur, and Rn represents a hydrogen, an alkyl, a cycloalkyl, an alkenyl, a cycloalkenyl, or an alkynyl, R'n represents a hydrogen, an alkyl, a cycloalkyl, an alkenyl, a cycloalkenyl, or an alkynyl. Where X is an oxygen and Rn or R’n is not hydrogen, the formula represents an "ester". Where X is an oxygen and Rn is as defined above, the moiety is referred to herein as a carboxyl group, and particularly when Rn is a hydrogen, the formula represents a "carboxylic acid". Where X is an oxygen and R'n is hydrogen, the formula represents a "formate". In general, where the oxygen atom of the above formula is replaced by sulfur, the formula represents a "thiocarbonyl" group. Where X is a sulfur and Rn or R'n is not hydrogen, the formula represents a "thioester." Where X is a sulfur and Rn is hydrogen, the formula represents a "thiocarboxylic acid." Where X is a sulfur and R’n is hydrogen, the formula represents a "thioformate." On the other hand, where X is a bond, and Rn is not hydrogen, the above formula represents a "ketone" group. Where X is a bond, and Rn is hydrogen, the above formula represents an "aldehyde" group.

[0288] The term“monoester” as used herein refers to an analog of a dicarboxylic acid wherein one of the carboxylic acids is functionalized as an ester and the other carboxylic acid is a free carboxylic acid or salt of a carboxylic acid. Examples of monoesters include, but are not limited to, to monoesters of succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, suberic acid, sebacic acid, azelaic acid, oxalic and maleic acid.

[0289] The term "heteroatom" as used herein means an atom of any element other than carbon or hydrogen. Examples of heteroatoms are boron, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur and selenium. Other useful heteroatoms include silicon and arsenic.

[0290] As used herein, the term "nitro" means -NO2; the term "halogen" designates -F, -Cl, -Br or -I; the term "sulfhydryl" means -SH; the term "hydroxyl" means -OH; and the term "sulfonyl" means -SO2-. [0291] The term“substituted” as used herein, refers to all permissible substituents of the compounds described herein. In the broadest sense, the permissible substituents include acyclic and cyclic, branched and unbranched, carbocyclic and heterocyclic, aromatic and nonaromatic substituents of organic compounds. Illustrative substituents include, but are not limited to, halogens, hydroxyl groups, or any other organic groupings containing any number of carbon atoms, for example, 1-14 carbon atoms, and optionally include one or more heteroatoms such as oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen grouping in linear, branched, or cyclic structural formats. Representative substituents include alkyl, substituted alkyl, alkenyl, substituted alkenyl, alkynyl, substituted alkynyl, phenyl, substituted phenyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, halo, hydroxyl, alkoxy, substituted alkoxy, phenoxy, substituted phenoxy, aroxy, substituted aroxy, alkylthio, substituted alkylthio, phenylthio, substituted phenylthio, arylthio, substituted arylthio, cyano, isocyano, substituted isocyano, carbonyl, substituted carbonyl, carboxyl, substituted carboxyl, amino, substituted amino, amido, substituted amido, sulfonyl, substituted sulfonyl, sulfonic acid, phosphoryl, substituted phosphoryl, phosphonyl, substituted phosphonyl, polyaryl, substituted polyaryl, C3-C20 cyclic, substituted C3-C20 cyclic, heterocyclic, substituted heterocyclic, aminoacid, peptide, and polypeptide groups.

[0292] Heteroatoms such as nitrogen may have hydrogen substituents and/or any permissible substituents of organic compounds described herein which satisfy the valences of the heteroatoms. It is understood that“substitution” or“substituted” includes the implicit proviso that such substitution is in accordance with permitted valence of the substituted atom and the substituent, and that the substitution results in a stable compound, i.e., a compound that does not spontaneously undergo

transformation, for example, by rearrangement, cyclization, or elimination.

[0293] In a broad aspect, the permissible substituents include acyclic and cyclic, branched and unbranched, carbocyclic and heterocyclic, aromatic and nonaromatic substituents of organic compounds. Illustrative substituents include, for example, those described herein. The permissible substituents can be one or more and the same or different for appropriate organic compounds. The heteroatoms such as nitrogen may have hydrogen substituents and/or any permissible substituents of organic compounds described herein which satisfy the valencies of the heteroatoms.

[0294] In various embodiments, the substituent is selected from alkoxy, aryloxy, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, amide, amino, aryl, arylalkyl, carbamate, carboxy, cyano, cycloalkyl, ester, ether, formyl, halogen, haloalkyl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, hydroxyl, ketone, nitro, phosphate, sulfide, sulfmyl, sulfonyl, sulfonic acid, sulfonamide, and thioketone, each of which optionally is substituted with one or more suitable substituents. In some embodiments, the substituent is selected from alkoxy, aryloxy, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, amide, amino, aryl, arylalkyl, carbamate, carboxy, cycloalkyl, ester, ether, formyl, haloalkyl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, ketone, phosphate, sulfide, sulfmyl, sulfonyl, sulfonic acid, sulfonamide, and thioketone, wherein each of the alkoxy, aryloxy, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, amide, amino, aryl, arylalkyl, carbamate, carboxy, cycloalkyl, ester, ether, formyl, haloalkyl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, ketone, phosphate, sulfide, sulfmyl, sulfonyl, sulfonic acid, sulfonamide, and thioketone can be further substituted with one or more suitable substituents.

[0295] Examples of substituents include, but are not limited to, halogen, azide, alkyl, aralkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, hydroxyl, alkoxyl, amino, nitro, sulfhydryl, imino, amido, phosphonate, phosphinate, carbonyl, carboxyl, silyl, ether, alkylthio, sulfonyl, sulfonamido, ketone, aldehyde, thioketone, ester, heterocyclyl, - CN, aryl, aryloxy, perhaloalkoxy, aralkoxy, heteroaryl, heteroaryloxy,

heteroarylalkyl, heteroaralkoxy, azido, alkylthio, oxo, acylalkyl, carboxy esters, carboxamido, acyloxy, aminoalkyl, alkylaminoaryl, alkylaryl, alkylaminoalkyl, alkoxyaryl, arylamino, aralkylamino, alkylsulfonyl, carboxamidoalkylaryl, carboxamidoaryl, hydroxyalkyl, haloalkyl, alkylaminoalkylcarboxy,

aminocarboxamidoalkyl, cyano, alkoxyalkyl, perhaloalkyl, arylalkyloxyalkyl, and the like. In some embodiments, the substituent is selected from cyano, halogen, hydroxyl, and nitro.

[0296] The term“copolymer” as used herein, generally refers to a single polymeric material that is comprised of two or more different monomers. The copolymer can be of any form, for example, random, block, or graft. The copolymers can have any end- group, including capped or acid end groups.

[0297] The term“mean particle size”, as used herein, generally refers to the statistical mean particle size (diameter) of the particles in the composition. The diameter of an essentially spherical particle may be referred to as the physical or hydrodynamic diameter. The diameter of a non-spherical particle may refer to the hydrodynamic diameter. As used herein, the diameter of a non-spherical particle may refer to the largest linear distance between two points on the surface of the particle. Mean particle size can be measured using methods known in the art such as dynamic light scattering. Two populations can be said to have a“substantially equivalent mean particle size” when the statistical mean particle size of the first population of particles is within 20% of the statistical mean particle size of the second population of particles; for example, within 15%, or within 10%.

[0298] The terms“monodisperse” and“homogeneous size distribution”, as used interchangeably herein, describe a population of particles, microparticles, or nanoparticles all having the same or nearly the same size. As used herein, a monodisperse distribution refers to particle distributions in which 90% of the distribution lies within 5% of the mean particle size.

[0299] The terms "polypeptide," "peptide" and "protein" generally refer to a polymer of amino acid residues. As used herein, the term also applies to amino acid polymers in which one or more amino acids are chemical analogs or modified derivatives of corresponding naturally-occurring amino acids or are unnatural amino acids. The term "protein", as generally used herein, refers to a polymer of amino acids linked to each other by peptide bonds to form a polypeptide for which the chain length is sufficient to produce tertiary and/or quaternary structure. The term“protein” excludes small peptides by definition, the small peptides lacking the requisite higher- order structure necessary to be considered a protein.

[0300] The terms "nucleic acid," "polynucleotide," and "oligonucleotide" are used interchangeably to refer to a deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide polymer, in linear or circular conformation, and in either single- or double-stranded form. These terms are not to be construed as limiting with respect to the length of a polymer. The terms can encompass known analogs of natural nucleotides, as well as nucleotides that are modified in the base, sugar and/or phosphate moieties (e.g., phosphorothioate backbones). In general and unless otherwise specified, an analog of a particular nucleotide has the same base-pairing specificity; i.e., an analog of A will base-pair with T. The term“nucleic acid” is a term of art that refers to a string of at least two base-sugar-phosphate monomeric units. Nucleotides are the monomeric units of nucleic acid polymers. The term includes deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the form of a messenger RNA, antisense, plasmid DNA, parts of a plasmid DNA or genetic material derived from a virus. An antisense nucleic acid is a polynucleotide that interferes with the expression of a DNA and/or RNA sequence. The term nucleic acids refers to a string of at least two base-sugar- phosphate combinations. Natural nucleic acids have a phosphate backbone. Artificial nucleic acids may contain other types of backbones, but contain the same bases as natural nucleic acids. The term also includes PNAs (peptide nucleic acids), phosphorothioates, and other variants of the phosphate backbone of native nucleic acids.

[0301] A "functional fragment" of a protein, polypeptide or nucleic acid is a protein, polypeptide or nucleic acid whose sequence is not identical to the full-length protein, polypeptide or nucleic acid, yet retains at least one function as the full-length protein, polypeptide or nucleic acid. A functional fragment can possess more, fewer, or the same number of residues as the corresponding native molecule, and/or can contain one or more amino acid or nucleotide substitutions. Methods for determining the function of a nucleic acid (e.g., coding function, ability to hybridize to another nucleic acid) are well-known in the art. Similarly, methods for determining protein function are well-known. For example, the DNA binding function of a polypeptide can be determined, for example, by filter-binding, electrophoretic mobility shift, or immunoprecipitation assays. DNA cleavage can be assayed by gel electrophoresis. The ability of a protein to interact with another protein can be determined, for example, by co-immunoprecipitation, two-hybrid assays or complementation, e.g., genetic or biochemical. See, for example, Fields et al. (1989) Nature 340:245-246; U.S. Patent No. 5,585,245 and PCT WO 98/44350.

[0302] As used herein, the term“linker” refers to a carbon chain that can contain heteroatoms (e.g., nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, etc.) and which may be 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,

8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31

32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50 atoms long. Linkers may be substituted with various substituents including, but not limited to, hydrogen atoms, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynl, amino, alkylamino, dialkylamino,

trialkylamino, hydroxyl, alkoxy, halogen, aryl, heterocyclic, aromatic heterocyclic, cyano, amide, carbamoyl, carboxylic acid, ester, thioether, alkylthioether, thiol, and ureido groups. Those of skill in the art will recognize that each of these groups may in turn be substituted. Examples of linkers include, but are not limited to, pH-sensitive linkers, protease cleavable peptide linkers, nuclease sensitive nucleic acid linkers, lipase sensitive lipid linkers, glycosidase sensitive carbohydrate linkers, hypoxia sensitive linkers, photo-cleavable linkers, heat-labile linkers, enzyme cleavable linkers (e.g., esterase cleavable linker), ultrasound-sensitive linkers, and x-ray cleavable linkers. [0303] The term“pharmaceutically acceptable counter ion” refers to a

pharmaceutically acceptable anion or cation. In various embodiments, the

pharmaceutically acceptable counter ion is a pharmaceutically acceptable ion. For example, the pharmaceutically acceptable counter ion is selected from citrate, malate, acetate, oxalate, chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, sulfate, bisulfate, phosphate, acid phosphate, isonicotinate, acetate, lactate, salicylate, tartrate, oleate, tannate, pantothenate, bitartrate, ascorbate, succinate, maleate, gentisinate, fumarate, gluconate, glucaronate, saccharate, formate, benzoate, glutamate, methanesulfonate, ethanesulfonate, benzenesulfonate, p-toluenesulfonate and pamoate (i.e., 1,1'- methylene-bis-(2-hydroxy-3-naphthoate)). In some embodiments, the

pharmaceutically acceptable counter ion is selected from chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, sulfate, bisulfate, phosphate, acid phosphate, citrate, malate, acetate, oxalate, acetate, and lactate. In particular embodiments, the pharmaceutically acceptable counter ion is selected from chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, sulfate, bisulfate, and phosphate.

[0304] The term“pharmaceutically acceptable salt(s)” refers to salts of acidic or basic groups that may be present in compounds used in the present compositions. Compounds included in the present compositions that are basic in nature are capable of forming a variety of salts with various inorganic and organic acids. The acids that may be used to prepare pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts of such basic compounds are those that form non-toxic acid addition salts, i.e., salts containing pharmacologically acceptable anions, including but not limited to sulfate, citrate, malate, acetate, oxalate, chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, sulfate, bisulfate, phosphate, acid phosphate, isonicotinate, acetate, lactate, salicylate, citrate, tartrate, oleate, tannate, pantothenate, bitartrate, ascorbate, succinate, maleate, gentisinate, fumarate, gluconate, glucaronate, saccharate, formate, benzoate, glutamate, methanesulfonate, ethanesulfonate, benzenesulfonate, p-toluenesulfonate and pamoate (i.e., l,r-methylene-bis-(2-hydroxy-3-naphthoate)) salts. Compounds included in the present compositions that include an amino moiety may form pharmaceutically acceptable salts with various amino acids, in addition to the acids mentioned above. Compounds included in the present compositions, that are acidic in nature are capable of forming base salts with various pharmacologically acceptable cations. Examples of such salts include alkali metal or alkaline earth metal salts and, particularly, calcium, magnesium, sodium, lithium, zinc, potassium, and iron salts. [0305] If the compounds described herein are obtained as an acid addition salt, the free base can be obtained by basifying a solution of the acid salt. Conversely, if the product is a free base, an addition salt, particularly a pharmaceutically acceptable addition salt, may be produced by dissolving the free base in a suitable organic solvent and treating the solution with an acid, in accordance with conventional procedures for preparing acid addition salts from base compounds. Those skilled in the art will recognize various synthetic methodologies that may be used to prepare non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable addition salts.

[0306] A pharmaceutically acceptable salt can be derived from an acid selected from l-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, 2,2-dichloroacetic acid, 2-hydroxy ethanesulfonic acid, 2-oxoglutaric acid, 4-acetamidobenzoic acid, 4-aminosalicylic acid, acetic acid, adipic acid, ascorbic acid, aspartic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, benzoic acid, camphoric acid, camphor- lO-sulfonic acid, capric acid (decanoic acid), caproic acid (hexanoic acid), caprylic acid (octanoic acid), carbonic acid, cinnamic acid, citric acid, cyclamic acid, dodecylsulfuric acid, ethane- l,2-disulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, formic acid, fumaric acid, galactaric acid, gentisic acid, glucoheptonic acid, gluconic acid, glucuronic acid, glutamic acid, glutaric acid, glycerophosphoric acid, glycolic acid, hippuric acid, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, isethionic, isobutyric acid, lactic acid, lactobionic acid, lauric acid, maleic acid, malic acid, malonic acid, mandelic acid, methanesulfonic acid, mucic, naphthalene-l,5-disulfonic acid, naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid, nicotinic acid, nitric acid, oleic acid, oxalic acid, palmitic acid, pamoic acid, pantothenic, phosphoric acid, proprionic acid,

pyroglutamic acid, salicylic acid, sebacic acid, stearic acid, succinic acid, sulfuric acid, tartaric acid, thiocyanic acid, toluenesulfonic acid, trifluoroacetic, and undecylenic acid.

[0307] The term“bioavailable” is art-recognized and refers to a form of the subject invention that allows for it, or a portion of the amount administered, to be absorbed by, incorporated to, or otherwise physiologically available to a subject or patient to whom it is administered.

[0308] It will be appreciated that the following examples are intended to illustrate but not to limit the present invention. Various other examples and modifications of the foregoing description and examples will be apparent to a person skilled in the art after reading the disclosure without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, and it is intended that all such examples or modifications be included within the scope of the appended claims. All publications and patents referenced herein are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE 1: Synthesis of the Conjugates

[0309] The conjugates of the invention may be prepared using any convenient methodology. In a rational approach, the conjugates are constructed from their individual components, targeting moiety, in some cases a linker, and active agent moiety. The components can be covalently bonded to one another through functional groups, as is known in the art, where such functional groups may be present on the components or introduced onto the components using one or more steps, e.g., oxidation reactions, reduction reactions, cleavage reactions and the like. Functional groups that may be used in covalently bonding the components together to produce the pharmaceutical conjugate include: hydroxy, sulfhydryl, amino, and the like. The particular portion of the different components that are modified to provide for covalent linkage will be chosen so as not to substantially adversely interfere with that components desired binding activity, e.g., for the active agent moiety, a region that does not affect the target binding activity will be modified, such that a sufficient amount of the desired drug activity is preserved. Where necessary and/or desired, certain moieties on the components may be protected using blocking groups, as is known in the art, see, e.g., Green & Wuts, Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis (John Wiley & Sons) (1991).

[0310] Alternatively, the conjugate can be produced using known combinatorial methods to produce large libraries of potential conjugates which may then be screened for identification of a bifunctional, molecule with the pharmacokinetic profile.

Alternatively, the conjugates may be produced using medicinal chemistry and known structure-activity relationships for the targeting moiety and the active agent moiety. In particular, this approach will provide insight as to where to join the two moieties to the linker. Synthesis of Compound 3

[0311] To a solution of 2,4-dihydroxy-5-isopropyl-benzenecarbodithioic acid (3.20 g, 14.0 mmol) in DMF (50 mL) was added sodium 2-chloroacetate (2.61 g, 22.4 mmol) and sodium carbonate (4.45 g, 42.0 mmol), and the solution degassed by bubbling nitrogen through the solution. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 h, then a solution of tert-butyl 4-(4-aminobenzyl)piperazine-l-carboxylate (4.08 g, 14.0 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) was added. The resulting mixture was stirred at 80 °C for 3 h. The reaction mixture was poured into ice water, and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 100 ml). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried with sodium sulfate, and the solvent removed in vacuo to give 3A (5.20 g, 10.7 mmol, 76% yield).

[0312] To a solution of 3A (5.20 g, 10.7 mmol) in THF (80 mL) was added carbonyldiimidazole (2.00 g, 13.9 mmol). The reaction was stirred at room

temperature for 2 h, then poured into a solution of saturated ammonium chloride (200 ml), and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (50 mL), dried with sodium sulfate, and the solvent removed in vacuo to give 3B (4.30 g, 8.37 mmol, 78% yield) which was used without purification in the next step. LCMS M/Z = 512.3 (M + 1).

[0313] To a solution of 3B (4.30 g, 8.37 mmol) in ethanol (50 mL) was added hydrazine hydrate (1.26 g, 25.1 mmol). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 h, and the solvent removed in vacuo. Ethanol (20 mL) was added to the remaining residue, the resulting solid was filtered off, washed with ethanol (10 mL), and dried to give 3C (2.86 g, 5.61 mmol, 67% yield). LCMS M/Z = 510.2 (M + 1).

[0314] To a solution of 3C (2.86 g, 5.61 mmol) in methanol (20 mL) was added a solution of 4N HC1 in MeOH (5 mL). The solution was stirred at room temperature for 16 h, the solvent removed under vacuum, and the resulting solid washed with methanol (2 x 5 mL) and dried to give 3D hydrochloride salt (1.90 g, 4.26 mmol, 75% yield). LCMS M/Z = 410.1 (M + 1).

Conjugates comprising PF-05212384:

Synthesis of Compound 17

[0315] 4-(4-chloro-6-morpholino-l,3,5-triazin-2-yl)morpholine (7 g, 24.50 mmol), 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)aniline (6.00 g, 27.37 mmol), sodium carbonate (5.37 g, 50.71 mmol), and Tetrakis (233.33 mg, 201.92 umol) were charged in a round bottom flask and dissolved in a mixture of water (30.62 mL) and DME (91.87 mL) under a nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction was heated to reflux for 5 hours and cooled to room temperature. Two layers were visible and the organic layer was collected, washed with brine (1 x 25 mL), and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. The solvent was evaporated, and the remaining residue was resuspended in DCM (100 mL) and washed with brine (2 x 50 mL) before being dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The remaining solid was triterated with MTBE (50 mL) and filtered to give 6.4 g of Compound 17A (76%) as an off-white solid (M+H = 343.2)

[0316] 17A (2.17 g, 6.33 mmol) and methyl 4-isocyanatobenzoate (1.18 g, 6.65 mmol) were charged in a round bottom flask and dissolved in DCM (31.64 mL). The reaction stirred at room temperature for 4 hours. The product was precipitated with the addition of MTBE (50 mL), and the solid was isolated by vacuum filtration. The powder cake was washed with a 1 : 1 DCM/MTBE (50 mL) before it was dried under vacuum. 2.59 g of Compound 17B (79%) was obtained as an off-white solid (M+H = 520.3).

[0317] 17B (1.08 g, 2.08 mmol) and lithium hydroxide (149.35 mg, 6.24 mmol) were charged in a round bottom flask and dissolved in a mixture of MeOH (4 mL) , Water (2 mL), and THF (8 mL). The reaction was refluxed at 60 °C for 5 hr and then cooled to room temperature. The product precipitated when 1M HC1 in water was added to bring solution to pH 1. The solid isolated by vacuum filtration and dried under reduced pressure to afford 1.05 g of Compound 17C (100%) as an off-white solid (M+H = 506.3).

[0318] 17C (2.87 g, 5.68 mmol) , HATU (2.37 g, 6.24 mmol) , and tert-butyl N- ethyl-N-(4-piperidyl)carbamate (1.36 g, 5.96 mmol) were charged in a round bottom flask and dissolved in DMF (25 mL). Hunig's base (2.20 g, 17.03 mmol, 2.97 mL) was added to the solution, and the reaction stirred for 1 hour at room temperature. The product was precipitated with the addition of water (150 mL). The resulting solid was isolated by vacuum filtration and dried under reduced pressure. 4.02g of Compound 17D (99%) was obtained as an off-white solid (M+H = 716.4).

[0319] 17D (5.5g, 7.68 mmol) was charged in a round bottom flask and dissolved in trifluoroacetic acid (7.45 g, 65.34 mmol, 5 mL). The reaction stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The product was precipitated from the reaction with MTBE (150 mL). The solvent was decanted and the remaining residue was dissolved in MeOH (50 mL) and precipitated with MTBE (250 mL). The resulting solid was filtered and dried under high vacuum to yield 4.8g of Compound 17 (86%) as an off- white powder (M+H = 616.4).

Synthesis of Compound 18

[0320] 18A (150 mg, 188.95 umol), HATU (75.44 mg, 198.40 umol), HOBT

(76.59 mg, 566.85 umol), and T-1818 (99.40 mg, 198.40 umol, HC1) were charged in a vial and dissolved in DMF (5 mL). Hunig's base (122.10 mg, 944.74 umol, 164.56 uL) was added, and the reaction stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. The product was precipitated with the addition of water (40 mL), and the suspension was centrifudged at 3500 rpm for 10 minutes. The supernatant was removed and the remaining solid was resuspended in DMSO. The product was isolated by preparative HPLC (5-50%B, MeCN/water, 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid). The pure fractions were pooled, frozen, and lyophilized to yield 99.9 mg of Compound 18 (39%) as a white lyophilized powder (M+H = 1241.5).

Synthesis of Compound 18A

[0321] Compound 17 (1.09 g, 1.5 mmol, TFA) and 18B (596.30 mg, 1.80 mmol) were charged in a round bottom flask and suspended in DMF (10 mL). Hunig's base (969.32 mg, 7.50 mmol, 1.31 mL) was added dropwise over 1 minute. The reaction stirred at room temperature for 1 hour before it was diluted with water (90 mL). The product precipitated and the suspension was centrifuged at 3500 rpm for 10 minutes. The supernatant was poured off and the solid was transferred to a new round bottom flask. The solid was resuspended in THF (8 mL) and Water (4 mL) followed by the addition of solid lithium hydroxide (107.77 mg, 4.50 mmol). The hydrolysis took 2 hours and was quenched with 1M HC1 in water (15 mL). The product precipitated and was isolated by vacuum filtration. The solid was placed under high vacuum for 2 days to yield 774 mg of Compound 18A (65%) as an off-white solid (M+H = 794.3).

Synthesis of Compound 18B

[0322] A round bottom flask was charged with methyl 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetate (5 g, 30.09 mmol) and (4-nitrophenyl) carbonochloridate (6.67 g, 33.10 mmol). The reactants were dissolved in THF (60 mL) before the dropwise addition of Hunig's base (3.89 g, 30.09 mmol, 5.24 mL) over 5 minutes. The reaction stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes. A precipitate formed which was filtered away and the Titrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was then dissolved in DCM (10 mL), and the product was precipitated with 1 : 1 MTBE/heptanes (500 mL). The solid was filtered, washed with heptanes (2 x 100 mL), and dried under vacuum to yield 8.2 g of Compound 18B (82%) as an off-white powder (3.39m, M+H = 332).

Synthesis of Compound 19

[0323] 18A (100 mg, 125.97 umol), T-1951 (68.12 mg, 132.26 umol, HC1), HATU

(50.29 mg, 132.26 umol), and HOBT (51.06 mg, 377.90 umol) were charged in a vial and dissolved in DMF (5 mL). Hunig's base (81.40 mg, 629.83 umol, 109.70 uL) was added, and the reaction stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. The product was precipitated with the addition of water (40 mL), and the suspension was centrifudged at 3500 rpm for 10 minutes. The supernatant was removed and the remaining solid was resuspended in DMSO. The product was isolated by preparative HPLC (5-65%B, MeCN/water, 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid). The pure fractions were pooled, frozen, and lyophilized to yield 33.9 mg of Compound 19 (19%) as a white lyophilized powder (M+H = 1254.8).

Synthesis of Compound 20

[0324] 18A (100 mg, 125.97 umol), BT-1132 (58.14 mg, 116.74 umol, HC1),

HATU (50.29 mg, 132.26 umol), and HOBT (51.06 mg, 377.90 umol) were charged in a vial and dissolved in DMF (5 mL). Hunig's base (81.40 mg, 629.83 umol, 109.70 uL) was added, and the reaction stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. The product was precipitated with the addition of water (40 mL), and the suspension was centrifudged at 3500 rpm for 10 minutes. The supernatant was removed and the remaining solid was resuspended in DMSO. The product was isolated by preparative HPLC (5-55%B, MeCN/water, 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid). The pure fractions were pooled, frozen, and lyophilized to yield 96.3 mg of Compound 20 (62%) as a white lyophilized powder (M+H = 1238.5).

Synthesis of Compound 21

[0325] 21A (200 mg, 247.56 umol), HATU (103.54 mg, 272.31 umol), HOBT

(167.25 mg, 1.24 mmol), and T-1818 (120.76 mg, 259.94 umol) were charged in a vial and dissolved in DMF (5 mL). Hunig's base (159.97 mg, 1.24 mmol, 215.60 uL) was added, and the reaction stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. The product was isolated by preparative HPLC (5-50%B, MeCN/water, 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid). The pure fractions were pooled, frozen, and lyophilized to yield 182.8 mg of Compound 21 (54%) as a white lyophilized powder (M+H = 1255.5).

Synthesis of Compound 21A

[0326] Compound 17 (500 mg, 685.17 umol, TFA) and 21B (283.91 mg, 822.20 umol) were charged in a round bottom flask and suspended in DMF (5 mL). Hunig's base (442.76 mg, 3.43 mmol, 596.72 uL) was added dropwise over 1 minute. The reaction was heated to 60°C and stirred for 3 hours before it was cooled to room temperature and diluted with water (50 mL). The product precipitated and isolated by vacuum filtration. The solid was resuspended in THF (5 mL) and Water (3 mL) followed by the addition of solid lithium hydroxide (49.23 mg, 2.06 mmol). The hydrolysis took 1 hour and was quenched with 1M HC1 in water (8 mL). The product precipitated and was isolated by vacuum filtration. The solid was placed under high vacuum for 2 days to yield 293.8 mg of Compound 21A (53%) as an off-white solid (M+H = 808.3).

Synthesis of Compound 21B

[0327] A round bottom flask was charged with methyl 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl- phenyl)acetate (5 g, 27.75 mmol) and (4-nitrophenyl) carbonochloridate (6.15 g,

30.52 mmol). The reactants were dissolved in THF (60 mL) before the dropwise addition of Hunig's base (3.59 g, 27.75 mmol, 4.83 mL) over 5 minutes. The reaction stirred at room temperature overnight. A precipitate formed which was filtered away and the Titrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was then dissolved in DCM (10 mL), and the product was precipitated with heptanes (250 mL). The solid was filtered, washed with heptanes (2 x 100 mL), and dried under vacuum to yield 3.74 g of Compound 21B (39%) as an off-white powder (M+H = 346.2).

Conjugates comprising BGT-226:

Synthesis of Compound 22

[0328] 22A (350 mg, 491.11 umol), HATU (196.07 mg, 515.66 umol), HOBT

(199.08 mg, 1.47 mmol), and T-1818 (258.36 mg, 515.66 umol, HC1) were charged in a round bottom flask and dissolved in DMF (15 mL). Hunig's base (317.36 mg, 2.46 mmol, 427.71 uL) was added dropwise over 2 minutes, and the reaction was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. Crude product was precipitated form the reaction with water (70 mL) and isolated by vacuum filtration. The solid was redissolved in minimal DMSO and purified by preparative HPLC (5-50% B, MeCN/water, 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid). The pure fractions were pooled, frozen, and lyophilized to yield 490 mg of Compound 22 (78%) as a white lyophilized powder (M+H = 1160.4).

Synthesis of Compound 22A

[0329] A vial was charged with BGT-226 (200 mg, 374.16 umol) and 22B (148.74 mg, 448.99 umol). The reagents were dissolved in DMF (5 mL) followed by the addition of Hunig’s base (241.79 mg, 1.86 mmol, 325 uL). The reaction stirred for 1 hour at room temperature before it was transferred to a separatory funnel and quenched with water (40 mL). The aqueous solution was extracted with DCM (5 x 20 mL). The organic phases were combined, washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was then diluted with THF (2 mL) and 1M Sodium hydroxide (1 M, 1.87 mL). The hydrolysis stirred at room temperature for 1 hour before it was acidified with 1M HC1 in water (3 mL). The product had precipitated and was collected by filtration before being left to dry under vacuum overnight. 193.3 mg of Compound 22A (73%) was obtained as an off-white solid (M+H = 713.2)

Synthesis of Compound 22B

[0330] A round bottom flask was charged with methyl 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetate (5 g, 30.09 mmol) and (4-nitrophenyl) carbonochloridate (6.67 g, 33.10 mmol). The reactants were dissolved in THF (60 mL) before the dropwise addition of Hunig's base (3.89 g, 30.09 mmol, 5.24 mL) over 5 minutes. The reaction stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes. A precipitate formed which was filtered away and the Titrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was then dissolved in DCM (10 mL), and the product was precipitated with 1 : 1 MTBE/heptanes (500 mL). The solid was filtered, washed with heptanes (2 x 100 mL), and dried under vacuum to yield 8.2 g of Compound 22B (82%) as an off-white powder (3.39m, M+H = 332).

Synthesis of Compound 23

[0331] BT-1132 (38.43 mg, 77.17 umol, HC1), 17A (50 mg, 70.16 umol), HOBT

(28.44 mg, 210.48 umol) and HATU (32.01 mg, 84.19 umol) were charged in a vial and dissolved in DMF (5 mL). Hunig’s base (9.07 mg, 70.16 umol, 12.22 uL) was added, and the reaction stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. The product was isolated by preparative HPLC (10-35%B, MeCN/water, 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid). The pure fractions were pooled, frozen, and lyophilized to yield 68.9 mg of

Compound 18 (79%) as a white lyophilized powder (3.3 lm, M+H = 1157). Synthesis of Compound 24

[0332] T-1951 (39.75 mg, 77.17 umol, HC1), 22A (50 mg, 70.16 umol), HATU

(32.01 mg, 84.19 umol), and l-hydroxybenzotriazole (28.44 mg, 210.48 umol) were charged in a vial and dissolved in DMF (5 mL). Hunig's base (32.63 mg, 252.50 umol, 43.98 uL) was added, and the reaction stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. The reaction was quenched with 15 mL of water, and the product precipitated. The solid was collected by centrifugation at 3500 rpm for 10 minutes. The supernatant was removed and the solid purified by preparative HPLC (0-55%B, MeCN/water, 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid). The pure fractions were pooled, frozen, and lyophilized to yield 57.8 mg of Compound 24 (61%) as a white lyophilized powder (3.06m, M+H =

1174).

Synthesis of Compound 25

[0333] 25A (192 mg, 228.07 umol), T-1818 (122.65 mg, 228.07 umol, 2HC1), 1- hydroxybenzotriazole (92.50 mg, 684.22 umol), and HATU (86.77 mg, 228.07 umol) were charged in a round bottom flask and dissolved in DMF (7 mL). Hunig's base (88.48 mg, 684.22 umol, 119.24 uL) was added and the reaction stirred for 30 minutes at room temperature. The reaction was quenched with 30 mL of water and 200 uL of TFA. The product was isolated by preparative HPLC (10-60%B, MeCN/water, 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid). The pure fractions were collected and lyophilized to yield 156 mg of Compound 25 (54%) as a white lyophilized powder (3. l5m, 2M+2 = 645).

Synthesis of Compound 25A

[0334] A vial was charged with BGT-226 (150 mg, 280.62 umol) and 25B (155.05 mg, 336.74 umol). The reagents were dissolved in DMF (15 mL) and Hunig’s base (217.61 mg, 1.68 mmol, 39.7 uL) was added. The reaction stirred for 1 hour before it was quenched with water (13 mL). The solution was transferred to a separatory funnel and diluted with water (20 mL). The aqueous solution was extracted with DCM (5 x 20 mL). The organic phases were combined, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue resuspended with THF (2 mL) and 1M Sodium hydroxide (1 M, 1.40 mL). The hydrolysis stirred at room

temperature for 1 hour and was quenched with 1M HC1 in water (4 mL). The solution was extracted with DCM (3 x 20 mL). The organic layers were combined, washed with brine (20 mL), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and evaporated to dryness. 192.1 mg of Compound 25A (81%) was obtained as an off-white solid (3.28m, M+H = 842).

Synthesis of Compound 25B

[0335] Boc-D-Tyrosine-OMe (5 g, 16.93 mmol) and (4-nitrophenyl)

carbonochloridate (3.75 g, 18.62 mmol) were charged in a round bottom flask and dissolved in THF (60.18 mL). Hunig's base (2.19 g, 16.93 mmol, 2.95 mL) was added and the reaction stirred for 1 hour at room temperature. A precipitate formed and was filtered away. The filtrate was collected and evaporated. The residue was triturated with 1 :1 MTBE/heptanes (3 x 150 mL). The resulting solid was dried under reduced pressure to afford 6.99g of Compound 25B (90%) as an off-white solid (M+H+Na = 483.2).

Synthesis of Compound 26

[0336] Compound 25 (147.00 mg, 114.10 umol) was charged in a vial and dissolved in trifluoroacetic acid (4.47 g, 39.20 mmol, 3 mL). The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The reaction was diluted with water (5 mL) and purified by preparative HPLC (0-40%B, MeCN/water, 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid). Pure fractions were pooled, frozen, and lyophilized to yield 66 mg of Compound 26 (39%) as a white lyophilized powder (2.95m, M+H = 1189).

EXAMPLE 2: In vitro Studies Using the Conjugates

HSP90 Binding:

[0337] The bindings of the conjugates to HSP90 were studied wth the HSP90a Assay Kit. The HSP90a Assay Kit is designed for identification of HSP90a inhibitors using fluorescence polarization. The assay is based on the competition of fluorescently labeled geldanamycin for binding to purified recombinant HSP90a. The key to the HSP90a Assay Kit is the fluorescently labeled geldanamycin. The fluorescently labeled geldanamycin is incubated with a sample containing HSP90a enzyme to produce a change in fluorescent polarization that can then be measured using a fluorescence reader.

Tumor Cell Cytotoxicity Assay:

[0338] Tumor cells were plated at 500-5,000 cells per well and incubated for 20- 24hrs at 370C at 5% C02. Post cell incubation, compounds were reconstituted in DMSO to a stock concentration of 200uM. A compound plate was then prepared containing a 10 point dilution in RPMI +l0%FBS + 0.25% DMSO. 5uL of the dilution was then added for a final working concentration range of lOuM to

0.0005uM. Compounds and cells were then incubated for up to 72hrs. Cells were then analyzed by CellTiter-Glo for ATP levels and percent inhibition calculated.

[0339] BT474 (breast), LS174T (colon), or HCT-l 16 (colon) tumor cells were plated at 2500 cells per well and incubated for 20-24hrs at 370C at 5% C02. Post cell incubation, compounds were reconstituted in DMSO to a stock concentration of 200uM. A compound plate was then prepared containing a 10 point dilution in RPMI +l0%FBS + 0.25% DMSO. 5uL of the dilution was then added for a final working concentration range of lOuM to 0.0005uM. Compounds and cells were then incubated for 72hrs. Cells were then analyzed by CellTiter-Glo for ATP levels and percent inhibition calculated.

[0340] NCI-H460 cells (non-small cell lung cancer) were plated at 500 cells per well and incubated for 20-24hrs at 37°C at 5% CO2. Post cell incubation, compounds were reconstituted in DMSO to a stock concentration of 200uM. A compound plate was then prepared containing a 10 point dilution in RPMI +l0%FBS + 0.25% DMSO. 5uL of the dilution was then added for a final working concentration range of lOuM to 0.0005uM. Compounds and cells were then incubated for 48hrs. Cells were then analyzed by CellTiter-Glo for ATP levels and percent inhibition calculated.