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Title:
INTENSE COLOURING PHOTOCHROMIC 2$i(H)-NAPHTHO[1,2-$i(b)]PYRANS AND HETEROCYCLIC PYRANS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1998/042695
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A naphtho [1,2-$i(b)] pyran of general formula (I), wherein one or both of R?1� and R?2� is a 4-aminoaryl group; R?5� is selected from linear or branched C�1?-C�10? alkyl, C�1?-C�20? cycloalkyl, C�1?-C�20? bicycloalkyl, C�1?-C�20? polycycloalkyl, linear or branched C�1?-C�10? haloalkyl, linear or branched C�1?-C�10? perhaloalkyl, linear or branched C�1?-C�10? perhaloalkenyl, linear or branched C�1?-C�10? alkenyl, C�1?-C�10? alkynyl, linear or branched C�1?-C�10? alkoxy, linear or branched C�1?-C�10? alkylthio, linear or branched C�1?-C�10? alkoxy (linear or branched C�1?-C�10? alkyl), linear or branched C�1?-C�10? hydroxyalkyl, linear or branched C�1?-C�10? aminoalkyl, aryl, phenyl, heteroaryl, halogen, nitrile, nitro, amino, linear or branched C�1?-C�20? alkoxycarbonyl, hydroxyl, formyl, acetyl, amido, C�1?-C�5? alkylamido, C�1?-C�5? dialkylamido, aroyl, benzoyl, alkyl C�1?-C�5? amino, dialkyl C�1?-C�5? amino, arylamino, diarylamino, aryl C�1?-C�5? alkylamino and cyclicamino groups; arylsulfinyl, arylsulfanyl, arylsulfonyl, linear or branched C�1?-C�10? alkylsulfonyl, P(O)(O-C�1?-C�10? alkyl)�2? or is the alkenyl function (II), wherein R?11� and/or R?12� and/or R?13� is hydrogen or is as defined for R?5�, and R?3�, R?4� and R?6�-R?10� are each hydrogen or as defined R?1�, R?2� or R?5�. The compounds may be combined with a polymeric host material such as a plastic or a glass to make a sunglass lens, an ophthalmic lens or a window.

Inventors:
CLARKE DAVID ALLAN (GB)
HERON BERNARD MARK (GB)
GABBUTT CHRISTOPHER DAVID (GB)
HEPWORTH JOHN DAVID (GB)
PARTINGTON STEVEN MICHAEL (GB)
CORNS STEPHEN NIGEL (GB)
Application Number:
PCT/GB1998/000905
Publication Date:
October 01, 1998
Filing Date:
March 25, 1998
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
JAMES ROBINSON LTD (GB)
CLARKE DAVID ALLAN (GB)
HERON BERNARD MARK (GB)
GABBUTT CHRISTOPHER DAVID (GB)
HEPWORTH JOHN DAVID (GB)
PARTINGTON STEVEN MICHAEL (GB)
CORNS STEPHEN NIGEL (GB)
International Classes:
G02C7/10; C07D311/78; C07D311/92; C07D409/04; C07D491/052; C07D493/04; C07D495/04; C09K9/02; G02B5/23; G03C1/73; (IPC1-7): C07D311/92; C07D311/78; C07D409/04; G02B5/23
Domestic Patent References:
WO1995016215A11995-06-15
WO1996004576A11996-02-15
WO1998004937A11998-02-05
Foreign References:
EP0250193A21987-12-23
US5552091A1996-09-03
US5658500A1997-08-19
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Wain, Christopher Paul (Northumberland House 303-306 High Holborn, London WC1V 7LE, GB)
Download PDF:
Claims:
1. A naphtho [1, 2b] pyran of general formula (I) wherein one or both of R'and R'is a 4aminoaryl group; R5 is selected from linear or branched C1C10 alkyl, C1C20 cycloalkyl, C1C20 bicycloalkyl, C1C20 polycycloalkyl, linear or branched ClC,, haloalkyl, linear or branched C,C, 0 perhaloalkyl, linear or branched C,C, o perhaloalkenyl, linear or branched C,C, oalkenyl, C rC alkenyl, linear or branched C,C, 0 alkoxy, linear or branched C rC,,, alkylthio, linear or branched C,C, o alkoxy (linear or branched C1C10 alkyl), linear or branched C,C, o hydroxyalkyl, linear or branched C jC, oaminoalkyl, aryl, phenyl, heteroaryl, halogen, nitrile, nitro, amino, linear or branched C,C2o alkoxycarbonyl, hydroxyl, formyl, acetyl, amido, C,Cs alkyl amido, C,C 5 dialkylamido, aroyl, benzoyl, alkyl C,C5 amino, dialkyl C,C 5 amino, arylamino, diarylamino, aryl C,C5 alkylamino and cyclicamino groups ; arylsulfinyl, arylsulfanyl, arylsulfonyl, linear or branched C,C, o alkylsulfonyl, P (O) (OC,C, o alkyl) z or is the alkenyl function: wherein R"and/or R'2 and/or R'3 is hydrogen or is as defined for R 5 and R, 3 R4 and R6 R'° are each hydrogen or as defined for R,'R'or R. 5.
2. A naphtho [1, 2b] pyran according to claim 1, wherein the amino group alkyl is C,C5 amino, dialkyl C IC 5 amino, arylamino, diarylamino, aryl ClC, alkylamino or a cyclicamino group.
3. A naphtho [1, 2b] pyran according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the 4 aminoaryl group is further substituted in addition to the specified amino function and in any remaining positions, with hydrogen, C1C5 alkyl, C1C5 haloalkyl, C,C5 perhaloalkyl, C,C 5 alkoxy, C 1C, alkylthio, C rC 5 hydroxyalkyl, ClC, alkoxy, ClC5 alkyl, C ; C 5 aminoalkyl, halogen, C rC 5 alkoxycarbonyl, formyl, nitrile, carboxyl, acetyl, amino, alkyl C,C5 amino, dialkyl ClC, amino, arylamino, diarylamino, aryl C rC 5 alkylamino or a cyclicamino group.
4. A naphtho [1, 2b] pyran according to claim 1, 2 or 3, wherein the cyclicamino group is aziridino, pyrrolidino, piperidino, morpholino, thiomorpholino, indolino, piperazino, ClC5 NAlkylpiperazino or N arylpiperazino.
5. A naphtho [1, 2b] pyran according to any of claims 1, 2,3 or 4 of the general formula II, I1I or IV: wherein R"and R"are as defined for R 3 R 4, R 6_ R'°.
6. A naphtho [1, 2b] pyran according to claim 5 of general formula V or VI: wherein X is selected from O, S, SO, SO2, Se, NH, Nlinear or branched ClC, o alkyl, Naryl, Nheteroaryl, Nlinear or branched C rC haloalkyl, N linear or branched ClC, o perhaloalkyl, Nlinear or branched C fC, 0 hydroxyalkyl, Nlinear or branched C,C, alkoxyalkyl, benzyl, substituted benzyl, tosyl.
7. A naphtho [l, 2b] pyran according to any preceding claim, wherein R'is 4morpholinophenyl, 4piperidinophenyl, 4 dimethylaminophenyl or 4pyrrolidinophenyl and R5 is methoxycarbonyl.
8. A naphtho [1, 2b] pyran according to any of claims 1 to 6, wherein R'and R are each 4pyrrolidinophenyl and R 5is methoxycarbonyl.
9. A naphtho [1, 2b] pyran according to any of claims 1 to 6, wherein R'is 4morpholinophenyl, R2 is 4methoxyphenyl and R5 is methoxycarbonyl.
10. A naphtho [1, 2b] pyran according to any of claims 1 to 6 wherein R'is 4morpholinophenyl, R 2is 2thienyl and R 5is methoxycarbonyl.
11. A polymeric host material including a naphtho [1, 2b] pyran according to any preceding claim.
12. A polymeric host material according to claim 11, wherein the material is a plastic or a glass.
13. A window, an optical filter, an ophthalmic lens or a sunglass lens made from a polymeric host material according to claim 11 or 12.
Description:
Intense Colouring Photochromic 2H-Naphtho [1, 2-b] pyrans and Heterocyclic Pyrans The present invention relates to certain new photochromic pyran derivatives and to their use.

Photochromism is a well-known physical phenomenon which is observed with certain classes of chemical compounds. A detailed discussion of this phenomenon can be found in"Photochromism: Molecules and Systems,"Studies in Organic Chemistry 40, Eds. H Durr and H Bouas- Laurent, Elsevier, 1990.

The 2H-naphtho [1, 2-b] pyran system is known to be capable of exerting a photochromic effect as described, for example, U. S. Patent No. 3,567,605 and U. S. Patent No. 4,826,977. U. S. Patent No. 3,567,605 provides an example of a 2H-naphtho [1, 2-b] pyran which remains coloured at ambient temperatures for several hours, and U. S. Patent No. 4,826,977 describes a series of yellow/orange colouring 2H-naphtho [1, 2-b] pyrans containing a spiro-adamantane group at the 2-position, amongst other 2H- [l] benzopyran and isomeric naphthopyran systems. The basic structural unit of the 2H-naphtho [1, 2-b] pyran system, in this instance substituted at C-2 with a spiro-adamantane group, is illustrated below.

A range of purple/blue colouring 2 (4-aminophenyl)-2-alkyl-2H- naphtho [1, 2-b] pyrans have been described in U. S. Patent No. 4,818,096 and European Patent No. 0,250,193 describes a range of photochromic naphtho- [1,2-b] and [2,1-b] pyrans which bear one or two aminophenyl substituents on the carbon atom adjacent to the oxygen heteroatom. In this patent it is stated that substitution in the ring positions, sites 5-10, other than at site 6 has little influence on the photochromic behaviour of the compounds.

A series of photochromic 2H-naphtho [1, 2-b] pyrans, amongst other 2H- [l] benzopyrans and isomeric naphthopyrans, bearing a cyclopropyl group as one of the substituents at the 2-position is described in article W092/01959. It is also commented that the compound 2-cyclopropyl-2-p- methoxyphenyl-5-methyl-2H-naphtho [1, 2-b] pyran and several other analogues are of particular current interest, but no reasons were presented either to substantiate such interest or as to any significance of the 5- methyl group.

It is stated in U. S. Patent No. 5,066,818 (1991) that"The compound, 2,2-diphenyl-2H-naphtho [1, 2-b] pyran, also colours on exposure to near ultraviolet light at room temperature but does not bleach in a reasonable period of time. Substitution of the phenyl substituents in the meta and para positions have little effect on the rate of bleaching of these compounds." The very high optical density of 2,2-diaryl-2H-naphtho [1, 2-b] pyrans achieved under irradiation and their slow attendant fade (bleaching) on removal of the source of irradiation relative to the photochromic properties displayed by the isomeric 3,3-diaryl-3H-naphtho [2, 1-blpyrans has been recently noted by B. van Gemert et al. (Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1994,246,67).

The relatively slow attendant fade of the 2,2-diaryl-2H-naphtho [1, 2-b] pyrans was rationalised by the absence of steric crowding in the ring opened (coloured) quinoidal/zwitterionic forms. Such steric crowding is thought to be present for the ring opened form of the 3,3-diaryl-3H-naphtho [2,1-b] pyrans and accounts for their relatively rapid fade.

Pilkington Brothers Limited have also commented on the fading of photochromic materials in Research Disclosure. Two structurally similar deep colouring photochromic 2,2-diaryl-2H-naphtho [1, 2-b] pyrans, namely 2, 2-bis (4-methoxyphenyl)-5,6-dimethyl-2H-naphtho [1, 2-b] p y r a n a n d 2- (4-methoxyphenyl)-2- (4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-5, 6-dimethyl-2H-naphtho- [1, 2-b] pyran are described, which exhibit markedly improved attendant fade compared with the non-methyl substituted analogues. These improved rates of fade are attributed to the combined presence of methyl groups at the 5-and 6-positions, which are said to exert steric pressures upon the ring opened (coloured) quinoidal/zwitterionic forms, thereby enhancing the ring closure to the uncoloured naphthopyran system. However, these fast fade materials described by Pilkington plc with substituents at both the 5-and 6-positions are difficult to make, requiring a long multi-stage process which renders them unattractive commercially. Thus the use of two substituents at the 5-and 6- positions to achieve rapid fade in these 2,2-diaryl compounds has the disadvantage of manufacture complexities.

Two recent U. S. Patents, 5,458,814 and 5, 514, 817 describe the synthesis of a range fast fading intensly colouring 5-substituted or 5,6-disubstituted 2,2-diaryl-2H-naphtho [1, 2-b] pyrans and phenanthropyrans.

We have investigated these known photochromic compounds and have found that, for enhanced intense colour generation, compounds having 2- (aminoaryl)-2-aryl or 2,2-bis (aminoaryl) substituents are preferred. Also the presence of a 5-substituent in these 2,2-diaryl-2H-naphtho [1, 2-b] pyrans ensures rapid fading of the red or orange colour generated upon irradiation.

According to the present invention, there is provided a photochromic compound of the formula I In graphic formula I above, Rl and R2 are each selected from unsubstituted, mono-, di-or polysubstituted aryl groups, phenyl and naphthyl, preferably mono-or di-substituted phenyl or naphthyl.

Additionally Rl and or R2 may be selected from the following heteroaryl groups, thienyl, benzo [b] thienyl, furyl, benzo [b] furyl, pyrryl, indolyl.

The substituents for the aryl and heteroaryl groups representing Rl and R2 may be amino, alkyl C1-Cs amino, dialkyl C1-Cs amino, arylamino, arylalkyl C1-Cs amino, diarylamino and cyclic amino groups (for example, aziridino, pyrrolidino, piperidino, morpholino, thiomorpholino, indolino, piperazino, C1-Cs N-alkyl-piperazino). Other substituents in addition to the specified amino function may include, in any remaining positions, hydrogen, C 1-C5 alkyl, C 1-C5 haloalkyl, Cl-C5 alkoxy, Ci-¬5 alkoxy (Cl-C5) alkyl, amino-Cl-C5 alkyl, hydroxy-Cl-C5 alkyl, halogen.

Phenyl, aryl and heteroaryl ring substituents may be located at the o-, m-or p-positions. Typically each phenyl group contains less than 3 substituents.

R3 and R4 are hydrogen.

R5 may be selected from Cl-calo alkyl, Cl-Clo haloalkyl, Cl-calo perfluoroalkyl, C1-Cs perfluoroalkenyl, Cl-C ; alkenyl, C1-Cs alkynyl, C1- Clo alkoxy, Cl-Clo perfluoroalkoxy, Cl-C5 alkoxy (Cl-C5) alkyl, Cl-C5 hydroxyalkyl, halogen, nitrile, nitro, amino, Ci-¬5 alkylamino, C1-Cs dialkylamino, cyclic amino (for example, aziridino, pyrrolidino, piperidino, morpholino, thiomorpholino, indolino, piperazino, Ci-¬5 N- alkylpiperazino), arylamino, diarylamino, aryl C1-Cs alkylamino, Cl-Cs oxoalkyl, phenyl, aryl, substituted aryl, naphthyl, substituted naphthyl, aroyl, substituted aroyl, formyl, carboxyl, Cl-C20 alkoxycarbonyl, Cl-C5 haloalkyloxycarbonyl, aryloxylcarbonyl, substituted aryloxylcarbonyl.

R5 may also be selected from the alkenyl function illustrated immediately below: Where Rll and or R12 and or R13 will be selected from those substituents specified for RI and R2 in formula I. In addition to these substituents Rll and R12 and R13 may be selected from CN, NO2, CHO, Ci-¬5 alkoxycarbonyl, benzoyl, and phenylsulfonyl.

In graphic formula I R6, R7, R8, R9 and R10 may be selected from hydrogen, in addition to those groups specified for R5 above.

Typically, though not always, two or three groups selected from R7, R8, R9 and R10 are hydrogen.

In addition to the 2H-naphtho [1, 2-b] pyran compounds of formula I, the present invention includes the isomeric phenanthropyrans of the general formula II and m and benzo [I] phenanthropyrans of the general formula IV In graphic formula II, III andIV R1 to R13 are as specified for graphic formula I and R14 and R15 may be selected from those substituents specified for R6.

In addition to the 2H-naphtho [1, 2-b] pyran compounds of formula I, the present invention includes the isomeric heterocyclicpyrans of the general formula V and VI In graphic formula IV and V Rl to R14 are as specified for graphic formula I and the heteroatom X may be selected from O, S, NH, and substitiued N for example Cl-calo alkyl, C1-Clo haloalkyl, C1-C1o perfluoroalkyl, benzyl, phenyl, tosyl, benzoyl, amino-Cl-C5 alkyl, hydroxy- C 1-C 5 alkyl.

The photochromic properties exhibited by the novel pyran compounds of the present invention, namely those of high induced optical density and rapid bleaching of the red or orange coloured form, render these compounds particularly useful as photochromic materials for incorporation into polymeric host materials so as to impart photochromic properties to the said polymeric host materials. Examples of applications of the polymeric host materials containing photochromic materials of the present invention include the manufacture of lenses for sunglasses and ophthalmic lenses, optical filters and windows for vehicles such as cars (including sunroofs), aircraft and ships and architectural uses e. g. windows for homes and for photochromic'stained glass'windows.

The photochromic pyrans of the present invention are incorporated into the'plastic'host material by well established protocols for example as described in European Patent No. 0254020 or U. S. Patent No. 5,066,818.

The high induced optical density of the photochromic compounds of the present invention enables the amount of the photochromic material required so as to impart a useful degree of photochromism to a polymeric host material or to a solution to be greatly reduced, thereby enabling a considerable saving of synthetic effort and cost. Furthermore, the use of reduced quantities of the photochromic materials of the present invention has the bonus that there is a consequent reduction in any undesirable colour that the photochromic materials may impart in the bleached state, either by way of inherent colour of the material itself or by the formation of coloured fatigue/ degradation products through use of the photochromic material.

Typical host materials are optically clear polymer materials, such as polymers of polyol (allyl carbonate)-monomers, polyacrylates such as polymethylmethacrylates, cellulose acetate, cellulose triacetate, cellulose acetate propionate, cellulose acetate butyrate, poly (vinyl acetate), poly (vinyl alcohol), polyurethanes, polycarbonate, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene, poly (triethyleneglycol dimethylacrylate), poly (diethyleneglycol bis (allyl carbonate)) and various copolymer mixes.

The pyran compounds of the present invention may be prepared by a general method which is based on the following reaction scheme: H acid catalyst OH + OH solvent p air Ar Ar I/ Scheme This general synthetic methodology has been descibed in detail, for example, by L. Merlini in'Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry,'1975, vol. 18, page 159, and by R. Guglielmetti in"Photochromism: Molecules and Systems,"Studies in Organic Chemistry 40, chp. 8, Eds. H Durr and H. Bouas- Laurent, Elsevier, 1990, and also in several patent documents, for example, U. S. Patent No. 5,066,818; U. S. Patent No. 4,990,287, WO 92/09593 and W095/05382. The synthesis of the propargyl alcohols shown in the scheme above are obtained in a known manner, for example, T. F. Rutledge in 'Acetylenic Compounds,'Reinhold, New York, 1968. The 1-naphthols and related hydroxy compounds are either commercially available or obtained by known synthetic methods, or derived from such methods. Some of the 1-naphthols and related hydroxy compounds or precursors thereof have been described in the chemical literature, for example, ethyl 1-acetoxydibenzo thiophene-3-carboxylate see (S. Gronowitz et al., Acta. Pharm. Suec., 1978,15, 337) and 3-hydroxypropyl-1-naphthol see (R. F. Frank et al., J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1984,761). The use of the Stobbe condensation to prepare 1-naphthols has also been discussed (see Organic Reactions 1951,6,1).

The acid catalyst may be selected from acidic alumina (Brockmann 1), acetic acid, trifluoroacetic acid, silica, clays (e. g. montmorillionite, tonsil) or acidic exchange resins.

Organic solvents frequently employed for the reaction include benzene, toluene, xylene and relatively high boiling alkanes.

The following examples illustrate but do not limit the invention: Example 1 : Methyl 9-methoxy-2-phenyl-2- (2-thienyl)-2H-naphtho [1, 2- b]pyran-5-carboxylate (a) Ethyl 4-acetoxy-6-methoxy-2-raphthoate A solution of freshly distilled p-anisaldehyde (20g, 146.9 mmol) and diethyl succinate (38.4g, 220.3 mmol) in anhydrous ethanol (50 cm3) was added dropwise over 45 minutes to a vigorously stirred warm- 40-50 °C, solution of sodium ethoxide (from sodium 6.75g, 293.8 mmol) in anhydrous ethanol (450 cm3) under N2. On completion of the addition the solution was refluxed for 4 hours and then cooled to room temperature.

The reaction mixture was reduced to-1/5 of the original volume and the resulting viscous oil was diluted with water (700 cm3), cautiously acidified with c. HCl and the resulting two phase mixture extracted with ethyl acetate (5 x 100 cm3). The combined EtOAc solutions were extracted with aq. sat. NaHC03 solution (6 x 100 cm3). The combined aq. NaHCO3 solutions were cautiously acidified with c. HC1 and the resulting two phase mixture extracted with EtOAc (4 x 100 cm3). The combined EtOAc extracts were dried (Na2S04) and evaporated to afford a yellow mobile oil.

A solution of the aforegoing yellow oil and anhydrous sodium acetate (12.05g, 146.9 mmol) in acetic anhydride (180 cm3) was refluxed for 3 hours.

The solution was cooled to room temperature and then diluted with water (2000 cm3) and allowed to stir for 1.5 hours. The resulting pale brown solid was collected by vacuum filtration, washed well with water (-500 cm3) and air dried.

The solid was recrystallised from EtOAc/hexane and Norit (activated charcoal) to give ethyl 4-acetoxy-6-methoxy-2-naphthoate (yield = 21.2 g, theoretical yield = 42. 35 g, 50 %, m. p. = 103. 5-104.5 °C (uncorrected)).

(b) Methyl 4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-naphthoate A solution of ethyl 4-acetoxy-6-methoxy-2-naphthoate (3.0g, 10.4 mmol) and sodium hydroxide (2.5g, 62.5 mmol) in water (60 cm3) and ethanol (15 cm3) was maintained at 80-90 °C for 3 hours. The cooled solution was poured into water (400 cm3) and cautiously acidified with c.

HC1. The resulting suspension was extracted with EtOAc (5 x 75 cm3). The combined extracts were dried (Na2SO4) and evaporated to give a pale brown solid. This solid was dissolved in methanol (50 cm3) containing c. H2S04 (~ 1 cm3) and was refluxed for 4 hours. The cooled mixture was diluted with water (500 cm3) and extracted with EtOAc (4 x 50 cm3). The combined extracts were washed with aq. sat. NaHCO3 (2 x 100 cm3) and water (100 cm3). Removal of the dried (Na2SO4) EtOAc gave a pale brown solid which was recrystallised from EtOAc/hexane to afford methyl 4-hydroxy-6- methoxy-2-naphthoate (yield = 1.63g, theoretical yield = 2.41g, 68%, m. p. = 193-195 OC (uncorrected)). (c) Methyl 9-methoxy-2-phenyl-2-(2-thienyl)-2H-naphtho [1, 2-b] pyran-5- carboxylate A solution of methyl 4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-naphthoate (0. 45g, 1.8 mmol) and 1- (4-morpholinophenyl)-1- (2-thienyl) prop-2-yn-1-ol (0.55g, 1.8 mmol) in toluene (45 cm3) containing acidic alumina (Brockmann 1), (4.0g) was refluxed for 60 minutes. The cooled solution was filtered and the alumina was washed well with EtOAc (200 cm3). Removal of the solvent gave an oil which solidified on standing at RT. Recrystallisation twice from EtOAc/hexane gave methyl 9-methoxy-2-phenyl-2- (2-thienyl)-2H- naphtho [1, 2-b] pyran-5-carboxylate (yield = 0.49 g, theoretical yield = 0.93g 52%, m. p. = 186-188°C (uncorrected)).

Example 2 : Methyl 9-methoxy-2- (4-morpholinophenyl)-2-phenyl-2H- naphtho [1, 2-b] pyran-5-carboxylate, m. p. = 175-177 °C (uncorrected). This compound was obtained by a similar protocol to example 1 above using the requisite starting materials.

Example 3: Methyl 9-methoxy-2,2-bis (4-pyrrolidinophenyl)-2H-naphtho [1, 2- b] pyran-5-carboxylate, m. p. = 210-215 °C (uncorrected). This compound was obtained by a similar protocol to example 1 above using the requisite starting materials.

Example 4 : Methyl 9-methoxy-2-phenyl-2- (4-piperidinophenyl)-2H- naphtho [1, 2-b] pyran-5-carboxylate, m. p. = 164-167 °C (uncorrected). This compound was obtained by a similar protocol to example 1 above using the requisite starting materials.

Exarre 5: Methyl 2- (4-methoxyphenyl)-2- (4-morpholinophenyl)-2H- naphtho [1, 2-b] pyran-5-carboxylate, m. p. = 177-179 °C (uncorrected). This compound was obtained by a similar protocol to example 1 above using the requisite starting materials.

Example 6 : Methyl 7,9-dichloro-2- (4-pyrrolidinophenyl)-2-phenyl-2H- naphtho [1, 2-b] pyran-5-carboxylate, m. p. = 162-165 °C (uncorrected). This compound was obtained by a similar protocol to example 1 above using the requisite starting materials.

Example 7 : Methyl 7-fluoro-2- (4-piperidinophenyl)-2-phenyl-2H-naphtho [1, 2- naphtho [1, 2-b] pyran-5-carboxylate, m. p. = 165-168 °C (uncorrected). This compound was obtained by a similar protocol to example 1 above using the requisite starting materials.

Comparative example 1 : 2-(4-morpholinophenyl)-2-phenyl-2H-naphtho [1, 2- b] pyran, m. p. = 131-134 °C (uncorrected). Comparative example 2: Methyl 9-methoxy-2,2-bis (4-methoxyphenyl)-2H- naphtho [1, 2-b] pyran-5-carboxylate (a) Ethyl 4-acetoxy-6-methoxy-2-naphthoate A solution of freshly distilled p-anisaldehyde (20g, 146.9 mmol) and diethyl succinate (38.4g, 220.3 mmol) in anhydrous ethanol (50 cm3) was added dropwise over 45 minutes to a vigorously stirred warm-40-50 °C, solution of sodium ethoxide (from sodium 6.75g, 293.8 mmol) in anhydrous ethanol (450 cm3) under N2. On completion of the addition the solution was refluxed for 4 hours and then cooled to room temperature.

The reaction mixture was reduced to-1/5 of the original volume and the resulting viscous oil was diluted with water (700 cm3), cautiously acidified with c. HCl and the resulting two phase mixture extracted with ethyl acetate (5 x 100 cm3). The combined EtOAc solutions were extracted with aq. sat. NaHC03 solution (6 x 100 cm3). The combined aq. NaHCO3 solutions were cautiously acidified with c. HCl and the resulting two phase mixture extracted with EtOAc (4 x 100 cm3). The combined EtOAc extracts were dried (Na2S04) and evaporated to afford a yellow mobile oil.

A solution of the aforegoing yellow oil and anhydrous sodium acetate (12.05g, 146.9 mmol) in acetic anhydride (180 cm3) was refluxed for 3 hours.

The solution was cooled to room temperature and then diluted with water (2000 cm3) and allowed to stir for 1.5 hours. The resulting pale brown solid was collected by vacuum filtration, washed well with water (.500 cm3) and air dried.

The solid was recrystallised from EtOAc/hexane and Norit (activated charcoal) to give ethyl 4-acetoxy-6-methoxy-2-naphthoate (yield = 21.2 g, theoretical yield = 42.35 g, 50 %, m. p. = 103. 5-104.5 °C (uncorrected)).

(b) Methyl 4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-naphthoate A solution of ethyl 4-acetoxy-6-methoxy-2-naphthoate (3.0g, 10.4 mmol) and sodium hydroxide (2.5g, 62.5 mmol) in water (60 cm3) and ethanol (15 cm3) was maintained at 80-90 °C for 3 hours. The cooled solution was poured into water (400 cm3) and cautiously acidified with c.

HC1. The resulting suspension was extracted with EtOAc (5 x 75 cm3). The combined extracts were dried (Na2SO4) and evaporated to give a pale brown solid. This solid was dissolved in methanol (50 cm3) containing c. H2SO4 (~ 1-cm3) and was refluxed for 4 hours. The cooled mixture was diluted with water (500 cm3) and extracted with EtOAc (4 x 50 cm3). The combined extracts were washed with aq. sat. NaHC03 (2 x 100 cm3) and water (100 cm3). Removal of the dried (Na2SO4) EtOAc gave a pale brown solid which was recrystallised from EtOAc/hexane to afford methyl 4-hydroxy-6- methoxy-2-naphthoate (yield = 1.63g, theoretical yield = 2.41g, 68%, m. p. = 193-195 OC (uncorrected)).

(c) Methyl 9-methoxy-2, 2-bis (4-methoxyphenyl)-2H-naphtho [1, 2-b] pyran- 5-carboxylate.

A solution of methyl 4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-naphthoate (l. Og, 4.3 mmol) and 1, 1-di (4-methoxyphenyl) prop-2-yn-1-ol (1.16g, 4.3 mmol) in toluene (45 cm3) containing acidic alumina (Brockmann 1), (4.0g) was refluxed for 45 minutes. The cooled solution was filtered and the alumina was washed well with EtOAc (200 cm3). The organic filtrate was washed with aqueous sodium hydroxide (2M, 2 x 50 cm3) and water (100 cm3).

Removal of the dried (Na2504) EtOAc gave an oil which was flash chromatographed over silica using 25% EtOAc in hexane as the eluent to afford a pale yellow solid. Recrystallisation from EtOAc/hexane gave methyl 9-methoxy-2, 2-bis (4-methoxyphenyl)-2H-naphtho [1, 2-b] pyran-5-carboxylate (yield = 0.79g, theoretical yield = 2.08g 38%, m. p. = 162. 5-164.0 °C (uncorrected)).