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Title:
IGNITION RESISTANT CARBONATE POLYMER BLEND COMPOSITIONS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1991/006598
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Ignition resistant halo aromatic containing polymer compositions are disclosed which are mixtures of a blend of styrene-butadiene-acrylonitrile and carbonate polymers which blend contains greater than 60 percent by weight carbonate polymer based on weight styrene-butadiene-acrylonitrile and carbonate polymers, 0.001 to 20 percent by weight based on total weight ignition resistant thermoplastic blend composition of a high elastic memory polytetrafluoroethylene having a heat shrinkage equal to or greater than 15 percent, and 0.1 to 30 percent by weight based on total weight ignition resistant thermoplastic blend composition of a halogenated aryl phosphate having at least one bromoaryl group.

Inventors:
HO THOI H (US)
MAYER TODD R (US)
OGOE SAMUEL A (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US1990/006137
Publication Date:
May 16, 1991
Filing Date:
October 23, 1990
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
DOW CHEMICAL CO (US)
International Classes:
C08K3/00; C08K5/523; C08L69/00; (IPC1-7): C08K5/521
Foreign References:
US4710534A1987-12-01
US4751260A1988-06-14
US4883835A1989-11-28
GB2089350A1982-06-23
US4021406A1977-05-03
US4033927A1977-07-05
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Claims:
1. An ignition resistant thermoplastic blend composition consisting essentially of: A) a blend of styrenebutadieneacrylonitrile and carbonate polymers, which blend contains greater than 60 percent by weight carbonate polymer based on weight styrenebutadiene acrylonitrile and carbonate polymers, B) 0.001 to 20 percent by weight based on total weight ignition resistant thermoplastic blend composition of a high elastic memory polytetrafluoroethylene having a heat shrinkage equal to or greater than 15 percent, and C) 1 to 30 percent by weight based on total weight ignition resistant thermoplastic blend composition of a halogenated aryl phosphate having the formula 0 Rl 0P0R2 R3 wherein R|, R2 and R are independently alkyl 10 groups of 1 to 8 carbons, alkaryl groups of 7 to 20 carbons, or bromoaryl groups having 1 to 5 bromine radicals and 6 to 20 carbons, which halogenated aryl phosphate has at least one ,, bromoaryl group.
2. The composition as set forth in Claim 1 wherein said blend comprises at least 65 percent by weight carbonate polymers based on weight styrene 2 butadieneacrylonitrile and carbonate polymers.
3. An ignition resistant thermoplastic blend composition according to Claim 1 wherein component A) consists essentially of a blend of from 5 to less than 25 40 'percent by weight styrenebutadieneacrylonitrile copolymer and from greater than 60 to 95 percent by weight carbonate polymer based on weight styrene butadieneacrylonitrile and carbonate polymers. 30 4. An ignition resistant thermoplastic blend composition according to Claim 1 consisting essentially of: A) a blend of from 5 to 35 percent by weight styrenebutadieneacrylonitrile copolymers and from 65 to 95 percent by weight carbonate polymers based on weight styrenebutadiene acrylonitrile and carbonate polymers, B) 0.
4. 1 to 4 percent by weight based on total weight ignition resistant thermoplastic blend composition of a high elastic memory polytetrafluoroethylene having a heat shrinkage equal to or greater than 15 percent, and C) 2 to 20 percent by weight based on total weight ignition resistant thermoplastic blend composition of a halogenated aryl phosphate having the formula R1OPOR2 R3 wherein R|, R2 and R are independently alkyl groups of 1 to 8 carbons, alkaryl groups of 7 to 20 carbons, or bromoaryl groups having 1 to 5 bromine radicals and 6 to 20 carbons, which halogenated aryl phosphate has at least one bromoaryl group.
5. An ignition resistant thermoplastic blend composition according to Claim 1 consisting essentially of: A) a blend of 10 to 30 percent by weight styrenebutadieneacrylonitrile copolymers and 70 to 90 percent by weight carbonate polymers based on weight styrenebutadieneacrylonitrile and carbonate polymers, B) 0.1 to 4.0 percent by weight based on total weight ignition resistant thermoplastic blend composition of a high elastic memory polytetrafluoroethylene having a heat shrinkage equal to or greater than 15 percent, and C) 2 to 20 percent by weight based on total weight ignition resistant thermoplastic blend composition of a halogenated aryl phosphate having the formula R1OPOR2 R3 wherein R1, R2 and Ro are independently alkyl groups of 1 to 8 carbons, alkaryl groups of 7 to 20 carbons, or bromoaryl groups having 1 to 5 bromine radicals and 6 to 20 carbons, which halogenated aryl phosphate has at least one bromoaryl group.
6. The composition as set forth in Claims 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 wherein the styrenebutadieneacrylonitrile copolymer contains 2 to 40 percent by weight of acrylonitrile, 2 to 35 percent of butadiene, and 30 to 80 percent of styrene or a substituted styrene.
7. The composition as set forth in Claims 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 wherein the carbonate polymer is a bisphenol A polycarbonate.
8. The composition as set forth in Claims 1 , 2, 3, 4 or 5 wherein the halogenated aryl phosphate is a member of the group consisting of tris (2,4 dibromophenyl) phosphate, tris (4bromophenyl) phosphate, dicresyl 4bromophenyl phosphate, 2,4 dibromophenyl 2ethylcresyl phosphate, 2,4dibromophenyl methyl phosphate and diethyl 4bromophenyl phosphate.
9. The composition as set forth in Claims 1, 2,3 4 or 5 wherein the halogenated aryl phosphate is tris (2,4dibromophenyl) phosphate.
10. The composition as set forth in Claims 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 comprising from 2 to 15 percent by weight halogenated aryl phosphate.
11. The composition as set forth in Claims 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 further comprising an impact modifier component in an amount of from 1 to 20 percent by weight.
12. The composition as set forth in Claim 11 further comprising an impact modifier component in an amount of from 1 to 10 percent by weight.
Description:
IGNITION RESISTANT CARBONATE POLYMER BLEND COMPOSITIONS

This invention relates to ignition resistant thermoplastic compositions made with blends of styrene- butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymers (ABS copolymers) and carbonate polymers containing polytetrafluoroethylene and brominated organo phosphorous compounds which act to reduce the susceptibility of such compositions to ignition and/or burning or at least to minimize the dripping of molten polymer when exposed to fire conditions.

Thermoplastic polymers have found extensive commercial application because of their excellent physical properties. These thermoplastic polymers are suitable for the manufacture of molded parts wherein impact strength, rigidity, toughness, heat resistance, and excellent electrical properties are required. However, these polymers exhibit a brief but definite burning time when contacted with an open flame.

U.S. Patent 3,852,393 discloses a flame retardant blend of polycarbonates with ABS resins and a halogenated hydrocarbon flame retardant.

ϋ.S. Patent 4,463,130 discloses a flame retardant blend of polycarbonates with a halogenated flame retardant, polystyrene, polytetrafluoroethylene resins, and a polyphosphate.

U.S. Patent 4,563,496 discloses the use of a combination of halogenated compounds and metal oxides to improve the ignition resistance of blend of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS). However, the metal oxides result in the thermal instability of the polycarbonates.

U.S. Patent 4,692,488 discloses a blend of a polycarbonate, a copolymer of styrene and acrylonitrile, triphenylphosphate, and tetrafluoropolyethylene.

The article by Joseph Green "PB-460 and PB-528 Brominated Phosphate Ester Flame Retardants" (Fire Retardant Chemicals Association Meeting, Grenelefe, Florida, March 21, 1988) discloses that PB-460 and PB- 528 are brominated aromatic phosphate esters with 60-70 percent bromine and 3-4 percent phosphorus.

The article by Joseph Green "Brominated Phosphate Ester Flame Retardants for Engineering Thermoplastics" (Fire Retardant Chemicals Association Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, March 12, 1989) discloses that PB-460 is a brominated aromatic phosphate ester with 60 percent bromine and 4 percent phosphorus and that when blended at high concentrations (17.5 weight percent) with Teflon 6C, into blends of polycarbonate and ABS resins, the blend has a V-O UL-94 rating. The disclosed blend, however, had a low polycarbonate concentration and a corresponding high ABS concentration

which has been found to significantly reduce the effectiveness of the ignition resistance additives.

It has now been found that a polycarbonate concentration of at least 60 weight percent based on the PC and ABS components surprisingly results in improved combinations of physical and ignition resistance properties when the ignition resistance formulation according to the present invention is prepared.

The present invention is an ignition resistant thermoplastic blend composition consisting essentially of:

A) a blend of styrene-butadiene-acrylonitrile and carbonate polymers, which blend contains greater than 60 percent by weight and preferably at least 65 percent by weight carbonate polymer based on weight styrene- butadiene-acrylonitrile and carbonate polymers,

B) 0.001 to 20 percent by weight and preferably 0. ' 1 to 4 percent by weight based on total weight ignition resistant thermoplastic blend composition of a high elastic memory polytetrafluoroethylene having a heat shrinkage equal to or greater than 15 percent, and

C) 1 to 30 percent by weight, preferably 2 to 20, and more preferably 2 to 15 percent by weight based on total weight ignition resistant thermoplastic blend composition a halogenated aryl phosphate having the formula

0

II

R1-O-P-O-R2

I 0

I R3

wherein R-], R 2 and R are independently alkyl groups of 1 to 8 carbons, alkaryl groups of 7 to 20 carbons, or bromoaryl groups having 1 to

5 bromine radicals and 6 to 20 carbons, which halogenated aryl phosphate has at least one bromoaryl group.

The useful blends of ABS and carbonate polymers have less than 40, preferably from 5 to less than 40 percent by weight styrene-butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymers and greater than 60, preferably from greater than 60 to 95 percent by weight carbonate polymers based on weight styrene-butadiene-acrylonitrile and carbonate polymers. More preferably the blends used as Component A) are a blend of 5 to 35 percent by weight styrene- butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymers and 65 to 95 percent by weight carbonate polymers based on weight styrene- butadiene-acrylonitrile and carbonate polymers.

The fire retardant polymer compositions of the present invention are suitably employed in most applications in which opaque modified polycarbonates have been previously utilized. Applications of particular interest for the utilization of the polymer compositions of this invention are pigmented and/or colored polymers useful as automobile parts, e.g., air

filters, fan housings, exterior components, housings for electrical motors, appliances, business and office equipment, photographic equipment, and aircraft applications.

The carbonate polymers employed in the present invention are advantageously aromatic carbonate polymers such as the trityl diol carbonates described in U.S. Patent Nos. 3,036,036; 3,036,037; 3,036,038 and 3,036,039; polycarbonates of bis(4-hydroxy-

10 phenyD-alkylidenes (often called bisphenol-A type diols), including their aromatically and aliphatically substituted derivatives such as disclosed in U.S. Patents 2,999,835; 3,038,365, 3,334,154, and 4,299,928; --■ and carbonate polymers derived from other aromatic diols such as described in U.S. Patent 3,169,121.

It is understood, of course, that the carbonate polymer may be derived from (1) two or more different

2 Q dihydric phenols or (2) one or more dihydric phenols and one or more hydroxy- or acid-terminated reactants such as dicarboxylic acids,or alkylene glycols in the event a carbonate copolymer or interpolymer rather than a homopolymer is desired. Also suitable for the practice

25 of this invention are blends of any one of the above carbonate polymers. Also included in the term "carbonate polymer" are the ester/carbonate copolymers of the types described in U.S. Patent Nos. 3,169,121; 4,287,787; 4,156,069; 4,260,731 and 4,105,633. Of the

30 aforementioned carbonate polymers, the polycarbonates of bisphenol-A and derivatives, including copolycarbonates of bisphenol-A, are preferred. Methods for preparing carbonate polymers for use in the practice of this

invention are well known; for example, several suitable methods are disclosed in the aforementioned patents.

The amount of carbonate polymer incorporated into Component A) of the blend of the present invention should be greater than 60 percent by weight, preferably at least 65 percent by weight and more preferably at least 70 percent by weight carbonate polymer based on weight styrene-butadiene-acrylonitrile and carbonate polymers. More desirably Component A) contains from greater than 60 to 95 percent by weight, preferably from 65 to 95 percent by weight, and most preferably from 70 to 90 percent by weight carbonate polymer based on weight styrene-butadiene-acrylonitrile and carbonate polymers. In this regard, it has surprisingly been found that the use of greater than 60 percent by weight, preferably at least 65 percent by weight and more preferably at least 70 percent by weight carbonate polymer based on weight styrene-butadiene-acrylonitrile and carbonate polymers is important to obtain the optimized combinations of ignition resistance and physical properties in articles molded from the blend, while minimizing the amount of ignition resistance additives required to provide a desired degree of ignition resistance.

Suitable polytetrafluoroethylene polymers for use in this invention are those adapted to form a fibril structure to stabilize the polymer under molten conditions. Such polymers are generally known and are disclosed by U.S. Patents 3,005,795, 3,671,487 and 4,463,130.

In addition, the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polymers must have a high elastic memory and/or have a

heat shrinkage equal to or greater than 15 percent when tested under the following conditions.

Polycarbonate resin blended with 0.5 percent by weight of PTFE was injection molded with a 75 ton Newbury molding machine into bars having the dimensions of 127 millimeters (mm) by 12.7 mm by 1.59 mm (5 inch x 1/2 inch x 1/16 inch). The molding conditions are:

Barrel Temperature 250°C

Mold Temperature 180°C

Screw Speed 150 revolutions per minute (rpm)

Pressure 6.89 MegaPascals (Mpa)

1000 Pounds per square inch (psi)

The molded bars were then heated at 160°C for one hour and the shrinkage was measured and compared to the length of the sample before and after heating. The results of several tests are shown in Table I.

Table I shows that only high elastic memory PTFE is effective as an ignition resistant (IR) additive. The high elastic memory PTFE helps the polycarbonate sample contract upon exposure to a flame source and thus imparts ignition resistance to the polycarbonate. The relationship between the percent shrinkage and the UL-94 test is also shown in Table I. The PTFE that gives a polycarbonate shrinkage greater than 15 percent is effective as an IR additive. Some examples of PTFE that have high elastic memory such as Teflon™ 6C, 60, 64, CN, 65, and 67 are shown in Table I. The PTFE that have a low percent of shrinkage such as Teflon™ DXL-6000 and Teflon™ 8 did not impart ignition resistance to the polycarbonate.

Suitable fluorine containing polymers are those adapted to form a fibril structure to stabilize the polymer under molten conditions. Such polymers are

known to include polytetrafluoroethylene, as disclosed by U.S. Patents 3,005,795, 3,671,487 and 4,463,130.

As used herein, the styrene-butadiene- acrylonitrile copolymers suitably employed according to the present invention are rubber modified vinylaromatic- (meth)acrylonitrile copolymers which are also known as ABS resins and preferably include butadiene rubber modified copolymers of vinyl aromatic monomers, especially styrene and acrylonitrile optionally further 0 containing maleic anhydride, alkyl methacrylate, N-substituted maleimide or other polymerizable comonomers. Such copolymers are herein collectively referred to as styrene-butadiene-acrylonitrile j- copolymers or ABS resins. Preferred ABS resins are those prepared by the solution or bulk polymerization of styrene and acrylonitrile comonomers in the presence of dissolved polybutadiene rubber.

Q Alternatively such ABS resins may be prepared by mixing together previously prepared matrices comprising the vinyl monomer, (meth)acrylonitrile, optional comonomer(s) and rubbery graft copolymers such as styrene/acrylonitrile grafted-polybutadiene or 5 -styrene/butadiene copolymer rubber lattices. In addition to polybutadiene or styrene/butadiene copolymers other suitable rubbers include the well known copolymers of ethylene and propylene optionally containing copolymerizable conjugated dienes (known as 0 EPDM rubbers), polyacrylates s.uch as polybutylacrylate and mixtures of the foregoing rubbers.

Preferred weight ratios in the ABS copolymer are 2 to 40 percent by weight of acrylonitrile, 2 to 35

percent of butadiene, and 30 to 80 percent of styrene or a substituted styrene.

The amount of styrene-butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer incorporated into Component A) of the blend of the present invention should be less than 40 percent by weight, preferably 35 or less percent by weight, and more preferably 30 or less percent by weight. Desirably Component A) contains from 5 to less than 40 percent by weight, preferably from 5 to 35 percent by weight, more preferably from 10 to 35 percent by weight, and most preferably from 10 to 30 percent by weight styrene- butadiene-acrylonitrile polymer based on weight styrene- butadiene-acrylonitrile and carbonate polymers. It has been found that the use of less than 40 percent by weight, preferably 35 or less percent by weight, and most preferably 30 or less percent by weight of the styrene-butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer is important to obtain the optimized combinations of ignition resistance and physical properties of articles molded from the blend, while minimizing the amount of ignition resistance additives required to provide a desired degree of ignition resistance.

The ABS copolymers can be prepared by free radical polymerization, in particular by emulsion, suspension, solution or bulk polymerization. Useful methods for preparing these copolymers may be found in U.S. Patents 2,505,349; 2,550,139; 2,698,313; 2,713,566; 2,820,773; and 2,908,661.

The halogenated aryl phosphate compounds which are suitable according to the invention have the formula given below.

0

R1-O-P-O-R2

R3

wherein R-j, R 2 and R3 are independently alkyl groups of 1 to 8 carbons, alkaryl groups of 7 to 20 carbons, or bromoaryl groups having 1 to- 5 bromine radicals and 6 to 20 carbons, which halogenated aryl phosphate has at least one bromoaryl group.

Exemplary phosphorous compounds which are suitable according to the invention are tris (2,4)-dibromophenyl) phosphate, tris (4-bromophenyl) phosphate, dicresyl 4-bromophenyl phosphate, 2,4-di- bromophenyl 2-ethylcresyl phosphate, 2,4-dibromophenyl methyl phosphate and diethyl 4-bromophenyl phosphate. The preparation and use of these brominated phosphorous compounds is well known from U.S. Patents 3,557,053; 4,033,927 and 4,710,530.

The useful amounts of halogenated aryl phosphates range from 1 to 30 percent by weight. The preferred range of phosphates is from 2 to 20 percent by weight, more preferably from 2 to 15 percent by weight.

The carbonate polymer compositions of the present invention are suitably prepared by combining the ingredients in effective amounts using any of a variety of blending procedures conventionally employed for

polymer blends. For example, dry pellets of the carbonate polymer, and the other additives can be dry blended and the resulting dry blend extruded into the desired shape.

The amount of the fibril forming polytetrafluoroethylene is in the range from 0.001 to 20 percent and preferably in the range from 0.1 to 4 percent by weight based on total composition weight.

In addition, other additives can be included in the modified carbonate polymer composition of the present invention such ' as fillers (i.e., glass fibers), pigments, dyes, antioxidants, heat stabilizers, ultraviolet light absorbers, mold release agents, impact modifiers and other additives commonly employed in carbonate polymer compositions. An impact modifier in amounts of from 1 to 20, preferably from 1 to 10 percent by weight is a preferred optional additive for use in the blends according to the present invention.

The following example and controls are given to further illustrate the invention and should not be construed as limiting its scope. In the following runs, all parts and percentages are by weight unless otherwise indicated.

Example 1

An ignition resistant polycarbonate/ acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PC-ABS) blend was prepared by adding 0.7 weight percent (wt % ) Teflon 6C, 10 weight percent tris-2,4-dibromophenyl) phosphate (TDBP) to 55.4 weight percent of a heat stabilized polycarbonate having melt flow rate of 10 g/minute, 4.0 weight percent of a methylmethacrylate-styrene-butadiene

core/shell graft copolymer from Rohm and Haas (Paraloid 3607, registered trademark of Rohm and Haas) and 29.9 weight percent of ABS (ABS 213 from the Dow Chemical Company). The weighed sample was dry blended on a Lightnin blender (Lightnin is a trademark of Lightnin CBM) for one minute with constant agitation. The resultant blended material was starve fed to a 30 mm twin screw extruder at 230°C barrel temperature. The extruded pellets were dried in an oven at 100°C for 3 hours and molded into bars for flammability measurements.

Control 1

The procedure and composition for Example 1 were repeated using no additives.

Control 2

The procedure and composition for Example 1 were repeated without using tris (2,4-dibromophenyl) phosphate (TDBP).

Control 3

The procedure and composition for Example 1 were repeated using no Teflon 6C.

Control 4

The procedure and composition for Example 1 were repeated using triphenylphosphate (TPP) instead of tris(2,4-dibromophenyl) phosphate (TDBP).

The UL ratings are summarized in Table II. In Table II the percents by weight of polycarbonate (PC wt / O and styrene-butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer

(ABS wt / are shown calculated based on based on weight styrene-butadiene-acrylonitrile and carbonate polymers (without parentheses) and calculated based on the total weight of the ignition resistant thermoplastic blend composition (with parentheses).

Table II

C 1 65 35 fail

(62.4) (33.6)

C 2 65 35 0.7 fail (62.0) (33.3,)

C 3 65 35 10.0 fail

(55.9) (30.1)

C 4 65 35 0.7 10.0 fail

(55.4) (29.9) E 1 65 35 0.7 10.0 0 V-0

(55.4) (29.9)

*Control runs indicated by "C" and example run by "E".

The results in Table II show that the ignition resistant composition of the Example is very surprisingly effective due to the effect of the high polycarbonate concentration together with the Teflon and tris (2,4-dibromophenyl) phosphate (TDBP) additives. TDBP is unexpectedly more effective than triphenylphosphate (compare Control 4 and the Example).