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Title:
INHIBITORS OF OPLOPHORUS LUCIFERASE-DERIVED BIOLUMINESCENT COMPLEXES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/232384
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Compounds that may selectively inhibit Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complexes, e.g., NanoBiT® bioluminescent complex, are disclosed as well as compositions and kits comprising the compounds, and methods of using the compounds. The compounds are of formula (I) wherein R1-R4 and p and q are as defined in the claims.

Inventors:
WALKER JOEL R (US)
HALL MARY (US)
EGGERS CHRISTOPHER TODD (US)
LAZARO HORACIO (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2019/034922
Publication Date:
December 05, 2019
Filing Date:
May 31, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
PROMEGA CORP (US)
International Classes:
C07D333/38; C07C311/21; C07D333/66; C07D333/68; C07D333/78; C12Q1/66
Domestic Patent References:
WO2014152895A12014-09-25
WO2005085188A22005-09-15
WO2004052357A12004-06-24
WO2003057225A22003-07-17
WO2002017897A22002-03-07
WO2001098264A12001-12-27
WO2001087294A12001-11-22
WO2000078145A12000-12-28
WO2016210294A12016-12-29
WO2018125992A12018-07-05
WO2003040100A12003-05-15
Foreign References:
US20170190675A12017-07-06
EP1839655A12007-10-03
GB2378179A2003-02-05
CA2336702A12000-01-20
EP0216028A21987-04-01
US9797889B22017-10-24
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US20130130289A12013-05-23
US201514608910A2015-01-29
US201514609372A2015-01-29
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Attorney, Agent or Firm:
REYNOLDS, Anne M. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1 A compound of formula (I), or a salt thereof:

wherein:

R1 is an aryl, a cycloalkyl, a heteroaryl, or a heterocycle, an aryialkyl, a eyeloaikylalkyl, a heteroaryialkyl, or a heterocyclylalkyl, wherein the aryl, cycioalkyl, heteroaryl, and heterocycle are optionally substituted with one or more R¾', wherem each Rw is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-ioalkyl, Ci-iolialoalkyl, halogen, -CN, -ORA, -Ciuoalkylene-QR4, - CO-Ra, -C -ioalkylene-CO-RA, -CO-ORA, -Ci-ioalkylene-CQ-ORA, -CO-NHRA, -Ci-ioalkylene- CO-NHRa, -NRBRc, -Ci- ioalkylene-NRBRc, -NH-CO-Ciaalkyl, -Ci-ioalkylene-NH-CO-Ci- 4alkyl, phenyl, and phenyl substituted with 1 , 2, 3, or 4 R° groups;

R2 is Ci-ioalkyl, Ci-iohaloalkyl, halogen, -CN, -ORA, -Ciaalkyiene-GR4, -CO-RA, -Ci- 4alkylene-CO-RA, -CO-ORA, -Ci4alkylene-C0-0RA, -CO-NHRA, -Ci-4alkylene-CO-NHRA, - NRBRc, ~C i -4alkylene-NRBRc, -NH-CO-Ci-4alkyl, -Cmalkylene-NH-CO-C^alkyl, phenyl, phenyl substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 RD groups, -CºC-RA, or -CºC-Ci-4alkylene-ORA, or two R2 together with the carbon atoms of the moiety to which they are attached form a 5- or 6 membered fused ring;

R’ is Ci-ioalkyl, Ci-iohaloalkyl, halogen, -CN, -ORA, -Ci-4alkylene-ORA, -CO-RA, -CO

QRa, or -CO-NHRa, or two R3 together with the carbon atoms of the moiety to which they are attached form a 5- or 6-membered fused ring;

R4 is H or Ciaalkyl;

p is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4;

q is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4;

RA at each occurrence is independently H, Ci-4alkyl, or Ciahaloalkyl; R8 and R at each occurrence are independently H or Ci-4alkyl, or RB and R together with the N atom to which they are attached form a 5- or 6-membered heterocycle; and

R° at each occurrence is independently Ci-ralkyl, -OCi-4alkyl, -CN, or halogen, wherein the compound is not N-phenyl-2-(phenylsulfonamido)benzamide.

2. The compound of claim 1, or a salt thereof, wherein R1 is an aryl or a heteroaryl, wherein the aryl and heteroaryl are optionally substituted with one or more R¾.

3. The compound of any one of claims 1-2, or a salt thereof, wherein R1 is a C6-2oaryl optionally substituted with one or more Rw.

4. The compound of any one of claims 1-2, or a salt thereof, wherein R is a 5- to 12- membered heteroaryl optionally substituted with one or more R¾.

5. The compound of any one of claims 1-4, or a salt thereof, wherein p is 0, 1, or 2.

6. The compound of any one of claims 1-5, or a salt thereof, wherein p is 1 , and R2 is Ci-

4alkyl, halogen, Ci-4haloalkyl, -OH, -Ci-4alkylene~OH, -OCi-ralky!, or -NIL·.

7. The compound of any one of claims 1 -6, or a salt thereof, wherein q is 0 or 1.

8. The compound of any one of claims 1 -7, or a salt thereof, wherein q is I, and R3 is Ci- ralkyl, halogen, -CN, -OH, or -OCi-ralkyl

The compound of claim 1 , or a salt thereof, wherein the compound has formula (I-a):

(I-a)

wherein: R'! is a Cb-zoaryl or a 5- to 12-membered heteroaryl, wherein the aryl and heteroaryl are optionally substituted with one or more Rw;

p is 0, 1, or 2;

q is 0 or 1 ;

R3 is Ci-4alkyl, halogen, -CN or -ORA;

RA is H or Ci-4alkyl; and

R2 and R'v are as defined in claim 1.

10 The compound of claim 9, or a salt thereof, wherein R! is each optionally substituted with one or more Rw.

1 1. The compound of any one of claims 9-10, or a salt thereof, wherein R1 is unsubstituted or R1 is substituted with 1, 2, or 3 R*, each Rw being independently halogen, Ci-4alkyl, Ci- 4haloalkyl, or phenyl.

12. The compound of any one of claim 9, or a salt thereof, wherein R1 is

13. The compound of any one of claims 9-12, or a salt thereof, wherein p is 1 or 2, and each R2 is independently Ci-4alkyl, halogen, Ci-4haloalkyf, -OH, -Ci-4alkylene-OH, -OCi-ralkyl, -NIT2. phenyl, or -C r two R2 together with the h moiety to which they are attached form

- i l l -

14. The compound of claim 9, or a salt thereof, wherein the compound has formula (I-a-1):

each optionally substituted

with halogen, Ci-4alkyJ, Ci-4haloalkyl, or phenyl;

N A' d

R2 is halogen, Ci-4alkyl, Ci-rhalolakyl, -OH, -Ciaalkylene-OH, -OCi4alkyl, or -NH2

15. The compound of claim 1, selected from the group consisting of:

N-(3-cyano-5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4- methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4- methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(3-cyanothiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(2-cyanophenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-phenylbenzamide;

N-(3-cyano-5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-

(phenylsulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(benzofb]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-formylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide; methyl 3-(4-(N-(2-(benzo[b]thiophen-2- y lcarbamoy 1 )pheny 1) su lfamoy 1 )pheny l)pr opanoate;

N-(benzofb]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((3-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-(3-hydroxypropyl)phenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

2-(fl ,l'-biphenyl]-3-sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

methyl 3-(N-(2-(p-tolylcarbamoyl)phenyl)sulfamoyl)benzoate;

3-(N-(2-(p-tolylcarbamoyl)phenyl)sulfamoyl)benzoic acid;

2-((3-acetamidophenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

2-((3-aminophenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

2-((3-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

2-((3-(butylcarbamoyl)phenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

2-((3-bromophenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

2-((3-(butylamino)phenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

2-((3-(hex-l-yn-l-yl)phenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

2-((3-hexylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

2-((3-(3-hydroxyprop-l-yn-l-yl)phenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

2-((3-(3-hydroxypropyl)phenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

N-(p-tolyl)-2-((4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

2-((4-methoxyphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

2-((4-bromophenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

2-([l,l '-biphenyl]-4-sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

N-(p-tolyl)-2-((3-(trif!uoromethoxy)phenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)suifonamido)benzamide;

N-cyclohexyl-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfona ido)-N-(naphthalen-2-yl)benzamide;

2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)benzamide; methyl trans-4-(2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)cyclohexane-l-carboxylate; trans-4-(2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)cyclohexane-l -carboxylic acid;

2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

ethyl 2-(4-(2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)phenyl)acetate; N-(3-isopropyJphenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide; ethyl 3-(2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)benzoate;

2-(4-(2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)phenyl)acetic acid;

3-(2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)benzoic acid;

2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(m-tolyl)benzamide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-3-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-2-naphthamide;

2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(2-propylphenyl)benzamide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-methyl-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide; N-(3-butylphenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-cyano-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide; N-(4-butylphenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalene)-2- sulfonanudo)benzamide;

N-(4-hexylphenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

2-((4-methylphenyl)suifonamido)-N-(4-octylphenyl)benzamide;

methyl 6-(4-(2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)phenyl)hexanoate;

6-(4-(2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)phenyl)hexanoic acid;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-butylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(4-(6-hydroxyhexyl)phenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)suifonamido)benzamide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-pentylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-butyl-2-((4-methylphenyi)suifonamido)benzamide;

N-(4-(4-hydroxybutyl)phenyi)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(4-(4-bromobutyl)phenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

5-methoxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-methoxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

4-methoxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-4-methoxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide; 2-((3-methoxyphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((3-methoxyphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

5-hydroxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

2-((3-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide; 2-((3-butoxyphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

N-(2-bromophenyl)-2-((4-methyJphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(3-bromophenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyJ)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-([ 1 , 1 '-biphenyl]-4-yl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)suJfonamido)benzamide;

N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-([l ,l'-biphenyl]-3-yl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)suJfonamido)benzamide;

N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

2-((N-ethyl-4-methylphenyl)suifonamido)-N-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzamide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-4-fluoro-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide; N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-fluoro-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide; N-benzyl-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide; and

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-5- (trifluoromethyl)benzamide,

or a salt thereof.

16. A method of inhibiting an Opiophonis luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex, the method comprising contacting the bioluminescent complex with the compound of any one of claims 1 -1 5.

17. The method of claim 16, wherein the bioluminescent complex comprises two or more substantially non-luminescent peptide and/or polypeptide units, and wherein association of the two or more non-luminescent peptide and/or polypeptide units produces a detectable bioluminescent signal in the presence of a coelenterazine substrate.

18. The method of claim 17, wherein association of the two or more substantially non- luminescent peptide and/or polypeptide units generates a bioluminescent complex capable of binding the coelenterazine substrate.

19. The method of claim 16, wiierein the bioluminescent complex comprises: a) a peptide comprising an ammo acid sequence having less than 100% and greater than 40% identity to SEQ ID NO: 2; and

b) a polypeptide comprising an ammo acid sequence having less than 100% and greater than 40% identity with SEQ ID NO: 3,

wherein the biolummescent complex exhibits detectable luminescence in the presence of a coelenterazine substrate.

20. The method of claim 19, wherein the biolummescent complex comprises a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 5 and a peptide having an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID: 4 or SEQ ID NO: 6.

21. A method for modulating luminescence of an Oplophorus luciferase-derived

bioluminescent complex in a sample, the method comprising:

(a) contacting the sample with a coelenterazine substrate and the compound of any one of claims 1-15; and

(b) detecting luminescence in the sample,

wherein the compound of any one of claims 1-15 causes a decrease in the luminescence from the bioluminescent complex.

22. A method to detect an interaction or co-localization between a first molecule and a second molecule in a sample, the method comprising:

(a) contacting a sample with a coelenterazine substrate and the compound of any one of claims 1-15, wherein the sample comprises:

(i) a first fusion, wherein the first fusion comprises a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase and a first molecule; and

(li) a second fusion, wherein the second fusion comprises a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase and a second molecule, wherein the non-luminescent polypeptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex wath the non-luminescent peptide; and

(b) detecting luminescence in the sample, wherein the detection of luminescence indicates an interaction or co-localization between the first protem and the second protein.

23. A method to detect an interaction or co-localization between a first molecule and a second molecule in a sample, the method comprising:

(a) contacting a sample with a coelenterazine substrate and the compound of any one of claims 1 -15, wherein the sample comprises:

(i) a first polynucleotide encoding a first fusion, wherein the first fusion comprises a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase and a first molecule; and

(li) a second polynucleotide encoding a second fusion, wherein the second fusion comprises a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase and a second molecule, wherein the non-lummescent polypeptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non-luminescent peptide; and

(b) detecting luminescence in the sample,

wherein the detection of luminescence indicates an interaction or co-localization between the first molecule and the second molecule.

24. A method to detect an interaction or co- localization of a first molecule and a second molecule in a sample, the method comprising:

(a) contacting a sample with a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase, a coelenterazine substrate, and the compound of any one of claims 1-1 , wherein the sample comprises:

(i) a first polynucleotide encoding a first fusion, wherein the first fusion comprises an non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase and a first molecule, wherein the non-luminescent peptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex wath the non-luminescent polypeptide; and

(li) a second polynucleotide encoding a second fusion, wherein the second fusion comprises a fluorescent acceptor molecule and a second molecule; and

(b) detecting bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) in the sample indicating an interaction or co-localization of the first molecule and the second molecule.

25. A method to detect an interaction or co-localization of a first molecule and a second molecule in a sample, the method comprising:

(a) contacting a sample with a non-luminescent peptide of an OpJophorus- derived luciferase, a coelenterazme substrate, and the compound of any one of claims 1-15, wherein the sample comprises:

(i) a first polynucleotide encoding a first fusion, wherein the first fusion comprises an non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophoms- derived luciferase and a first molecule, wherein the non-luminescent polypeptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non-luminescent peptide; and

(li) a second polynucleotide encoding a second fusion, wherein the second fusion comprises a fluorescent acceptor molecule and a second molecule; and

(b) detecting bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) in the sample indicating an interaction or co-localization of the first molecule and the second molecule.

26. A method to detect interaction or co-localization of molecules in a sample, the method comprising:

(a) contacting a sample with a coel enterazme substrate and the compound of any one of claims 1-15, wherein the sample comprises:

(i) a first fusion comprising a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase and a first molecule;

(li) a second fusion comprising a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophoms- derrved luciferase and a second molecule, wherein the non-luminescent peptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non-luminescent polypeptide; and

(in) a third fusion comprising a fluorescent acceptor molecule and a third molecule; and

(b) detecting bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) m the sample, indicating an interaction or co- localization between the first molecule, second molecule, and third molecule in the sample.

27. A method to detect a molecule of interest in a sample, the method comprising: (a) contacting a sample comprising the molecule of interest fused to a non-lummescent peptide of an Oplophorus- derived iuciferase with

(i) a coelenterazine substrate;

fii) the compound of any one of claims 1-15; and

(lii) a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus- derived Iuciferase, wherein the non-luminescent polypeptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non-luminescent peptide; and

(b) detecting luminescence in the sample,

wherein detection of luminescence indicates formation of a bioluminescent complex between the non-luminescent peptide and the non-luminescent polypeptide.

28. A method to detect a molecule of interest in a sample, the method comprising:

(a) contacting a sample comprising the molecule of interest fused to a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus- derived iuciferase with

(i) a coelenterazine substrate;

(ii) the compound of any one of claims 1-15; and

(iii) a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus- derived Iuciferase, wherein the non- luminescent peptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non-luminescent polypeptide; and

(b) detecting luminescence in the sample,

wherein detection of luminescence indicates formation of a bioluminescent complex between the non-lummescent peptide and the non-luminescent polypeptide.

29. A method to detect a molecule of interest in a sample, the method comprising:

(a) contacting a sample comprising the molecule of interest fused to a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus- derived Iuciferase with

(i) a coelenterazine substrate;

(ii) a compound of any one of claims 1-15; and

(iii) a fusion comprising a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus- derived Iuciferase and a fluorescent moiety, wherein the non-luminescent polypeptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non-luminescent peptide; and (b) detecting bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) in the sample, indicating detection of the molecule.

30. A method to detect a molecule of interest in a sample, the method comprising:

(a) contacting a sample comprising the molecule of interest fused to a non-lummescent poly peptide of an Op!ophoms-derwed luciferase with

(i) a coelenterazine substrate;

(ii) a compound of any one of claims 1-15; and

(lii) a fusion comprising a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase and a fluorescent moiety, wherein the non-luminescent peptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non-luminescent polypeptide; and

(b) detecting bioiuminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) m the sample, indicating detection of the molecule.

31. The method of any one of claims 21-30, comprising contacting the sample with the coelenterazine substrate prior to contacting the sample with the compound of any one of claims 1-15.

32. The method of any one of claims 21 -26, wherein when the first molecule and second molecule interact or co-localize, the non-lummescent peptide and the non-luminescent polypeptide associate to form a bioluminescent complex capable of generating a bioluminescent signal in the presence of coelenterazme substrate.

33. The method of any one of claims 21 -32, wherein the sample comprises a cell.

34. The method of any one of claims 21 -33, wherein the coelenterazine substrate is a coelenterazine, coelenterazme derivative, coelenterazine analog, pro-coefenterazine, or qumone- masked coelenterazine.

35. The method of any one of claims 21-34, wherein: a) the non-luminescent peptide comprises an ammo acid sequence having less than 100% and greater than 40% sequence identity with SEQ ID NO:2; and

b) the non-luminescent polypeptide comprises an amino acid sequence having less than 100% and greater than 40% sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 3.

36. A bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) system comprising:

(a) a first fusion comprising a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophoms- derived luciferase and a first molecule;

(b) a second fusion comprising a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophoms- derived luciferase and a fluorescent moiety, wherein the non-luminescent polypeptide is capable of forming a biolummescent complex with the non-luminescent peptide;

(c) a coelenterazine substrate; and

(d) the compound of any one of claims 1-15.

37. A bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) system comprising:

(a) a first fusion comprising a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophoms- derived luciferase and a first molecule;

(b) a second fusion comprising a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophoms- derived luciferase and a fluorescent moiety, wherein the non-luminescent peptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non-luminescent polypeptide;

(c) a coelenterazine substrate; and

(d) the compound of any one of claims 1-15.

38. A bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) system comprising:

(a) a first fusion comprising a first molecule and a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophoms- deri ved 1 uciferase;

(b) a second fusion comprising a second molecule and a fluorescent acceptor molecule;

(c) a non-luminescent polypeptide of Oplophorus-derived luciferase capable of forming a biolummescent complex with the non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophoms- derived luciferase;

(d) a coelenterazine substrate; and

(e) the compound of any one of claims 1 -15.

39. A bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) system comprising:

(a) a first fusion comprising a first molecule and a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Op!ophorus-derived luciferase;

(b) a second fusion comprising a second molecule and a fluorescent acceptor molecule;

(c) a non-luminescent peptide of Oplophorus- derived luciferase capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus-deTwed luciferase:

(d) a eoelenterazine substrate; and

(e) the compound of any one of claims 1-15.

40. The bioluminescent resonance energy transfer system of any one of claims 36-39, wherein

a) the non-luminescent peptide comprises an amino acid sequence having less than 100% and greater than 40% sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 2; and

b) the non-luminescent polypeptide comprises an amino acid sequence has less than 100% and greater than 40% sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 3.

41. A kit comprising:

(a) the compound of any one of claims 1-15; and

(b) an Oplophorus luciferase-denved bioluminescent complex.

42. The kit of claim 41 , wherein the Oplophorus luciferase-denved bioluminescent complex comprises:

(a) a non-luminescent peptide comprising an amino acid sequence having less than 100% and greater than 40% sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 2; and

(b) a non-luminescent polypeptide comprising an ammo acid sequence having less than 100% and greater than 40% sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 3.

43. A kit comprising:

(a) the compound of any one of claims 1 -1 5; and (b) a first polynucleotide encoding a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase; and

(c) a second polynucleotide encoding a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase, wherein the non-luminescent polypeptide is capable of forming a

bioluminescent complex with the non-luminescent peptide.

44. The kit of claim 43, wherein the non-luminescent peptide comprises an amino acid sequence having less than 100% and greater than 40% sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 2; and the non-luminescent polypeptide comprises an amino acid sequence having less than 100% and greater than 40% sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 3.

45. The kit of any one of claims 41-44, further comprising a coelenterazine substrate.

Description:
INHIBITORS OF OPLOPHORUS LCJCIFERASE-DERIVED BIOLUMINESCENT

COMPLEXES

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] Tins application claims the priority benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial Number 62/679,205, filed on June l, 2018, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] The present disclosure is directed to compounds that may inhibit Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complexes, in particular a bioluminescent complex of two or more non-luminescent peptide and/or polypeptide units from an Oplophorus- derived luciferase.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Protein fragment complementation (PFC) or enzyme fragment complementation (EFC) systems are valuable tools for monitoring co-localization and/or molecular interactions.

In such systems, complementary ammo acid chains, e.g., peptides or polypeptides, from a reporter molecule, e.g., a bioluminescent protein or enzyme, are fused to co-localizing and/or interacting molecules. Reporter molecules are routinely used to monitor molecular events in the fields of biology, biochemistry, immunology, cell biology, and molecular biology. Luciferases based on the luciferase secreted from the deep-sea shrimp, Oplophorus gracilirostris, may be used as reporter molecules and have been shown to have advantageous characteristics including broad substrate specificity, high activity , and high quantum yield. For example, non-luminescent peptides and/or polypeptides units of an Oplophorus luciferase variant can be fused to co localizing/interacting molecules (e.g., proteins). When the molecules co-localize and/or interact, the non-luminescent peptide and/or polypeptide units associate to form a bioluminescent complex that, in the presence of a substrate (e.g., coelenterazme or coeienterazine derivative substrate), can generate a luminescent signal, which indicates the co-localization/interaction of the molecules. It may be further advantageous, in certain applications, to control the luminescent signal from the Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complexes. Selective inhibitors for such bioluminescent complexes are useful in luminescent assays. Luciferase inhibitors may be further derivatized to provide desirable properties useful for studying enzyme activities and cellular processes.

SUMMARY

[0004] In one aspect, the disclosure provides a compound of formula (I), or a salt thereof:

wherein;

R s is an aryl, a cycloalkyl, a heteroaryl, a heterocycle, an aryialkyl, a cycloalkylalkyl, a heteroarylalkyl, or a heterocyclylalkyl, wherein the aryl, cycloalkyl, heteroaryl, and heterocycle are optionally substituted with one or more R ¾ ', wherein each R w is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-ioalkyl, Ci-iohaloalkyl, halogen, -CN, -OR A , -Ci-ioalkylene-OR A , - CO-R A , - C i - loalky 1 ene- CO-R A , -CO-OR A , -Ci-ioalkylene-CO-OR A , -CO-NHR A , -Ci-ioalkylene- CO-NHR a , -NR B R c , -Ci-ioalkylene-NR B R c , -NH-CO-Ciaalkyl, -Ci-ioalkylene-NH-CO-Ci- 4alkyl, phenyl, and phenyl substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 R° groups;

each R 2 is independently Ci-ioalkyl, Ci-iohaloalkyl, halogen, -CN, -QR A , -Ci-ralkylene-

C -4alkyl, phenyl, phenyl substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 R° groups, -CºC-R A , or -CºC-Ci-

4 alkylene-OR A or two R together with the carbon atoms of the moiety to which they are attached form a 5- or 6-membered fused ring;

each R 3 is independently Ci-ioalkyl, Ci-iohaloalkyl, halogen, -CN, ~OR A , -Ci- 4 alkylene- OR a , -CO-R a , -CO-OR a , or -CO-NHR A , or two R 5 together wi th the carbon atoms of the which they are attached form a 5- or 6-membered fused ring; R 4 is H or Ci-ralkyl;

p is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4;

q is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4;

R A at each occurrence is independently H, Ci-ralkyl, or Ci- 4 haloalkyl;

R 8 and R at each occurrence are independently H or Ci -4 alkyl, or R B and R together with the N atom to which they are attached form a 5- or 6-membered heterocycle; and

R° at each occurrence is independently Ci-4alkyl, -OCi-4alkyl, -CN, or halogen.

[0005] In one aspect, the disclosure provides a method of inhibiting an Oplophoms luciferase- derived bioluminescent complex, the method comprising contacting the bioluminescent complex with a compound described herein.

[0006] In one aspect, the disclosure provides a method for modulating luminescence of an Oplophoms lueiferase-derived bioluminescent complex m a sample, the method comprising,

(a) contacting the sample with a eoelenterazine substrate and a compound described herein, and

(b) detecting luminescence in the sample,

wherein the compound causes a decrease in the luminescence from the bioluminescent complex.

[0007] In one aspect, the disclosure provides a method to detect an interaction or co- localization between a first molecule and a second molecule in a sample, the method comprising:

(a) contacting a sample with a eoelenterazine substrate and a compound described herein, wherein the sample comprises:

(i) a first fusion, wherein the first fusion comprises a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus-denved luciferase and a first molecule; and

(ii) a second fusion, wherein the second fusion comprises a non- luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophoms- derived luciferase and a second molecule, wherein the non-luminescent polypeptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non-luminescent peptide; and

(b) detecting luminescence in the sample,

wherein the detection of luminescence indicates an interaction or co-localization between the first molecule and the second molecule. [0008] In one aspect, the disclosure provides a method to detect an interaction or co- localization between a first molecule and a second molecule in a sample, the method comprising:

(a) contacting a sample with a coelenterazme substrate and a compound described herein, wherein the sample comprises:

(i) a first polynucleotide encoding a first fusion, wherein the first fusion comprises a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase and a first molecule; and

(ii) a second polynucleotide encoding a second fusion, wherein the second fusion comprises a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase and a second molecule, wherein the non-luminescent polypeptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non- lummescent peptide; and

(b) detecting luminescence m the sample,

wherein the detection of luminescence indicates an interaction or co-localization between the first molecule and the second molecule.

[00Q9] In one aspect, the disclosure provides a method to detect an interaction or co- localization of a first molecule and a second molecule in a sample, the method comprising:

(a) contacting a sampl e with a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase, a coe!enterazine substrate, and a compound described herein, wherein the sample comprises:

(i) a first polynucleotide encoding a first fusion, wherein the first fusion comprises an non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase and a first molecule, wherein the non-luminescent peptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non-luminescent polypeptide; and

(ii) a second polynucleotide encoding a second fusion, wherein the second fusion comprises a fluorescent acceptor molecule and a second molecule; and

(b) detecting bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) in the sample indicating an interaction or co-localization of the first molecule and the second molecule.

[0010] In one aspect, the disclosure provides a method to detect an interaction or co localization of a first molecule and a second molecule in a sample, the method comprising: (a) contacting a sample with a non-luminescent peptide of an Op!ophorus-denved luciferase, a coelenterazine substrate, and a compound described herein, wherein the sample comprises:

(i) a first polynucleotide encoding a first fusion, wherein the first fusion comprises an non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophoms- derived luciferase and a first molecule, wherein the non-luminescent polypeptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non-luminescent peptide; and

(ii) a second polynucleotide encoding a second fusion, wherein the second fusion comprises a fluorescent acceptor molecule and a second molecule; and

(b) detecting bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) in the sample indicating an interaction or co-localization of the first molecule and the second molecule.

[0011] In one aspect, the disclosure provides a method to detect interaction or co-localization of molecules in a sample, the method comprising:

(a) contacting a sample with a coelenterazine substrate and a compound described herein, wherein the sample comprises:

(i) a first fusion comprising a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Opiophorus- denved luciferase and a first molecule;

(ii) a second fusion comprising a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus- denved luciferase and a second molecule, wherein the non-luminescent peptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non-luminescent polypeptide; and

(hi) a third fusion comprising a fluorescent acceptor molecule and a third molecule; and

(b) detecting bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) in the sample, indicating an interaction or co-localization between the first molecule, second molecule, and third molecule in the sample.

[0012] In one aspect, the disclosure provides a method to detect a molecule of interest in a sample, the method comprising:

(a) contacting a sample comprising the molecule of interest fused to a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus-deriv d luciferase with

(i) a coelenterazine substrate;

(ii) a compound described herein; and (iϋ) a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase, wherein the non-luminescent polypeptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non-luminescent peptide; and

(b) detecting luminescence m the sample,

wherein detection of luminescence indicates formation of a bioluminescent complex between the non-luminescent peptide and the non-luminescent polypeptide.

[0013] in one aspect, the disclosure provides a method to detect a molecule of interest in a sample, the method comprising:

(a) contacting a sample comprising the molecule of interest fused to a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase with

(i) a coelenterazine substrate;

(ii) a compound disclosed herein; and

(lii) a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase, wherein the non-luminescent peptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non- luminescent polypeptide; and

(b) detecting luminescence in the sample,

wherein detection of luminescence indicates formation of a bioluminescent compl ex between the non-luminescent peptide and the non-luminescent polypeptide.

[0014] In one aspect, the disclosure provides a method to detect a molecule of interest in a sample, the method comprising:

(a) contacting a sample comprising the molecule of interest fused to a non- luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase with

(i) a coelenterazine substrate;

(ii) a compound described herein; and

(iii) a fusion comprising a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophoms- derived luciferase and a fluorescent moiety, wherein the non-luminescent polypeptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non- luminescent peptide; and

(b) detecting bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) in the sample, indicating detection of the molecule. [0015] in one aspect, the disclosure provides a method to detect a molecule of interest in a sample, the method comprising:

(a) contacting a sample comprising the molecule of interest fused to a non-lummescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase with

(i) a coelenterazme substrate;

fii) a compound disclosed herein; and

(lii) a fusion comprising a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase and a fluorescent moiety, wherein the non-lummescent peptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non-lummescent polypeptide; and

[0016] (b) detecting bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) in the sample, indicating detection of the molecule.

[0017] In one aspect, the disclosure provides a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) system comprising:

(a) a first fusion comprising a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase and a first molecule;

(b) a second fusion comprising a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase and a fluorescent moiety, wherein the non-luminescent polypeptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non-luminescent peptide;

(c) a coelenterazine substrate; and

(d) a compound described herein.

[0018] In one aspect, the disclosure provides a biolummescenee resonance energy transfer (BRET) system comprising:

(a) a first fusion comprising a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase and a first molecule;

(b) a second fusion comprising a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase and a fluorescent moiety, wherein the non-luminescent peptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non-luminescent polypeptide;

(c) a coelenterazme substrate; and

(d) a compound described herein.

[0019] in one aspect, the disclosure provides a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) system comprising: (a) a first fusion comprising a first molecule and a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus-derived luciferase;

(b) a second fusion comprising a second molecule and a fluorescent acceptor molecule;

(c) a non-luminescent polypeptide of Oplophorus- derived luciferase capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase;

(d) a coelenterazine substrate; and

(e) a compound described herein.

[0020] In one aspect, the disclosure provides a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) system comprising:

(a) a first fusion comprising a first molecule and a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase;

(b) a second fusion comprising a second molecule and a fluorescent acceptor molecule;

(c) a non-luminescent peptide of Oplophorus- derived luciferase capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase;

(d) a coelenterazine substrate; and

(e) a compound described herein.

[0021] In one aspect, the disclosure provides a kit comprising:

(a) a compound described herein;

(b) a first polynucleotide encoding a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase; and

(c) a second polynucleotide encoding a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus- derived luciferase, wherein the non-luminescent polypeptide is capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with the non-luminescent peptide.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0022] FIGS. 1A-1 C show the inhibition of bioluminescent complexes by exemplary compounds of the present invention. FIG. 1 A shows inhibition of the NanoBiT® HiBiT/LgBiT bioluminescent complex. FIG. IB sho ws the inhibition of the NanoBiT® SmBiT/LgBiT bio sminescent complex. FIG. 1C is a bar graph showing the calculated ICso values of the exemplary compounds shown in FIGS. 1 A and IB.

[0023] FIG. 2 compares the NANOLUC® (Nine) inhibitory activity of exemplar compounds of the present invention to PBI-6096, a known Nluc inhibitor. JRW-1004, HL-0005, and HL- 0010 do not show any appreciable inhibition against NanoLuc indicating selective inhibition for Oplophoms iuciferase-derived bioluminescent complexes.

[0024] FIGS. 3A-3B show the inhibition of bioluminescent complexes in cells by exemplary compounds of the present invention. FIG. 3 A shows inhibition of NanoBiT® HiBit/LgBit bioluminescent complex with HL-0005 in a cellular context. FIG. 3B compares ICso values in lytic and non-lytic conditions indicating HL-0005 is mostly cell permeable.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0025] The disclosed compounds may selectively inhibit Oplophoms- luciferase derived bioluminescent complexes. For example, the disclosed compounds may selectively inhibit a Oplophoms- luciferase derived bioluminescent complex comprising: (a) a peptide comprising a peptide amino acid sequence having less than 100% sequence identity (e.g., >99%, <95%, <90%, <80%, <70%, <60%, <50%, etc.) and greater than 40% (e.g., >40%, >45%, >50%, >55%, >60%, >65%, >70%, >75%, >80%, >85%, >90%, >95%, >98%, >99%) with SEQ ID NO: 2; and (b) a polypeptide comprising a polypeptide ammo acid sequence having less than 100% (e.g., >99%, <95%, <90%, <80%, <70%, <60%, <50%, etc.) and greater than 40% (e.g., >40%, >45%, >50%, >55%, >60%, >65%, >70%, >75%, >80%, >85%, >90%, >95%, >98%, >99%) sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 3, wherein the bioluminescent complex exhibits detectable luminescence in the presence of a coelenterazine substrate. In certain embodiments, the disclosed compounds may selectively inhibit a Oplophoms- luciferase derived bioluminescent complex: (a) a peptide comprising a peptide amino acid sequence SEQ ID NO: 4 or SEQ ID NO: 6; and (b) a polypeptide comprising a polypeptide amino acid sequence having SEQ ID NO: 5, wherein the bioluminescent complex exhibits detectable luminescence in the presence of a coelenterazine substrate. Exemplary bioluminescent complexes that may be inhibited using the disclosed compounds are described in U.S. Patent Nos. 9,797,889 and 9,797,890, the entire contents of which are incorporated by reference in their entirety. For example, the disclosed compounds may selectively inhibit a NanoBiT® HiBiT/LgBiT bioluminescent complex. As another example, the disclosed compounds may selectively inhibit a NanoBiT® LgBiT/SmBiT bioluminescent complex.

[0026] Due to their stabilities, the potential to be excreted from cells, and the presence of cell debris arising from culturing cells, it may be advantageous to use the selective inhibitors of the present invention to suppress the luminescence from Oplophorus luciferase-denved

bioluminescent complexes in certain applications. For example, m applications involving temporal multiplexing of multiple luminescent systems, it can be beneficial to have selective inhibitors for each system to allow for the measurement and/or detection of only one luminescent signal at a time. Additionally, in some plate-based assays, a certain amount of luciferase may be excreted from ceils or may be present in culture media from cellular debris. An extracellular inhibitor compound would allow for luminescence from luciferase m media to be selectively suppressed and may, therefore, help to improve the signal-to-background ratio in certain assays.

[0027] In particular embodiments, the light generated from NanoBiT® bioluminescent complexes may be selectively suppressed by the compounds disclosed herein. Advantageously, such selective inhibition may be used to enable temporal multiplexing of multipl e

bioluminescent systems such as NanoBiT and NanoLuc. Further, the disclosed compounds provide selective bioluminescent suppression (e.g , intracellular or extracellular selectivity) to enable certain plate-based luminescent assays. The compounds may compete for binding of the coelenterazine substrates of the luciferases and can be modified to produce both cell-permeable and cell-impermeable inhibitors.

1. Definitions

[0028] Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art. In case of conflict, the present document, including definitions, will control. Preferred methods and materials are described below, although methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in practice or testing of the present invention. All publications, patent applications, patents and other references mentioned herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety.

The materials, methods, and examples disclosed herein are illustrative only and not intended to be limiting. [0029] The terms“comprise(s),”“include(s),”“having,”“has, ”“can,”“contain(s),” and variants thereof, as used herein, are intended to he open-ended transitional phrases, terms, or words that do not preclude the possibility of additional acts or structures. The singular forms “a,”“and” and“the” include plural references unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. The present disclosure also contemplates other embodiments“comprising,”“consisting of’ and “consisting essentially of,” the embodiments or elements presented herein, whether explicitly set forth or not.

[0030] As used herein, the term“substituent” or“suitable substituent” is intended to mean a chemically acceptable functional group e.g., a moiety that does not negate the activity of the inventive compounds. Illustrative examples of suitable substituents include, but are not limited to halo groups, perfluoroalkyl groups, perfluoroalkoxy groups, alkyl groups, alkenyl groups, alkynyl groups, hydroxy groups, halo groups, oxo groups, mercapto groups, alkylthio groups, alkoxy groups, nitro groups, azidealkyl groups, sulfonic acid groups, aryl or heteroaryl groups, aryloxy or heteroaryloxy groups, aralkyl or heteroaralkyl groups, aralkoxy or heteroaralkoxy groups, H0-(C=0)- groups, heterocylic groups, cycloalkyl groups, amino groups, alkyl- and dialkyl-amino groups, carbamoyl groups, alkylcarbony! groups, alkylcarbonyloxy groups, alkoxy carbonyl groups, alkylaminocarbonyl groups, dialkylammo carbonyl groups, arylcarbonyl groups, aryloxycarbony! groups, alkylsu!fonyl groups, arylsulfonyl groups and the like. The substituents can be substituted by additional substituents. The substituents can also be in salt forms (e.g., a sulfonic acid group can be in the form of a sulfonate group.

[0031] Definitions of specific functional groups and chemical terms are described in more detail below. For purposes of this disclosure, the chemical elements are identified in accordance with the Periodic Table of the Elements, CAS version, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 75 ta Ed , inside cover, and specific functional groups are generally defined as described therein. Additionally, general principles of organic chemistry, as well as specific functional moieties and reactivity, are described in Organic Chemistry, Thomas Sorrell, University Science Books, Sausalito, 1999; Smith and March March’s Advanced Organic Chemistry, 5 th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2001; Larock, Comprehensive Organic Transformations, VCH Publishers, Inc., New York, 1989; Carruthers, Some Modern Methods of Organic Synthesis, 3 rd Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1987; the entire contents of each of which are incorporated herein by reference. [0032] As used herein, the term“alkenyl” refers a straight or branched hydrocarbon chain containing from 2 to 10 carbons and containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond formed by the removal of two hydrogens. Representative examples of alkenyl include, but are not limited to, ethenyl, 2-propenyl, 2-methyl-2-propenyl, 3-butenyl, 4-pentenyl, 5-hexenyl, 2- heptenyl, 2-methyl-l-heptenyl, and 3-decenyl. Alkenyl groups of the present invention may be unsubstituted or substituted by one or more suitable substituents, preferably 1 to 3 suitable substituents, as defined above.

[0033] As used herein, the term“alkoxy” refers to an alkyl group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an oxygen atom. Representative examples of alkoxy include, but are not limited to, methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, 2-propoxy, butoxy, tert-butoxy, pentyloxy, and hexyioxy.

[0034] As used herein, the term“alkoxyalkoxy” refers to an alkoxy group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through another alkoxy group, as defined herein.

Representative examples of alkoxyalkoxy include, but are not limited to, tert-butoxymethoxy, 2- ethoxyethoxy, 2-methoxyethoxy, and methoxym ethoxy.

[0035] The term“alkoxyalkoxyalkyl” as used herein, means an alkoxyalkoxy group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an aikylene group, as defined herein. Representative examples of alkoxyalkoxyalkyl include, but are not limited to, tert- butoxymethoxymethy!, ethoxymethoxymethyl, (2-methoxyethoxy)methyl, and 2~(2~

rn ethoxy eth oxy)ethy 1.

[0036] As used herein, the term“alkoxyalkyl” refers to an alkoxy group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an alkyl group, as defined herein.

Representative examples of alkoxyalkyl include, but are not limited to, tert-butoxymethyl, 2- ethoxyethyl, 2-methoxyethyl, and methoxym ethyl.

[0037] As used herein, the term“alkoxycarbonyl” refers to an alkoxy group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through a carbonyl group, as defined herein. Representative examples of alkoxycarbonyl include, but are not limited to, methoxycarbonyl, ethoxycarbonyl, and tert-butoxy carbonyl.

[0038] The term“alkoxycarbonylalkyl” as used herein, means an alkoxycarbonyl group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an aikylene group, as defined herein. Representative examples of alkoxycarbonylalkyl include, but are not limited to, ethoxycarbonylmethyl, 3-methoxycarbonylpropyl, 4-ethoxycarbonylbutyl, and 2-tert- butoxycarbonylethyl.

[0039] As used herein, the term“alkyl” refers to a linear or branched hydrocarbon radical, suitably having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, 1 to 12 carbon atoms, 1 to 10 carbon atoms, 1 to 8 carbon atoms, 1 to 6 carbon atoms, or 1 to 4 carbon atoms. The term“Ci-Cs-alkyl” is defined to include alkyl groups having 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 carbons in a linear or branched arrangement. For example,“Ci-Cs-alkyl” specifically includes methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, iso-propyl, n-butyl, sec- butyl, iso-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl (e.g., n-pentyl), hexyl (e.g., n-hexyl), heptyl (e.g., n-heptyi) and octyl (e.g., n-octyi).The term“Ci-Ce-aikyl” is defined to include alkyl groups having 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 carbons in a linear or branched arrangement. For example,“Ci-Ce-alkyl” specifically includes methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, iso-propyl, n-butyl, sec-butyl, iso-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl (e.g., n-pentyl), and hexyl (e.g., n-hexyl). The term“Ci-CValkyT” is defined to include alkyl groups having 1, 2, 3, or 4 carbons in a linear or branched arrangement. For example,“Ci-CT-alkyl” specifically includes methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl, n-butyl, sec-butyl, iso-butyl and tert-butyl. Alkyl groups of the present invention may be unsubstituted or substituted by one or more suitable substituents, such as 1 to 3 suitable substituents, as defined above. For example, an alkyl group can be substituted with one or more halo substituents to form a haloalkyl group, or with one or more hydroxy substituents to form a hydroxyalkyl group, or with one or more alkoxy groups to form an a!koxya!kyl group.

[0040] As used herein, the term“alkylamino” refers to an alkyl group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an amino group, as defined herein.

Representative examples of alkylamino include, but are not limited to, methylarmno, ethylamino, iso-propylarnino, butyl-ammo and sec-butylamino.

[0041] As used herein, the term“alkylaminoalkyl” refers to an alkyl group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an aminoalkyl group, as defined herein.

Representative examples of alkylaminoalkyl groups include, but are not limited to,

methylaminoethyl and methylamino-2-propyl.

[0042] As used herein, the term“alkylcarbonyl” refers to an alkyl group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through a carbonyl group, as defined herein.

Representative examples of alkylcarbonyl include, but are not limited to, acetyl, l-oxopropy!,

2,2-dimethyJ-l-oxopropyJ, 1-oxobutyl, and 1-oxopentyl. [0043] As used herein, the term“alkyfcarbonylalkyl” refers to an alkylcarhonyf group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an alkyl group, as defined herein.

[0044] As used herein, the term“alkylcarbonylalkyfamido” refers to an a!kylcarbony! group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an alkylamido group, as defined herein.

[0045] The term“alkylene” means a divalent group derived from a saturated, straight or branched chain hydrocarbon of from 1 to 10 carbon atoms. Representative examples of alkylene include, but are not limited to, -CEb-, -CH(CEb)-, -C(CH )2-, -CH2CH2-, -CH2CH2CH2-, - CH2CH2CH2CH2-, -Cl K ' iCi S-.).'.-. and -P I.Ή !(P I d 1.-.

[0046] As used herein, the term“alkynyl” refers to a straight or branched hydrocarbon radical having 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 carbons, and having one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds. Alkynyl groups of the present invention include, but are not limited to, ethynyl, propynyl, and butynyl. Alkynyl groups of the present invention may be unsubstituted or substituted by one or more suitable substituents, preferably 1 to 3 suitable substituents, as defined above.

[0047] As used herein, the term“amido” refers to an amino group appended to the parent molecular moiety through a carbonyl group, as defined herein (i.e., -CONH2). The term “alkylamido,” as used herein, refers to an alkylamino group or dia!kylammo group appended to the parent molecular moiety through a carbonyl group, as defined herein. Representative examples of alkylamido include, but are not limited to, methylaminocarbonyl,

dimethyiamiTiGcarhonyl, ethylmethylaminoearbonyl, and n-hexylammocarbonyl.

[0048] As used herein, the term“amino” refers to an -NH2 group.

[0049] As used herein, the term“aminoalkyl” refers to at least one amino group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an alkyl group, as defined herein. Representative examples of aminoalkyl include, but are not limited to, aminomethyl, 2- anunoethyl, 3-aminopropyl, 4-aminobutyl, 5-aminopentyl, and 6-ammohexyl

[0050] As used herein, the term“aminoalkylamido” refers to at least one ammo group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiet through an alkylamido group, as defined herein.

[0051] As used herein, the term“amino protecting group,” refers to a moiety that prevents chemical reactions from occurring on the nitrogen atom to which that protecting group is attached. An amino protecting group must also be removable by a chemical reaction. Such groups are well known in the art and include those described in detail in Protecting Groups in Organic Synthesis, T. W. Greene and P. G. M. Wuts, 3 rd edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1999, the entirety of winch is incorporated herein by reference. Suitable amino protecting groups include, but are not limited to, carbobenzyloxy (-NHCO-OCH 2 C e H 5 or -NH-Cbz); t-butyloxy carbonyl f- NHCO-OC(CH 3 ) 3 or -NH-Boc); 9-fluorenylmethyloxy carbonyl (-NH-Fmoc), 2,2,2- trichloroethyloxycarbonyl (-NH-Troc), and allyloxycarbonyl (-NH- Alloc) in each of the above, the -NH- represents the nitrogen from the amino group that is being protected.

[0052] As used herein, the term“amino lucifenn” refers to (4S)-2-(6-amino-l,3-benzothiazol- 2-yl)-4,5-dihydrothiazole-4-carboxylic acid, or a substituted analog of this molecule.

[0053] As used herein, the term“aryl” means monocyclic, bicyehc, or tricyclic aromatic radicals. Representative examples of the aryl groups include, but are not limited to, phenyl, dihydroindenyl, indenyl, naphthyl, dihydronaphthalenyl, and tetrahydronaphthalenyl. Aryl groups of the present invention may be optionally substituted by one or more suitable substituents, preferably 1 to 5 suitable substituents, as defined above. The aryl as used herein includes a phenyl appended to the parent molecular moiety and fused to a cycloalkyl group (e.g., indanyl or 5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl), a phenyl group (i.e., naphthyl), or a non-aromatic heterocycle (e.g., benzo[d][I ,3]dioxol-5-yl).

[0054] As used herein, the term“aryialkyl” refers to an aryl group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an alkyl group, as defined herein.

Representative examples of aryialkyl include, but are not limited to, phenylmethyi (i.e. benzyl) and phenylethyl.

[0055] As used herein, the term“arylcarbonyi” refers to an aryl group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through a carbonyl group, as defined herein.

[0056] As used herein, the term“carbonyl” or“(0=0)” (as used in phrases such as

alkylcarbonyl, alkyl -(0=0)- or alkoxy carbonyl) refers to the joinder of the >0=0 moiety to a second moiety such as an alkyl or amino group (i.e. an amido group). A!koxycarbonylatnino (i.e. alkoxy(C=0)-NH--j refers to an alkyl carbamate group. The carbonyl group is also equivalently defined herein as (0=0). Alkylcarhonyiamino refers to groups such as acetamide.

[0057] As used herein, the term“carboxy” refers to a -C(0)0H group. [0058] As used herein, the term“carboxyalkyl” refers to a carboxy group as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an alkyl group as defined herein.

[0059] As used herein, the term“car boxy alky lanudo” refers to a carboxyalkyl group as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an amido group as defined herein.

[0060] As used herein, the term“cycloalkyl” refers to a mono, bicyclic or tricyclic carbocyclic radical (e.g., cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, cyclooctyl, cyclononyl, cyclopentenyl, eyeiohexenyl, bicyclo[2.2.1]iieptanyl,

bicyclo[3.2.1]octanyl and bicyclo[5.2.0]nonanyl, etc.); optionally containing 1 or 2 double bonds. Cycloalkyl groups of the present invention may be unsubstituted or substituted by one or more suitable substituents, preferably 1 to 5 suitable substituents, as defined above.

[0061] As used herein, the term“eyeioaikylalkyl” refers to a cycloalkyl group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an alkyl group, as defined herein. Representative examples of eyeioaikylalkyl include, but are not limited to, eyelohexylmethyi.

[0062] As used herein, the term“cycloalky!amido” refers to a cycloalkyl group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an amido group, as defined herein.

[0063] As used herein, the term“dialkylamino” refers to two independently selected alkyl groups, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety' through an amino group, as defined herein. Representative examples of dialkylamino include, but are not limited to, N,N~ dimethylamino, N-ethyl-N-methylamino, and N-isopropyl-N-methylamino.

[0064] As used herein, the term“dialkylaminoalkyl” refers to a dialkylamino group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an alkyl group, as defined herein. Representative examples of dialkylaminoalkyl include, but are not limited to, N,N- dimethylaminoethyl and N,N-methyl(2-propyl)aminoethy3.

[0065] As used herein, the term“dialkylaminoalkylamido” refers to a dialkylamino group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an alkylamido group, as defined herein.

[0066] As used herein, the term“halogen” or“halo” refers to a fluoro, chloro, bromo or iodo radical.

[0067] As used herein, the term“haloalkoxy” refers to an alkoxy group, as defined herein, substituted by one, two, three, or four halogen atoms. Representative examples of haloalkoxy include, but are not limited to, chloromethoxy, 2-fluoroethoxy, trifluoromethoxy, and pentafluor oethoxy .

[0068] As used herein, the term“haloalkyl” refers to an alkyl group, as defined herein, substituted by one, two, three, or four halogen atoms. Representative examples of haloalkyl include, but are not limited to, chloromethy!, 2-fluoroethyl, trifluoromethyi, pentafluoroethyl, 2- chloro-3-fluoropentyl, and 4,4,4,-trifluorobutyl.

[0069] As used herein, the term“heteroaryl” refers to a monocyclic heteroaryl or a bicyclic heteroaryl. The monocyclic heteroaryl is a five- or six-membered ring. The five-membered ring contains two double bonds. The five-membered ring may contain one heteroatom selected from O or S; or one, two, three, or four nitrogen atoms and optionally one oxygen or sulfur atom. The six-membered ring contains three double bonds and one, two, three or four nitrogen atoms. Representative examples of monocyclic heteroaryl include, but are not limited to, furanyl, imidazolyl, isoxazolyl, isothiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, 1,3-oxazoiyl, pyndinyl, pyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, pyrazolyl, pyrrolyl, tetrazolyl, tliiadiazolyl, 1,3-thiazolyl, thienyl, triazolyl, and triazinyl. The bicyclic heteroaryl includes a monocyclic heteroaryl fused to a phenyl, or a monocyclic heteroaryl fused to a monocyclic cycloalkyl, or a monocyclic heteroaryl fused to a monocyclic cycloalkenyl, or a monocyclic heteroaryl fused to a monocyclic heteroaryl, or a monocyclic heteroaryl fused to a monocyclic heterocycle. Representative examples of bicyclic heteroaryl groups include, but are not limited to, benzofuranyl,

benzothienyl, benzoxazolyl, benzirmdazolyl, benzoxadiazolyl, 6,7-dihydro- 1 ,3-benzothxazolyl, imidaz.o[l ,2-a]pyndmyl, indazolyl, indolyl, isoindolyl, isoquinolinyl, naphthyridinyl, pyridoimidazolyl, quinazolinyl, quinolinyl, thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl, thiazolo[5,4- d]pyrimidin-2-yl, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolin-5-yi, cyclopenta[b]thiophen-2-yl, and 4, 5,6,7- tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl. Heteroaryl groups of the present invention may be unsubstituted or substituted by one or more suitable substituents, preferably 1 to 5 suitable substituents, as defined above.

[0070] As used herein, the term“heteroarylalkyl” refers to a heteroaryl group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an alkyl group, as defined herein. Representative examples of heteroarylalkyl include, but are not limited to, fur-3-ylmethyl, 1H- inudazol-2-ylmethyl, lH-imidazoJ-4-ylmethyl, l-(pyndin-4-yi)ethyl, pyridin-3-ylmethyl, 6- chloropyridin-3-ylmethyl, pyridin-4-ylmethyl, (6-(tnfluoromethyi)pyridin-3-y!)methyl, (6- (cyano)pyridin-3-yl)methyl, (2-(cyano)pyridin-4-yl)methyJ, (5-(cyano)pyridin-2-yl)methyl, (2- (chloro)pyridin-4-yl)methyl, pyrimidin-5-ylmethyl, 2-(pyrimidin-2-yl)propyl, thien-2-ylmethyl, and thien-3-ylmethyl.

[0071] As used herein, the term“heterocycle” or“heterocyclyi” refers to a monocyclic heterocycle, a bicyclic heterocycle, or a tricyclic heterocycle. The monocyclic heterocycle is a three-, four-, five-, six-, seven-, or eight-membered ring containing at least one heteroatom independently selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur.

The three- or four-membered ring contains zero or one double bond, and one heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. The five-membered ring contains zero or one double bond and one, two or three heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. The six-membered ring contains zero, one or two double bonds and one, two, or three heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. The seven- and eight-membered rings contains zero, one, two, or three double bonds and one, two, or three heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. Representative examples of monocyclic heterocycles include, but are not limited to, azetidinyl, azepany!, aziridiny!, diazepanyl, 1,3- dioxany!, 1,3-dioxolanyl, 1,3-dithiolanyl, 1,3-dithianyl, imidazolinyl, imidazo!idinyl,

isothiazo!inyl, isothiazolidinyl, isoxazolinyl, isoxazolidinyl, morpholinyl, oxadiazolinyl, oxadiazolidinyl, oxazolinyl, oxazolidinyl, phosphinane, piperazinyl, piperidinyl, pyranyl, pyrazolmyl, pyrazolidinyi, pyrrolinyl, pyrrolidinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydropyranyl, tetrahydropyndmyl, tetrahydropyrimidinyl, tetrahydrothienyl, thiadiazolmyl, thiadiazolidmyl, thiazolmyl, thiazohdmyl, thiomorpholinyl, 1 ,1-dioxidothiomorpholmyl (thiomorpholme sulfone), thiopyranyl, trithianyl, and 2,5-dioxo-pyrrolidmyl. The bicyclic heterocycle is a monocyclic heterocycle fused to a phenyl group, or a monocyclic heterocycle fused to a monocyclic

cycloalkyl, or a monocyclic heterocycle fused to a monocyclic cycloalkenyl, or a monocyclic heterocycle fused to a monocyclic heterocycle, or a bridged monocyclic heterocycle ring system in which two non-adjacent atoms of the ring are linked by an alky!ene bridge of 1, 2, 3, or 4 carbon atoms, or an alkenylene bridge of two, three, or four carbon atoms. Representative examples of bicyclic heterocycles include, but are not limited to, benzopyranyl,

benzothiopyranyl, chromanyl, 2,3-dihydrobenzofuranyl, 2,3-dihydrobenzothienyl,

azabicyclo[2.2. l jheptyl (including 2-azabieyclo[2.2.1 ]hept-2-yl), 2,3-dihydro-lH-indolyl, isoindolinyl, octahydrocyclopenta[c]pyrrolyl, octahydropyrrolopyridinyl, 9- phosphabicyclo[3.3. I jnonane, 8-phosphabicyclo[3.2. I joctane, and tetrahydroisoquinoimyl. Tricyclic heterocycles are exemplified by a bicyciic heterocycle fused to a phenyl group, or a bicyclic heterocycle fused to a monocyclic cycloalkyl, or a bicyciic heterocycle fused to a monocyclic cycloalkenyl, or a bicyciic heterocycle fused to a monocyclic heterocycle, or a bicyciic heterocycle in which two non-adjacent atoms of the bicyciic ring are linked by an alkylene bridge of 1, 2, 3, or 4 carbon atoms, or an alkenylene bridge of two, three, or four carbon atoms. Examples of tricyclic heterocycles include, but are not limited to, octahydro-2,5- epoxypentalene, hexahydro-2H-2,5-methanocyclopenta[b]furan, hexahydro-lH-1 ,4- methanocyclopenta[c]furan, aza-admantane (1-azatri cyclop.3.1.1 3 7 ] decane), oxa-adamantane (2-oxatncyclo[3.3.1.1 3, 'jdecane), and 2,4,6-trioxa-8-phosphatricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decane.

Heterocyclic groups of the present invention may be unsubstituted or substituted by one or more suitable substituents, preferably 1 to 3 suitable substituents, as defined above. Heterocyclic groups of the present invention may contain one or more oxo groups (=0) or thioxo (=S) groups attached to the ring.

[0072] As used herein, the term“heterocyclylalkyl” refers to a heterocyclyl group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an alkyl group, as defined herein.

Representative examples of heterocyclylalkyl include, but are not limited to, piperidin-4- ylmethyl, piperazin- 1 -ylmethyl, 3 -methyl- 1 -pyrrolidin- 1 -yl butyl, ( 1 R)-3 -methyl- 1 -pyrrolidin- 1 - ylbutyl, (l S)-3-methyl-l -pyrrolidin- 1 -ylbutyl, and 3-morpholinopropyl.

[0073] As used herein, the term“heterocyclyiamido” refers to a heterocyclyl group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an ami do group, as defined herein.

[0074] As used herein, the term“hydroxy” refers to an -OH group.

[0075] As used herein, the term“hydroxyaikoxy” refers to an alkoxy group, as defined herein, substituted by at least one hydroxy group. Representative examples of hydroxyaikoxy include, but are not limited to, hydroxy ethoxy, and 2-Shy droxypropoxy.

[0076] As used herein, the term“hydroxyalkyl” refers to an alkyl group, as defined herein, substituted by at least one hydroxy group. Representative examples of hydroxyalkyl include, but are not limited to, hydroxymethyl, 2- hydroxy ethyl, 3-hydroxypropyl, 2,3 -dihydroxy propyl, 2,3- clihydroxypenlyl, 4-hydroxybutyl, 2-ethyl-4-hydroxyheptyl, 3,4-dihydroxybutyl, and 5- hydroxypentyl.

[0077] The term“hydroxyalkylamido” as used herein refers to a hydroxyafkyl group attached to an anndo group, e.g., -amido-alkyl-OH.

[0078] As used herein, the term“hydroxy carbon l” refers to a hydroxy group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through a carbonyl group, as defined herein.

[0079] As used herein, the term“methylenedioxy” refers to a -OCH2O- group wherein the oxygen atoms of the methylenedioxy are atached to the parent molecular moiety through two adjacent carbon atoms.

[0080] As used herein, the term“oxo” refers to a double bonded oxygen (=0) radical wherein the bond partner is a carbon atom. Such a radical can also be thought as a carbonyl group.

[0081] As used herein, unless otherwise specified, the terms“peptide” and“polypeptide” refer to polymer compounds of two or more amino acids joined through the mam chain by peptide amide bonds (— C(0)NH— ). The term“peptide” typically refers to short amino acid polymers (e.g., chains having fewer than 25 amino acids), whereas the term“polypeptide” typically refers to longer amino acid polymers (e.g., chains having more than 25 amino acids).

[0082] A prefix attached to a multi-component substituent only applies to the first component it precedes. To illustrate, the term“cycloalkylalkyl” contains two components: alkyl and cycloalkyl. Thus, the Ci-10 prefix on Ci-ioeycloalkylalkyl means that the alkyl component of the cycloalkylalkyl contains from 1 to 6 carbon atoms; the Ci-C6-prefix does not describe the cycloalkyl component. To illustrate further, the term Ci-iohaloalkyl refers to halomethyl, haloethyl, halopropyl, halobutyl, halopentyl, and halohexyl. To illustrate further, the prefix “halo” on haloalkoxyalkyl indicates that only the alkoxy component of the alkoxyalkyl substituent is substituted with one or more halogen radicals. If the halogen substitution may only occur on the alkyl component, the substituent would instead be described as“alkoxyhaloalkyl.” [0083] A substituent is“substitutable” if it comprises at least one carbon or nitrogen atom that is bonded to one or more hydrogen atoms. Thus, for example, hydrogen, halogen, and cyano do not fall within this definition. In addition, a sulfur atom in a heterocyclyl containing such atom is substitutable with one or two oxo substituents.

[0084] If a substituent is described as being“substituted,” a non-hydrogen radical is in the place of hydrogen radical on a carbon or nitrogen of the substituent. Thus, for example, a substituted alkyl substituent is an alkyl substituent in winch at least one non-hydrogen radical is m the place of a hydrogen radical on the alkyl substituent. To illustrate, monofluoroalkyl is alkyl substituted with a fluoro radical, and difluoroalkyl is alkyl substituted with two fluoro radicals.

It should be recognized that if there is more than one substitution on a substituent, each non hydrogen radical may be identical or different (unless otherwise stated).

[0085] When a substituent is referred to as“unsubstituted” or not referred to as“substituted” or“optionally substituted,” it means that the substituent does not have any substituents. If a substituent is described as being“optionally substituted,” the substituent may be either (1) unsubstituted or (2) substituted. If a substituent is described as being optionally substituted with up to a particular number of non-hydrogen radicals, which substituent may be either (1)

unsubstituted; or (2) substituted by up to that particular number of non-hydrogen radicals or by up to the maximum number of substitutable positions on the substituent, whichever is less. Thus, for example, if a substituent is described as a heteroaryl optionally substituted with up to 3 non- hydrogen radicals, then any heteroaryl with less than 3 substitutable positions would be optionally substituted by up to only as many non-hydrogen radicals as the heteroaryl has substitutable positions. To illustrate, tetrazolyl (which has only one substitutable position) would be optionally substituted with up to one non-hydrogen radical. To illustrate further, if an ammo nitrogen is described as being optionally substituted with up to 2 non-hydrogen radicals, then a primary' amino nitrogen will be optionally substituted with up to 2 non-hydrogen radicals, whereas a secondary ammo nitrogen will be optionally substituted with up to only 1 non hydrogen radical.

[0086] If substituents are described as being“independently selected” from a group, each substituent is selected independent of the other. Each substituent, therefore, may be identical to or different from the other substituent(s).

[0087] As used herein, the term“bioluminescence” or“luminescence” may refer to light produced as a result of a reaction between an enzyme and a substrate that generates light.

Examples of such enzymes (bioluminescent enzymes) include Oplophorus luciferase, e.g., Oplophorous gracilirostris , firefly luciferase, e.g. Photinus pyralis or Photuris pennsylvanica, click beetle luciferase, Renilla luciferase, cypridina luciferase, Aequorm photoprotein, obelin photoprotein, and the like. [0088] As used herein, the term“complex” refers to an assemblage or aggregate of molecules (e.g., peptides, polypeptides, etc.) in direct and/or indirect contact with one another. In one aspect,“contact,” or more particularly,“direct contact” means two or more molecules are close enough so that attractive noncovalent interactions, such as Van der Waal forces, hydrogen bonding, ionic and hydrophobic interactions, and the like, dominate the interaction of the molecules. In such an aspect, a complex of molecules (e.g., a peptide and polypeptide) is formed under assay conditions such that the complex is thermodynamically favored (e.g., compared to a iron-aggregated, or non-complexed, state of its component molecules). As used herein the term “complex,” unless described as otherwise, refers to the assemblage of two or more molecules (e.g., peptides, polypeptides, or a combination thereof).

[0089] The terms“bioluminescent complex” or“ Op!ophorus luciferase-derived

bioluminescent complex” as used interchangeably herein, refer to the assembled complex of two or more non-luminescent peptides and/or non-luminescent polypeptides. The bioluminescent complex catalyzes or enables the conversion of a substrate for the bioluminescent complex into an unstable form; the substrate subsequently emits light. When uncomplexed, two non- luminescent elements that form a bioluminescent complex may be referred to as a“non- luminescent pair.” If a bioluminescent complex is formed by three or more non-luminescent peptides and/or non-luminescent polypeptides, the uncomplexed constituents of the

bioluminescent complex may be referred to as a“non-luminescent group.” An Opiophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex may include (a) a peptide comprising a peptide amino acid sequence having less than 100% sequence identity (e.g., >99%, <95%, <90%, <80%, <70%, <60%, <50%, etc.) and greater than 40% (e.g., >40%, >45%, >50%, >55%, >60%, >65%, >70%, >75%, >80%, >85%, >90%, >95%, >98%, >99%) with SEQ ID NO; 2; and (b) a polypeptide comprising a polypeptide amino acid sequence having less than 100% identity (e.g., >99%, <95%, <90%, <80%, <70%, <60%, <50%, etc.) and greater than 40% (e.g., >40%, >45%, >50%, >55%, >60%, >65%, >70%, >75%, >80%, >85%, >90%, >95%, >98%, >99%) sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 3, wherein the bioluminescent complex exhibits detectable luminescence. In certain embodiments, the present invention provides bioluminescent complexes comprising: (a) a peptide comprising a peptide amino acid sequence having SEQ ID NO: 4 or 6; and (b) a polypeptide comprising a polypeptide amino acid sequence having SEQ ID NO: 5, wherein the bioluminescent complex exhibits detectable luminescence. Exemplary Opiophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complexes include the NanoBiT® technology that includes a SmBiT non-luminescent peptide (SEQ ID NO: 6), NanoBiT® HiBiT non-luminescent peptide (SEQ ID NO: 4), and/or NanoBiT® LgBiT non-luminescent polypeptide (SEQ ID NO: 5).

[0090] As used herein, the term“non-luminescent” refers to an entity (e.g., peptide, polypeptide, complex, protein, etc.) that exhibits the characteristic of not emitting a detectable amount of light m the visible spectrum (e.g., in the presence of a substrate). For example, an entity may be referred to as non-luminescent if it does not exhibit detectable luminescence in a given assay. As used herein, the term“non-luminescent” is synonymous with the term

“substantially non-luminescent. For example, a non-luminescent polypeptide (NLpoly) is substantially non-luminescent, exhibiting, for example, a 10-fold or more (e.g., 100-fold, 200- fold, 500-fold, I x iO’-fold, l xl0 4 -fold, 1 c 1 CP-fold, l x l0 6 -fold, 1 *10 '-fold, etc.) reduction m luminescence compared to a complex of the NLpoly with its non-luminescent complement peptide. In some embodiments, an entity is“non-luminescent” if any light emission is sufficiently minimal so as not to create interfering background for a particular assay.

[0091] As used herein, the terms“non-luminescent peptide” (e.g., NT, pep) and“non- luminescent polypeptide” (e.g., NLpoly) refer to peptides and polypeptides that exhibit substantially no luminescence (e.g., in the presence of a substrate), or an amount that is beneath the noise, or a 10-fold or more (e.g., 100-fold, 200-fold, 500-fold, I xICP-fold, l xl0 4 -fold, 1 c 10 5 - fold, 1 xl0°-fold, i ! 0 -Ibid etc.) when compared to a significant signal (e.g., luminescent complex) under standard conditions (e.g., physiological conditions, assay conditions, etc.) and with typical instrumentation (e.g., luminometer, etc.). In some embodiments, such non- luminescent peptides and polypeptides assemble, according to the criteria described herein, to form a bioluminescent complex. As used herein, a“non-luminescent element” is a non- luminescent peptide or non-luminescent polypeptide.

[0092] As used herein, the term“interaction element” or“interaction molecule” refers to a moiety that assists in bringing together a pair of non-luminescent elements or a non-luminescent group to form a bioluminescent complex. In a typical embodiment, a pair of interaction elements (a.k.a.“interaction pair”) is attached to a pair of non-luminescent elements (e.g., non- luminescent peptide/polypeptide pair), and the attractive interaction between the two interaction elements facilitates formation of the bioluminescent complex; although the present invention is not limited to such a mechanism, and an understanding of the mechanism is not required to practice the invention interaction elements may facilitate formation of the bioluminescent complex by any suitable mechanism (e.g., bringing non-luminescent pair/group into close proximity, placing a non-luminescent pair/group in proper conformation for stable interaction, reducing activation energy for complex formation, combinations thereof, etc.). An interaction element may be a protein, polypeptide, peptide, small molecule, cofactor, nucleic acid, lipid, carbohydrate, antibody, etc. An interaction pair may be made of two of the same interaction elements (i.e. homopair) or two different interaction elements (i.e. heteropair ). In the case of a heteropair, the interaction elements may be the same type of moiety (e.g., polypeptides) or may be two different types of moieties (e.g., polypeptide and small molecule). In some embodiments, in which complex formation by the interaction pair is studied, an interaction pair may be referred to as a“target pair” or a“pair of interest,” and the individual interaction elements are referred to as“target elements” (e.g.,“target peptide,”“target polypeptide,” etc.) or“elements of interest” (e.g.,“peptide of interest,”“polypeptide or interest,” etc.).

[0093] As used herein, the terms“fusion”,“fusion polypeptide”, and“fusion protein” refer to a chimeric protein containing a first protein or polypeptide of interest (e.g., target sequence, etc.) joined to a second different peptide, polypeptide, or protein (e.g., detectable sequence, isolatable sequence, tag, etc.). The term“traditional fusion” refers to a fusion in which the first polypeptide or protein and the second peptide, polypeptide, or protein are fused end to end (e.g., C-termmus to N-terminus or N-terminus to C-terminus).

[0094] As used herein, the term“coelenterazine”,“coelenterazine substrate”, “coelenterazine derivative”, or“coelenterazine derivative substrate” refers to a class of reporter molecules that luminesce when acted upon by a wide variety of bioluminescent proteins such as luciferases

(e.g., marine luciferases). As used herein, the terms“coelenterazine”,“eoelenterazme substrate”, “coelenterazine derivative”, or“eoelenterazme derivative substrate” refer to naturally-occurring (“native”) coelenterazine. As used herein, the terms“a coelenterazine”,“a eoelenterazme substrate”,“a coelenterazine derivative”, or“a coelenterazine derivative substrate” refers to native coelenterazine as well as synthetic, e.g., derivative or variant, and natural analogs thereof, including funmazine, coelenterazine-n, coelenterazine-f, coelenterazine-h, coelenterazine-hcp, coelenterazine-cp, coelenterazine-c, coelenterazine-e, coelenterazine-fcp, bis- deoxycoelenterazine (“coelenterazine-hh”), coelenterazine-i, coelenterazine-icp, coelenterazine- v, and 2-methyl coelenterazine, m addition to those disclosed in WO 2003/040100; U.S. application Ser. No. 12/056,073 (paragraph [0086]); and U.S. Pat. No. 8,669,103; the disclosures of which are incorporated by reference herein in their entireties.

[0095] As used herein, the term“sample” is used in its broadest sense. In one sense, it is meant to include a specimen or culture obtained from any source, as well as biological and environmental samples. Biological samples may be obtained from animals (including humans) and encompass fluids, solids, tissues, and gases. Biological samples include blood products, such as plasma, serum and the like. Sample may also refer to cell lysates or purified forms of the peptides and/or polypeptides described herein. Cell lysates may include cells that have been lysed with a lysing agent or lysates such as rabbit reticulocyte or wheat germ lysates. Sample may also include cell-free expression systems. Environmental samples include environmental material such as surface matter, soil, water, crystals and industrial samples. Such examples are not however to be construed as limiting the sample types applicable to the present invention.

[0096] The term“energy acceptor” or“acceptor molecule” refers to any small molecule (e.g., chromophore), macromolecule (e.g., autofluorescent protein, phycobiliproteins, nanoparticle, surface, etc.), or molecular complex that produces a readily detectable signal in response to energy absorption (e.g., resonance energy transfer). In certain embodiments, an energy acceptor is a fluorophore or other detectable chromophore. Suitable fluorophores include, but are not limited to: xanthene derivatives (e.g., fluorescein, rhodamine, Oregon green, eosin, Texas red, etc.), cyanine derivatives (e.g., cyanine, indocarbocyanine, oxacarbocyamne, thiacarbocyanine, merocyanine, etc.), naphthalene derivatives (e.g., dansyl and prodan derivatives), oxadiazole derivatives (e.g., pyndyloxazole, nitrobenzoxadiazole, benzoxadiazole, etc.), pyrene derivatives (e.g., cascade blue), oxazine derivatives (e.g., Nile red, Nile blue, cresyl violet, oxazine 170, etc.), acridine derivatives (e.g., proflavin, acridine orange, acridine yellow, etc.), aryimethine derivatives (e.g., auramine, crystal violet, malachite green, etc.), tetrapyrrole derivatives (e.g., porphin, phtalocyanine, bilirubin, etc.), CF dye (Biotium), BODIPY (Invitrogen), ALEXA FLuoR (Invitrogen), DYLIGHT FLUOR (Thermo Scientific, Pierce), ATTO and TRACY (Sigma Aldrich), FluoProbes (Interehim), DY and MEGA STOKES (Dyomics), SULFO CY dyes (CYANDYE, LLC), SETAU AND SQUARE DYES (SETA BioMedicals), QUASAR and CAL FLUOR dyes (Biosearch Technologies), SURELIGHT DYES (APC, RPE, PerCP,

Phycobilisomes)(Columbia Biosciences), APC, APCXL, RPE, BPE (Phyco-Biotech), autofluorescent proteins (e.g., YEP, RFP, mCherry, mKate), quantum dot nanocrystals, etc. In some embodiments, a fluorophore is a rhodamine analog (e.g., carboxy rhodamine analog). In certain embodiments, energy acceptors include but are not limited to small molecule fluorescent dyes such as NCT, quenchers, fluorescent particles such as Quantum dots, luminescent metal complexes, and any other known energy acceptors.

[0097] The term“luminescent enzyme,”“bioluminescent enzyme,” or“luciferase” as used interchangeably herein refers to a class of oxidative enzymes used in bioluminescence wherein the enzyme produces and emits light when given a substrate. The luciferase may be a naturally occurring, recombinant, or mutant luciferase that uses a luciferase substrate. The luciferase substrate may be luciferin, a luciferin derivative or analog, a pre-luciferin derivative or analog, a coelenterazine, or a coelenterazine derivative or analog. The luminescent enzyme, if naturally occurring, may be obtained easily by the skilled person from an organism. If the luminescent enzyme is one that occurs naturally or is a recombinant or mutant luminescent enzyme, e.g. one which retains activity in a luciferase-coeienterazine or luciferase-luciferin reaction of a naturally occurring luminescent enzyme, it can be obtained readily from a culture of bacteria, yeast, mammalian cells, insect cells, plant ceils, or the like, transformed to express a nucleic acid encoding the luminescent enzyme. Further, the recombinant or mutant luminescent enzyme can be derived from an in vitro cell-free system using a nucleic acid encoding the luciferase.

Suitable luminescent enzymes include luciferases derived from bioluminescent decapods, such as from the Oplophoroidea (e.g. Oplophoms-denved luciferases), beetle luciferases (e.g., Photinus pyralis, Photims pennsylvanica, etc.), marine organisms such as cnidarians (e.g., Renilla luciferase), Aristeidae, Solenoceridae, Luciferidae, Sergestidae, Pasipheidae and Thalassocarididae decapoda families, copepod luciferases, such as Gaussia luciferase, such as Gaussia princeps luciferase, Metridia luciferases, such as Metridia longa and Metridia pacifica luciferases, Varguia luciferases, such as Vargula kilgendorfii luciferase, P!euromarnma xiphias luciferase, and photoproteins, such as Aequorin, and variants, recombinants, and mutants thereof [0098] A“luminescent reaction mixture” contains materials that will allow the luminescent enzyme to generate a light signal, i.e., luminescence. The mixture may also contain the enzyme, e.g., the luciferase enzyme or luciferase. The materials, and the particular concentrations and/or amounts, needed to generate a luminescent signal will vary depending on the luminescent enzyme used as well as the type of assay being performed. Often other materials will be added to the solution including: a buffer to maintain the reaction at the proper pH, an additive such as PRIONEX or Bovine serum albumin (BSA) to help maintain enzyme activity, reducing agents, detergents, etc.

]0099] As used herein, the terms“ Oplophorus luciferase” and Oplophorus- derived luciferase” are used interchangeably and refer to a luciferase secreted from the deep-sea shrimp Oplophorus gracilirostris (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 1), including wild-type, variants, and mutants thereof. For example, suitable Oplophorus luciferase variants are described in U.S. Patent Nos. 8,557,970 and 8,669,103, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[00100] As used herein, the term“sequence identity” refers to the degree two polymer sequences (e.g., peptide, polypeptide, nucleic acid, etc.) have the same sequential composition of monomer subunits. The term“sequence similarity” refers to the degree with which two polymer sequences (e.g., peptide, polypeptide, nucleic acid, etc.) have similar polymer sequences. For example, similar amino acids are those that share the same biophysical characteristics and can be grouped into the families, e.g., acidic (e.g., aspartate, glutamate), basic (e.g., lysine, arginine, histidine), non-polar (e.g., alanine, valine, leucine, isoleueine, proline, phenylalanine, methionine, tryptophan) and uncharged polar (e.g., glycine, asparagine, glutamine, cysteine, serine, threonine, tyrosine). The“percent sequence identity” (or“percent sequence similarity”) is calculated by: ( 1) comparing two optimally aligned sequences over a window of comparison (e.g., the length of the longer sequence, the length of the shorter sequence, a specified window), (2) determining the number of positions containing identical (or similar) monomers (e.g., same amino acids occurs in both sequences, similar amino acid occurs in both sequences) to yield the number of matched positions, (3) dividing the number of matched positions by the total number of positions in the comparison window (e.g., the length of the longer sequence, the length of the shorter sequence, a specified window), and (4) multiplying the result by 100 to yield the percent sequence identity or percent sequence similarity. For example, if peptides A and B are both 20 amino acids in length and have identical ammo acids at all but 1 position, then peptide A and peptide B have 95% sequence identity. If the amino acids at the non-identical position shared the same biophysical characteristics (e.g., both were acidic), then peptide A and peptide B would have 100% sequence similarity. As another example, if peptide C is 20 ammo acids in length and peptide D is 15 ammo acids in length, and 14 out of 15 amino acids in peptide D are identical to those of a portion of peptide C, then peptides C and D have 70% sequence identity, but peptide D has 93.3% sequence identity to an optimal comparison window of peptide C. For the purpose of calculating“percent sequence identity” (or“percent sequence similarity”) herein, any gaps in aligned sequences are treated as mismatches at that position.

jOOlOlj As used herein, the term“reporter moiety” may refer to a moiety that, under appropriate conditions, directly or indirectly generates a detectable signal. Exemplary reporter moieties include, but are not limited to, fluorophores, luminescent molecules, dyes, radiolabe!s and substrates for enzymes such as luciferase. in some embodiments, a reporter moiety may indirectly generate a detectable signal, for example, when the reporter moiety is a substrate for an enzyme. The reaction of the enzyme with the substrate then produces a detectable signal such as fluorescence or luminescence. As used herein, the term“bioluminescent reporter moiety” may refer to a moiety that is a substrate for a luciferase. For example, the bioluminescent reporter moiety can be a luciferin, a luciferm derivative, e.g., pre-luciferm, amino luciferm, quionolyl- luciferm, napthyl luciferin, fluoroiueifeirn, chloroluciferin, precursors of luciferm derivatives, a coelenterazine or a coelenterazine derivative or analog, e.g., funmaz e. The luminescent signal generated may be detected using a luminometer. As used herein, the term“fluorescent reporter moiety” may refer to a moiety that fluoresces. For example, the fluorescent reporter moiety may be a flurophore, such as coumarin, Rl 10, fluoroscein, DDAO, resorufin, cresyl violet, sily xanthene, or carbopyronine. Fluorescence may be detected using a fluorometer

[00102] For the recitation of numeric ranges herein, each intervening number there between with the same degree of precision is explicitly contemplated. For example, for the range of 6-9, the numbers 7 and 8 are contemplated in addition to 6 and 9, and for the range 6.0-7.0, the number 6.0, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6 5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, and 7.0 are explicitly contemplated.

2. Compounds

[00103] Provided herein are compounds that may selectively inhibit Opiophorus luciferase- derived bioluminescent complex, e.g., inhibit luciferase activity of the bioluminescent complex. In one aspect, disclosed are compounds of formula (I), or salts thereof;

(I)

wherein:

R 1 is an aiyd, a cycloalkyl, a heteroaryl, a heterocycle, an arylalkyl, a cycloalkylalkyl, a heteroarylalkyl, or a heterocyclylalkyl, wherein the aryl, cycloalkyl, heteroaryl, and heterocycle are optionally substituted with one or more R ¾ , wherein each R w is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-ioalkyl, Ci-iohaloalkyl, halogen, -CN, -QR A , -Ci-ioalkylene-OR A , - CO-R a , -Ci-ioalkylene-CO-R A , -CO-OR A , -Ci-ioalkylene-CO-OR A , -CO-NHR A , -Ci-ioalkylene- CO-NHR A , -NR B R c , -CI -ioalkylene-NR B R c , -NH-CO-C ^alkyl, -Ci-ioalkylene-NH-CO-C - 4 alkyl, phenyl, and phenyl substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 R° groups;

each R is independently Ci-ioalkyl, Ci-iohaloalkyl, halogen, -CN, -OR A , -Ci-4alkylene- OR a , -CO-R a , -C] - 4 alkyiene-CO-R A , -CO-OR A , -Ci-4alkylene-CO-OR A , -CO-NHR A , -Cl ¬

4alkylene-CO-NHR A , -NR B R C , -Ci-4alkylene-NR B R c , -NH-CO-Ciaalkyl, -Ci^ialkylene-NH-CO- Ci^alkyi, phenyl, phenyl substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 R° groups, -CºC-R A , or -CººC-Ci-

4alkylene-()R A , or two R 2 together with the carbon atoms of the 'Ό moiety to which they are attached form a 5- or 6-membered fused ring;

each R 5 is independently Ci-ioalkyl, Ci-iohaloalkyl, halogen, -CN, -OR A , -Ci-4alkylene- OR A , -CO-R a , -CO-OR a , or -CO-NHR A , or two R 3 together with the carbon atoms of the moiety to which they are attached form a 5- or 6-membered fused ring;

R 4 is H or Ci-4alkyl;

r is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4;

q is 0, 1 , 2, 3, or 4;

R A at each occurrence is independently H, Ci-ralkyl, or C ihaloalkyi;

R 8 and R at each occurrence are independently H or Ci -4 alkyl, or R B and R together with the N atom to which they are attached form a 5- or 6-membered heterocycle; and

R° at each occurrence is independently Ci-4alkyl, -OCi- 4 alkyl, -CN, or halogen.

[00104] In some embodiments, in compounds of formula (I):

R ! is an aryl, a cycloalkyl, a heteroaryl, or a heterocycle, wherein the aryl, cycloalkyl, heteroaryl, and heterocycle are optionally substituted with one or more R' v , wherein each R w is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-ioalkyl, Ci-iohaloalkyl, halogen, -CN, - OR a , -CI -loalky iene-OR A , -CO-R A , -Ci-ioalkylene-CO-R A , -CO-OR A , -Ci-ioalkylene-CO-OR A , - CO NI IR . -Ci-ioalkylene-CO-NHR A , -NR B R C , -Ci-ioaikylene-NR B R c , -NH-CQ-Ci-ralkyl, -Ci- ioalkylene-NH-CO-Ci- 4 alkyl, phenyl, and phenyl substituted with 1 , 2, 3, or 4 R° groups;

each R 2 is independently Ci-ioalkyl, Ci-iohaloalkyl, halogen, -CN, -OR A , -Ci-ralkylene- OR a , -CO-R a , -Ci- 4 alkylene-CO-R A , -CO-OR A , -Ci- 4 alkylene-CO-OR A , -CO-NHR A , -Ci- 4alkylene-CO-NHR A , -NR B R C , -Ci-4alkyIene-NR B R c , -NH-CQ-Ci- 4 alkyl, -Ci-ralkylene-NH-CG- C - 4 alkyl, phenyl, phenyl substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 R D groups, -CºC-R A , or -CºC-Ci-

4alkylene-OR A , or two R 2 together with the carbon atoms of the moiety to winch they are attached form a 5- or 6-membered fused ring;

each R 3 is independently Ci-ioalkyl, Ci-iohaloalkyl, halogen, -CN, ~OR A , -Ci-ralkylene- OR a , -CO-R a , -CO-OR a , or -CO-NHR A , or two R 3 together wi th the carbon atoms of the moiety to which they are attached form a 5- or 6-member ed fused ring;

R 4 is H or Ciualkyl;

p is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4;

q is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4;

R A at each occurrence is independently H, Ci-4alkyl, or Ci-4haloalkyl;

R B and R c at each occurrence are independently H or Ci-4alkyl, or R B and R c together with the N atom to which they are attached form a 5- or 6-membered heterocycle; and

R D at each occurrence is independently Ci-ralkyl, -OCi-4alkyl, -CN, or halogen.

[00105] In some embodiments, R s is an unsubstituted aryl, an unsubstituted cycloalkyi, an unsubstituted heteroaryl, an unsubstituted heterocycle, or an unsubstituted arylalkyl.

[00106] In some embodiments, R 1 is an unsubstituted aryl, an unsubstituted cycloalkyi, an unsubstituted heteroaryl, or an unsubstituted heterocycle.

[00107] In some embodiments, R 1 is an aryl (such as a Ce-zoaryl) or a heteroaryl (such as a 5- to 12-memhered heteroaryl), wherein the aryl and heteroaryl are optionally substituted with one or more R w In some embodiments, R ! is a Ce-zoaryl, wherein the aryl optionally substituted with one or more R w In some embodiments, R 1 is a 5- to 12-membered heteroaryl optionally substituted with one or more R*. In some embodiments, R '! is a Cs-iocycloalkyl optionally substituted with one or more R ¾ . In some embodiments, R 1 is a 5- to 12-membered heterocycle optionally substituted with one or more R w .

[001Q8] In some embodiments, optionally substituted with one or more R w . In some embodiments, R 1 is each of which is unsubstituted. In some

embodiments, each of which is substituted with Ci aalkyl or Ci-rhaloalkyl.

[00109] In some embodiments, each of

which is optionally substituted with one or more R w . In some embodiments, R 1 is . In some embodiments, each R w is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-ioalkyl, Ci-iohaloalkyl, halogen, or -CN. In some embodiments, R w is

-OR A , -Ci-4alkylene-OR A , -CO-R A , -Ci-4alkylene-CQ-R A , -CO-OR A , -Chalky lene-CO-OR A , - CO-NHR a , or -Ci-4alkylene-CO-NHR A . In some embodiments, R w is -NR B R C , -Ci-ralkylene- NR B R c , -NH-CO-Ci -4 alkyl, or -Cnralkylene-NH-CO-Ci-ralkyl. In some embodiments, R' v is phenyl or phenyl substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 R° groups. In some embodiments, R w is Ci- oalkyl, Ci-iohaloalkyl, halogen, or -CN. In some embodiments, R w is Ci-4alkyl, such as methyl ethyl, propyl, or butyl. [00110] in some embodiments, R w is selected from the group consisting of Ci-ioalkyl, Ci- lohaloalkyl, halogen, -CN, -OR A , -Ci-ioalkylene-QR A , -CO-OR A , -Ci-ioalkylene-CO-OR A , and phenyl. In some embodiments, each R A is independently selected from hydrogen, methyl, and ethyl.

[00111] In some embodiments, R 1 is an arylalkyl (such as benzyl) that is optionally substituted with one or more R w .

[00112] In some embodiments, R 1 is an aryl, a cycloalkyl, a heteroaryl, a heterocycle, or an arylalkyl, wherein the aryl, cycloalkyl, heteroaryl, and heterocycle are substituted with one R w , wherein R' v is selected from the group consisting of Ci-ioalkyl, Ci-iohaloalkyl, halogen, -CN, - OR A , -Ci-ioalkylene-OR A , -CO-OR A , -Ci-ioalkylene-CO-OR A , and phenyl, wherein each R A is independently selected from hydrogen, methyl, and ethyl.

[00113] In some embodiments,

each of which is

unsubstituted or substituted with one R w , wherein R w is selected from the group consisting of Ci-ioalkyl (e.g., methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, n-propyl, n-butyl, n-pentyl, n-hexyl, or n-octyl), Ci- lohaloalkyl (e.g., -(CH2)4Br), halogen (e.g., fluoro, chloro, or bromo), -CN, -OR A (e.g., -OCH3), -Ci-i oalkylene-

COOCH2CH3), -Ci -ioalkylene~CO-OR A (e.g. , -CH2COOH, -CH2COOCH2CH3, -(( ' 1 bb-C ' OOl I. or -(Chhjs-COOCH ), and phenyl.

[00114] In some embodiments, p is 0, 1, or 2. In some embodiments, p is 0. In some embodiments, p is 1.

[00115] In some embodiments, R 2 is Ci-ioalkyl, halogen, Ci-4haloalkyl, -OH, Ci- 4 alkylene~OH, -QCi-ialkyl, -NH2, phenyl, or -CO~OCi-4akyl. In some embodiments, R 2 is Ci-ioalkyl In some embodiments, R 2 is Ci- 4 alkyi, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, or butyl. In some embodiments, R 2 is methyl. In some embodiments, R 2 is halogen, Ci-4haloalkyl, -OH, Ci-4alkylene-OH, -OCi- 4alkyl, or -NH2. [00116] In some embodiments, R 2 is selected from Ci-ioalkyl, Ci-iohaloalkyl, halogen, -OR A , - Ci-4alkylene-OR A , -CO-R A , -CO-OR A , -Ci-4alkylene-CO-OR A , -CO-NHR A , -NR B R C , -NH-CO- Ci-4alkyl, phenyl, and -CºC-Ci-4alkylene-OR A , wherein each R A is independently selected from hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, and trifluoromethyl.

[00117] In some embodiments, R 2 is selected from Ci-ioalkyl (e.g., Ci-6alkyl, such as methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, n-propyl, n-butyl, n-pentyl, or n-hexyl), Ci-iohaloalkyl (e.g., Ci-ihaloalkyl, such as trifluoromethyl), halogen (e.g., fluoro, chloro, or bromo), -OR A (e.g., -OH, -OCH3, - 0(CH 2 )3CH 3 , or -OCF3), - C 1 -4 al ky 1 ene-OR A (e.g., -CH2OH or -(CH 2 )3-OH), -CO-R A (e.g, -

(e.g., -CºC-CH2-OH). In some embodiments, each R A is independently selected from hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, and n-butyl.

[00118] In some embodiments, p is 2. In some embodiments, two R 2 together with the carbon atoms of the moiety to which they are attached form a 5- or 6-membered fused ring.

For example, two R 2 together with the moiety to which they are attached may form

[ in some embodiments, q is 0, 1, or 2. In some embodiments, q is 0. In some embodiments, q is 1.

[00120] In some embodiments, R 3 is selected from Ci-ioalkyl, Ci-iohaloalkyl, halogen, -CN, and -OR a , wherein R A is selected from hydrogen and Ci-4alkyl. In some embodiments, R 3 is selected from Ci-ioalkyl (e.g., Ci-ralkyl such as methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, n-propyl, or n-butyl), Ci-iohaloalkyl (e.g., C]-4haloalkyl such as trifluoromethyl), halogen (e.g., fluoro, chloro, or bromo), -CN, and -QR A (e.g., -OH or -OCH3). In some embodiments, R J is Ci-4alkyl, halogen, - CN, -OH, or -OCi-4alkyl. In some embodiments, R' is halogen. In some embodiments, R z is Ci- 4alkyl (such as methyl) and R 3 is Ci-ralkyl, halogen, -CN, -OH, or -OCi^alkyl. - odiments, q is 2. In some embodiments, two R ; together with the carbon moiety to which they are attached form a 5- or 6-membered fused ring.

For example, two R' together with the moiety to which they are attached may form

[00122] In some embodiments, p is 1 and q is 0. In some embodiments, p is 1 and q is 1. In some embodiments, R 2 is Ci-ralkyl (such as methyl), p is 1 and q is 0. In some embodiments, R 2 is Ciaaiky! (such as methyl), R 3 is Ci^alkyl, halogen, -CN, -OH, or -OCiaalkyl, p is 1, and q is 1. In some embodiments, R 2 is methyl, R 3 is -CHs, halogen (such as F), -OCH3, or -CN, p is 1, and q is 1.

[00123] In some embodiments, R 4 is H. In some embodiments, R 4 is Ci-4alkyl. In some embodiments, R 4 is ethyl.

[00124] R A at each occurrence (as a substituent m R 1 , R 2 , or J ) is independently H, Ci-ralkyl, or Ciahaioalkyl. In some embodiments, R A is H. In some embodiments, R A is Ci-4alkyl. In some embodiments, R A is methyl. In some embodiments, R A is Ci-rhaloalkyl, such as -CF3.

[00125] R B and R c at each occurrence (as substituents m R f or R 2 ) are independently H or Ci- 4alkyl, or R B and R together with the N atom to which they are attached form a 5- or 6- membered heterocycle. In some embodiments, R B and R c are both H. In some embodiments, R B is H and R c is Ci-4alkyl. In some embodiments, R B is Ciaalkyl and R c is Ciaalkyl. In some embodiments, R B and R L together with the N atom to which they are attached form a 5- or 6- membered heterocycle.

[00126] In some embodiments, R° is Ci-ralkyl, such as methyl. In some embodiments, R° is - GCi-ralkyl, such as -OCH3. In some embodiments, R° is -CN or halogen. 00127] In some embodiments,

of which is substituted with Ci-ialkyl

Ci-4alkyl, halogen, Ci-4haloalkyl, -OH, Ci-aalkylene-QH, -OCi-ralkyl, or , halogen, -CN, -OH, or -OCi-4alkyl, p is 1, and q is 0 or 1.

[00128] In some embodiments, when p is 0, then R 1 is substituted with one or more R w (e.g., with one R ¾ ). In some embodiments, when p is 0 and R 1 is phenyl, then R 1 is substituted with one or more R w (e.g., with one R w ). In some embodiments, when R 1 is unsubstituted, then p is 1 2, 3, or 4 (e.g., p is 1 or 2, or p is 1) In some embodiments, when R 1 is unsubstituted phenyl, then p is 1, 2, 3, or 4 (e.g., p is 1 or 2, or p is 1). In some embodiments, the compound is not N- phenyl-2-(pheny!sulfonamido)benzamide.

[00129] In some embodiments, the compounds of formula (I) are compounds of formula (I-a), or salts thereof,

(I-a)

wherein

R 1 is a Ce-2oaryl or a 5- to 12-membered heteroaryi, wherein the aryl and heteroaryl are optionally substituted with one or more R w ;

p is 0, 1, or 2: halogen, -CN or -OR A ;

alky!; and

R 2 and R w are as defined herein. [00130] In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (l-a), or salts thereof, wherein R 1 is an unsubstituted C6-2oaryl or an unsubstituted 5- to 12-membered heteroaryl.

[00131] In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (l-a), or salts thereof,

wherein each optionally substituted

with one or more R w . In some embodiments, R 1 of formula (I-a) is

X MX

In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a), or salts thereof,

. F or example, R ¾ of formula (I-a) may each substituted with Ci-4alkyl or Ci

4haloalkyi.

[00133] In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a), or salts thereof,

wherein each of which is optionally

substituted with one or more R w . In some embodiments, R 1 is or

[00134] In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a), or salts thereof,

wherein each of which is unsubstituted or substituted with one R ¾ , -wherein R ¾ is selected from the group consisting of Ci-ioaikyl (e.g., methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, n-propyl, n-butyl, n- pentyl, n-hexyl, or n-octyl), Ci-iohaloalkyl (e.g., -(GHjrBr), halogen (e.g., ffuoro, chloro, or bromo), -CN, -OR A (e.g., -OCHs), -Ci-ioalkylene-

OR A (e.g., -COOH, -COOCH3, or -COOCH2CH3), -Ci.ioalkylene-CO-OR A (e.g., -CH2COOH, - CH2COOCH2CH3, -(CH 2 )5-COOH, or -(CHzjs-COOCHs), and phenyl.

[00135] In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a), or salts thereof, wherein R 2 is Ci-4alkyl (such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, or butyl), halogen, Ciahaloalkyl, -OH, Ci- 4alkylene-OH, -OCiaalkyl, -NH2, phenyl, or -CO-OCi-rakyl, or R 2 together with the carbon atoms of the moiety to which they are attached form a 5- or 6-membered fused ring.

For example, two R 2 of formula (I-a) together with the moiety to which it is attached

may form . In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a), or salts thereof, wherein R 2 is Ci-ralkyl (such as methyl). In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a), or salts thereof, wherein R 2 is -OH, -Ciaalkylene-OH (such as - CH2OH), -OCi-ralky! (such as -OCH3), or -NH2. In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a), or salts thereof, wherein p is 1 and q is 0. In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a), or salts thereof, wherein R 2 is Ci 4alkyl (such as methyl), -OH, -Ci-4alkylene-OH (such as -CH2OH), -OCi-4alkyl (such as -OCH3), or -NH2, p is

1, and q is 0. In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a), or salts thereof, wherein p is 1 and q is 1. In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a), or salts thereof, wherein R 2 is methyl, R 3 is -CH3, halogen (such as F), -OCH3, or -CN, p is 1 , and q is 1.

[00136] In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a), or salts thereof, wherein when p is 0 and R 1 is phenyl, then R 1 is substituted with one or more R*. In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a), or salts thereof, wherein when R 1 is unsubstituted phenyl, then p is 1 , 2, 3, or 4 (e.g., p is 1 or 2, or p is 1 ). In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a), or salts thereof, wherein when p is 0, then R 1 is substituted with one or more R ¾ ' (e.g., with one R ¾ '). In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a), or salts thereof, wherein when p is 0 and R f is phenyl, then R ! is substituted with one or more R ¾ ' (e.g., with one R ¾ '). In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a), or salts thereof, wherein when R f is unsubstituted, then p is 1 , 2, 3, or 4 (e.g., p is 1 or 2, or p is 1). In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a), or salts thereof, wherein when R 1 is unsubstituted phenyl, then p is 1, 2, 3, or 4 (e.g., p is 1 or 2, or p is 1). In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a), or salts thereof, wherein the compound is not N-phenyl-2-(phenylsulfonamido)benzamide.

[00137] In some embodiments, the compounds of formula (I-a) are compounds of formula (I-a- 1), or salts thereof,

each optionally substituted

with halogen, Ci-ialkyl, Ci ahaloalkyl, or phenyl; or R 1 is

CN

R 2 is halogen, Ci- 4 alkyl, Ci-4halolakyl, -OH, Ci^alkylene-OH, -OCi-4alkyl, or -NH2; and R 3 and q are as defined m formula (I-a). 00138] In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a-1), or salts thereof,

wherein some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a-1), or salts thereof, wherein R f is

, each of which is substituted with halogen, Ci-ralkyl,

Ci-rhaloalkyi, or phenyl. In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a-1 ), or

salts thereof, wherein

00139] In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a-1), or salts thereof, wherein R 2 is Ci-4aikyl (such as methyl), halogen (such as Br), or Ci-4halolakyl (such as -CF3). In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a-1), or salts thereof, wherein R 2 is Ci-4alkyl (such as methyl). In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a-1 ), or salts thereof, wherein R 2 is -OH, -Ci-ralkylene-OH (such as -CH2OH), -OCi-4alkyl (such as - OCH3), or -NH2. In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a-1), or salts thereof, wherein R is Ci^alkyl (such as methyl), halogen (such as Br), -OH, C l-4 alkylene-OH (such as -CH2-OH), -OCi-ralkyl (such as -OCH3), or -NH2, and q is 0 In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a-1 ), or salts thereof, wherein R 2 is Ci-4aikyl (such as methyl) and q is 0 In some embodiments, disclosed are compounds of formula (I-a-1), or salts thereof, wherein R is Ci-ralkyl (such as methyl), R 3 is -CHj, halogen (such as F), -OCH3, or - CN, and q is 1.

[00140] Suitable compounds include the following:

N-(3-cyano-5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4- methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4- methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(3-cyanothiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benz amide; N-(2-cyanophenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

2-((4-methyJphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-phenyJbenzamide;

N-(3-cyano-5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-

(phenylsulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(benzofb]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-formylphenyl)sulfonamido)ben zamide;

methyl 3-(4-(N-(2-(benzofb]thiophen-2- y 1 carbamoy l)pheny 1 ) sulfamoy l)pheny l)propanoate;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((3-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)ben zamide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-(3-hydroxypropyl)phenyl)sulf onamido)benzamide;

2-([ 1 , 1 '-biphenyl] -3-sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

methyl 3-(N-(2-(p-tolylcarbamoyl)phenyl)sulfamoyl)benzoate;

3-(N-(2-(p-tolylcarbamoyl)phenyl)sulfamoyl)benzoic acid;

2-((3-acetamidophenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

2-((3-aminophenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

2-((3-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamid e;

2-((3-(butylcarbamoyl)phenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzami de;

2-((3-bromophenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

2-((3-(butylaniino)phenyl)sulfonaniido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide ;

2-((3-(hex-l-yn-l-yl)phenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzanii de;

2-((3-hexylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

2-((3-(3-hydroxyprop-l -yn-l-yl)phenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

2-((3-(3-hydroxypropyl)phenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzam ide;

N-(p-tolyl)-2-((4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)sulfonamido)benzam ide;

2-((4-methoxyphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

2-((4-bromophenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

2-([l ,r-biphenyl]-4-sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

N-(p-tolyl)-2-((3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)sulfonamido)benzam ide;

N-(p-tolyl)-2-((3-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyd)sulfonamido)benza mide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)ben zamide;

N-cy cl ohexy l-2-((4-methylpheny l)sulfonamido)benzamide;

2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(naphthalen-2-yl)benzamide ; 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphtha len-2-yl)benzamide; methyl trans-4-(2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)cyclohexan e-l-carboxylate; trans-4-(2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)cyclohexan e-l -carboxylic acid;

2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide;

ethyl 2-(4-(2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)phenyl)acetat e;

N-(3-isopropylphenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzami de;

ethyl 3-(2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)benzoate;

2-(4-(2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)phenyl)acetic acid;

3-(2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido) benzoic acid;

2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(m-tolyl)benzamide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-3-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-2- naphthamide;

2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(2-propylphenyl)benzamide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-methyl-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfon amido)benzamide;

N-(3-butylphenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-cyano-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfona mido)benzamide;

N-(4-butylphenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalene) -2- sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(4-hexylphenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide;

2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(4-octylphenyl)benzamide;

methyl 6-(4-(2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)phenyl)hexano ate;

6-(4-(2-((4-methylphenyl)suifonamido)benzamido)phenyl)hexano ic acid;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-butylphenyl)sulfonamido)benz amide;

N-(4-(6-hydroxyhexyl)phenyi)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido) benzamide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-pentylphenyl)sulfonamido)ben zamide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-butyl-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfona mido)benzamide;

N-(4-(4-hydroxybutyl)phenyl)-2-((4-methyJphenyl)sulfonamido) benzamide;

N-(4-(4-bromobutyl)phenyJ)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)be nzamide;

5-methoxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzami de;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-methoxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfo namido)benzamide;

4-methoxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benz amide; N-(henzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-4-methoxy-2-((4-methylpheny!)sulfo namido)benzamide;

2-((3-methoxyphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzaimde;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((3-methoxyphenyl)sulfonamido)be nzamide;

5-hydroxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzami de;

2-((3-hydroxypheny!)sulfonamido)-N-(p-toiyl)benzamide;

2-((3-butoxyphenyl)suIfonamido)-N-(p-tolyI)benzamide;

N-(2-bromophenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyT)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(3~bromophenyl)-2--((4--methylpheiiyl)sulfoiiamido)benzam l de;

N-([ 1 , 1 '-biphenyi]-4-yi)-2-((4-methyipiienyi)sulfonamido)benzamide;

N-(2~methoxyplienyl)~2~((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamid e;

N-([l,r-biphenyi]-3-yi)-2-((4-methyipiienyi)sulfonamido)benz amide;

N-(3~methoxyplienyl)~2~((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamid e;

N-tA-methQxyphenyi^-flA-methyipheny^sulfonamido^ienzaiTnde;

2-((N- q ΐ1inί-4-Gh 6 ΐ1in1r1ΐ qh 1) 3h 1Goh 3h i o)-N-(4-hΐ 6 ί1iocnrE 6h n1)E 6hz3h i q ;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-4-fluoro-2-((4-methylphenyi)suifon amido)benzamide;

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)~5~fluoro-2~((4-methylphenyl)sulfon amido)benzamide;

N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide ; and

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-5- (tr ifluoromethy 1 )benzami de,

or a salt thereof.

(1) Salt Forms

[00141] A thienopyrrole compound described herein can be in the form of a salt. A neutral form of the compound may be regenerated by contacting the salt with a base or acid and isolating the parent compound in a conventional manner. The parent form of the compound differs from the various salt forms in certain physical properties, such as solubility in polar solvents, but otherwise the salts are equivalent to the parent form of the compound for the purposes of this disclosure.

[00142] For example, if the compound is anionic, or has a functional group which may be anionic fe.g., -COOH may be ---COO ), then a salt may be formed with a suitable cation.

Examples of suitable inorganic cations include, but are not limited to, alkali metal ions such as Na + and Kf alkaline earth cations such as Ca 2+ and Mg , and other cations. Examples of suitable organic cations include, but are not limited to, ammonium ion (i.e., NUT) and substituted ammonium ions (e.g., NH3R1 NEhRz , NHR3 + , NR 4 + ). Examples of some suitable substituted ammonium ions are those derived from: ethylamine, diethylamine,

dieyclohexylamine, tri ethylamine, butylamme, ethylenediamine, ethanolamme, diethanolamine, piperazine, benzylamine, phenylbenzyl amine, choline, meglumine, and tromethamme, as well as ammo acids, such as lysine and arginine.

[00143] If the compound is cationic, or has a functional group that may be cationic (e.g., -NIL· may be -NH3 + ), then a salt may be formed with a suitable anion. Examples of suitable inorganic anions include, but are not limited to, those derived from the following inorganic acids:

hydrochloric, hydrobromic, liydroiodic, sulfuric, sulfurous, nitric, nitrous, phosphoric, and phosphorous.

[00144] Examples of suitable organic anions include, but are not limited to, those derived from the following organic acids: 2-aeetyoxybenzoic, acetic, ascorbic, aspartic, benzoic,

camphorsulfonic, cinnamic, citric, edetic, ethanedisu!fonic, ethanesulfonic, fumaric,

glucoheptonic, gluconic, glutamic, glycolic, hydroxymaleic, hydroxynaphthalene carboxylic, isethionie, lactic, lactobionic, lauric, maleic, malic, methanesulfonic, mucic, oleic, oxalic, palmitic, parnoic, pantothenic, phenylacetic, phenylsulfonic, propionic, pyruvic, salicylic, stearic, succinic, sulfani!ic, tartaric, toluenesulfomc, and valeric. Examples of suitable polymeric organic anions include, but are not limited to, those derived from the following polymeric acids: tannic acid, carboxymethyl cellulose.

[00145] Unless otherwise specified, a reference to a particular thienopyrrole compound herein also includes salt forms thereof.

(2) Isomers

[00146] Certain thienopyrrole compounds may exist in one or more particular geometric, optical, enantiomeric, diastereomenc, epimenc, atropic, stereoisomer, tautomeric,

conformational, or anomerie forms, including but not limited to, cis- and trans-forms; E- and Z~ forms; c~, t-, and r- forms; endo- and exo-forms; R-, S-, and meso-forms; D- and L-forms; d- and 1 -forms; (+) and (-) forms; keto-, enol-, and enolate-forms; syn- and anti-forms; synclinal- and anticlinal-forms; a- and b-forms; axial and equatorial forms; boat-, chair-, twist-, envelope-, and half chair-forms; and combinations thereof, hereinafter collectively referred to as "isomers" for "isomeric forms").

00147] in some embodiments, a compound described herein may he an enantiomencally enriched isomer of a stereoisomer described herein. For example, the compound may have an enantiomeric excess of at least about 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99%. Enantiomer, when used herein, refers to either of a pair of chemical compounds whose molecular structures have a mirror-image relationship to each other.

[00148] In some embodiments, a preparation of a compound disclosed herein is enriched for an isomer of the compound having a selected stereochemistry, e.g., R or S, corresponding to a selected stereocenter. For example, the compound has a purity corresponding to a compound having a selected stereochemistry of a selected stereocenter of at least about 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99%.

[00149] In some embodiments, a composition described herein includes a preparation of a compound disclosed herein that is enriched for a structure or structures having a selected stereochemistry', e.g., R or S, at a selected stereocenter. Exemplar}' · R/S configurations can be those provided in an example described herein.

[0015Q] An“enriched preparation,” as used herein, is enriched for a selected

stereoconfiguration of one, two, three or more selected stereocenters within the subject compound. Exemplary' selected stereocenters and exemplary stereoconfigurations thereof can be selected from those provided herein, e.g., in an example described herein. By enriched is meant at least 60%, e.g., of the molecules of compound in the preparation have a selected

stereochemistry of a selected stereocenter. In an embodiment it is at least 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% Enriched refers to the level of a subject moiecule(s) and does not connote a process limitation unless specified.

[00151] The present compounds may be prepared m racemic form or as individual enantiomers or diastereomers by either stereospecific synthesis or by resolution. The compounds may', for example, be resolved into their component enantiomers or diastereomers by standard techniques, such as the formation of stereoisomeric pairs by salt formation with an optically active base, followed by fractional cry stallization and regeneration of the free acid. The compounds may also be resolved by formation of stereoisomeric esters or amides, followed by chromatographic separation and removal of the chiral auxiliary. Alternatively, the compounds may be resolved using a chiral HPLC column. The enantiomers also may be obtained from kinetic resolution of the racemate of corresponding esters using lipase enzymes.

[00152] Except as discussed below for tautomeric forms, specifically excluded from the term "isomers," as used herein, are structural (or constitutional) isomers (i.e., isomers which differ in the connections between atoms rather than merely by the position of atoms in space). For example, a reference to a methoxy group, -OCH3, is not to be construed as a reference to its structural isomer, a hydroxymethyl group, -CH2OH. Similarly, a reference to ortho-chlorophenyl is not to be construed as a reference to its structural isomer, meta-chlorophenyl. However, a reference to a class of structures may well include structurally isomeric forms falling within that class (e.g., C3 -alkyl or propyl includes n-propyl and iso-propyl; CValkyl or butyl includes 11-, iso- , sec-, and tert-butyl; methoxyphenyl includes ortho-, meta-, and para-methoxyphenyl).

[00153] The above exclusion does not pertain to tautomeric forms, for example, keto-, enol-, and enolate-forms, as in, for example, the following tautomeric pairs: keto/enol, imine/enamine, amide/imino alcohol, amidine/amidine, nitroso/oxime, thioketone/enethiol, N~

nitroso/hydroxyazo, and nitro/aci-nitro.

[00154] Note that specifically included in the term "isomer" are compounds with one or more isotopic substitutions. For example, H may be in any isotopic form, including ¾, Ή (D), and 3 H (T); C may be in any isotopic form, including l C, l C, and l C; O may be in any isotopic form, including 16 0 and 18 0; and the like.

3, Oplophorus Luciferase-Derived Bioluminescent Complexes

[00155] The disclosed compounds may be used to inhibit Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complexes. The disclosed compounds may inhibit the lucrferase activity of the Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complexes. The Oplophorus luciferase may be a wild-type Oplophorus luciferase or a variant of an Oplophorus luciferase. The Oplophorus luciferase may be a variant of the luciferase of SEQ ID NO: 7. Oplophorus luciferase variants are described in U.S. Patent Nos. 8,557,970 and 8,669,103, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[00156] The Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex may be an assembly of two or more non-luminescent peptide and/or polypeptide units (e.g., non-luminescent pair). The Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complexes may include (a) a peptide comprising a peptide amino acid sequence having less than 100% sequence identity (e.g., >99%, <95%, <90%, <80%, <70%, <60%, <50%, etc.) greater than 40% (e.g., >40%, >45%, >50%, >55%, >60%, >65%, >70%, >75%, >80%, >85%, >90%, >95%, >98%, >99%) with SEQ ID NO: 2; and (b) a polypeptide comprising a polypeptide ammo acid sequence having less than 100% (e.g., >99%, <95%, <90%, <80%, <70%, <60%, <50%, etc.) and greater than 40% (e.g., >40%, >45%, >50%, >55%, >60%, >65%, >70%, >75%, >80%, >85%, >90%, >95%, >98%, >99%) sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 3, wherein the biolunnnescent complex exhibits detectable luminescence in the presence of a eoeienterazine substrate. In certain embodiments, the present invention provides bioluminescent complexes comprising: (a) a peptide comprising a peptide amino acid sequence having SEQ ID NO: 4 or SEQ ID NO: 6; and (b) a polypeptide comprising a polypeptide ammo acid sequence having SEQ ID NO: 5, wherein the bioluminescent complex exhibits detectable luminescence in the presence of a eoeienterazine substrate. Exemplary Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complexes include the NanoBiT® technology that includes a NanoBiT® SmBiT non-luminescent peptide (SEQ ID NO: 6), NanoBiT® HiBiT non- luminescent peptide (SEQ ID NO: 4), and/or NanoBiT® LgBiT non-luminescent polypeptide (SEQ ID NO: 5). Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complexes are described in U.S. Patent Nos. 9,797,889 and 9,797,890, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

4. Coelenterazine Substrates

[00157] The disclosed compounds of the present invention may be used to inhibit iuciferase activity by competing or interfering with a eoeienterazine or eoeienterazine- derivative substrate from binding to a Iuciferase. Coeienterazine substrates are a class of reporter molecules that luminesce when acted upon by luciferases and other bioluminescent proteins. Examples of coeienterazine substrates include but are not limited to: coeienterazine; coeienterazine derivatives and/or analogs such as 2-furanyimethyl-deoxy-coeienterazine (furimazine), coeienterazine-n, coelenterazine-f, coelenterazine-h, coelenterazine-hcp, coelenterazxne-cp, coeienterazine-c, coelenterazine-e, coelenterazme-fcp, bis-deoxy coeienterazine (“coelenterazine- hh”), coelenterazine-i, coelenterazine-icp, coelenterazme-v, and 2-methyi-coelenterazine, in addition to those disclosed in WO 2003/040100, U.S. Patent Publication No 2008/024851 1 , and U.S. Patent Publication No. US 2012/01 17667; pro-coelenterazines (i.e. compounds that are not substrates for a non-luminescent enzyme, which converts the compound to a substrate for a luciferase), quinone-masked coelenterazines, and the like. Further examples of coelenterazme substrates are described in, for example, U.S. Publication No. 2012/0107849, U.S. Publication No. 2013/0130289, U.S. Patent Application No. 14/608,910, and U.S. Patent Application No. 14/609,372, each of which is incorporated herein by reference.

5. Methods of Inhibiting Oplophorus Ledferase-Derived Bioluminescent Complex Activity [00158] The disclosed compounds may be used in methods to inhibit Oplophorus luciferase- derived bioluminescent complex, e.g., inhibit luciferase activity of the bioluminescent complex. The method may include contacting a compound disclosed herein with a cell expressing or containing an Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex or a non-luminescent peptide and/or polypeptide of the Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex, wherein the disclosed compounds may selectively inhibit the Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex. The method may include contacting a compound disclosed herein with a non-luminescent peptide and/or polypeptide of an Oplophorus luciferase-derived

bioluminescent complex, wherein the disclosed compound inhibits the Oplophorus luciferase- derived bioluminescent complex when the complex has been assembled. The disclosed compounds may be used in assays that are used detect the presence or activity of enzymes using Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complexes to selectively inhibit the signal from the Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complexes. For example, the disclosed compounds may be used in a bioluminogenic method which employs an Oplophorus luciferase- derived bioluminescent complex and a coe!enterazine or coelenterazine-denvative substrate to detect one or more molecules m a sample, e.g., a protein of interest (e.g., an enzyme, a binding partner, a ligand, etc.), a cofactor for an enzymatic reaction, an enzyme substrate, an enzyme inhibitor, an enzyme activator, or OH radicals, or one or more conditions, e.g., redox conditions. While the coelenterazine substrate serves as a substrate for the Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex, the disclosed compounds may serve to inhibit the luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex to selectively suppress the luminescent signal in embodiments in which such suppression may be desired, such as in applications involving temporal multiplexing of multiple bioluminescent systems or in some plate-based luminescent assays. For example, the disclosed compounds may be used to inhibit intracellular and/or extracellular Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex activities. (1) Protein Complementation Assays

[00159] In accordance with the above, the disclosed compounds may be used to inhibit an Oplophorus luciferase-derived biolurmnescent complex when such a bioluminescent complex is used in other methods for detecting ligand-protein and protein-protein interactions or proximity or co-localization such as the protein complementation assay (PCA) or enzyme fragmentation complementation (EFC) assay. PCA and EFC assays provide a means to detect the interaction of two interaction elements, e.g., biomolecules, polypeptides. PCA utilizes two fragments of the same protein, e.g., enzyme, that are fused to polypeptides of interest that produce light only when the two fragments of the same protein are brought into close proximity with each other via the binding interactions of their fusion partners, e.g., polypeptides of interest, and reassembly into a functional, active protein, e.g., enzyme. For example, the NANOBIT® technology (Pr omega Corporation) may be used to detect molecular proximity by virtue of the reassembly of a luminescent enzyme via the binding interaction of enzyme units. The NanoBiT® system may comprise two or more non-lummescent peptide and/or polypeptide units that may be expressed as a fusion with target molecule of interest. In some embodiments, the two units may comprise a NanoBiT® LgBiT non-luminescent polypeptide (NLpoiy) and NanoBiT® SmBiT non- luminescent peptide (NLpep). In some embodiments, the two units may comprise a NanoBiT® LgBiT non-luminescent polypeptide (NLpoiy) and NanoBiT® HiBiT non-luminescent peptide (NLpep). Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complexes are described in U.S. Patent Nos. 9,797,889 and 9,797,890, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[00160] For example, an Oplophorus luciferase or Oplophorus lucif erase variant can be separated into two units, e.g., non-luminescent peptide or polypeptide, e.g., at a site(s) tolerant to separation, and each unit, e.g., non-luminescent peptide or polypeptide, can be fused to one of a pair of polypeptides of interest believed to interact, e.g., FKBP and FRB. If the two polypeptides of interest do interact, the non-luminescent units, for example, then come into close proximity with each other to reassembly into a bioluminescent complex. In some embodiments, the activity of the bioluminescent complex can then be detected and measured. In some embodiments, the bioluminescent complex can be used in a more general complementation system similar to lac-Z (Langley ei al, PNAS 72: 1254-1257 (1975)) or nbonuclease S (Levit and Berger, J. Biol. Chem. 251: 1333— 1339 (1976)). In some embodiments, a luminescent enzyme unit (designated“A”) known to complement with another luminescent enzyme unit (“B”) can be fused to a target protein, and the resulting fusion can be monitored via luminescence in a cell or cell lysate containing fragment B. In some embodiments, the source of unit B could be the same cell (e.g., if the gene for unit B is integrated into the genome of the cell or is contained on another plasmid within the ceil) or it could be a lysate or purified protein derived from another cell. In some embodiments, this same fusion protein (unit A) could be captured or immobilized using a fusion between unit B and a polypeptide such as HafoTag capable of attachment to a solid support. In some embodiments, luminescence can be used to demonstrate successful capture or to quantify the amount of material captured.

(2) Molecule Detection Assays

[00161] In accordance with the above, the disclosed compounds may be used to inhibit an Oplophorus lueiferase-derived bioluminescent complex when such a bioluminescent complex is used in other methods for detecting a molecule of interest. For example, NANOBIT® technology (Promega Corporation) may be used to detect a molecule of interest. The NanoBiT® system may comprise two or more non-luminescent peptide and/or polypeptide units. One or more of the non-lummescent peptide and/or polypeptide units may be fused to the molecule of interest. The two units may comprise a NanoBiT® LgBiT non-luminescent polypeptide

(NLpoly) and NanoBiT® HiBiT non-luminescent peptide (NLpep). In some embodiments, the NanoBiT® HiBiT NT, pep may be fused to the molecule of interest. The sample comprising the NanoBiT® HiBiT NLpep fused to the molecule of interest may be contacted with the NanoBiT® LgBiT NLpoly. For example, the NanoBiT® LgBiT NLpoly may be added to a detection reagent containing a coelenterazine substrate. The resulting bioluminescence can be detected and measured, and inhibited with a compound disclosed herein. In some embodiments, the NanoBiT® LgBiT NLpoly may be fused to the molecule of interest. The sample comprising the NanoBiT® LgBiT NLpoly fused to the molecule of interest may be contacted with the

NanoBiT® HiBiT NLpep. For example, the NanoBiT® HiBiT NLpep may be added to a detection reagent containing a coelenterazine substrate.

(3) Use of Cell-Impermeable Compounds

[00162] In certain embodiments, the methods disclosed herein include contacting a sample (e.g , a cell) with a mixture of a cell-permeable coelenterazine substrate and a compound described herein that is modified such that it is cell-impermeable. In such embodiments, the disclosed compounds and methods may be used to build up the initial brightness of a high- throughput screening operation assay format and then selectively inhibit any Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex that may be excreted from cells to selectively inhibit luminescence that may occur outside of the cells. Such methods may provide for a more selective signal within cells.

(4) Use of Cell-Permeable Compounds

[00163] In certain embodiments, the methods disclosed herein include contacting a sample (e.g., a cell) with a mixture of a cell-permeable coelenterazine substrate and a compound described herein that is cell-permeable in such embodiments, the disclosed compounds can enter in to cells and selectively inhibit an Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex therein. Such methods may be advantageous in multiplexing assays that invol ve use of two or more luciferases and may allow for inhibition of luminescence from an Oplophorus luciferase- derived bioluminescent complex so as to selectively view luminescence from another lueif erase inside the ceil.

(5) Use with Transcriptional Reporters

[00164] The disclosed compounds may be used with genetic transcriptional reporter systems.

In certain embodiments, provided is a method for measuring the activity of a promoter in a sample, wherein the promoter is opera bly linked to a gene encoding a non-luminescent unit, e.g., non-luminescent polypeptide, of Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex. The method includes (a) contacting the sample, which expresses a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with a non-luminescent peptide of Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex fused to a promoter, with a coelenterazine substrate and a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex capable of forming a bioluminescent complex with a non-luminescent polypeptide of Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex; and (b) determining the activity' of the promoter by measuring luminescence of the sample. The method can further include a step of contacting the sample with a compound described herein to selectively inhibit the luminescence generated from the bioluminescent complex. The promoter may be operably linked to the gene via a translational or transcriptional fusion. A biological pathway of interest, for example, may be examined by treating a cell that comprises the promoter, which is operably linked to a gene encoding a non-luminescent unit, e.g., non-luminescent polypeptide, of the Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex with an mducer agent of the pathway. This promoter activity may then be measured and monitored to study any correlation between the activity of the promoter and the pathway of interest, as well as obtain kinetic measurements relating to gene expression (e.g. mducibility, repression and activation). The compound described herein can be used to selectively inhibit the luminescence from the Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex.

(6) Multiplexing

[00165] The disclosed compounds may be used to inhibit Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complexes as applied to temporal multiplexing with other luciferases and assays. In some embodiments, the Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex may be multiplexed with another enzyme (e.g., a luciferase) that emits light at a different wavelength, e.g., green firefly luciferase, e.g., Photinus pyralis (e.g., Luc2; Promega Corp) or red click beetle luciferase (CHROMA-LUC™ luciferase: Promega Corp.). For example, if an Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex is used as a functional reporter, then the green firefly luciferase or red CHROMA-LUC™ luciferase could be used to control for non-specific effects on genetic regulation or to normalize for transfection efficiency. In some embodiments, luminescence generated from the Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex (approximately 460 nm) and red CHROMA-LUC (approximately 610 nm) can be easily resolved using a luminometer with wavelength-discriminating filters, enabling the measurement of both signals from the same sample. In such embodiments, a compound described herein can be used to selectively inhibit the Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex such that the signal from the other luciferase can be selectively viewed.

[00166] In another example, an Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex could be used as a transcriptional reporter and paired with a luciferase that emits light at a different wavelength contained in an assay reagent. In another example, an Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex may be used with one or more additional luciferases, wherein the luminescence of each luciferase and the bioluminescent complex may be separately measured through the use of selective enzyme inhibitors. For example, the luminescence of the Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex may be measured upon addition of appropriate substrates and buffers followed by measurement of a second luciferase upon a subsequent addition of appropriate substrates and buffers and one or more compounds described herein, winch are selective for the an Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex. [00167] In some embodiments, the Oplophorus luciferase-derived hio!uminescent complex thereof may be multiplexed with another enzyme (e.g. a lueiferase) that emits light at the same wavelength. For example, NANOBIT® technology (Promega Corporation) may be multiplexed with NANOLUC. The NanoBiT® system may comprise two or more non-luminescent peptide and/or polypeptide units. One or more of the non-luminescent peptide and/or polypeptides units may be fused to a molecule of interest. In some embodiments, the NanoBiT® LgBiT non- luminescent polypeptide and/or the NanoBiT® HiBiT non-luminescent peptide may be fused to a molecule of interest. For example, the NanoBiT® LgBiT non-luminescent polypeptide can be added to a detection reagent containing furimazine as a means to detect and quantitate a protein of interest that is fused to NanoBiT® HiBiT non-luminescent peptide. As another example, the NanoBiT® HiBiT non-luminescent peptide can be added to a detection reagent containing furimazine as a means to detect and quantitate a protein of interest that is fused to NanoBiT® LgBiT non-luminescent polypeptide. The disclosed compounds may be used to inhibit the luminescence of the resulting biolummescent complex (e.g., the HiBiT/LgBiT complex) without inhibiting luminescence from NanoLuc.

(7) Biohimisiescesiee Resonance Energy’- Transfer (BRET) [00168] The disclosed compounds may be used in any method m which an Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex is used for detecting ligand-protein and/or protein- protein interactions. In various embodiments, the Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex may be used to transfer energy to an energy acceptor. One such method is

Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET). With respect to BRET, energy transfer from a bioluminescent donor to a fluorescent acceptor results in a shift in the spectral distribution of the emission of light. This energy transfer may enable real-time monitoring of protein-protein or ligand-protein interaction in vitro or in vivo

[00169] In some embodiments, the Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex used in BRET analysis can be used to determine if two molecules are capable of binding to each other or co-locaiize in a cell. For example, an Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex can be used as a bioiuminescence donor molecule, wherein one of the non-luminescent units is combined with a molecule or protein of interest to create a first fusion protein. In some embodiments, the non-luminescent peptide may be combined with a molecule or protein of interest to create a first fusion protein. In other embodiments, the non-luminescent polypeptide may be combined with a molecule or protein of interest to create a first fusion protein. In various embodiments, the first fusion proteins containing the non-lummescent unit, (e.g., non- lummescent peptide or non-lummescent polypeptide) of an Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex can be used m BRET analysis to detect protein/protein interaction in systems including but not limited to cell lysates, intact cells, and living animals in various embodiments, HALOTAG can be used as a fluorescent acceptor molecule in some

embodiments, HALOTAG can be fused to a second protein of interest or to a complementing non-luminescent unit of the bioluminescent complex (e.g., non-lummescent polypeptide or non- lummescent peptide). For example, a non-luminescent polypeptide of an Oplophorus luciferase- derived bioluminescent complex can be fused to HALOTAG, expressed in cells or animals, and labeled with a fluorescent HALOTAG© ligand such as HALOTAG© TMR ligand. The fusion can subsequently be excited to fluoresce in the presence of a cell-permeant luminescent enzyme substrate. As another example, a non-luminescent peptide of an Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex can be fused to HaloTag, expressed in cells or animals, and labeled with a fluorescent HaloTag® ligand such as HaloTag® TMR ligand. The fusion can subsequently be excited to fluoresce in the presence of a cell-permeant luminescent enzyme substrate. In some embodiments, HALOTAG can be fused to a second protein of interest, and a complementing non-luminescent unit of the Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex (e.g., non- luminescent polypeptide or non-luminescent peptide) added via a detection reagent. In some embodiments, BRET may be performed using an Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex in combination with fluorescent proteins including but not limited to Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) or Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP) or fluorescent labels including fluorescein, rhodamine green, Oregon green, or Alexa 488, to name a few non-limiting examples.

[00170] In some embodiments, quenching the signal from Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex can improve the signal to background ratio when using a BRET -based plate assay.

[00171] In certain embodiments, a cell-permeable compound may be used to inhibit intracellular BRET. In certain embodiments, a cell-impermeable compound may be used to inhibit extracellular BRE T. In certain embodiments, a cell-impermeable compound may be used in a target engagement model. 6. Sample

[00172] The disclosed compounds may he used with samples containing biological components. The sample may comprise cells. The sample may comprise heterogeneous mixtures of components (including intact cells, cell extracts, cell lysates, bacteria, viruses, organelles, exosomes, and mixtures thereof) or a single component or homogeneous group of components (e.g., natural or synthetic amino acid, nucleic acid or carbohydrate polymers, or lipid membrane complexes). The disclosed compounds may be generally non-toxic to living cells and other biological components within the concentrations of use.

[00173] The sample may include an animal (e.g., a vertebrate), a plant, a fungus, physiological fluid (e.g., blood, plasma, urine, mucous secretions and the like), a cell, a cell lysate, a cell supernatant, or a purified fraction of a cell (e.g., a subcelluiar fraction). In certain embodiments, the sample may be a cell. In some embodiments, the sample may be a live cell. The cell may be a eukaryotic cell, e.g., yeast, avian, plant, insect or mammalian cells, including but not limited to human, simian, murine, canine, bovine, equine, feline, ovine, caprine or swine cells, or prokaryotic cells, or cells from two or more different organisms, or cell lysates or supernatants thereof. The cells may not have been genetically modified via recombinant techniques

(nonrecombinant cells), or may be recombinant cells which are transiently transfected with recombinant DNA and/or the genome of which is stably augmented with a recombinant DNA, or which genome has been modified to disrupt a gene, e.g., disrupt a promoter, intron or open reading frame, or replace one DNA fragment with another. The recombinant DNA or replacement DNA fragment may encode a molecule to be detected by the methods of the invention, a moiety' which alters the level or activity of the molecule to be detected, and/or a gene product unrelated to the molecule or moiety that alters the level or activity of the molecule. The ceil may or may not express a luciferase. The cells may have been genetically modified via recombinant techniques.

7, Kits

[00174] Disclosed are kits for determining the presence or activity of an Oplophorus luciferase-denved biolummescent complex. The kit may include one or more of the following: a compound or composition of the invention that may inhibit the Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex, a coelenterazme or coeienterazme-derivative substrate, and an

Oplophorus luciferase-denved biolummescent complex, e.g., polynucleotides for the expression of the non-luminescent peptides and/or polypeptides of the Oplophorus Juciferase-derived biolummescent complex, instructions for carrying out a luminescence assay, and reaction buffer(s). The reaction buffers may be present in individual formulations for the non-luciferase enzyme reactions and the luminescent enzyme reactions or in a single formulation for a single step assay. The reaction buffer may contain a non-luminescent unit of the Oplophorus luciferase-derived biolummescent complex, e.g., non-luminescent peptide. The kits may also contain other inhibitors, activators and/or enhancers for the non-luciferase enzyme(s). The kits may also contain a positive and/or negative control for the assay.

Syntheses of Compounds

[00175] General procedure A: sulfonamide bond formation.

[00176] To a solution of aniline derivative (1 eq) in pyridine was added substituted benzenesulfonyl chloride (1.1 eq). The solution stirred at rt for 4-18 h. The mixture was diluted with dichloromethane and washed with HC1 (2 M). The organic layer was dried with sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated, and purified with silica gel chromatography.

[00177] General procedure B: saponification.

[00178] To a solution of methyl or ethyl ester (1 eq) in dioxane, sodium hydroxide (2 M, 2 eq) was added. The solution was stirred at 60°C for 2-18 h. The solution was acidified with HC1 (2 M), diluted with ethyl acetate and water, and the aqueous layer extracted w th ethyl acetate. The organic layers were combined, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated, and used as crude product in the next step.

[00179] General procedure Cl : amide bond formation via acid chloride.

[00180] To a solution of acid chloride derivative (1 eq) in dichloroethane was added pyridine

(3-5 eq) and amine (1 eq). The reaction was stirred at rt for 2-18 h. The mixture was diluted with DCM and washed with water and HC1 (2 M). The organic layers were combined, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated, and purified with silica gel chromatography.

[00181] General procedure C2: amide bond formation via carboxylate.

[00182] To a solution of carboxylic acid derivative (1 eq) in DMF was added amine (1.2 eq),

HBTU (2 eq), and diisopropylethylamme (3 eq). The reaction was heated to 60-85°C for 2-18 h. The mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate and washed with water and brine. The organic layers were combined, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated, and purified with silica gel chromatography.

[00183] General procedure D: nitro reduction.

[00184] To a solution of nitro derivative (1 eq) m ethyl acetate was added tin chloride hydrate (3-5 eq). The mixture was heated to reflux for 24-48 h. Saturated potassium carbonate was added and stirred at rt for 1 h. The layers were separated and the organic layer was washed with water, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated, and purified with silica gel

chromatography.

[00185] Example compounds may be prepared according to the representative synthesis methods of Scheme 1 or Scheme 2.

Selieme 1. Representative synthesis of amide analogues via acid chloride

SnCI 2* H 2 0

ethyl acetate

N-(3-cyano-5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4- methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide (JRW-0998)

[00186] Step 1. N-(3-cyano-5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-nitr obenzamide

(JRW-0994)

[00187] Following general procedure Cl, 2-nitrobenzoyl chloride (113 mg, 0.61 mmol) was reacted with 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-4H-cyc!openta[b jihiophene-3-carbonitnle (100 mg, 0.61 mmol) to afford the desired product (160 mg, 84 %) as a yellow' solid. ESI MS m/z 314 [M +

H] + .

[00188] Step 2. 2-amino-N-(3-cyano-5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophen-2-yl )benzamide (JRW-0996)

[00189] Following general procedure D, N-(3-cyano-5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophen-2- yl)-2-nitrobenzamide (160 mg, 0.51 mmol) was reacted with tin chloride hydrate (318 mg, 1.5 mmol) to afford the desired product (80 mg, 55 %) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 284 [M + H]7 [00190] Step 3. N-(3-cyano-5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4- methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide (JRW-0998)

[00191] Following general procedure A, 2-amino-N-(3-cyano-5,6-dihydro-4H- cyclopenta[b]thiophen-2-yl)benzamide (80 mg, 0.28 mmol) was reacted with 4- methylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (54 mg, 0.28 mmol) to afford the desired product (75 mg, 61%) as a light yellow solid. ESI MS m/z 438 [M + H] + .

N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4- methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide (JRW-1004)

[00192] Step 1 N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-nitrob enzamide (JRW-

1000)

[00193] Following general procedure Cl, 2-nitrobenzoyl chloride (187 mg, 1 0 mmol) was reacted with 2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-3-carbonitrile (180 mg, 1.0 mmol) to afford the desired product (290 mg, 87%) as a yellow solid ESI MS m/z 328 [M + H] + .

[00194] Step 2. 2-amino-N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)b enzamide (JRW-1002)

[00195] To a solution of N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2- nitrobenzamide (290 mg, 0 88 mmol) in ethanol/water (8/2 ml.) was added ammonium chloride (474 mg, 8 8 mmol) and iron dust (100 mg, 1.8 mmol). The suspension was heated to 60°C for 18 h. The reaction was filtered and the filtrate was added to cehte, concentrated, and purified with silica gel chromatography to afford the desired product (57 mg, 21%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 298 [M + 1 1 ! .

[00196] Step 3. N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4- methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide (JRW-1004)

[00197] Following general procedure A, 2-amino-N-(3-cyano-4, 5,6,7- tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)benzamide (57 rng, 0.19 mmol) was reacted with 4- methylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (36 mg, 0.19 mmol) to afford the desired product (35 mg, 40%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 452 GM + I f ! . N-(3-cyanothiophen-2-y1)-2-((4-methy1phenyl)suIfonamido)benz amide (JRW-1006)

[00198] Step 1. N-(3-cyanothiophen-2-yi)-2-nitrobenzamide (JRW-1001).

[00199] Following general procedure Cl, 2-nitrobenzoyl chloride (171 mg, 0.93 mmol) was reacted with 2-aminothiophene-3-carbonitrile (115 mg, 0.93 mmol) to afford the desired product (190 mg, 75%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 274 [M + H] 7

[00200] Step 2. 2-amino-N-(3-cyanothiophen-2-yl)benzamide (JRW-1003).

[00201] Following general procedure D, N-(3-cyanothiophen-2-yl)-2-nitrobenzamide (190 mg, 0.69 mmol) was reacted with tin chloride hydrate (433 mg, 2.1 mmol) to afford the desired product (90 mg, 53%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 244 [M + H] + .

[00202] Step 3. N-(3-cyanothiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benz amide (JRW-

1006).

[00203] Following general procedure A, 2-amino-N-(3-cyanothiophen-2-yl)benzamide (90 mg, 0.37 mmol) was reacted with 4-methyibenzenesuifonyl chloride (85 mg, 0.44 mmol) to afford the desired product (97 mg, 66%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 398 [M + Iff Example 5

N-(2-cyanophenyl)-2-((4-methylpheny1)sulfonamido)benzamide (JRW-1008)

[00204] Step 1. N-(2-eyanophenyl)-2-mtrobenzamide (JRW-1005).

[00205] Following general procedure Cl, 2-nitrobenzoyl chloride (189 mg, 1.0 mmol) was reacted with 2-aminobenzonitrile (120 mg, 1.0 mmol) to afford the desired product (208 mg, 77%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 268 [M + H] + .

[00206] Step 2. 2-amino-N-(2-cyanophenyl)benzamide (JRW-1007).

[00207] Following general procedure D, N-(2-cyanophenyl)-2-nitrobenzamide (200 mg, 0.75 mmol) was reacted with tin chloride hydrate (466 mg, 2.2 mmol) to afford the desired product (80 mg, 45%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 238 [M + H] + .

[00208] Step 3. N-(2-cyanophenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide (JRW-1008).

[00209] Following general procedure A, 2-amino-N-(2-cyanophenyl)benzamide (80 mg, 0.34 mmol) was reacted with 4-methyl benzenesulfonyl chloride (128 mg, 0.67 mmol) to afford the desired product (91 mg, 68%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 392 [M + H]+.

Step 1 2-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide (JRW-1009)

Following general procedure Cl, 2-nitrobenzoyl chloride (239 mg, 1.3 mmol) was reacted with aniline (120 mg, 1.3 mmol) to afford crude product (350 mg) as a white solid. ESI

MS m/z 243 [M + HE

Step 2. 2-amino-N-phenylbenzamide (JRW-1010).

Following general procedure D, 2-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide (1.3 mmol) was reacted with tin chloride hydrate (803 mg, 3.9 mmol) to afford the desired product (200 mg, 73% over two steps) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 213 [M + H]7

Step 3. 2-((4-methyIphenyl)su!fonamido)-N-phenyIbenzanude (JRW-1011).

Following general procedure A, 2-amino-N-phenylbenzamide (200 mg, 0.94 mmol) was reacted w th 4-metliylbenzenesulfonyi chloride (359 mg, 1.9 mmol) to afford the desired product (340 mg, 98%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 367 [M + H] + . Example 7

N-(3-cyano-5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-(phe nylsulfonamido)benzamide

(HL-0010)

[00216] Following general procedure A, 2-amino-N-(3-cyano-5,6-dihydro-4H- cyciopenta[b]thiophen-2-yl)benzamide (40 mg, 0.14 mmol) was reacted with benzenesulfonyl chloride (30 mg, 0.17 mmol) to afford the desired product (17 mg, 26%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 424 [M + H i .

[00217] Step 1. N-(benzo[b]ihiophen-2-yi)-2-nitrohenzamide (HL-0028).

[00218] Following general procedure Cl, 2-nitrobenzoyl chloride (373 mg, 2.0 mmol) was reacted with benzo[b]thiophen-2-amine (300 mg, 2.0 mmol) to afford desired product (50 mg. 8%) as a solid. ESI MS m/z 299 [M + H] + .

[00219] Step 2. 2-amino-N-(benzo[b]thiopheii-2-yl)benzamide (HL-0036).

[00220] Following general procedure D, N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-nitrobenzamide (100 mg, 0.33 mmol) was reacted with tin chloride hydrate (209 mg, 1.0 mmol) to afford the desired product (27 mg, 30%) as a solid. ESI MS m/z 269 [M + Hf.

[00221] Step 3. N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-formylphenyl)sulfonamido)ben zamide (HL- 0038).

[00222] Following general procedure A, 2-amino-N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)benzamide (10 mg, 0.036 mmol) was reacted with 4-formylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (7 mg, 0.037 mmol) to afford the desired product (5 mg, 31%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 437 [M + H f .

Example 9

methyl 3-(4-(N-(2-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-ylcarbamoyl)phenyl)sulfamoyl) phenyl)propanoate

(HL-0040)

[00223] Following general procedure A, 2-amino-N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)benzamide (10 mg, 0.037 mmol) was reacted with methyl 3-(4-(chlorosulfonyl)phenyl)propanoate (10 mg,

0.037 mmol) to afford the desired product (12 mg, 63%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 495 GM + I I I· .

N- (benzo[

- 6J - [00224] Following general procedure A, 2-amino-N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)benzamide (10 mg, 0.032 mmol) was reacted with 3-methyIbenzenesuIfonyl chloride (6 mg, 0.032 mmol) to afford the desired product (7 mg, 54%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 423 [M + H G.

[00225] To a solution of methyl 3-(4-(N-(2-(benzo[b]thiophen-2- ylcarbamoyl)phenyl)sulfamoyl)phenyl)propanoate (31 mg, 0.063 mmol) in DMF (2 mL) at 0 °C was added lithium borohydride (4 mg, 0.19 mmol). The reaction warmed to rt and stirred overnight. The mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate and water, and the aqueous layer extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were combined, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated, and purified with silica gel chromatography to afford the desired product (17 mg, 60%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 467 [M + H] + .

[00226] Step 1. 2-nitro-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (JRW-I243)

[00227] Following general procedure Cl , 2-nitrobenzoyl chloride (3.46 g, 18.6 mmol) was reacted with p-toluidme (2.0 g, 18.6 mmol) to afford desired product (4.6 g, 96%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 257 GM + I I I . Step 2. 2-amino-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (JRW-1247).

[00229] Following general procedure D, 2-nitro-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (4.6 g, 18.0 mmol) was reacted with tin chloride hydrate (1 1.2 mg, 54.0 mmol) to afford the desired product (3.3 g, 81%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 227 [M + H] + .

[00230] Step 3. 2-([l,l'-biphenyl]-3-sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (JRW-1248).

[00231] Following general procedure A, 2-amino-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (75 mg, 0.33 mmol) w¾s reacted with [l,l'-biphenyl]-3-sulfonyl chloride (92 mg, 0.36 mmol) to afford the desired product (85 mg, 58%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 443 [M + H] + .

[00232] Following general procedure A, 2-amino-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (400 mg, 1.78 mmol) was reacted with methyl 3-(chlorosulfonyl)benzoate (498 mg, 2.1 mmol) to afford the desired product (670 mg, 89%) as a white foam. ESI MS m/z 425 [M + H]7

[00233] Following general procedure B, methyl 3-(N-(2-(p- tolylearbamoyl)phenyl)sulfamoyl)benzoate (650 mg, 1.5 mmol) was reacted with LiOH (110 rng, 4 6 mmol) to afford the desired product (580 rng, 92%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 41 1 [M + I I ] .

[00234] Following general procedure A, 2-armno-N-(p-tolyi)benzamide (400 mg, 1 .78 mmol) was reacted with 3-acetamidobenzenesulfonyl chloride (495 mg, 2.1 mmol) to afford the desired product (690 mg, 92%) as a white foam. ESI MS rn/z 424 [M + H] .

[00235] To a solution of 2-((3-acetamidophenyl)suifonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (690 mg, 1.6 mmol) in methanol (20 ml) was added sodium hydroxide (5 mL, 2M). The mixture was heated to 85°C for 5 h. The reaction was cooled, acidified to pH 5, diluted with DCM and water, and the aqueous layer extracted with DCM. The organic layers were combined, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated, and purified with silica gel chromatography to afford the desired product (62 mg, 10%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 382 [M + 1 1 | .

[00236] To a mixture of 3-(N-(2-(p-tolylcarbamoyl)phenyl)sulfamoyl)benzoic acid (54 mg,

0.13 mmol) in DCM (5mL) was added HOBt (20 mg, 0.13 mmol) and EDC (25 mg, 0 13 mmol). The mixture stirred at rt for 30 mm. The solution was concentrated to a white foam, after which the solid was dissolved in THF (10 mL) and water (0.5 mL) The solution was cooled and sodium borohydnde (10 mg, 0.26 mmol) was added. The reaction was stirred at rt. for 18 h, quenched with HC1, and diluted with ethyl acetate and water. The organic layers were combined, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated, and purified with silica gel chromatography to afford the desired product (29 mg, 55%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 397 IM + nr.

[00237] Following general procedure C2, 3-(N~(2~(p~

tolylcarbamoyl)phenyl)sulfamoyl)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0.12 mmol) was reacted with butylarnine (17 mg, 0.21 mmol) to afford desired product (43 mg, 76%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 466 [M + I I ] .

[00238] Following general procedure A, 2-armno-N-(p-tolyi)benzamide (350 mg, 1 .5 mmol) was reacted with 3-bromobenzenesulfonyl chloride (474 mg, 1.8 mmol) to afford the desired product (620 mg, 90%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS rn/z 446 [M + H G

[00239] To a solution of 2-((3-ammophenyi)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (50 rng, 0.13 mmol) in THF (5 mL) was added butyraldehyde (14 mg, 0.20 mmol). The mixture was stirred at rt for 30 mm after which sodium triacetoxyborohydride (55 mg, 0.26 mmol) was added. The reaction stirred for at rt for 5 h, quenched with a saturated solution of NaHCOy and diluted with ethyl acetate and water. The organic layers were combined, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated, and purified with silica gel chromatography to afford the desired product (27 mg, 47%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 438 [M + Hf.

[00240] To a solution of 2-((3-bromophenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (100 mg, 0.22 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) was added 1-hexyne (36 mg, 0.45 mmol), tnethylamine (68 rng, 0.67 mmol), tripheny!phosphine (6 mg, 0.022 mmol), and PdCb^PPhifi (8 mg, 0.01 1 mmol). The suspension was purged with nitrogen. Copper iodide (4 mg, 0.022 mmol) was added and the reaction stirred at 60°C for 18 h. The reaction was diluted with ethyl acetate and water, extracted with ethyl acetate, the organic layers were combined, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated, and purified with silica gel chromatography to afford the desired product (50 mg, 50%) as an orange oil. ESI MS m/z 447 [M + Iff.

[00241] To a solution of 2-((3-(hex- 1 -yn-l -yl)phenyl)sulfona ido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (40 mg, 0.090 mmol) in ethanol (10 mL) was added palladium on carbon (5 mg). The reaction stirred at rt for 2 h with 40 psi hydrogen. The mixture was filtered through cehte, concentrated, purified with silica gel chromatography to afford the desired product (25 mg, 62%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 451 [M + I I ] .

[00242] To a solution of 2-((3-bromophenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (100 mg, 0.22 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) was added propargyl alcohol (25 mg, 0.45 mmol), triethylamine (68 mg, 0.67 mmol), triphenylphosphine (6 mg, 0.022 mmol), and PdCb.(PPh3)?. (8 mg, 0.011 mmol).

The suspension was purged with nitrogen. Copper iodide (4 mg, 0.022 mmol) was added and the reaction stirred at 85°C for 48 h. The reaction was diluted with ethyl acetate and water, extracted with ethyl acetate, the organic layers were combined, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated, and purified with silica gel chromatography to afford the desired product (30 mg, 31%) as a light yellow gum. ESI MS m/z 421 [M + Iff

[00243] To a solution of 2-((3-(3-hydroxyprop-l-yn-l-yl)phenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p- tolyl)benzamide (23 rng, 0 055 mmol) in ethanol (10 mL) was added palladium on carbon (5 mg). The reaction stirred at rt for 1 h with 40 psi hydrogen. The mixture was filtered through cehte, concentrated, purified with silica gel chromatography to afford the desired product (17 rng, 74%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 425 [M + H] 7

[00244] Following general procedure A, 2-amino-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (50 rng, 0 22 mmol) was reacted with 4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenesulfonyl chloride (64 rng, 0 26 mmol) to afford the desired product (86 rng, 89%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 434 [M + j j |

[00245] Following general procedure A, 2-amino-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (50 mg, 0.22 mmol) was reacted with 4-methoxybenzenesulfonyl chloride (55 mg, 0.26 mmol) to afford the desired product (82 mg, 94%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 397 [M + H] + .

[00246] Following general procedure A, 2-amino-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (1 90 rng, 0.84 mmol) was reacted with 4-bromobenzenesulfonyl chloride (257 mg, 1.0 mmol) to afford the desired product (310 mg, 83%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 446 [M + H] + .

[00247] To a solution of 2-((4-bromophenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (100 mg, 0.22 mmol) in dioxane (5 niL) was added phenylboronic acid (32 mg, 0.27 mmol) and Pd(dppf)Ck (18 mg, 0.022 mmol). The mixture was purged with nitrogen after which aqueous Cs2C03 (0.67 mL, 1 M) was added. The reaction was heated to 80°C for 2h. The mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate and washed with water and brine. The organic layers were combined, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated, and purified with silica gel chromatography to afford the desired product (64 mg, 64%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 443 [M + H] + . Example 29

N-(p-tolyl)-2-((3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)sulfonamido)benzam ide (JRW-1327)

[00248] Following general procedure A, 2-ammo-N-(p-tolyi)benzamide (55 mg, 0.24 mmol) was reacted with 3-(trifluoromethyi)benzenesuifonyl chloride (71 nig, 0.29 mmol) to afford the desired product (13 mg, 12%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 435 [M + H] + .

Example 30

N-(p-tolyl)-2-((3-(trifliiorometlioxy)pheisyl)salfonamMo)bei szanHde (JRW-1328)

[00249] Following general procedure A, 2-amino-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (55 rng, 0 24 mmol) was reacted with 3-(trifluoromethoxy)benzenesulfonyl chloride (76 mg, 0.29 mmol) to afford the desired product (42 mg, 38%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 451 [M + H] + .

Scheme 2. Representative synthesis of amide analogues via carboxylate

Example 31

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)ben zamide (HL-0005)

[00250] Step 1 methyl 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoate (HL-0001).

[00251] Following general procedure A, methyl 2-aminobenzoate (1.0 g, 6.6 mmol) was reacted with 4-methylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (1.5 g, 7.9 mmol) to afford the desired product (1.25 g, 62%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 306 [M + Hf.

[00252] Step 2. 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (HL-0003).

[00253] Following general procedure B, methyl 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoate (1.2 g, 4.1 mmol) was reacted with LiOH (294 mg, 12.3 mmol) to afford the desired product (1.0 g, 86%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 292 [M + H]+.

[00254] Step 3. N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)ben zamide (HL- 0005).

[00255] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)suifonamido)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0.17 mmol) was reacted with benzo[b]thiophen-2-amine (31 mg, 0.21 mmol) to afford desired product (44 mg, 96%) as a brown solid. ESI MS m/z 423 [M + H] + . Example 32

N-cyclohexyl-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonaniido)benzamide (HL-0006)

[00256] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0 17 mmol) was reacted with cyciohexylamine (20 mg, 0.21 mmol) to afford desired product (14 rng, 22%) as a light yellow solid ESI MS m/z 373 [M + Hf.

Example 33

2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(naphthalen-2-yl)benzamide (HL-0007)

[00257] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0 17 mmol) was reacted with naphthalen-2-amine (29 mg, 0.21 mmol) to afford desired product (40 mg, 54%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 417 [M + H]7

Example 34

2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphtha len-2-yl)benzamide (HL-

0008)

[00258] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0.17 mmol) w¾s reacted with 5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-amine (30 mg, 0.21 mmol) to afford desired product (33 mg, 44%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 421 [M + H] + . Example 35

methyl trans-4-(2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)cyclohexan e-l-carboxylate

[00259] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0.17 mmol) was reacted with methyl trans-4-aminocyclohexane- 1 -carboxylate HC1 (40 mg, 0.21 mmol) to afford desired product (41 mg, 55%) as a solid. ESI MS m/z 431 [M + H] +

trans-4-(2-((4-metl add (HL-

[00260] Following general procedure B, methyl trans-4-(2-((4- methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)cyclohexane-l -carboxylate (33 mg, 0 077 mmol) was reacted with LiOH (4 mg, 0.16 mmol) to afford the desired product (29 mg, 84%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 417 [M + 1 1 |

[00261] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0.17 mmol) w¾s reacted with 4-methyl-aniline (22 mg, 0.21 mmol) to afford desired product (34 mg, 52%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 381 [M + H] + .

Example 38

ethyl 2-(4-(2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)pheny])acetat e (HL-0023)

[00262] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0.17 mmol) was reacted with ethyl 2-(4-aminophenyi)aeetate (37 mg, 0.21 mmol) to afford desired product (32 mg, 42%) as a solid ESI MS m/z 453 [M + H] + .

Example 39

N-(3-isopropylphenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzami de (HL-0025)

[00263] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0.17 mmol) was reacted with 3-isopropylaniline (28 mg, 0.21 mmol) to afford desired product (49 mg, 71%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 409 [M + H] + .

Example 40

ethyl 3-(2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)benzoate (HL-0026)

[00264] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0.17 mmol) w¾s reacted with ethyl 3-aminobenzoate (34 mg, 0.21 mmol) to afford desired product (50 mg, 67%) as a solid. ESI MS m/z 439 [M + Hf.

[00265] Following general procedure B, ethyl 2-(4-(2-((4- methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)phenyl)acetate (23 rng, 0 052 mmol) was reacted with Li OH (3 mg, 0. 1 1 mmol) to afford the desired product (17 mg, 79%) as a brown solid ESI MS m/z 425 [M + Hj

[00266] Following general procedure B, ethyl 3-(2-((4- methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)benzoate (23 mg, 0.054 mmol) was reacted with Li OH (3 mg, 0.11 mmol) to afford the desired product (12 mg, 54%) as a light yellow solid. ESI MS m/z 41 1 j \i 1 1 ) .

[00267] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0.17 mmol) w¾s reacted with m-toluidine (22 mg, 0.21 mmol) to afford desired product (57 mg, 87%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 381 [M + H G.

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yI)-3-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-2- naphthaniide (HL-0057)

[00268] Step 1 methyl 3-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-2-naphthoate (HL-0049).

[00269] Following general procedure A, methyl 3-amino-2-naphthoate (300 mg, 1.5 mmol) was reacted with 4-methylbenzenesulfonyi chloride (341 mg, 1.8 mmol) to afford the desired product (340 mg, 64%) as a solid. ESI MS m/z 356 [M + H]+.

[00270] Step 2. 3-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-2-naphthoic acid (HL-0052).

[00271] Following general procedure B, methyl 3-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-2- naphthoate (340 mg, 0.96 mmol) was reacted with LiOH (69 mg, 2.9 mmol) to afford the desired product (231 mg, 71%) as a solid. ESI MS m/z 342 [M + H] + .

[00272] Step 3. N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-3-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-2- naphthamide (HL-0057).

8

[00273] Following general procedure C2, 3-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-2-naphthoic acid (50 mg, 0.15 mmol) was reacted with benzo[b]thiophen-2-amine (22 mg, 0.15 mmol) to afford desired product (28 mg, 40%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 473 [M + H] + .

[00274] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0.17 mmol) was reacted with 2-propylaniline (23 mg, 0.17 mmol) to afford desired product (28 mg, 40%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 409 [M + H] 7

Example 46

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-methyl-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfon amido)benzamide (HL-

0061)

[00275] Step 1. ethyl 5-methyl-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoate (HL-0053).

00276] Following general procedure A, ethyl 2-amino-5-methylbenzoate (300 mg, 1.7 mmol) was reacted with 4-methylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (638 mg, 3.4 mmol) to afford the desired product (404 mg, 72%) as a solid. ESI MS m/'z 334 [M + H] + .

[00277] Step 2. 5-methyl-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (HL-0058).

[00278] Following general procedure B, ethyl 5-methyi-2-((4- methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoate (404 mg, 1.2 mmol) was reacted with LiOH (87 mg, 3.6 mmol) to afford the desired product (262 mg, 71%) as a solid ESI MS m/z 306 [M + H] + .

[00279] Step 3. N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-methyl-2-((4- methylphenyl)suifonamido)benzamide (HL-0061 ).

[0028Q] Following general procedure C2, 5-methyl-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0.16 mmol) was reacted with benzo[b]thiophen-2-amine (24 mg, 0.16 mmol) to afford desired product (68 mg, 95%) as a light yellow solid. ESI MS m/z 437 [M + H]7

N-(3-butylphenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide (01-0070)

[00281] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0.17 mmol) was reacted with 3-butylaniline (25 mg, 0.17 mmol) to afford desired product (18 mg, 25%) as a white solid. ESI MS rn/z 423 [M + H]7

Example 48

N-(beiszo[h]thiophen-2-yl)-5-eya!50-2-((4-methyIp enyl)siiIforsamido)beiizamide (IIL-0071)

[00282] Step 1. methyl 5-cyano-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoate (HI--0056).

[00283] Following general procedure A, methyl 2-amino-5~cyanobenzoate (300 mg, 1.7 mmol) was reacted with 4-methylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (649 mg, 3.4 mmol) to afford the desired product (360 mg, 64%) as a solid. ESI MS m/z 331 [M + H] +

[00284] Step 2. 5-cyano-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (HL-0060).

[00285] Following general procedure B, methyl 5-cyano-2-((4- methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoate (360 mg, 1.1 mmol) was reacted with LiOH (78 mg, 3.3 mmol) to afford the desired product (140 mg, 41%) as a solid. ESI MS m/z 317 [M + H] + .

[00286] Step 3. N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-cyano-2-((4- methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide (HL-0071 ).

[00287] Following general procedure C2, 5-cyano-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (92 mg, 0.29 mmol) was reacted with benzo[b]thiophen-2-amine (43 mg, 0.29 mmol) to afford desired product (47 mg, 36%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 448 [M + H] + .

[00288] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (55 mg, 0 19 mmol) was reacted with 4-butylaniline (42 mg, 0.28 mmol) to afford desired product (68 mg, 86%) as a light brown oil. ESI MS m/z 423 [M + H G

[00289] Step 1. methyl 2-((5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalene)-2-sulfonamido)benzoate (HL-0068).

[00290] Following general procedure A, methyl 2-ami nobenzoate (200 mg, 1.7 mmol) was reacted with 5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalene-2-sulfonyl chloride (366 mg, 1.6 mmol) to afford the desired product (289 mg, 63%) as a solid. ESI MS m/'z 346 [M + H] + .

[00291] Step 2. 2-((5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalene)-2-sulfonamido)benzoic acid (HL-0072)

[00292] Following general procedure B, methyl 2-((5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalene)-2- sulfonamido)benzoate (289 mg, 0.84 mmol) was reacted with Li OH (60 mg, 2.5 mmol) to afford the desired product (264 mg, 95%) as a solid. ESI MS m/z 332 [M + H] + .

[00293] Step 3. N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalene) -2- sulfonamido)benzamide (JRW-l 077).

[00294] Following general procedure C2, 2-((5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalene)-2- sulfonamido)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0.15 mmol) was reacted with benzo[b]thiophen~2~amine (27 mg, 0.18 mmol) to afford desired product (18 mg, 26%) as a brown oil. ESI MS m/z 463 [M + H] + .

[00295] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0.17 mmol) was reacted with 4-hexylaniline (36 mg, 0.21 mmol) to afford desired product (61 mg, 79 %) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 451 [M + H] + .

Example 52

2-((4-methy1phenyl)su1fonamido)-N-(4-octylphenyl)benzamide (JRW-1091)

[00296] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0.17 mmol) was reacted with 4-octylaniline (42 mg, 0.21 mmol) to afford desired product (67 mg, 81%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 479 [M + H]7

Example 53

methyl 6-(4-(2-((4-methylpheny1)sulfonamido)benzamido)phenyI)hexano ate (JRW-1107)

[00297] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0.17 mmol) was reacted with methyl 6-(4-aminophenyl)hexanoate (45 mg, 0.21 mmol) to afford desired product (65 mg, 76%) as an orange oil. ESI MS m/z 479 [M + H] + .

Example 54

6-(4-(2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonainido)benzamido)phenyl)hexan oic add (JRW-1110)

[00298] Following general procedure B, methyl 6-(4-(2-((4- methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamido)phenyl)hexanoate (55 mg, 0.11 mmol) was reacted with LiOH (8 mg, 0.33 mmol) to afford the desired product (50 mg, 94%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 481 GM + I I I· .

[00299] Step 1 methyl 2-((4-butylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoate (JRW-1 1 1 1)

[00300] Following general procedure A, methyl 2-aminobenzoate (1.0 g, 6.6 mmol) was reacted with 4-butylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (1.7 g, 7.3 mmol) to afford crude product as a light brown oil. ESI MS m/z 348 [M + H]

[00301] Step 2. 2-((4-butylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (JRW-1112)

Step 3. N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-butylphenyl)sulfonamido)benz amide (JRW-

1114)

[00303] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-butylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (120 mg, 0.36 mmol) was reacted with benzo[b]thiophen-2-amine (54 mg, 0.36 mmol) to afford desired product (25 mg, 15%) as an off white solid. ESI MS m/z 465 [M + H] + . Example 56

N-(4-(6-hydroxyhexyl)pheny1)-2-((4-methyIphenyl)suIfonamido) benzamide (JRW-1120)

[00304] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)suifonamido)benzoic acid (150 rng, 0 51 mmol) was reacted with 6-(4-ammophenyl)hexan-l-ol (100 mg, 0.51 mmol) to afford desired product (60 mg, 25%) as a white foam. ESI MS m/z 467 [M + H] r .

Example 57

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-pentylphenyl)sulfonamido)ben zamide (JRW-1121)

[00305] Step ! methyl 2-((4~pentylphenyl)su!fonamido)benzoate (JRW-1 115)

[00306] Following general procedure A, methyl 2-aminobenzoate (1.0 g, 6.6 mmol) was reacted with 4-pentyibenzenesulfonyI chloride (1.8 g, 7.3 mmol) to afford crude product (2.3 g) as an orange oil. ESI MS m/z 362 [M + Hf.

[00307] Step 2. 2-((4-pentylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (JRW-1 1 16)

[00308] Following general procedure B, methyl 2-((4-pentylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoate (2 3 g, 6.4 mmol) was reacted with NaOH (6.4 raL, 2M, 12,7 mmol) to afford crude product (2.2 g) as a light pink solid. ESI MS m/z 348 [M + H] ÷ . Step 3. N -(benzo[b]thiophen-2-y i)-2-((4-pentylphenyl)suifonamido)benzamide (JRW-

1121)

[00310] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-pentylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (100 mg, 0.29 mmol) was reacted with benzo[b]thiophen-2-amine (34 mg, 0.23 mmol) to afford desired product (57 mg, 41%) as an orange foam. ESI MS m/z 479 [M + H] ÷ .

[00311] Step 1. 5-butyi-2-((4-methyiphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoie acid (JRW-1142)

[00312] Following general procedure A, 2-amino-5-butylbenzoic acid (220 mg, 1.1 mmol) was reacted with 4-methylbenzenesulfbnyi chloride (325 mg, 1.7 mmol) to afford desired product (275 mg, 69%) as a brown solid ESI MS mjz 348 [M + Hf.

[00313] Step 2 N~(benzo[b]tbiophen-2~yl)-5-butyl-2-((4- rnethylpheny!)suifonamido)benzamide (JRW-1146)

[00314] Following general procedure C2, 5-butyl-2-((4-methylphenyi)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (275 mg, 0.79 mmol) was reacted with benzo[b]thiophen-2-amine (118 mg, 0.79 mmol) to afford desired product (30 mg, 8%) as a brown solid. ESI MS m/z 479 [M + H]7

[00315] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (250 mg, 0 86 mmol) was reacted with 4-(4-ammophenyl)bu†an-1 -ol (170 mg, 1.0 mmol) to afford desired product (140 mg, 37%) as a an oil. ESI MS m/z 439 [M + H] + .

[00316] To a solution of N-(4-(4-hydroxybutyl)phenyl)-2-((4- methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide (40 mg, 0.091 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) was added carbon tetrabromide (60 rng, 0.18 mmol) and triphenyiphosphine (47 rng, 0.18 rnmol). The reaction stirred at rt overnight. The mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate and water, and the aqueous layer extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were combined, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated, and purified with silica gel chromatography to afford the desired product (18 mg, 40%) as a clear oil. ESI MS m/z 502 [M + H G.

[00317] Step 1. methyl 5-methoxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoate (JRW-1159)

[00318] Following general procedure A, methyl 2-amino-5-methoxybenzoate (5.0 g, 27.6 mmol) was reacted with 4-methylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (5.8 g, 30.3 mmol) to afford crude product as a purple solid. ESI MS m/z 336 [M + H] + .

[00319] Step 2 5-methoxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (JRW-1161)

[00320] Following general procedure B, methyl 5-methoxy-2-((4- methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoate (27.6 mmol) was reacted with NaOH (27.6 mL, 2M, 55.2 mmol) to afford desired product (8.4 g, 94%) as a light purple solid. ESI MS m/z 322 [M + H]

[00321] Step 3. 5-methoxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzami de (JRW- 1166)

[00322] Following general procedure C2, 5-methoxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (500 mg, 1.6 mmol) was reacted with p-toluidine (200 mg, 1.9 mmol) to afford desired product (348 mg, 54%) as a white foam. ESI MS m/z 41 1 [M + H] + .

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-methoxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfo namido)benzamide (JRW-

[00323] Following general procedure C2, 5-methoxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (100 mg, 0.31 mmol) was reacted with benzo[b]thiophen-2-amine (51 mg, 0.34 mmol) to afford desired product (34 mg, 24%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 453 [M + HG.

[00325] Following general procedure A, methyl 2-amino-4-methoxybenzoate (1.0 g, 5.5 mmol) was reacted with 4-methyJbenzenesuJfonyl chloride (1.2 g, 6.1 mmol) to afford crude product (1.9 g) as a white foam. ESI MS m/z 336 [M + H] + .

[00326] Step 2. 4-methoxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (JRW-1198)

[00327] Following general procedure B, methyl 4-methoxy-2-((4- methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoate (5.5 mmol) was reacted with NaOH (5.6 mL, 2M, 11.3 mmol) to afford desired product (1.7 g, 94%) as a light yellow solid. ESI MS m/z 322 [M + H] + .

[00328] Step 3. 4-methoxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzami de (JRW- 1202)

[00329] Following general procedure C2, 4-methoxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (510 mg, 1.6 mmol) was reacted with p-toluidine (200 mg, 1.9 mmol) to afford desired product (460 mg, 70%) as a white foam. ESI MS m/z 411 [M + H] + .

[00330] Following general procedure C2, 4-methoxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0.16 mmol) was reacted with benzo[b]thiophen-2-amine (27 mg, 1.8 mmol) to afford desired product (30 mg, 42%) as an orange solid. ESI MS m/z 453 [M + H] +

Step 1 methyl 2-((3-methoxyphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoate (JRW-1 196)

[00332] Following general procedure A, methyl 2-aminobenzoate (700 mg, 4.6 mmol) was reacted with 3-methoxybenzenesulfony! chloride (1.05 g, 5 1 mmol) to afford desired product (1.3 g, 87%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 322 [M + H] + .

[00333] Step 2. 2-((3-methoxyphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (JRW-1 199)

[00334] Following general procedure B, methyl 2-((3-methoxyphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoate (1.3 g, 4.1 mmol) was reacted with NaOH (4.0 inL, 2M, 8.0 mmol) to afford crude product (1.5 g) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 308 [M + H] + .

[00335] Step 3. 2-((3-methoxyphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (JRW-1205)

[00336] Following general procedure C2, 2-((3-methoxyphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (455 mg, 1.5 mmol) was reacted with p-toluidine (190 mg, 1.8 mmol) to afford desired product (335 mg, 57%) as a light brown solid ESI MS m/z 397 [M + H] + .

[00337] Following general procedure C2, 2-((3-methoxyphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (60 rng, 0 19 mmol) was reacted with benzo[b]thiophen-2-amme (35 mg, 0 23 mmol) to afford desired product (30 mg, 35%) as a red brown solid ESI MS m/z 439 [M + H G.

[00338] To a solution of 5-methoxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzami de (260 mg, 0.63 mmol) in DCM (10 mL) was added boron tribromide (1.6 mL, 1.0M, 1.6 mmol) at 0 C 'C. The reaction warmed to rt, stirred for 18 h, and quenched with a saturated solution of NaHCCb. The mixture was diluted with DCM and water, and the aqueous layer extracted with DCM The organic layers were combined, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated, and purified with silica gel chromatography to afford the desired product (29 mg, 1 1%) as a brown solid ESI MS m/z 397 [M + H]+.

2~((3~bydroxypbeny][)siiilfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (JRW-1236)

[00339] To a solution of 2-((3-methoxyphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (190 rag, 0.48 mmol) in DCM (10 mL) was added boron tribromide (0.96 rnL, I 0M. 0.96 mmol) at 0°C The reaction warmed to rt, stirred for 18 h, and quenched with a saturated solution of NaHCOs. The mixture was diluted with DCM and water, and the aqueous layer extracted with DCM. The organic layers were combined, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated, and purified with silica gel chromatography to afford the desired product (140 mg, 76%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 383 GM + IT

Example 69

2-((3-butoxypheiiyI)saIfosiamido)-N-(p-toM)besizamide (JRW-1266)

[00340] To a solution of 2-((3-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonamido)-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (40 mg, 0.10 mmol) in THE (3 mL) was added n-butanol (15 mg, 0.20 mmol), triphenylphosphine (30 mg, 0.12 mmol) and DIAD (46 mg, 0.23 mmol). The mixture stirred at rt for 18 h. The mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate and water, and the aqueous layer extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were combined, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated, and purified with silica gel chromatography to afford the desired product (30 mg, 65%) as a white solid. ESI

MS m/z 439 GM + H]

[00341] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (200 mg, 0.68 mmol) was reacted with 2-bromoaniline (141 rng, 0.82 mmol) to afford desired product (48 mg, 15%) as a white solid. ESI MS rn/z 446 [M + H] + .

[00342] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (200 rng, 0 68 mmol) was reacted with 3-brornoamiine (141 mg, 0.82 mmol) to afford desired product (122 rng, 40%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 446 [M + H] + .

[00343] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (50 rng, 0 17 mmol) was reacted with [l ,l'-biphenyl]-4-amine (34 rng, 0.20 mmol) to afford desired product (42 rng, 55%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 443 [M + H] .

[00344] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (190 mg, 0.65 mmol) was reacted with 2-methoxyamline (96 mg, 0.78 mmol) to afford desired product (155 mg, 60%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 397 [M + H G.

[00345] To a solution of N-(3-bromophenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide (110 rng, 0 24 mmol) in dioxane (5 raL) was added phenylboronic acid (36 rng, 0 29 mmol) and PdCdppfjCb (20 rng, 0 024 rnmoi). The mixture was purged with nitrogen after which aqueous CS2CO3 (0.74 mL, 1 M) was added. The reaction was heated to 80°C for 2h. The mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate and washed with water and brine. The organic layers were combined, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated, and purified with silica gel chromatography to afford the desired product (105 mg, 96%) as a white solid ESI MS m/z 443 [M + IT] /

[00346] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (190 mg, 0.65 mmol) w¾s reacted with 3-methoxyaniline (96 mg, 0.78 mmol) to afford desired product (165 mg, 64%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 397 [M + H] + .

[00347] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)suifonamido)benzoic acid (190 rng, 0 65 mmol) was reacted with 4-methoxyaniline (96 rng, 0 78 mmol) to afford desired product (156 mg, 60%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 397 [M + H G

2-((N-ethyI-4-methy amide (JRW-1325)

[00348] To a solution of N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide (50 rng, 0 12 mmol) in DMF (3mL) was added diisopropylethylamine (49 mg, 0.38 mmol) and ethyl iodide (0.5 mb). The solution stirred for 18 h at 60°C The mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate and washed with water and brine. The organic layers were combined, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated, and purified with silica gel chromatography to afford the desired product (50 rng, 94%) as a light yellow foam. ESI MS m/z 425 [M + H] ÷ . Example 78

N-{besizo[b]ihiopheis-2-yl)-4-f!isoro-2-((4-mei ylpheisyl)si8lfonamMo)beiszanHde (JRW-

1346)

[00349] Step 1. methyl 4-fluoro-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoate (JRW-1342).

[00350] Following general procedure A, methyl 2-amino-4-fluorobenzoate (1.0 g, 5.9 mmol) was reacted with 4-methylbenzenesulfonyi chloride (1.2 g, 6.5 mmol) to afford the desired product (1.52 g, 79%) as a light yellow solid. ESI MS m/z 324 [M + H] + .

[00351] Step 2. 4 -fluoro-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (JRW-1344).

[00352] Following general procedure B, methyl 4-fluoro-2-((4- metliylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoate (1.5 g, 4.6 mmol) was reacted with NaOH (7 mL, 2 M, 14 mmol) to afford crude product (1.6 g) as a light yellow solid. ESI MS m/z 310 [M + H]7

[00353] Step 3. N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-4-fluoro-2-((4- methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide (JRW-1346).

[00354] Following general procedure C2, 4-fluoro-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (100 mg, 0.32 mmol) was reacted with benzo[b]thiophen-2-amine (58 mg, 0.39 mmol) to afford desired product (93 mg, 65%) as a light pink solid. ESI MS m/z 441 [M + H] + .

Example 79

N-(benzo[b]thiopheii-2-yI)-5-fluoro-2-((4-methyIp e!5yl)si8lfosiamido)beiizamide (JRW-

1347) '

[00355] Step 1. methyl 5-fluoro-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoate (JRW- 1343).

[00356! Following general procedure A, methyl 2-ammo-5-fluorobenzoate (1.0 g, 5.9 mmol) was reacted with 4-methylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (1.2 g, 6.5 mmol) to afford the desired product (1.9 g, 99%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 324 [M + H] +

[00357] Step 2 5 -fluoro-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (JRW- 1345).

[00358] Following general procedure B, methyl 5-fluoro-2-((4- metliylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoate (1.9 g, 5.9 mmol) was reacted with NaOH (9 mL, 2 M, 18 mmol) to afford crude product (1.8 g) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 310 [M + H]7

[00359] Step 3. N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-fluoro-2-((4- methy!phenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide (JRW-1347).

[00360] Following general procedure C2, 5-fluoro-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (100 rag, 0.32 mmol) was reacted with benzo[b]thiophen-2-amme (58 rng, 0.39 mmol) to afford desired product (38 mg, 26%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 441 [M + H]

Example 80

N-benzyl-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide (JRW-1383)

[00361] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0.17 mmol) was reacted with benzyiamine (31 mg, 0.21 mmol) to afford desired product (6 mg, 9%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 381 [M + H] + .

Example 81

N-(4-methoxybenzy])-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzamide (JRW-1384)

[00362] Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)benzoic acid (50 mg, 0.17 mmol) was reacted with 4-methoxy-benzylamine (31 rng, 0.21 mmol) to afford desired product (25 mg, 35%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 411 [M + H G Example 82

N-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)suIfonamido)-5- (trifluoromethyI)benzamide

(JRW-1388)

[00363] Step 1. methyl 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzoate (JRW-

1382)

[00364] Following general procedure A, methyl 2-amino-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzoate (1.0 g, 4.6 mmol) was reacted with 4-methyibenzenesulfonyl chloride (0.96 g, 5.0 mmol) to afford the desired product (1.4 g, 81%) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 374 [M + H]7

[00365] Step 2. 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid (JRW-l 386)

[00366] Following general procedure B, methyl 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-5- (trifluoromethyi)benzoate (1.4 g, 3.7 mmol) was reacted with NaOH (3.7 mL, 2 M, 7.4 mmol) to afford crude product (1.3 g) as a white solid. ESI MS m/z 360 [M + H] + .

[00367] Step 3 N-(benzorblthiophen-2-yl)-2-(Y4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-5- (trifluoromethvDbenzamide (JRW-l 388)

Following general procedure C2, 2-((4-methylphenyl)suifonarmdo)-5- (trifluororaethyi)benzoic acid (1 10 mg, 0.31 mmol) was reacted with benzo[b]thiophen-2-amme (55 rng, 0.37 mmol) to afford desired product (140 mg, 93%) as a light brown solid. ESI MS m/z 491 [M + H G

Selective Inhibition of Bioluminescent Complexes

[00369] The following example provides a use for the disclosed inhibitor to selectively inhibit various bioluminescent complexes, e.g., Oplophorus luciferase-derived bioluminescent complex, without inhibiting NanoLuc® luciferase. FIG. 1 A shows inhibition of the NanoBiT®

HiBiT/LgBiT bioluminescent complex by exemplary compounds NanoBiT® HiBiT non- luminescent peptide and NanoBiT® LgBiT non-luminescent polypeptide were diluted in PBS+0.01% BS A, respectively (final concentration of 0. InM and lOOriM, respectively), and incubated with the serially diluted concentrations of the indicated compounds for 2 hours at room temperature in the presence of RPMI media. (2.5% FBS final) Samples were analyzed after addition of furimazine (1 OmM final concentration) using a GloMax®-Multi+ Plate Reader. Each sample was normalized to a“no inhibitor” control. The ICso values were then determined using GraphPad Prism (log[inhibitorj vs. normalized response). FIG. IB shows the inhibition of the NanoBiT® SmBiT/LgBiT bioluminescent complex by exemplary compounds of the present invention. The NanoBiT® SmBiT-annexin fusion and NanoBiT® LgBiT-annexin fusion were diluted to a final concentration of 60nM and 30nM, respectively, in PBS/0.01 % BSA and incubated with serially diluted concentrations of the indicated compounds for 2 hours at room temperature in the presence of K562 cell lysate diluted into RPMI media (2.5% FBS final). Samples were analyzed after addition of furimazine (10mM final concentration) using a

GioMax®-Multi+ Plate Reader. Each sample w¾s normalized to a“no inhibitor” control. The ICso values w r ere then determined using GraphPad Prism (log[mhibitor] vs. normalized response). FIG. 1C is a bar graph comparing the calculated ICso values between the NanoBiT® HiBiT/LgBiT and SmBiT/LgBiT complexes of the exemplar} compounds shown in FIGS. 1 A and IB.

[00370] FIG. 2 compares the NANOLUC® (Nluc) inhibitory activity of exemplar compounds of the present invention to PBI-6096, a known Nluc inhibitor. Inhibitors were diluted into CO2- independent media with 10% FBS. Nluc was diluted to 2ng/ml into NanoGlo® buffer with 100mM furimazine. Serial dilutions of the inhibitors w¾re added to the

NanoLuc/furimazine/NanoGlo® solution, and samples w r ere immediately analyzed using a GloMax®-Multi+ Plate Reader. As shown m FIG. 2, JRW-1004, HL-0005, and HL-0010 do not show 7 any appreciable inhibition against NanoLuc demonstrating the selectivity of the compounds for Oplophoms luciferase-derived bioluminescent complexes.

[00371] FIGS. 3A-3B show the inhibition of bioluminescent complexes in cells. In FIG. 3 A, HEK293 cells were transfected with DNA encoding an intracellular NanoBiT® HiBiT fusion protein, plated at 20,000 cells/ 100mI_ growth medium, and incubated for 24 hours. Following 24 hours of expression, cells were lysed with 50ug/mL (final) of digitonm in OptiMEM and treated with purified NanoBiT® LgBiT non-luminescent polypeptide and serial dilutions of HL-0005. After 2 hours of incubation at room temperature, furimazine was added (10mM final

concentration), and luminescence was measured on a GloMax®-Multi+ Plate Reader.

[00372] In FIG. 3B, HEK293 cells were transfected with DNA encoding an intracellular NanoBiT® HiBiT fusion protein and DNA encoding an intracellular NanoBiT® LgBiT fusion protein such that the fusion proteins were co-expressed within the cell. Transfected cells were plated at 20,000 cells/100 pL growth medium and incubated for 24 hours. Following 24 hours of expression, cells were optionally lysed with SOiig/mL of digitonin in OptiMEM and treated with serial dilutions of HL-0005. After 2 hours of incubation at room temperature, furimazine was added (10mM final concentration), and luminescence was measured on a GloMax® Multi* Plate Reader . Figure 3A show's inhibition of the NanoBiT® HiBit/LgBit bioluminescent complex with HL-0005 in a cellular context. Figure 3B compares ICso values in lytic and non-lytic conditions indicating HL-0005 is mostly cell permeable. Example 85

Inhibitor IC50 Determination

[00373] The following example provides the ICso values for the compounds disclosed herein. The results are shown in Table 1 NanoBiT® HiBiT non-luminescent peptide and LgBiT non- lummescent non-polypeptide were diluted to O. lnM and lnM, respectively, in TBS buffer with 0.01% BSA to make the detection reagent. A 3x dilution series of each inhibitor was then made in the detection reagent. A“no inhibitor” control was also made for each sample. 50ul of each inhibitor dilution was mixed 6mM (final) funmazine, and luminescence was measured. Each sample was normalized to the“no inhibitor” control. The ICso values were then determined using GraphPad Prism (log[mhibitor j vs. normalized response).

Table 1

NA - no activity

NT - not tested

00374] it is understood that the foregoing detailed description and accompanying examples are merely illustrative and are not to be taken as limitations upon the scope of the invention, which is defined solely by the appended claims and their equivalents.

[00375] Various changes and modifications to the disclosed embodiments will be apparent to those skilled in the art. Such changes and modifications, including without limitation those relating to the chemical structures, substituents, derivatives, intermediates, syntheses, compositions, formulations, or methods of use of the invention, may be made without departing from the spirit and scope thereof.

00376] SEQ ID NO: 1 - Native Mature Oplophorus luciferase amino acid sequence

FTLADFVGDWQQTAGYNQDQVLEQGGLSSLFQALGVSVIPIQKVVLSGENGLKADIHVI

IPYEGLSGFQMGLIEM1FKWYPVDDHHFKIILHYGTLVIDGVTPNMIDYFGRPYPGI AVF

DGKQITVTGTLWNGNKIYDERLINPDGSLLFRVTINGVTGWRLCENILA

[00377] SEQ ID NO: 2-Wild-Type NLpep

MGVTGWRLCERILA

[00378] SEQ ID NO: 3- Wild-Type NLpoly

MVFTLEDFVGDWRQTAGYNLDQYLEQGGVSSLFQNLGVSVTPIQRIVLSGENGLKIDIH

VIIPYEGLSGDQMGQIEKIFKVVYPVDDFfflF KVILHYGTLVIDGVTPNMIDYFGRI 5 YEGL4

VFDGKKITVTGTLWNGNKIIDERLINPDGSLLFRVTINV

[00379] SEQ ID NO: 4 - amino acid sequence for HiBiT

VSGWRLFKKIS

[00380] SEQ ID NO: 5 - amino acid sequence for LgBiT

MVFTLEDFVGDWEQTAAYNLDQVLEQGGVSSLLQNLAVSVTPIQRIVRSGENALKIDIH

VnPYEGLSADQMAQIEEVFKWYPVDDHHFKVILPYGTLVIDGVTPNMLNYFGRPYEGI

AVFDGKKITVTGTLWNGNKHDERLITPDGSMLFRVTINS

[00381] SEQ ID NO: 6 - amino acid sequence for SmBiT

VTGYRLFEEIL

[00382] SEQ ID NO: 7-NanoLuc

MWTLEDFVGDWRQTAGYNLDQVLEQGGVSSLFQNLGVSVTPIQRIVLSGENGLKIDIH

VIIPYEGLSGDQMGQIEKIFKVVYPVDDHHFKVILHYGTLVIDGVTPNMIDYFGRPY EGIA

VFDGKKITVTGTLWNGNKIIDERLINPDGSLLFRVTINGVTGWRLCERILA