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Title:
INTERIOR TRAIN COMPONENTS HAVING LOW SMOKE AND LOW HEAT RELEASE, AND METHODS OF THEIR MANUFACTURE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/179208
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Interior railway components (seat covers and claddings) comprise a thermoplastic composition comprising: a first polymer comprising bisphenol A carbonate units and monoaryl arylate units, or a second polymer comprising bisphenol A carbonate units, monoaryl arylate units, and siloxane units, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing polymers; and an organophosphorus compound; wherein a sample of the thermoplastic composition has: a smoke density after 4 minutes (Ds-4) of equal to or less than 300, an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of equal to or less than 600, a maximum average heat release (MAHRE) of equal to or less than 90 kW/m2, and a ductility in multiaxial impact of 100%.

Inventors:
SYBERT PAUL DEAN (US)
VAN DER MEE MARK ADRIANUS JOHANNES (NL)
ASSINK ROLAND SEBASTIAN (NL)
VAN DE GRAMPEL ROBERT DIRK (NL)
Application Number:
PCT/US2014/035658
Publication Date:
November 06, 2014
Filing Date:
April 28, 2014
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
SABIC INNOVATIVE PLASTICS IP (NL)
SYBERT PAUL DEAN (US)
International Classes:
B61D33/00; C08K5/00; C08K5/53; C08L69/00; C08L83/10
Foreign References:
US20070129492A12007-06-07
US6072011A2000-06-06
US7767738B22010-08-03
Other References:
"DOT/FAA/AR-00/12", article "Aircraft Materials Fire Test Handbook"
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
WU, Wanli (20 Church Street22nd Floo, Hartford Connecticut, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A railway component,

wherein the component is a molded or extruded train seat component, comprising a thermoplastic composition comprising, based on the total weight of the composition:

2 to up to 12 wt.% of an organophosphorus compound;

88 to up to 98 wt.% of a first polymer comprising bisphenol A carbonate units and monoaryl arylate units, or a second polymer comprising bisphenol A carbonate units, monoaryl arylate units, and siloxane units, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing polymers; and

optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein

the bisphenol A carbonate units are of the formula

the monoaryl arylate units are of the formula wherein each R is independently a halogen atom, a C1-10 hydrocarbyl and n is 0 to 4; and the siloxane units are of the formula

or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein E has an average value of 2 to 90;

wherein a sample of the thermoplastic composition has: a smoke density after 4 minutes (Ds-4) of equal to or less than 300 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m ,

an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of equal to or less than 600 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m2,

a maximum average heat release (MAHRE) of equal to or less than 90 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , and

a ductility in multiaxial impact of 100%, measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs.

2. The railway component of claim 1, wherein a sample of the thermoplastic composition has:

a smoke density after 4 minutes (Ds-4) of equal to or less than 150 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque,

an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of equal to or less than 300 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m2,

a maximum average heat release (MAHRE) of equal to or less than 60 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , and

a ductility in multiaxial impact of 100%, measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs.

3. The railway component of claim 1 or 2, wherein the component is extruded or injection molded, and the component has a transmission of 85% or more and a haze of 3% or less, measured according to ASTM D1003 using the color space CIE1931 (Illuminant C and a 2° observer) at a thickness of 3 mm.

4. The railway component of any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the component is injection molded, and the thermoplastic composition has a melt volume rate of greater than 7 cc/10 min measured at 300°C under 1.2 kg force measured according to ISO 1133.

5. The railway component of any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the component is extruded, and the thermoplastic composition has a Vicat B120 of less than 130 °C measured according to ISO 306.

6. The railway component of any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the first polymer comprises:

2 to 20 mol of bisphenol-A carbonate units of the formula

60 to 98 mol of isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-resorcinol ester units of the formula

optionally, 1 to 20 mol resorcinol carbonate units of the formula

isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-bisphenol-A ester units of the formula , or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing

7. The railway component of any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the first polymer comprises units of the formula

wherein m is 4 to 100, and the mole ratio of x:m is 99:1 to 1:99.

8. The railway component of any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the second polymer comprises

1 to 40 mol of bisphenol A carbonate units of the formula

50 to 95 mol of isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-resorcinol units of the formula

siloxane units in an amount effective to provide 0.1 to 10 wt. of siloxane units, based on the weight of the poly(carbonate-arylate ester),

wherein the siloxane units are of the formula

or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein E has an average value of 2 to 90.

9. The railway component of claim 8, wherein E has an average value of 2 to 50.

10. The railway component of any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the organophosphorus compound is an aromatic organophosphorus compound having at least one organic aromatic group and at least one phosphorus-containing group, or an organic compound having at least one phosphorus-nitrogen bond.

11. The railway component of claim 10, wherein the organophosphorus compound is bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate), triphenyl phosphate, resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate), tricresyl phosphate, a phenol/bi-phenol polyphosphate, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing.

12. The railway component of claim 10, wherein organophosphorus compound containing a nitrogen-phosphorus bond is a phosphazene, phosphorus ester amide, phosphoric acid amide, phosphonic acid amide, phosphinic acid amide, tris(aziridinyl) phosphine oxide, a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing.

13. The railway component of claim 10, wherein the organophosphorus compound is effective to provide phosphorus in an amount of 0.1% to 1.0% of phosphorus, based on the weight of the thermoplastic composition.

14. The railway component of any of claims 1 to 13, wherein no or substantially no flame retarding brominated compounds, flame retardant salts, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing are present in the thermoplastic composition.

15. The railway component of any of claims 1 to 14, wherein the thermoplastic composition further comprises 0.05 to 10.0 wt.% of a light diffuser additive comprising silicone, polymethylsilsesquioxane, crosslinked poly(methyl methacrylate), methyl methacrylate/ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate copolymer, Ti02, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, based on the total weight of the polymers in the thermoplastic composition.

16. The railway component of any of claims 1 to 15, wherein the thermoplastic composition further comprises 0.00002 to 5.0 wt.% of one or more colorants based on the total weight of the polymers in the thermoplastic composition.

17. The railway component of any of claims 1 to 16, wherein the thermoplastic composition comprises, based on the total weight of the composition,

2 to 12 wt.% of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate);

88 to 98 wt.% of a combination comprising, based on the weight of the combination,

20 to 80 wt.% of a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate- tere hthalate-resorcinol ester) of the formula

wherein m is 4 to 100, and the mole ratio of x:m is 99:1 to 1:99, and

20 to 80 wt.% of a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate- terephthalate-resorcinol ester)-co-poly(siloxane) comprising, 1 to 40 mol% of bisphenol A carbonate units,

50 to 95 mol% of isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-resorcinol units, and

siloxane units of the formula

or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein E has an average value of 2 to 50, wherein the siloxane units are present in an amount effective to provide 0.1 to 10 wt.% of siloxane units, based on the weight of the poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate-resorcinol ester)-co-poly(siloxane); and

optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein a sample of the thermoplastic composition has:

a smoke density after 4 minutes (Ds-4) of equal to or less than 300 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m ,

an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of equal to or less than 600 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m2,

a maximum average heat release (MAHRE) of equal to or less than 90 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , and

a ductility in multiaxial impact of 100%, measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs.

18. The railway component of any of claims 1 to 16, wherein the thermoplastic composition comprises, based on the total weight of the composition,

3.5 to 12 wt.% of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate);

88 to 96.5 wt.% of a combination comprising, based on the weight of the

combination,

20 to 80 wt.% of a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate- tere hthalate-resorcinol ester)

wherein m is 4 to 100, and the mole ratio of x:m is 99:1 to 1:99, and

20 to 80 wt.% of a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate- terephthalate-resorcinol ester)-co-poly(siloxane) comprising,

1 to 40 mol% of bisphenol A carbonate units,

50 to 95 mol% of isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-resorcinol units, and siloxane units of the formula

or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein E has an average value of 2 to 50, and the siloxane units are present in an amount effective to provide 0.1 to 10 wt.% of siloxane units, based on the weight of the poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate-resorcinol ester)-co-poly(siloxane); and optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing,

wherein a sample of the thermoplastic composition has:

a smoke density after 4 minutes (Ds-4) of equal to or less than 150 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m ,

an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of equal to or less than 300 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m2,

a maximum average heat release (MAHRE) of equal to or less than 60 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , and

a ductility in multiaxial impact of 100%, measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs.

19. The railway component of any of claims 1 to 8 or 10 to 16, wherein the

thermoplastic composition comprises based on the total weight of the composition,

2 to 12 wt.% of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate);

88 to 98 wt.% of a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate- resorcinol ester of the formula

wherein m is 4 to 100, and the mole ratio of x:m is 99:1 to 1:99, and

optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein a sample of the thermoplastic composition has:

a smoke density after 4 minutes (Ds-4) of equal to or less than 300 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m ,

an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of equal to or less than 600 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m2,

a maximum average heat release (MAHRE) of equal to or less than 90 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , and a ductility in multiaxial impact of 100%, measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs.

20. The railway component of any of claims 1 to 8 or 10 to 16, wherein the

thermoplastic composition comprises based on the total weight of the composition,

3.5 to 12 wt.% of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate);

88 to 96.5 wt.% of a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate- resorcinol ester of the formula

wherein m is 4 to 100, and the mole ratio of x:m is 99:1 to 1:99; and

optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein a sample of the thermoplastic composition has:

a smoke density after 4 minutes (Ds-4) of equal to or less than 150 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m ,

an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of equal to or less than 300 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m2,

a maximum average heat release (MAHRE) of equal to or less than 60 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , and

a ductility in multiaxial impact of 100%, measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs.

21. The railway component of any of claims 1 to 6 and 9 to 16, wherein the

thermoplastic composition comprises, based on the total weight of the composition,

2 to 12 wt.% of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate);

88 to 98 wt.% of a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate- resorcinol ester)-co-poly(siloxane) which comprises

1 to 40 mol% of bisphenol A carbonate units,

50 to 95 mol% of isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-resorcinol units, and siloxane units of the formula

or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein E has an average value of 5 to 50, and the siloxane units are present in an amount effective to provide 0.1 to 10 wt.% of siloxane units, based on the weight of the poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate-resorcinol ester)-co-poly(siloxane); and optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein a sample of the thermoplastic composition has:

a smoke density after 4 minutes (Ds-4) of less than or equal to 300 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m ,

an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of less than or equal to 600 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m2,

a maximum average heat release (MAHRE) of less than or equal to 90 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , and

a ductility in multiaxial impact of 100%, measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs.

22. The railway component of any of claims 1 to 6 or 9 to 16, wherein the thermoplastic composition comprises, based on the total weight of the composition,

3.5 to 12 wt.% of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate);

88 to 96.5 wt.% of a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate- resorcinol ester)-co-poly(siloxane) which comprises 1 to 40 mol% of bisphenol A carbonate units,

50 to 95 mol% of isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-resorcinol units, and siloxane units of the formula

or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein E has an average value of 5 to 50, and the siloxane units are present in an amount effective to provide 0.1 to 10 wt.% of siloxane units, based on the weight of the poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate-resorcinol ester)-co-poly(siloxane); and optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein a sample of the thermoplastic composition has:

a smoke density after 4 minutes (Ds-4) of less than or equal to 150 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m ,

an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of less than or equal to 300 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m2,

a maximum average heat release (MAHRE) of less than or equal to 60 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , and

a ductility in multiaxial impact of 100%, measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs.

23. A railway component, wherein the component is an extruded or molded interior train cladding comprising a thermoplastic composition comprising, based on the total weight of the composition:

2 to up to 12 wt.% of an organophosphorus compound;

88 to up to 98 wt.% of a first polymer comprising bisphenol A carbonate units and monoaryl arylate units, or a second polymer comprising bisphenol A carbonate units, monoaryl arylate units, and siloxane units, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing polymers; and

optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein

the bisphenol A carbonate units are of the formula

the monoaryl arylate units are of the formula

wherein each R is independently a halogen atom, a C1-10 hydrocarbyl and n is 0 to 4; and the siloxane units are of the formula

or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein E has an average value of 2 to 90;

wherein a sample of the thermoplastic composition has:

a smoke density after 4 minutes (Ds-4) of equal to or less than 300 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of equal to or less than 600 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m2,

a maximum average heat release (MAHRE) of equal to or less than 90 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m ,

a critical heat flux at extinguishment (CFE) of equal to or greater than 20 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5658-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque, and

a ductility in multiaxial impact of 100%, measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs.

24. The railway component of claim 23, wherein a sample of the thermoplastic composition has:

a smoke density after 4 minutes (Ds-4) of equal to or less than 150 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m ,

an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of equal to or less than 300 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m2, and

a maximum average heat release (MAHRE) of equal to or less than 60 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m .

25. The railway component of claim 23 or 24, wherein the component is extruded or injection molded, and the component has a transmission of 85% or more and a haze of 3% or less, measured according to ASTM D1003 using the color space CIE1931 (Illuminant C and a 2° observer) at a thickness of 3 mm.

26. The railway component of any of claims claim 23 to 25, wherein the component is injection molded, and the thermoplastic composition has a melt volume rate of greater than 7 cc/10 min measured at 300°C under 1.2 kg force measured according to ISO 1133.

27. The railway component of any of claims claim 23 to 25, wherein the component is extruded, and the thermoplastic composition has a Vicat B120 of less than 130 °C measured according to ISO 306.

28. The railway component of any one of claims 23 to 27, wherein the first polymer comprises

2 to 20 mol of bisphenol-A carbonate units,

60 to 98 mol of isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-resorcinol ester units

optionally, 1 to 20 mol resorcinol carbonate units

isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-bisphenol-A ester units , or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing

29. The railway component of claim 28, wherein the poly(carbonate-arylate ester) com rises units of the formula

wherein m is 4 to 100, and the mole ratio of x:m is 99:1 to 1:99.

30. The railway component of any of claims 23 to 29, wherein the second polymer comprises

1 to 40 mol of bisphenol A carbonate units of the formula

50 to 95 mol of isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-resorcinol units of the formula

siloxane units in an amount effective to provide 0.1 to 10 wt. of siloxane units, based on the weight of the poly(carbonate-arylate ester),

wherein the siloxane units are of the formula

or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein E has an average value of 2 to 90.

31. The railway component of claim 30, wherein E has an average value of 2 to 50.

32. The railway component of any of claims 23 to 31, wherein the organophosphorus compound is an aromatic organophosphorus compound having at least one organic aromatic group and at least one phosphorus-containing group, or an organic compound having at least one phosphorus-nitrogen bond.

33. The railway component of claim 32, wherein the organophosphorus compound is bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate), triphenyl phosphate, resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate), tricresyl phosphate, a phenol/bi-phenol polyphosphate, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing.

34. The railway component of claim 32, wherein organophosphorus compound containing a nitrogen-phosphorus bond is a phosphazene, phosphorus ester amide, phosphoric acid amide, phosphonic acid amide, phosphinic acid amide, tris(aziridinyl) phosphine oxide, a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing.

35. The railway component of claim 32, wherein the organophosphorus compound is effective to provide phosphorus in an amount of 0.1% to 1.0% of phosphorus, based on the weight of the composition.

36. The railway component of any of claims 23 to 35, wherein no or substantially no flame retarding brominated compounds, flame retardant salts, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing are present in the thermoplastic composition.

37. The railway component of any of claims 23 to 36, wherein the thermoplastic composition further comprises 0.05 to 5.0 wt.% of a light diffuser additive comprising silicone, polymethylsilsesquioxane, crosslinked poly(methyl methacrylate), methyl methacrylate/ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate copolymer, Ti02, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing based on the total weight of the polymers in the thermoplastic composition.

38. The railway component of any one of claims 23 to 37, wherein the thermoplastic composition further comprises 0.00002 to 5.0 wt.% of one or more colorants based on the total weight of the polymers in the thermoplastic composition.

39. The railway component of any of claims 23 to 38, wherein the thermoplastic composition comprises, based on the total weight of the composition,

2 to 12 wt.% of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate);

88 to 98 wt.% of a combination comprising, based on the weight of the combination,

20 to 80 wt.% of a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate- tere hthalate-resorcinol ester) of the formula

wherein m is 4 to 100, and the mole ratio of x:m is 99:1 to 1:99, and

20 to 80 wt.% of a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate- terephthalate-resorcinol ester)-co-poly(siloxane) comprising,

1 to 40 mol% of bisphenol A carbonate units,

50 to 95 mol% of isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-resorcinol units, and siloxane units of the formula

or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein E has an average value of 2 to 50, wherein the siloxane units are present in an amount effective to provide 0.1 to 10 wt.% of siloxane units, based on the weight of the poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate-resorcinol ester)-co-poly(siloxane); and

optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, foregoing,

wherein a sample of the thermoplastic composition has:

a smoke density after 4 minutes (Ds-4) of less than or equal to 300 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m ,

an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of less than or equal to 600 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m2,

a maximum average heat release (MAHRE) of less than or equal to 90 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m ,

a critical heat flux at extinguishment (CFE) of higher than or equal to 20 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5658-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque, and

a ductility in multiaxial impact of 80% to 100%, measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs.

40. The railway component of any of claims 23 to 38, wherein the thermoplastic composition comprises, based on the total weight of the composition,

3.5 to 12 wt.% of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate);

88 to 96.5 wt.% of a combination comprising, based on the weight of the

combination,

20 to 80 wt.% of a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate- tere hthalate-resorcinol ester)

wherein m is 4 to 100, and the mole ratio of x:m is 99:1 to 1:99, and

20 to 80 wt.% of a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate- terephthalate-resorcinol ester)-co-poly(siloxane) comprising,

1 to 40 mol% of bisphenol A carbonate units,

50 to 95 mol% of isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-resorcinol units, and siloxane units of the formula

or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein E has an average value of 2 to 50, and the siloxane units are present in an amount effective to provide 0.1 to 10 wt.% of siloxane units, based on the weight of the poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate-resorcinol ester)-co-poly(siloxane); and optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing,

wherein a sample of the thermoplastic composition has:

a smoke density after 4 minutes (Ds-4) of equal to or less than 150 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m ,

an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of equal to or less than 300 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m2,

a maximum average heat release (MAHRE) of equal to or less than 60 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , and

a critical heat flux at extinguishment (CFE) of higher than or equal to 20 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5658-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque, and a ductility in multiaxial impact of 100%, measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs.

41. The railway component of any of claims 23 to 29 or 32 to 38, wherein the thermoplastic composition comprises based on the total weight of the composition,

2 to 12 wt.% of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate);

88 to 98 wt.% of a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate- resorcinol ester of the formula

wherein m is 4 to 100, and the mole ratio of x:m is 99:1 to 1:99, and

optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein a sample of the thermoplastic composition has:

a smoke density after 4 minutes (Ds-4) of equal to or less than 300 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m ,

an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of equal to or less than 600 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m2, a maximum average heat release (MAHRE) of equal to or less than 90 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , and

a critical heat flux at extinguishment (CFE) of higher than or equal to 20 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5658-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque, and

a ductility in multiaxial impact of 100%, measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs.

42. The railway component of any of claims 23 to 29 or 32 to 38, wherein the thermoplastic composition comprises based on the total weight of the composition,

3.5 to 12 wt.% of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate);

88 to 96.5 wt.% of a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate- resorcinol ester of the formula

wherein m is 4 to 100, and the mole ratio of x:m is 99:1 to 1:99; and

optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein a sample of the thermoplastic composition has:

a smoke density after 4 minutes (Ds-4) of equal to or less than 150 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m ,

an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of equal to or less than 300 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m2,

a maximum average heat release (MAHRE) of equal to or less than 60 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , and

a critical heat flux at extinguishment (CFE) of higher than or equal to 20 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5658-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque, and

a ductility in multiaxial impact of 100%, measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs.

43. The railway component of any of claims 23 to 27 and 30 to 38, wherein the thermoplastic composition comprises, based on the total weight of the composition, 2 to 12 wt.% of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate);

88 to 98 wt.% of a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate- resorcinol ester)-co-poly(siloxane) which comprises

1 to 40 mol% of bisphenol A carbonate units,

50 to 95 mol% of isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-resorcinol units, and siloxane units of the formula

or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein E has an average value of 5 to 50, and the siloxane units are present in an amount effective to provide 0.1 to 10 wt.% of siloxane units, based on the weight of the poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate-resorcinol ester)-co-poly(siloxane); and optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein a sample of the thermoplastic composition has:

a smoke density after 4 minutes (Ds-4) of less than or equal to 300 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m ,

an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of less than or equal to 600 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m2,

a maximum average heat release (MAHRE) of less than or equal to 90 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , and

a critical heat flux at extinguishment (CFE) of higher than or equal to 20 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5658-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque, and a ductility in multiaxial impact of 100%, measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs.

44. The railway component of any of claims 23 to 27 or 30 to 38, wherein the thermoplastic composition comprises, based on the total weight of the composition,

3.5 to 12 wt.% of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate);

88 to 96.5 wt.% of a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate- resorcinol ester)-co-poly(siloxane) which comprises

1 to 40 mol% of bisphenol A carbonate units,

50 to 95 mol% of isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-res orcinol units, and siloxane units of the formula

or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein E has an average value of 5 to 50, and the siloxane units are present in an amount effective to provide 0.1 to 10 wt.% of siloxane units, based on the weight of the poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate-resorcinol ester)-co-poly(siloxane); and optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein a sample of the thermoplastic composition has:

a smoke density after 4 minutes (Ds-4) of less than or equal to 150 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of less than or equal to 300 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m2,

a maximum average heat release (MAHRE) of less than or equal to 60 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , and

a critical heat flux at extinguishment (CFE) of higher than or equal to 20 kW/m measured in accordance with ISO 5658-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque, and

a ductility in multiaxial impact of 100%, measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs.

45. The railway component of any of claims 23 to 44, wherein the cladding is an interior vertical surface selected from room dividers, flaps, boxes, hoods and louvres; an interior door or lining for internal and external doors; a window insulation; a kitchen interior surface; an interior horizontal surface selected from ceiling paneling, flaps, boxes, hoods and louvres; a luggage storage area selected from overhead and vertical luggage racks, luggage containers and compartments; a driver's desk application selected from paneling and surfaces of driver's desk; an interior surface of gangways selected from interior sides of gangway membranes (bellows) and interior linings; a window frame ; an optionally folding table with downward facing surface; an interior or exterior surface of air ducts, or a device for passenger information.

46. The railway component of claim 45, wherein the cladding is a side wall, a front wall, an end- wall, a partition, a room divider, an interior door, a window insulation, a lining, a kitchen interior surface, a ceiling panel, an overhead or vertical luggage rack, a luggage container, a luggage compartment, a window frame, an optionally folding table with downward facing surface, or an information display screen.

47. The railway component of any of claims 23 to 46, wherein the component is a partition, a room divider, an interior door or lining for internal and external doors, a window insulation, an overhead and vertical luggage rack, a luggage container and compartment, a window frame; an optionally folding table with downward facing surface; or a device for passenger information; and wherein the component has a transmission of 85% or more and a haze of 3% or less, measured according to ASTM D1003 using the color space CIE1931 (niuminant C and a 2° observer) at a thickness of 3 mm.

48. The railway component of any one of claims 23, 24, and 26 to 47, wherein the component is a partition, a room divider, an interior door or lining for internal and external doors, a window insulation, an overhead and vertical luggage rack, a luggage container and compartment, a window frame, an optionally folding table with downward facing surface, or a device for passenger information; and wherein the thermoplastic composition comprises a light diffuser additive comprising silicone, polymethylsilsesquioxane, crosslinked poly(methyl methacrylate), methyl methacrylate/ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate copolymer, Ti02, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing.

49. A railway component, wherein the component is a molded or extruded component comprising a thermoplastic composition comprising, based on the total weight of the composition,

2 to 12 wt.% of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate);

88 to 98 wt.% of a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate- resorcinol ester)-co-poly(siloxane) which comprises

1 to 40 mol% of bisphenol A carbonate units,

50 to 95 mol% of isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-resorcinol units, and siloxane units of the formula

or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein E has an average value of 5 to 50, and the siloxane units are present in an amount effective to provide 0.1 to 10 wt.% of siloxane units, based on the weight of the poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate-resorcinol ester)-co-poly(siloxane); and optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein a sample of the thermoplastic composition has:

a smoke density after 1.5 min (Dsl.5) of less than or equal to 100 measured according to ASTM E662-12 in flaming and in non-flaming mode on a 3 mm thick plaque,

smoke density after 4 min (Ds4) of less than or equal to 200 measured according to

ASTM E662-12 in flaming and non-flaming mode on a 3 mm thick plaque, and

a maximum flame spread index (Is) of 35 and less, without flaming running or dripping measured according to ASTM E162-12a on a 3 mm thick plaque.

Description:
INTERIOR TRAIN COMPONENTS HAVING LOW SMOKE AND LOW HEAT RELEASE, AND METHODS OF THEIR MANUFACTURE

BACKGROUND

[0001] This disclosure is directed to components for the interior of trains, and in particular seat components and claddings having low smoke density and low heat release.

[0002] Standards for flame retardancy properties such as flame spread, heat release, and smoke generation upon burning have become increasingly stringent for articles used in mass transportation such as trains. The European Union has approved the introduction of a new harmonized fire standard for rail applications, namely EN-45545, to replace all currently active different standards in each member state. This standard imposes stringent

requirements on heat release, smoke density, and toxicity, and flame spread properties allowed for materials used in these applications. Smoke density (Ds-4) in EN-45545 is the smoke density after four minutes measured according to ISO 5659-2, heat release in EN- 45545 is the maximum average rate of heat emission (MAHRE) measured according to ISO5660-1 and flame spread in EN-45545 is the critical heat flux at extinguishment (CFE) measured according to ISO 5658-2.

[0003] "Hazard Levels" (HLl to HL3) have been designated, reflecting the degree of probability of personal injury as the result of a fire. The levels are based on dwell time and are related to operation and design categories. HLl is the lowest hazard level and is typically applicable to vehicles that run under relatively safe conditions (easy evacuation of the vehicle). HL3 is the highest hazard level and represents most dangerous operation/design categories (difficult and/or time-consuming evacuation of the vehicle, e.g. in underground rail cars). For each application type, different test requirements for the hazard levels are defined.

[0004] For R6 applications which cover seat components, requirements on smoke density after four minutes measured according to ISO 5659-2 (Ds-4) are Ds-4 values at or below 300 measured at 50 kW/m 2 for HL2 and at or below 150 measured at 50 kW/m 2 for HL3. Requirements on the maximum average rate of heat emission (MAHRE) measured according to ISO 5660-1 are at or below 90 kW/m 2 determined at 50 kW/m 2 for HL2 and at or below 60 kW/m 2 determined at 50 kW/m 2 for HL3. For R6 applications, no requirements on flame spread measured according to ISO 5658-2 exist.

[0005] Typical applications falling under Rl applications include interior vertical surfaces, such as side walls, front walls, end-walls, partitions, room dividers, flaps, boxes, hoods and louvres; interior doors and linings for internal and external doors; window insulations, kitchen interior surfaces, interior horizontal surfaces, such as ceiling paneling, flaps, boxes, hoods and louvres; luggage storage areas, such as overhead and vertical luggage racks, luggage containers and compartments; driver's desk applications, such as paneling and surfaces of driver's desk; interior surfaces of gangways, such as interior sides of gangway membranes (bellows) and interior linings; window frames (including sealants and gaskets); (folding) tables with downward facing surface; interior and exterior surface of air ducts, and devices for passenger information (such as information display screens). For Rl applications, requirements on smoke density after four minutes measured according to ISO 5659-2 (Ds-4) are Ds-4 values at or below 300 measured at 50 kW/m for HL2 and at or below 150 measured at 50 kW/m for HL3. Requirements on the maximum average rate of heat emission (MAHRE) measured according to ISO 5660-1 are at or below 90 kW/m

9 2 2 determined at 50 kW/m for HL2 and at or below 60 kW/m determined at 50 kW/m for HL3. Requirements on the critical heat flux at extinguishment (CFE) measured according to ISO 5658-2 are at or above 20 kW/m 2 for both HL2 and HL3.

[0006] It is exceptionally challenging to manufacture interior articles for trains that meet stringent smoke density standards, heat release standards and/or flame spread requirements, in addition to other material requirements. It is particularly challenging to manufacture articles that meet these standards and that have good mechanical properties (especially impact/scratch resistance) and processability. Accordingly there remains a need for interior articles for trains, and in particular seat components and claddings that have a combination of low smoke, low heat release, and low flame spread properties. It would be a further advantage if the articles could be rendered low smoke, low heat release, and optionally low flame spread without a significant detrimental effect on one or more of material cost, manufacturing ease, and mechanical properties. It would be a still further advantage if the materials could be readily thermoformed or injection molded. It would still be a further advantage if such materials could be manufactured to be colorless and

transparent. It would be a still further advantage if such materials were in compliance with European Railway standard EN-45545, for example, without having a detrimental effect on material cost, ease of manufacture, and mechanical properties. SUMMARY

[0007] Disclosed herein is a railway component wherein the component is a seat component, and wherein the railway component is molded or formed from a thermoplastic polymer composition comprising, based on the total weight of the composition, 88 to 98 wt.% of a poly(carbonate-arylate ester); 2 to 12 wt.% of an aromatic organophosphorus compound such as BPADP or RDP; and optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein an article having a thickness of 0.5 to 10 mm molded from the composition has a Ds-4 smoke density of less than or equal to

300 measured according to ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , and a MAHRE of less than or equal to 90 kW/m measured according to ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , a multiaxial impact energy at or above 100 J and a ductility of 100% , measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs, and optionally, a melt volume flow rate of greater than 7 cc/10 min measured at 300°C under 1.2 kg force according to ISO 1133, and optionally a molded or formed sample of the thermoplastic polymer composition has a transmission of 85% or more or a haze of 3% or less, each measured according to ASTM D1003 using the color space CIE1931 (Illuminant C and a 2° observer) at a thickness of 3 mm.

[0008] Also described herein is a railway component wherein the component is a seat component, and wherein the railway component is molded or formed from a thermoplastic polymer composition comprising, based on the total weight of the composition, 88 to 96.5 wt.% of a poly(carbonate-arylate ester); 3.5 to 12 wt.% of an aromatic organophosphorus compound such as BPADP or RDP; and optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein an article having a thickness of 0.5 to 10 mm molded from the composition has a Ds-4 smoke density of less than or equal to

150 measured according to ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , and a MAHRE of less than or equal to 60 kW/m measured according to ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , a multiaxial impact energy at or above 100 J and a ductility of 100% , measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs, and optionally, a melt volume flow rate of greater than 7 cc/10 min measured at 300°C under 1.2 kg force according to ISO 1133, and optionally a molded or formed sample of the thermoplastic polymer composition has a transmission of 85% or more or a haze of 3% or less, each measured according to ASTM D1003 using the color space CIE1931 (Illuminant C and a 2° observer) at a thickness of 3 mm.

[0009] Also described herein is a railway component wherein the component is an interior vertical surface, such as side walls, front walls, end- walls, partitions, room dividers, flaps, boxes, hoods and louvres; an interior door or lining for internal and external doors; a window insulation, a kitchen interior surface, an interior horizontal surface, such as ceiling paneling, flaps, boxes, hoods and louvres; a luggage storage area, such as overhead and vertical luggage racks, luggage containers and compartments; a driver's desk application, such as paneling and surfaces of driver's desk; an interior surface of gangways, such as interior sides of gangway membranes (bellows) and interior linings; a window frame

(including sealants and gaskets); a (folding) table with downward facing surface; an interior or exterior surface of air ducts, or a device for passenger information, such as information display screens, and wherein the railway component is molded or formed from a

thermoplastic polymer composition comprising, based on the total weight of the composition, 88 to 98 wt.% of a poly(carbonate-arylate ester); 2 to 12 wt.% of an aromatic

organophosphorus compound such as BPADP or RDP; and optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein an article having a thickness of 0.5 to 10 mm molded from the composition has a Ds-4 smoke density of less than or equal to 300 measured according to ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m 2 , and a MAHRE of less than or equal to 90 kW/m 2 measured according to ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , a critical heat flux at extinguishment (CFE) of equal to or more than 20 kW/m measured according to ISO 5658-2 at a 3 mm thick plaque, a multiaxial impact energy at or above 100 J and a ductility of 100% , measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs, and optionally, a melt volume flow rate of greater than 7 cc/10 min measured at 300°C under 1.2 kg force according to ISO 1133, and optionally a molded or formed sample of the

thermoplastic polymer composition has a transmission of 85% or more or a haze of 3% or less, each measured according to ASTM D1003 using the color space CIE1931 (Illuminant C and a 2° observer) at a thickness of 3 mm.

[0010] Also described herein is a railway component wherein the component is an interior vertical surface, such as side walls, front walls, end- walls, partitions, room dividers, flaps, boxes, hoods and louvres; an interior door or lining for internal and external doors; a window insulation, a kitchen interior surface, an interior horizontal surface, such as ceiling paneling, flaps, boxes, hoods and louvres; a luggage storage area, such as overhead and vertical luggage racks, luggage containers and compartments; a driver's desk application, such as paneling and surfaces of driver's desk; an interior surface of gangways, such as interior sides of gangway membranes (bellows) and interior linings; a window frame

(including sealants and gaskets); a (folding) table with downward facing surface; an interior or exterior surface of air ducts, or a device for passenger information, such as information display screens, and wherein the railway component is molded or formed from a

thermoplastic polymer composition comprising, based on the total weight of the composition, 88 to 96.5 wt.% of a poly(carbonate-arylate ester); 3.5 to 12 wt.% of an aromatic

organophosphorus compound such as BPADP or RDP; and optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein an article having a thickness of 0.5 to 10 mm molded from the composition has a Ds-4 smoke density of less than or equal to 150 measured according to ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m 2 , and a MAHRE of less than or equal to 60 kW/m 2 measured according to ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , a critical heat flux at extinguishment (CFE) of equal to or more than 20 kW/m measured according to ISO 5658-2 at a 3 mm thick plaque, a multiaxial impact energy at or above 100 J and a ductility of 100% , measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs, and optionally, a melt volume flow rate of greater than 7 cc/10 min measured at 300°C under 1.2 kg force according to ISO 1133, and optionally a molded or formed sample of the

thermoplastic polymer composition has a transmission of 85% or more or a haze of 3% or less, each measured according to ASTM D1003 using the color space CIE1931 (Illuminant C and a 2° observer) at a thickness of 3 mm.

[0011] A railway component, wherein the component is a molded or extruded component, comprises a thermoplastic composition comprises, based on the total weight of the composition, 2 to 12 wt.% of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate); 88 to 98 wt.% of a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate-resorcinol ester)-co- poly(siloxane) which comprises 1 to 40 mol% of bisphenol A carbonate units, 50 to 95 mol% of isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-resorcinol units, and siloxane units of the formula

or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein E has an average value of 5 to 50, and the siloxane units are present in an amount effective to provide 0.1 to 10 wt.% of siloxane units, based on the weight of the poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate- terephthalate-resorcinol ester)-co-poly(siloxane); and optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein a sample of the thermoplastic composition has: a smoke density after 1.5 min (Dsl.5) of less than or equal to 100 measured according to ASTM E662-12 in flaming and in non-flaming mode on a 3 mm thick plaque, a smoke density after 4 min (Ds4) of less than or equal to 200 measured according to ASTM E662-12 in flaming and non-flaming mode on a 3 mm thick plaque, and a maximum flame spread index (Is) of 35 and less, without flaming running or dripping measured according to ASTM E162-12a on a 3 mm thick plaque.

[0012] In yet another embodiment, a method of manufacture of the railway component comprises molding or extruding the above-described compositions to form the component.

[0013] The above described and other features are exemplified by the following Figures, Detailed Description, and Examples.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0014] A description of the figures, which are meant to be exemplary and not limiting, is provided in which [0015] Figure 1 shows the effect of increasing BPADP concentration in an ITR-PC copolymer on heat release (MAHRE); and

[0016] Figure 2 shows the effect of increasing BPADP concentration in an ITR-PC copolymer on smoke density (Ds-4).

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0017] The inventors hereof have developed articles for use in the train interiors, including seat components and claddings. The articles have low heat release characteristics; in particular improved MAHRE measured according to ISO 5660-1, and can unexpectedly be obtained by use of specific thermoplastic polycarbonate compositions. Thus, it has been discovered that the addition of relatively small amounts of organophosphorus compounds to certain polycarbonate copolymers, in particular poly(carbonate-arylate ester)s allows the manufacture of seat components and claddings having the desired low smoke and low heat release properties, and optionally low flame spread properties. Addition of the

organophosphorus compounds further does not adversely impact the smoke densities measured according to IS05659-2, and in some instances further reduces the smoke densities of the poly(carbonate-arylate ester)s. These results are particularly surprising because similar results are not observed when heat release is determined using other methods, for example, heat release testing performed using the Ohio State University (OSU) rate-of-heat release apparatus, in accordance with the method shown in FAR 25.853(d), and in Appendix F, section IV (FAR F25.4), or when smoke density is measured according to ASTM E662. Further, the other desirable properties of the poly(carbonate-arylate ester)s, for example low flow, impact properties, transparency, haze and colorability are not adversely affected.

[0018] Thus, poly(carbonate-arylate ester)s that do not meet low heat release standards can be formulated so as to have very low heat-release properties and low smoke densities, with improved processing properties such as flowability, and without significantly compromising mechanical properties such as impact resistance. The addition of the organophosphorus compounds to poly(carbonate-arylate ester) copolymers results in an improved balance of properties compared to the same copolymers without the

organophosphorus compounds, namely significantly reduced heat release (MAHRE) measured according to ISO 5660-1 at 50 kW/m , an equal or reduced smoke density (Ds-4) measured according to ISO 5659-2 at 50 kW/m , and improved flow (MVR) measured according to ISO 1133, without significantly compromising practical impact properties (MAI) measured according to ISO 6603. In a particularly advantageous feature, the thermoplastic compositions can have very low smoke density with Ds-4 values at or below

300 measured according to ISO 5659- 2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , a low maximum average heat release (MAHRE) at or below 90 kJ/m measured according to ISO

5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , while allowing sufficient melt flow for injection molding of relatively large parts, while simultaneously retaining sufficient practical impact resistance characteristics. In a particularly more advantageous feature, the thermoplastic compositions can have very low smoke density with Ds-4 values at or below 150 measured according to ISO 5659- 2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , a low maximum average heat release (MAHRE) at or below 60 kJ/m measured according to ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , while allowing sufficient melt flow for injection molding of relatively large parts, while simultaneously retaining sufficient practical impact resistance characteristics. Optionally, the compositions can have a critical heat flux at extinguishment

(CFE) at or above 20 kW/m measured according to ISO 5658-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque. Furthermore, these compositions can have a transmission of 85% or more or a haze of 3% or less, each measured according to ASTM D1003 using the color space CIE1931 (Illuminant C and a 2° observer) at a thickness of 3 mm. Accordingly, provided herein are seat components and claddings molded or extruded from a composition comprising a poly(carbonate-arylate ester), that is a copolymer comprising repeating carbonate units and repeating arylate ester units. As described in more detail below, the copolymers can additionally contain siloxane units.

[0019] The repeating structural carbonate units of are of formula (1)

O R 1 — O C O (1)

in which at least 75%, at least 90%, at least 95%, of the total number of R 1 groups contain aromatic moieties and the balance thereof are aliphatic, alicyclic, or aromatic groups. In an embodiment each R 1 is an aromatic group, for example a C 6 -3o aromatic group that contains at least one aromatic moiety, to provide optimal flammability performance of the

poly(carbonate-arylate ester)s. R 1 can be derived from a dihydroxy compound of the formula HO-R^OH, in particular a group of formula (2)

HO-A -Y -A^OH (2)

1 2 1 wherein each of A and A is a monocyclic divalent aromatic group and Y is a single bond or

1 2

a bridging group having one or more atoms that separate A from A . For example, one atom separates A 1 from A2. Specifically, each R 1 can be derived from an aromatic dihydroxy compound in particular a bisphenol of formula (3)

wherein R a and R b are each independently a C 1-12 alkyl; and p and q are each independently integers of 0 to 4. It will be understood that R a is hydrogen when p is 0, and likewise R b is hydrogen when q is 0. In an embodiment, no halogen is present.

[0020] Also in formula (3), X a is a bridging group connecting the two hydroxy- substituted aromatic groups, where the bridging group and the hydroxy substituent of each C 6 arylene group are disposed ortho, meta, or para (specifically para) to each other on the C 6 arylene group. The bridging group X a can be a single bond, -0-, -S-, -S(O)-, -S(0) 2 -, -C(O)-, or a Ci_i8 organic group. The C 1-18 organic bridging group can be cyclic or acyclic, aromatic or non-aromatic, and can further comprise heteroatoms such as halogens, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, silicon, or phosphorus. The C 1-18 organic group can be disposed such that the C 6 arylene groups connected thereto are each connected to a common alkylidene carbon or to different carbons of the C 1-18 organic bridging group, p and q can each be 1, and R a and R b can each be a C 1-3 alkyl group, specifically methyl, disposed meta to the hydroxy group on each arylene group.

[0021] X a can be a substituted or unsubstituted C 3 _i 8 cycloalkylidene, a Ci_ 2 5 alkylidene of formula -C(R c )(R d ) - wherein R c and R d are each independently hydrogen, Ci_ 12 alkyl, C 1-12 cycloalkyl, C 7-12 arylalkyl, C 1-12 heteroalkyl, or cyclic C 7-12 heteroarylalkyl, or a group of the formula -C(=R 6 )- wherein R e is a divalent C 1-12 hydrocarbon group. Exemplary groups of this type include methylene, cyclohexylmethylene, ethylidene, neopentylidene, and isopropylidene, as well as 2-[2.2.1]-bicycloheptylidene, cyclohexylidene, cyclopentylidene, cyclododecylidene, and adamantylidene. A specific example wherein X a is a substituted cycloalkylidene is the cyclohexylidene-bridged, alkyl- substituted bisphenol of formula (4)

(4)

wherein R a and R b are each independently C 1-12 alkyl, R g is C 1-12 alkyl or halogen, r and s are each independently 1 to 4, and t is 0 to 10. Specifically, at least one of each of R a and R b are disposed meta to the cyclohexylidene bridging group. The substituents R a , R b , and R g can, when comprising an appropriate number of carbon atoms, be straight chain, cyclic, bicyclic, branched, saturated, or unsaturated. R a and R b can each independently be Ci_ 4 alkyl, R g is Ci_ 4 alkyl, r and s are each 1, and t is 0 to 5. Likewise, R a , R b and R g can each be methyl, where r and s can each be 1, and t is 0 or 3. The cyclohexylidene-bridged bisphenol can be the reaction product of two moles of o-cresol with one mole of cyclohexanone. In another example, the cyclohexylidene-bridged bisphenol is the reaction product of two moles of a cresol with one mole of a hydrogenated isophorone (e.g., l,l,3-trimethyl-3-cyclohexane-5- one). Such cyclohexane-containing bisphenols, for example the reaction product of two moles of a phenol with one mole of a hydrogenated isophorone, are useful for making polycarbonate polymers with high glass transition temperatures and high heat distortion temperatures.

[0022] X a can also be a Ci_i8 alkylene group, a C 3 _i8 cycloalkylene group, a fused C 6 - is cycloalkylene group, or a group of the formula -B 1 -Q-B2 - wherein B 1 and B2 are the same or different Ci_ 6 alkylene group and Q is a C 3 _i 2 cycloalkylidene group or a C 6 -i6 arylene group.

0023] X a can also be a substituted C 3 _is cycloalkylidene of formula (5)

wherein R r , R p , R q , and R 1 are each independently hydrogen, halogen, oxygen, or C 1-12 organic groups; I is a direct bond, a carbon, or a divalent oxygen, sulfur, or -N(Z)- where Z is hydrogen, halogen, hydroxy, C 1-12 alkyl, C 1-12 alkoxy, or C 1-12 acyl; h is 0 to 2, j is 1 or 2, i is an integer of 0 or 1, and k is an integer of 0 to 3, with the proviso that at least two of R r , R p , R q , and R 1 taken together are a fused cycloaliphatic, aromatic, or heteroaromatic ring. It will be understood that where the fused ring is aromatic, the ring as shown in formula (5) will have an unsaturated carbon-carbon linkage where the ring is fused. When k is one and i is 0, the ring as shown in formula (5) contains 4 carbon atoms, when k is 2, the ring as shown in formula (5) contains 5 carbon atoms, and when k is 3, the ring contains 6 carbon atoms. The two adjacent groups (e.g., R q and R 1 taken together) can form an aromatic group, and likewise, R q and R 1 taken together can form one aromatic group and R r and R p taken together can form a second aromatic group. When R q and R 1 taken together form an aromatic group, R p can be a double-bonded oxygen atom, i.e., a ketone. [0024] Other useful aromatic dihydroxy compounds of the formula HO-R^-OH include monoaryl dihydroxy compounds of formula (6)

wherein each R h is independently a halogen atom, a C 1-10 hydrocarbyl such as a C 1-10 alkyl group, a halogen-substituted C 1-10 alkyl group, a C 6 -io aryl group, or a halo gen- substituted C 6 - io aryl group, and n is 0 to 4. The halogen is usually bromine. In an embodiment, no halogen is present.

[0025] Some illustrative examples of specific aromatic dihydroxy compounds include 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl, 1,6-dihydroxynaphthalene, 2,6-dihydroxynaphthalene, bis(4- hydroxyphenyl)methane, bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)diphenylmethane, bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)- 1 - naphthylmethane, 1 ,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethane, 1 , 1 -bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)- 1 - phenylethane, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propane, bis(4- hydroxyphenyl)phenylmethane, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-3-bromophenyl)propane, 1,1-bis

(hydroxyphenyl)cyclopentane, 1 , 1 -bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane, 1 , 1 -bis (4- hydroxyphenyl)isobutene, l,l-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclododecane, trans-2,3-bis(4- hydroxyphenyl)-2-butene, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)adamantane, alpha, alpha' -bis(4- hydroxyphenyl)toluene, bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetonitrile, 2,2-bis(3-methyl-4- hydroxyphenyl)propane, 2,2-bis(3-ethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, 2,2-bis(3-n-propyl-4- hydroxyphenyl)propane, 2,2-bis(3-isopropyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, 2,2-bis(3-sec-butyl- 4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, 2,2-bis(3-t-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, 2,2-bis(3-cyclohexyl- 4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, 2,2-bis(3-allyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, 2,2-bis(3-methoxy-4- hydroxyphenyl)propane, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane, l,l-dichloro-2,2- bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylene, 1 , 1 -dibromo-2,2-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylene, 1 , 1 -dichloro- 2,2-bis(5-phenoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylene, 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone, 3,3-bis(4- hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone, l,6-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-l,6-hexanedione, ethylene glycol bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)ether, bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)ether, bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)sulfide, bis(4- hydroxyphenyl) sulfoxide, bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)sulfone, 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)fluorine, 2,7-dihydroxypyrene, 6,6'-dihydroxy-3,3,3',3'- tetramethylspiro(bis)indane ("spirobiindane bisphenol"), 3,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)phthalimide, 2,6-dihydroxydibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,6- dihydroxythianthrene, 2,7-dihydroxyphenoxathin, 2,7-dihydroxy-9, 10-dimethylphenazine, 3,6-dihydroxydibenzofuran, 3,6-dihydroxydibenzothiophene, and 2,7-dihydroxycarbazole, resorcinol, substituted resorcinol compounds such as 5-methyl resorcinol, 5-ethyl resorcinol, 5-propyl resorcinol, 5-butyl resorcinol, 5-t-butyl resorcinol, 5-phenyl resorcinol, 5-cumyl resorcinol, 2,4,5, 6-tetrafluoro resorcinol, 2,4,5, 6-tetrabromo resorcinol, or the like; catechol; hydroquinone; substituted hydroquinones such as 2-methyl hydroquinone, 2-ethyl

hydroquinone, 2-propyl hydroquinone, 2-butyl hydroquinone, 2-t-butyl hydroquinone, 2- phenyl hydroquinone, 2-cumyl hydroquinone, 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl hydroquinone, 2,3,5,6- tetra-t-butyl hydroquinone, 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro hydroquinone, 2,3,5, 6-tetrabromo

hydroquinone, or the like, or combinations comprising at least one of the foregoing dihydroxy compounds.

[0026] Specific examples of bisphenol compounds of formula (3) include l,l-bis(4- hydroxyphenyl) methane, l,l-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethane, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane (hereinafter "bisphenol-A" or "BPA"), 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) butane, 2,2-bis(4- hydroxyphenyl) octane, l,l-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane, l,l-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) n- butane, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-2-methylphenyl) propane, l,l-bis(4-hydroxy-t-butylphenyl) propane, 3,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) phthalimidine, 2-phenyl-3,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) phthalimidine (PPPBP), and l,l-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)cyclohexane (DMBPC). Combinations comprising at least one of the foregoing dihydroxy compounds can also be used.

0027] In a specific embodiment, the polycarbonate units are of the formula (la)

wherein R a and R b are each independently are each independently Ci_i 2 alkyl, p and q are each independently integers of 0 to 4, and X a is a single bond, -0-, -S-, -S(O)-, -S(0) 2 -, - C(O)-, or a Ci-18 organic group. Alternatively, R a and R b are each independently a C 1 -3 alkyl, p and q are each independently 0 or 1, and X a is alkylidene of formula -C(R c )(R d ) - wherein R c and R d are each Ci_ 6 alkyl. Specifically, the carbonate units are derived from bisphenol-A, in which each of A 1 and A2 is p-phenylene and Y 1 is isopropylidene in formula (la). Such units are referred to herein as "bisphenol A carbonate units."

[0028] In addition to carbonate units (1), specifically carbonate units (la), more specifically bisphenol-A carbonate units, the poly(carbonate-arylate ester) copolymers contain repeating arylate ester units of formula (7) wherein Ar 1 is a C 6 -32 hydrocarbyl group containing at least one aromatic group, e.g., a phenyl, naphthalene, anthracene, or the like. In an embodiment, Ar 1 is derived from a bisphenol (3), a monoaryl dihydroxy compound (6), or a combination comprising different bisphenol or monoaryl dihydroxy compounds. Thus, arylate ester units (7) can be derived by reaction of isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing (referred to herein as a "phthalic acid"), with an aromatic bisphenol (3), a monoaryl dihydroxy compound (6), or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing. The molar ratio of isophthalate to terephthalate can be 1:99 to 99:1, or 80:20 to 20:80, or 60:40 to 40:60.

[0029] The poly(carbonate-arylate ester) copolymers comprising carbonate units (1), specifically bisphenol-A carbonate units, and arylate ester units (7) can be alternating or block copolymers of formula (8)

wherein R 1 and Ar 1 are as defined in formulas (1) and (7), respectively.

[0030] In general, the copolymers are block copolymers containing carbonate blocks and ester blocks. The weight ratio of total ester units to total carbonate units in the copolymers can vary broadly, for example from 99:1 to 1:99, or from 95:5 to 5:95, specifically from 90:10 to 10:90, or more specifically from 90:10 to 50:50, depending on the desired properties of the thermoplastic composition. The molar ratio of isophthalate to terephthalate in the ester units of the copolymers can also vary broadly, for example from 0:100 to 100:0, or from 92:8 to 8:92, more specifically from 98:2 to 45:55, depending on the desired properties of the thermoplastic composition. For example, the weight ratio of total ester units to total carbonate can be 99:1 to 40:60, or 90:10 to 50:40, wherein the molar ratio of isophthalate to terephthalate is from 99:1 to 40:50, more specifically 98:2 to 45:55, depending on the desired properties of the thermoplastic composition.

[0031] Additional carbonate units derived from the dihydroxy compound used to form the arylate ester units (7) can also be present in the copolymers, for example in amounts of less than 20 mole , less than 10 mole , less than 5 mole , or less than 1 mole based on the total moles of units in the copolymer. It is also possible to have additional arylate ester units present derived from reaction of the phthalic acid with the dihydroxy compound used to form the carbonate units, for example in amounts of less than 20 mole , less than 10 mole , less than 5 mole , or less than 1 mole based on the total moles of units in the copolymer. In an embodiment, the combination of such additional carbonate units and such additional arylate ester units are present in an amount of less than 20 mole , less than 10 mole , less than 5 mole , or less than 1 mole based on the total moles of units in the copolymer.

[0032] A specific poly(carbonate-arylate ester) is a poly(carbonate-bisphenol arylate ester) comprising carbonate units (1), specifically bisphenol carbonate units, even more specifically bisphenol- A carbonate units and repeating bisphenol arylate ester units.

Bisphenol arylate units comprise residues of phthalic acid and a bisphenol, for example a bis henol 3). In an embodiment the bisphenol arylate ester units are of formula (7a)

ach independently 0 to 4, and X a is a bridging group between the two arylene groups, and is a single bond, -0-, -S-, - S(O)-, -S(0) 2 -, -C(O)-, or a Ci_i8 organic group. In an embodiment X a can be a substituted or unsubstituted C 3 _i8 cycloalkylidene, a Ci- 25 alkylidene of formula -C(R c )(R d ) - wherein R c and R d are each independently hydrogen, Ci_i 2 alkyl, Ci_i 2 cycloalkyl, C 7 _i 2 arylalkyl, Ci_i 2 heteroalkyl, or cyclic C 7 _i 2 heteroarylalkyl, or a group of the formula -C(=R 6 )- wherein R e is a divalent Ci_i 2 hydrocarbon group. For example, R a and R b are each independently a C 1 -3 alkyl, p and q are each independently 0 or 1, and X a is alkylidene of formula -C(R c )(R d ) - wherein R c and R d are each Ci_ 6 alkyl. In an embodiment, p and q is each 1, and R a and R b are each a Ci_ 3 alkyl group, specifically methyl, disposed meta to the oxygen on each ring. The bisphenol can be bisphenol-A, where p and q are both 0 and X a is isopropylidene. In an embodiment, the ratio of the weight percent of ester units to weight percent carbonate units in the copolymers is 50:50 to 99: 1, or 55:45 to 90: 10, or 75:25 to 95:5.

[0033] A specific example of a poly(carbonate-bisphenol arylate ester) is a oly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(bisphenol-A phthalate ester) of formula (8a)

wherein x and y represent the weight percent of bisphenol-A carbonate units and arylate bisphenol-A ester units, respectively. Generally, the units are present as blocks. In an embodiment, the ratio of the weight percent carbonate units x to ester units y in the copolymers is 50:50 to 1:99, or 45:55 to 35:65, or 25:75 to 15:85. Thus, copolymers of formula (8a) comprising 35 to 45 wt.% of carbonate units and 55 to 65 wt.% of ester units, wherein the ester units have a molar ratio of isophthalate to terephthalate of 45:55 to 55:45 are often referred to as poly(carbonate-ester)s (PCE) and copolymers comprising 15 to 25 wt.% of carbonate units and 75 to 85 wt.% of ester units having a molar ratio of isophthalate to terephthalate from 98:2 to 88:12 are often referred to as poly(phthalate-carbonate)s (PPC).

[0034] In another embodiment, a specific poly(carbonate-arylate ester) is a poly(carbonate-monoaryl arylate ester) comprising carbonate units (1), specifically bisphenol carbonate units, even more specifically bisphenol-A carbonate units, and repeating monoaryl arylate- ester units of formula (7b)

wherein each R h is independently a halogen atom, a C 1-10 hydrocarbyl such as a C 1-10 alkyl group, a halogen-substituted Ci_io alkyl group, a C 6 -io aryl group, or a halo gen- substituted C 6 - io aryl group, and n is 0 to 4. Specifically, each R h is independently a C 1-4 alkyl, and n is 0 to 3, 0 to 1, or 0. These poly(carbonate-monoaryl arylate) copolymers are of formula (8b)

wherein R 1 is as defined in formula (1) and R h , and n are as defined in formula (7b), and the mole ratio of x:m is 99:1 to 1:99, specifically 80:20 to 20:80, or 60:40 to 40:60.

[0035] A specific example of monoaryl ester unit (7b) is derived from the reaction of a phthalic diacid (or a derivative thereof) with resorcinol (or a reactive derivative thereof) to provide isophthalate-terephthalate-resorcinol ("ITR" ester units) of formula (7c)

[0036] In an embodiment, the ITR ester units are present in the poly(carbonate-arylate ester) copolymer in an amount greater than or equal to 95 mol%, specifically greater than or equal to 99 mol%, and still more specifically greater than or equal to 99.5 mol% based on the total moles of ester units in the copolymer. Such (isophthalate-terephthalate-resorcinol)- carbonate copolymers ("ITR-PC") can possess many desired features, including toughness, transparency, and weatherability. ITR-PC copolymers can also have desirable thermal flow properties. In addition, ITR-PC copolymers can be readily manufactured on a commercial scale using interfacial polymerization techniques, which allow synthetic flexibility and composition specificity in the synthesis of the ITR-PC copolymers.

[0037] As described above, the ITR-PC polymers can further optionally comprise small amounts of other carbonate units, for example 1 to 20 mole of other carbonate units, based on the total moles of units in the copolymers. In an embodiment, the other carbonate unit arises from carbonylation of the monoaryl dihydroxy compound (6). Other arylate ester units can optionally be present, for example 1 to 20 mole of bisphenol arylate ester units (7b), based on the total moles of units in the copolymers. The bisphenol arylate units can arise from the presence of a bisphenol used to form the carbonate units. In an embodiment, wherein the total amount of the combination is other carbonate units and other arylate ester units is 1 to 20 mole , based on the total moles of units in the copolymers.

[0038] A specific example of a poly(carbonate)-co-poly(monoaryl arylate ester) is a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate-resorcinol ester) of formula (8c)

wherein m is 4 to 100, 4 to 90, 5 to 70, more specifically 5 to 50, or still more specifically 10 to 30, and the mole ratio of x:m is 99:1 to 1:99, specifically 90:10 to 10:90. The ITR ester units are present in the poly(carbonate-arylate ester) copolymer in an amount greater than or equal to 95 mol , specifically greater than or equal to 99 mol , and still more specifically greater than or equal to 99.5 mol based on the total moles of ester units. Other carbonate units, other ester units, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing can be present, in a total amount of 1 to 20 mole based on the total moles of units in the copolymers for example resorcinol carbonate units of the formula

and bisphenol-A phthalate ester units of the formula

[0039] In an embodiment, poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate- terephthalate-resorcinol ester) (8c) comprises 1 to 20 mol of bisphenol-A carbonate units, 60-98 mol of isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-resorcinol ester units, and optionally 1 to 20 mol of resorcinol carbonate units, isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-bisphenol-A phthalate ester units, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing.

[0040] The poly(carbonate-arylate ester) copolymers can be prepared by methods known in the art. For example, the copolymers are units can be prepared from polycarbonate blocks and polyester blocks. Polycarbonate blocks and polyester blocks can be obtained by interfacial polymerization or melt polymerization.

[0041] Polycarbonate blocks can be manufactured by processes such as interfacial polymerization and melt polymerization. Although the reaction conditions for interfacial polymerization can vary, an exemplary process generally involves dissolving or dispersing the dihydroxy reactant in aqueous caustic soda or potash, adding the resulting mixture to a water-immiscible solvent medium, and contacting the reactants with a carbonate precursor in the presence of a catalyst such as triethylamine and/or a phase transfer catalyst, under controlled pH conditions, e.g., 8 to 12. The most commonly used water immiscible solvents include methylene chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, chlorobenzene, toluene, and the like.

Exemplary carbonate precursors include a carbonyl halide such as carbonyl bromide or carbonyl chloride or a haloformate such as a bishaloformates of a dihydric phenol (e.g., the bischloroformates of bisphenol-A, hydroquinone, or the like) or a glycol (e.g., the bishaloformate of ethylene glycol, neopentyl glycol, polyethylene glycol, or the like).

Combinations comprising at least one of the foregoing types of carbonate precursors can also be used. In an exemplary embodiment, an interfacial polymerization reaction to form carbonate linkages uses phosgene as a carbonate precursor, and is referred to as a

phosgenation reaction.

[0042] Among the phase transfer catalysts that can be used are catalysts of the formula (R 3 ) 4 Q 4- X, wherein each R 3 is the same or different, and is a C 1-10 alkyl group; Q is a nitrogen or phosphorus atom; and X is a halogen atom or a C 1-8 alkoxy group or C 6-18 aryloxy group. Exemplary phase transfer catalysts include, for example, [CH 3 (CH 2 )3] 4 NX, [CH 3 (CH 2 )3] 4 PX, [CH 3 (CH 2 ) 5 ] 4 NX, [CH 3 (CH 2 ) 6 ] 4 NX, [CH 3 (CH 2 ) 4 ] 4 NX,

CH 3 [CH 3 (CH 2 ) 3 ] 3 NX, and CH 3 [CH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 ] 3 NX, wherein X is CI " , Br " , a Ci_ 8 alkoxy group or a C 6- 1 8 aryloxy group. An effective amount of a phase transfer catalyst can be 0.1 to 10 wt.% based on the weight of bisphenol in the phosgenation mixture. In another embodiment an effective amount of phase transfer catalyst can be 0.5 to 2 wt.% based on the weight of bisphenol in the phosgenation mixture.

[0043] Branched polycarbonate blocks can be prepared by adding a branching agent during polymerization. These branching agents include polyfunctional organic compounds containing at least three functional groups selected from hydroxyl, carboxyl, carboxylic anhydride, haloformyl, and mixtures of the foregoing functional groups. Specific examples include trimellitic acid, trimellitic anhydride, trimellitic trichloride, tris-p-hydroxy phenyl ethane, isatin-bis-phenol, tris-phenol TC (l,3,5-tris((p-hydroxyphenyl)isopropyl)benzene), tris-phenol PA (4(4(1, l-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-ethyl) alpha, alpha-dimethyl benzyl)phenol), 4-chloroformyl phthalic anhydride, trimesic acid, and benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid. The branching agents can be added at a level of 0.05 to 2.0 wt. %. Combinations comprising linear and branched polycarbonate blocks can be used.

[0044] For the polyester blocks, rather than using the dicarboxylic acid or diol per se, the reactive derivatives of the acid or diol, such as the corresponding acid halides, in particular the acid dichlorides and the acid dibromides can be used. Thus, for example instead of using isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing acids, isophthaloyl dichloride, terephthaloyl dichloride, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing dichlorides can be used. The polyesters can also be obtained by melt-process condensation as described above, by solution phase condensation, or by transesterification polymerization wherein, for example, a dialkyl ester such as dimethyl terephthalate can be transesterified with the dihydroxy reactant using acid catalysis, to generate the polyester blocks. Branched polyester blocks, in which a branching agent, for example, a glycol having three or more hydroxyl groups or a trifunctional or multifunctional carboxylic acid has been incorporated, can be used. Furthermore, it can be desirable to have various concentrations of acid and hydroxyl end groups on the polyester blocks, depending on the ultimate end use of the composition.

[0045] The poly(carbonate-arylate ester)s can have a weight average molecular weight (Mw) of 2,000 to 100,000 g/mol, specifically 3,000 to 75,000 g/mol, more specifically 4,000 to 50,000 g/mol, more specifically 5,000 to 35,000 g/mol, and still more specifically 17,000 to 30,000 g/mol. Molecular weight determinations are performed using GPC using a cross linked styrene-divinyl benzene column, at a sample concentration of 1 milligram per milliliter, and as calibrated with polycarbonate standards. Samples are eluted at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min with methylene chloride as the eluent.

[0046] In another embodiment, the poly(carbonate-arylate ester) copolymers further comprise siloxane units (also known as "diorganosiloxane units"). In a specific embodiment these copolymers comprises carbonate units (1) derived from a bisphenol (3), specifically bisphenol-A; monoaryl arylate ester units (7b), and siloxane units. Still more specifically, the poly(carbonate-arylate ester) copolymers comprises bisphenol-A carbonate units, ITR ester units (7c), and siloxane units (9). For convenience, these polymers, poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate-resorcinol ester)-co-poly(siloxane), are referred to herein as "ITR- PC- siloxane" copolymers.

0047] The polysiloxane units are of formula (9)

wherein each R is independently a Ci_i 3 monovalent hydrocarbyl group. For example, each R can independently be a Ci_i 3 alkyl group, Ci_i 3 alkoxy group, C 2 -i 3 alkenyl group, C 2 _i 3 alkenyloxy group, C 3 _ 6 cycloalkyl group, C 3 _ 6 cycloalkoxy group, C 6 -i4 aryl group, C 6 -io aryloxy group, C 7 _i 3 arylalkyl group, C 7 _i 3 arylalkoxy group, C 7 _i 3 alkylaryl group, or C 7 _i 3 alkylaryloxy group. The foregoing groups can be fully or partially halogenated with fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing. In an embodiment no halogens are present. Combinations of the foregoing R groups can be used in the same copolymer. In an embodiment, the polysiloxane comprises R groups that have minimal hydrocarbon content. In a specific embodiment, an R group with a minimal hydrocarbon content is a methyl group.

[0048] The average value of E in formula (9) can vary widely depending on the type and relative amount of each component in the thermoplastic composition, whether the polymer is linear, branched or a graft copolymer, the desired properties of the composition, and like considerations. In an embodiment, E has an average value of 2 to 500, 2 to 200, or 2 to 90, 2 to 50, or 2 to 30. In an embodiment E has an average value of 16 to 50, more specifically 20 to 45, and even more specifically 25 to 45. In another embodiment, E has an average value of 4 to 50, 4 to 15, specifically 5 to 15, more specifically 6 to 15, and still more specifically 7 to 10.

[0049 In an embodiment, the polysiloxane units are structural units of formula (9a)

wherein E is as defined above; each R can independently be the same or different, and is as defined above; and each Ar can independently be the same or different, and is a substituted or unsubstituted C 6 -3o compound containing an aromatic group, wherein the bonds are directly connected to the aromatic moiety. The Ar groups in formula (9a) can be derived from a C 6 -3o dihydroxy aromatic compound, for example a bisphenol compound as described above or a monoaryl dihydroxy compound (6) above. Combinations comprising at least one of the foregoing dihydroxy aromatic compounds can also be used. Exemplary dihydroxy aromatic compounds are resorcinol (i.e., 1,3-dihydroxybenzene), 4-methyl-l,3-dihydroxybenzene, 5- methyl- 1 ,3-dihydroxybenzene, 4,6-dimethyl- 1 ,3-dihydroxybenzene, 1 ,4-dihydroxybenzene, l,l-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) methane, l,l-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethane, 2,2-bis(4- hydroxyphenyl) propane, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) butane, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) octane, l,l-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane, l,l-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) n-butane, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-l- methylphenyl) propane, l,l-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) cyclohexane, bis(4-hydroxyphenyl sulfide), and l,l-bis(4-hydroxy-t-butylphenyl) propane. Combinations comprising at least one of the foregoing dihydroxy compounds can also be used. In an embodiment, the dihydroxy aromatic compound is unsubstituted, or is does not contain non-aromatic hydrocarbyl substituents such as alkyl, alkoxy, or alkylene substituents.

[0050] In a specific embodiment, where Ar is derived from resorcinol, the

polysiloxane units are of the formula(9a-l) (9a-l)

or, where Ar is derived from bisphenol-A, the polysiloxane has the formula (9a-2) or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing can be used, wherein E has an average value as described above, specifically an average value of 2 to 200, 2 to 90, 2 to 50, or 2 to 30, 5 to 15, or 7 to 10.

[0051] In another embodiment, polydiorganosiloxane units are units of formula (9b)

wherein R and E are as described for formula (9), and each R is independently a divalent Ci_

30 alkylene or C 7 -30 arylene-alkylene. In a specific embodiment, where R is C 7 -30 arylene- alkylene the polydiorganosiloxane units are of formula (9b- 1)

wherein R and E are as defined for formula (9), and each R is independently a divalent C 2 -8 aliphatic group. Each M in formula (25) can be the same or different, and can be a halogen, cyano, nitro, C 1-8 alkylthio, C 1-8 alkyl, C 1-8 alkoxy, C 2 _ 8 alkenyl, C 2 _ 8 alkenyloxy group, C 3 _ 8 cycloalkyl, C 3 - 8 cycloalkoxy, C 6 -io aryl, C 6 -io aryloxy, C 7-12 arylalkyl, C 7-12 arylalkoxy, C 7-12 alkylaryl, or C 7 _i 2 alkylaryloxy, wherein each n is independently 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4. In an embodiment, M is bromo or chloro, an alkyl group such as methyl, ethyl, or propyl, an alkoxy group such as methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, or an aryl group such as phenyl, chlorophenyl, or tolyl; R is a dimethylene, trimethylene or tetramethylene group; and R is a Ci_ 8 alkyl, haloalkyl such as trifluoropropyl, cyanoalkyl, or aryl such as phenyl, chlorophenyl or tolyl. In another embodiment, R is methyl, or a combination of methyl and

trifluoropropyl, or a combination of methyl and phenyl. In still another embodiment, M is methoxy, n is 0 or 1, R is a divalent C 1-3 aliphatic group, and R is methyl. The foregoing poly(carbonate-siloxane) copolymers can be manufactured by the methods described in U.S. 6,072,011 to Hoover, for example.

[0052] In a specific embodiment, the polysiloxane units are eugenol-capped polysiloxane of formula (9b-2)

(9b-2) where E has an average value as described above, specifically 2 to 200, 2 to 90, 2 to 50, or 2 to 30, 5 to 15, or 7 to 10. In another specific embodiment, the polysiloxane units are of formula (9b-3) or (9b-4)

where E has an average value as defined above, specifically an average value of 2 to 200, 2 to 90, 2 to 50, or 2 to 30, 5 to 15, or 7 to 10.

[0053] The relative amount polysiloxane units (9) in the ITR- PC- siloxane copolymers depends on the desired properties of the thermoplastic composition, such as impact, smoke density, heat release, and melt viscosity. In particular the poly(carbonate-arylate ester) is selected to have an average value of E that provides good impact and/or transparency properties, as well as to provide the desired weight percent of siloxane units in the

thermoplastic composition. For example, the poly(carbonate-arylate ester)s can comprise siloxane units in an amount of 0.3 to 30 weight percent (wt.%), specifically 0.5 to 25 wt.%, or 0.5 to 15 wt.%, based on the total weight of the polymers in the thermoplastic composition, with the proviso that the siloxane units are provided by polysiloxane units covalently bonded in the polymer backbone of the poly(carbonate-arylate ester).

[0054] In an embodiment, the PC-ITR-siloxane copolymers comprise 1 to 40 mol%, or 1 to 20 mol% of bisphenol-A carbonate units, 50 to 95 mol% of ITR ester units (7c), and an amount of polysiloxane units (9b), specifically (9b-l), even more specifically (9b-2), (9b- 3), (9b-4) or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, specifically (9b-2), in an amount effective to provide 0.1 to 10 wt.% of siloxane units, each based on the total copolymer. For example, the PC-ITR-siloxane copolymers can comprise 1 to 20 mol% of bisphenol-A carbonate units, 60 to 90 mole% of ITR ester units, and an amount of polysiloxane units (9b-2), (9b-3), (9b-4) or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing (specifically of formula 9b-2) effective to provide 0.1 to 10 wt.% of siloxane units, each based on the total copolymer.

[0055] Other carbonate units, other ester units, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing can be present in the PC-ITR-siloxane copolymers, in a total amount of 1 to 20 mole% based on the total moles of units in the copolymers, for example resorcinol carbonate units, and bisphenol-A phthalate ester units of the formula. In an embodiment, the ITR-PC-siloxane comprises 1 to 20 mol of bisphenol-A carbonate units, 60-98 mol of isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-resorcinol ester units, and optionally 1 to 20 mol of resorcinol carbonate units (10), isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-bisphenol-A ester units (11), or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, together with the siloxane units.

[0056] Methods for the manufacture of the ITR-PC-siloxane copolymers are known. The ITR-PC-siloxane copolymers can have an intrinsic viscosity, as determined in chloroform at 25°C, of 0.3 to 1.5 deciliters per gram (dl/g), specifically 0.45 to 1.0 dl/g. The PC-siloxane copolymers can have a weight average molecular weight (M w ) of 10,000 to 100,000 g/mol, measured according to gel permeation chromatography (GPC) using a cross linked styrene-divinyl benzene column, at a sample concentration of 1 milligram per milliliter, and as calibrated with polycarbonate standards.

[0057] The low heat release thermoplastic compositions comprise the above- described poly(carbonate-arylate ester)s in combination with an organophosphorus flame retardant in an amount effective to provide 0.1 to 1.0 wt. phosphorus, based on the weight of the composition. Such compounds include aromatic organophosphorus compounds having at least one organic aromatic group and at least one phosphorus-containing group, as well as organic compounds having at least one phosphorus-nitrogen bond.

[0058] In the aromatic organophosphorus compounds that have at least one organic aromatic group, the aromatic group can be a substituted or unsubstituted C3-30 group containing one or more of a monocyclic or polycyclic aromatic moiety (which can optionally contain with up to three heteroatoms (N, O, P, S, or Si)) and optionally further containing one or more nonaromatic moieties, for example alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, or cycloalkyl. The aromatic moiety of the aromatic group can be directly bonded to the phosphorus-containing group, or bonded via another moiety, for example an alkylene group. In an embodiment the aromatic group is the same as an aromatic group of the polycarbonate backbone, such as a bisphenol group (e.g., bisphenol-A), a monoarylene group (e.g., a 1,3-phenylene or a 1,4- phenylene), or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing.

[0059] The phosphorus-containing group can be a phosphate (P(=0)(OR) 3 ), phosphite (P(OR) 3 ), phosphonate (RP(=0)(OR) 2 ), phosphinate (R 2 P(=0)(OR)), phosphine oxide (R 3 P(=0)), or phosphine (R 3 P), wherein each R in the foregoing phosphorus-containing groups can be the same or different, provided that at least one R is an aromatic group. A combination of different phosphorus-containing groups can be used. The aromatic group can be directly or indirectly bonded to the phosphorus, or to an oxygen of the phosphorus- containing group (i.e., an ester).

[0060] In an embodiment the aromatic organophosphorus compound is a monomeric phosphate. Representative monomeric aromatic phosphates are of the formula (GO) 3 P=0, wherein each G is independently an alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, alkylarylene, or arylalkylene group having up to 30 carbon atoms, provided that at least one G is an aromatic group. Two of the G groups can be joined together to provide a cyclic group. In some embodiments G corresponds to a monomer used to form the polycarbonate, e.g., resorcinol. Exemplary phosphates include phenyl bis(dodecyl) phosphate, phenyl bis(neopentyl) phosphate, phenyl bis(3,5,5'-trimethylhexyl) phosphate, ethyl diphenyl phosphate, 2-ethylhexyl di(p-tolyl) phosphate, bis (2-ethylhexyl) p-tolyl phosphate, tritolyl phosphate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phenyl phosphate, tri(nonylphenyl) phosphate, bis(dodecyl) p-tolyl phosphate, dibutyl phenyl phosphate, 2-chloroethyl diphenyl phosphate, p-tolyl bis(2,5,5'-trimethylhexyl) phosphate, 2- ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate, and the like. A specific aromatic phosphate is one in which each G is aromatic, for example, triphenyl phosphate, tricresyl phosphate, isopropylated triphenyl phosphate, and the like.

[0061] Di- or polyfunctional aromatic phosphorus-containing compounds are also useful, for exam le, compounds of formula (14)

wherein each G is independently a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbonoxy having 1 to 30 carbon atoms. In some embodiments G corresponds to a monomer used to form the polycarbonate, e.g., resorcinol.

[0062] Specific aromatic organophosphorus compounds have two or more phosphorus-containing groups, and are inclusive of acid esters of formula (15)

wherein R , R , R , and R are each independently Ci_g alkyl, C 5 _6 cycloalkyl, C 6 -2o aryl, or C7-12 arylalkylene, each optionally substituted by Ci-12 alkyl, specifically by C1-4 alkyl and X is a mono- or poly-nuclear aromatic C 6 -3o moiety or a linear or branched C 2 -30 aliphatic radical, which can be OH-substituted and can contain up to 8 ether bonds, provided that at least one of R 16 , R 17 , R 18 , R 19 , and X is an aromatic group. In some embodiments R 16 , R 17 , R 18 , and R 19 are each independently Ci_ 4 alkyl, naphthyl, phenyl(Ci_ 4 )alkylene, or aryl groups optionally substituted by C 1-4 alkyl. Specific aryl moieties are cresyl, phenyl, xylenyl, propylphenyl, or butylphenyl. In some embodiments X in formula (15) is a mono- or poly- nuclear aromatic C 6 -3o moiety derived from a diphenol. Further in formula (15), n is each independently 0 or 1; in some embodiments n is equal to 1. Also in formula (15), q is from 0.5 to 30, from 0.8 to 15, from 1 to 5, or from 1 to 2. Specifically, X can be represented by the following divalent groups (16), or a combination comprising one or more of these divalent roups,

wherein the monophenylene and bisphenol-A groups can be specifically mentioned.

[0063] In these embodiments, each of R 16 , R 17 , R 18 , and R 19 can be aromatic, i.e., phenyl, n is 1, and p is 1-5, specifically 1-2. In some embodiments at least one of R 16 , R 17 , R 18 , R 19 , and X corresponds to a monomer used to form the polycarbonate, e.g., bisphenol-A or resorcinol. In another embodiment, X is derived especially from resorcinol, hydroquinone, bisphenol-A, or diphenylphenol, and R 16 , R 17 , R 18 , R 19 , is aromatic, specifically phenyl. A specific aromatic organophosphorus compound of this type is resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate), also known as RDP. Another specific class of aromatic organophosphorus compounds having two or more phosphorus-containing groups are compounds of formula (17)

wherein R , R , R , R , n, and q are as defined for formula (19) and wherein Z is Ci_ 7 alkylidene, Ci_ 7 alkylene, Cs_i 2 cycloalkylidene, -0-, -S-, -S0 2 -, or -CO-, specifically isopropylidene. A specific aromatic organophosphorus compound of this type is bisphenol-A bis(diphenyl phosphate), also known as BPADP, wherein R , R , R , and R are each phenyl, each n is 1, and q is from 1 to 5, from 1 to 2, or 1.

[0064] Organophosphorus compounds containing at least one phosphorus-nitrogen bond includes phosphazenes, phosphorus ester amides, phosphoric acid amides, phosphonic acid amides, phosphinic acid amides, and tris(aziridinyl) phosphine oxide. Phosphazenes (18) and cyclic phosphazenes (19) in particular can used, wherein wl is 3 to 10,000 and w2 is 3 to 25, specifically 3 to 7, and each R w is independently a C 1-12 alkyl, alkenyl, alkoxy, aryl, aryloxy, or polyoxyalkylene group. In the foregoing groups at least one hydrogen atom of these groups can be substituted with a group having an N, S, O, or F atom, or an amino group. For example, each R w can be a substituted or unsubstituted phenoxy, an amino, or a polyoxyalkylene group. Any given R w can further be a crosslink to another phosphazene group. Exemplary crosslinks include bisphenol groups, for example bisphenol A groups. Examples include phenoxy

cyclotriphosphazene, octaphenoxy cyclotetraphosphazene decaphenoxy

cyclopentaphosphazene, and the like. A combination of different phosphazenes can be used. A number of phosphazenes and their synthesis are described in H. R. Allcook, "Phosphorus- Nitrogen Compounds" Academic Press (1972), and J. E. Mark et al., "Inorganic Polymers" Prentice-Hall International, Inc. (1992).

[0065] Accordingly, depending on the particular organophosphorus compound used, the thermoplastic compositions can comprise from 2 to 12 wt.%, or 3.5 to 10 wt or 5 to 8.0 wt.%, % of the organophosphorus flame retardant, each based on the total weight of the composition. Specifically, the organophosphorus compounds can be bisphenol A

bis(diphenyl phosphate), triphenyl phosphate, resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate), tricresyl phosphate, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing.

[0066] The thermoplastic compositions can include various additives ordinarily incorporated into flame retardant compositions having low smoke density and low heat release, with the proviso that the additive(s) are selected so as to not adversely affect the desired properties of the thermoplastic composition significantly, in particular low smoke density and low heat release. Such additives can be mixed at a suitable time during the mixing of the components for forming the composition. Exemplary additives include fillers, reinforcing agents, antioxidants, heat stabilizers, light stabilizers, ultraviolet (UV) light stabilizers, plasticizers, lubricants, processing aids such as mold release agents, antistatic agents, colorants such as such as titanium dioxide, carbon black, and organic dyes, surface effect additives, light diffuser additives, radiation stabilizers, additional flame retardants, and anti-drip agents. A combination of additives can be used. In general, the additives are used in the amounts generally known to be effective. The total amount of additives (other than any filler or reinforcing agents) is generally 0.01 to 25, 0.01 to 10 parts per parts per hundred parts by weight of the polymers (PHR).

[0067] Examples of inorganic pigments are white pigments such as titanium dioxide in its three modifications of rutile, anatase or brookite, lead white, zinc white, zinc sulfide or lithopones; black pigments such as carbon black, black iron oxide, iron manganese black or spinel black; chromatic pigments such as chromium oxide, chromium oxide hydrate green, cobalt green or ultramarine green, cobalt blue, iron blue, Milori blue, ultramarine blue or manganese blue, ultramarine violet or cobalt and manganese violet, red iron oxide, cadmium sulfoselenide, molybdate red or ultramarine red; brown iron oxide, mixed brown, spinel phases and corundum phases or chromium orange; yellow iron oxide, nickel titanium yellow, chromium titanium yellow, cadmium sulfide, cadmium zinc sulfide, chromium yellow, zinc yellow, alkaline earth metal chromates, Naples yellow; bismuth vanadate, and effect pigments such as interference pigments and luster pigments. Other specific inorganic pigments include Pigment White 6, Pigment White 7, Pigment Black 7, Pigment Black 11, Pigment Black 22, Pigment Black 27/30, Pigment Yellow 34, Pigment Yellow 35/37, Pigment Yellow 42, Pigment Yellow 53, Pigment Brown 24, Pigment Yellow 119, Pigment Yellow 184, Pigment Orange 20, Pigment Orange 75, Pigment Brown 6, Pigment Brown 29, Pigment Brown 31, Pigment Yellow 164, Pigment Red 101, Pigment Red 104, Pigment Red 108, Pigment Red 265, Pigment Violet 15, Pigment Blue 28/36, Pigment Blue 29, Pigment Green 17, and Pigment Green 26/50. A combination comprising at least one of the foregoing pigments can be used.

[0068] Exemplary dyes are generally organic materials and include coumarin dyes such as coumarin 460 (blue), coumarin 6 (green), nile red or the like; lanthanide complexes; hydrocarbon and substituted hydrocarbon dyes; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dyes;

scintillation dyes such as oxazole or oxadiazole dyes; aryl- or heteroaryl-substituted poly (C 2 _ s) olefin dyes; carbocyanine dyes; indanthrone dyes; phthalocyanine dyes; oxazine dyes; carbostyryl dyes; napthalenetetracarboxylic acid dyes; porphyrin dyes; bis(styryl)biphenyl dyes; acridine dyes; anthraquinone dyes; cyanine dyes; methine dyes; arylmethane dyes; azo dyes; indigoid dyes, thioindigoid dyes, diazonium dyes; nitro dyes; quinone imine dyes; aminoketone dyes; tetrazolium dyes; thiazole dyes; perylene dyes, perinone dyes; bis- benzoxazolylthiophene (BBOT); triarylmethane dyes; xanthene dyes; thioxanthene dyes; naphthalimide dyes; lactone dyes; fluorophores such as anti-stokes shift dyes which absorb in the near infrared wavelength and emit in the visible wavelength, or the like; luminescent dyes such as 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin; 3-(2'-benzothiazolyl)-7-diethylaminocoumarin; 2- (4- biphenylyl)-5-(4-t-butylphenyl)-l,3,4-oxadiazole; 2,5-bis-(4-biphenylyl)-oxazole; 2,2'- dimethyl-p-quaterphenyl; 2,2-dimethyl-p-terphenyl; 3,5,3"",5""-tetra-t-butyl-p- quinquephenyl; 2,5-diphenylfuran; 2,5-diphenyloxazole; 4,4'-diphenylstilbene; 4- dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran ; l,l'-diethyl-2,2'- carbocyanine iodide; 3,3'-diethyl-4,4',5,5'-dibenzothiatricarbocyanine iodide; 7- dimethylamino-l-methyl-4-methoxy-8-azaquinolone-2; 7-dimethylamino-4- methylquinolone-2; 2-(4-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)- 1 ,3-butadienyl)-3-ethylbenzothiazolium perchlorate; 3-diethylamino-7-diethyliminophenoxazonium perchlorate; 2-(l-naphthyl)-5- phenyloxazole; 2,2'-p-phenylen-bis(5-phenyloxazole); rhodamine 700; rhodamine 800;

pyrene, chrysene, rubrene, coronene, or the like; or combinations comprising at least one of the foregoing dyes. Dyes can be used in amounts of 0.001 to 5 PHR.

[0069] It has been found that the compositions can have good smoke density and heat release properties irrespective of the colorants used. Thus compositions comprising a range of colorants can be suitable for EN-45545 class R6 (or Rl applications provided CFE values are above 20 kW/m ) HL-2 or HL-3 applications. For example, a railway component manufactured from the composition can have a practical range of colors such as grey, opaque blue, natural, black and orange, which are typically employed in rail applications while at the same time, meet the requirements for EN-45545 class R6 (or Rl applications provided CFE values are above 20 kW/m ) HL-2 or HL-3 applications. In a specific embodiment, the composition can comprise colorants such as coated or uncoated titanium dioxide, pigment blue 29, solvent blue 104, pigment green 7, solvent red 52, and disperse orange 47.

[0070] The use of pigments such as titanium dioxide produces white compositions, which are commercially desirable. Pigments such as titanium dioxide and others can be present in the thermoplastic compositions in amounts of 0 to 12 PHR, 0.00002 to 9 PHR, 0.00002 to 5 PHR, or 0.00002 to 3 PHR. [0071] Compositions used to form light-diffusive articles, for example light-diffusive train components, can further comprise a light diffuser additive, i.e., a plurality of light- diffusive particles to provide the light-diffusive effect. Such particles are generally insoluble in the polymers of the thermoplastic compositions. Light-diffuser additives include silicone particles, e.g., polymethylsilsesquioxanes available from GE Silicones under the trade name Tospearl*, crosslinked poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and other organic polymer particles, e.g., methyl methacrylate/ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate copolymers available from Sekisui Plastics Co. under the trade name TECHPOLYMER MBS*, and low levels of Ti0 2 . A combination comprising at least one of the foregoing types of light diffuser additives can be used. Such diffuser particles can be added to high clarity or medium clarity compositions to provide light-diffusive compositions, for example in an amount of 0.05 to 10.0 wt.%, 0.2 to 8.0 wt.%, 0.5 to 6.0 wt.%, or 0.5 to 5.00 wt.% of the light diffuser additives, based on the total weight of the polymers in the in the thermoplastic compositions. In general, greater amounts of light diffuser additive is used in the manufacture of thinner articles to obtain the same degree of light diffusion. In an embodiment the light diffuser additives are silicone particles. The light diffuser additives can also be PMMA. Likewise, the light diffuser additives can be a combination of silicone particles and PMMA particles.

[0072] Exemplary antioxidant additives include organophosphites such as tris(nonyl phenyl)phosphite, tris(2,4-di-t-butylphenyl)phosphite, bis(2,4-di-t- butylphenyl)pentaerythritol diphosphite, distearyl pentaerythritol diphosphite; alkylated monophenols or polyphenols; alkylated reaction products of polyphenols with dienes, such as tetrakis[methylene(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate )] methane; butylated reaction products of para-cresol or dicyclopentadiene; alkylated hydroquinones; hydroxylated thiodiphenyl ethers; alkylidene-bisphenols; benzyl compounds; esters of beta-(3,5-di-tert- butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionic acid with monohydric or polyhydric alcohols; esters of beta-(5-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)-propionic acid with monohydric or polyhydric alcohols; esters of thioalkyl or thioaryl compounds such as distearylthiopropionate, dilaurylthiopropionate, ditridecylthiodipropionate, octadecyl-3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4- hydroxyphenyl)propionate, pentaerythrityl-tetrakis[3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4- hydroxyphenyl)propionate; amides of beta-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionic acid, or combinations comprising at least one of the foregoing antioxidants. Antioxidants are used in amounts of 0.01 to 0.1 PHR. [0073] Exemplary heat stabilizer additives include organophosphites such as triphenyl phosphite, tris-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)phosphite, and tris-(mixed mono-and di- nonylphenyl)phosphite; phosphonates such as dimethylbenzene phosphonate, phosphates such as trimethyl phosphate; or combinations comprising at least one of the foregoing heat stabilizers. Heat stabilizers are used in amounts of 0.01 to 0.1 PHR.

[0074] Light stabilizers and/or ultraviolet light (UV) absorbing additives (also referred to as "ultraviolet light absorber") can also be used. Exemplary light stabilizer additives include benzotriazoles such as 2-(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)benzotriazole, 2- (2- hydroxy-5-tert-octylphenyl)-benzotriazole and 2-hydroxy-4-n-octoxy benzophenone , or combinations comprising at least one of the foregoing light stabilizers. Light stabilizers are used in amounts of 0.01 to 5 PHR.

[0075] Exemplary UV absorbing additives include hydroxybenzophenones;

hydroxybenzotriazoles; hydroxybenzotriazines; cyanoacrylates; oxanilides; benzoxazinones; 2- (2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-(l,l,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-phenol (CYASORB ® 5411); 2- hydroxy-4-n-octyloxybenzophenone (CYASORB ® 531); 2-[4,6-bis(2,4-dimethylphenyl)- l,3,5-triazin-2-yl]- 5-(octyloxy)-phenol (CYASORB ® 1164); 2,2'-(l,4- phenylene)bis(4H-

3.1- benzoxazin-4-one) (CYASORB ® UV-3638); l,3-bis[(2-cyano-3,3-diphenylacryloyl)oxy]-

2.2- bis[[(2-cyano-3, 3 -diphenylacryloyl)oxy] methyl] propane (UVINUL ® 3030); 2,2'-(l,4- phenylene) bis(4H-3,l-benzoxazin-4-one); l,3-bis[(2-cyano-3,3-diphenylacryloyl)oxy] -2,2- bis[[(2-cyano-3,3-diphenylacryloyl)oxy]methyl]propane; nano-size inorganic materials such as titanium oxide, cerium oxide, and zinc oxide, all with particle size less than or equal to 100 nanometers;, or combinations comprising at least one of the foregoing UV absorbers. In a specific embodiment, the UV absorbing additive is selected from 2,2'-(l,4-phenylene)bis- 2,2'-(l,4-phenylene)bis(4H-3,l-benzoxazin-4-one); 2-(2'hydroxy-5-t-octylphenyl)- benzotriazole; 2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)4,6-bis(l-ethyl-l-phenylethylphenol; or a

combination comprising at least one of the forgoing. UV absorbers are used in amounts of 0.01 to 5 PHR.

[0076] Plasticizers, lubricants, and/or mold release agents can also be used. There is considerable overlap among these types of materials, which include phthalic acid esters such as dioctyl-4,5-epoxy-hexahydrophthalate; tris-(octoxycarbonylethyl)isocyanurate; tristearin; poly-alpha-olefins; epoxidized soybean oil; silicones, including silicone oils; esters, for example, fatty acid esters such as alkyl stearyl esters, e.g., methyl stearate, stearyl stearate, pentaerythritol tetrastearate, and the like; combinations of methyl stearate and hydrophilic and hydrophobic nonionic surfactants comprising polyethylene glycol polymers,

polypropylene glycol polymers, poly(ethylene glycol-co-propylene glycol) copolymers, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing glycol polymers, e.g., methyl stearate and polyethylene-polypropylene glycol copolymer in a solvent; waxes such as beeswax, montan wax, and paraffin wax. Such materials are used in amounts of 0.1 to 1 PHR.

[0077] Flame retardant salts are not needed in order to obtain the desired low smoke and heat release characteristics. Flame retardant salts include, for example, salts of C 1-16 alkyl sulfonate salts such as potassium perfluorobutane sulfonate (Rimar salt), potassium perfluorooctane sulfonate (KSS), tetraethylammonium perfluorohexane sulfonate, and potassium diphenylsulfone sulfonate; salts such as Na 2 C0 3 , K 2 C0 3 , MgC0 3 , CaC0 3 , and BaC0 3 , inorganic phosphate salts, and fluoro-anion complexes such as Li 3 AlF 6 , BaSiF 6 , KBF 4 , K 3 A1F 6 , KA1F 4 , K 2 SiF 6 , and/or Na 3 AlF 6 . In an embodiment, no or substantially no flame retardant inorganic salts are present in the thermoplastic compositions.

[0078] Organic flame retardants can be present, but halogenated flame retardants are generally avoided, such that the thermoplastic composition can be essentially free of chlorine and bromine. "Essentially free of chlorine and bromine" as used herein means having a bromine and/or chlorine content of less than or equal to 100 parts per million by weight (ppm), less than or equal to 75 ppm, or less than or equal to 50 ppm, based on the total parts by weight of the composition, excluding any filler.

[0079] Anti-drip agents in most embodiments are not used in the thermoplastic compositions. Anti-drip agents include a fibril-forming or non-fibril forming fluoropolymer such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The anti-drip agent can be encapsulated by a rigid copolymer, for example styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN). PTFE encapsulated in SAN is known as TSAN. Antidrip agents are substantially absent or completely absent from the thermoplastic compositions in some embodiments.

[0080] Methods for forming the thermoplastic compositions can vary. In an embodiment, the polymers are combined (e.g., blended) with any additives (e.g., a mold release agent) such as in a screw-type extruder. The polymers any additives can be combined in any order, and in form, for example, powder, granular, filamentous, as a masterbatch, and the like. Transparent compositions can be produced by manipulation of the process used to manufacture the thermoplastic composition. One example of such a process to produce transparent thermoplastic compositions is described in U.S. Patent No. 7,767,738, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. The thermoplastic compositions can be foamed, extruded into a sheet, or optionally pelletized. Methods of foaming a thermoplastic composition using frothing or physical or chemical blowing agents are known and can be used. The pellets can be used for molding into articles, foaming, or they can be used in forming a sheet of the flame retardant thermoplastic composition. In some embodiments, the composition can be extruded (or co-extruded with a coating or other layer) in the form of a sheet and/or can be processed through calendaring rolls to form the desired sheet.

[0081] As discussed above, the thermoplastic compositions are formulated to meet strict heat release and smoke density requirements. The relative amounts of poly(carbonate- arylate ester) and organophosphorus compound in the thermoplastic compositions depends on the particular copolymer and organophosphorus compound used, the heat release and smoke density, and other desired properties of the thermoplastic composition, such as impact strength and flow. In an embodiment, the organophosphorus compound is present in an amount from 2 to 12 wt. , based on the total weight of the thermoplastic composition, and within this range the specific amount is selected to be effective to provide a maximum average rate of heat emission (MAHRE) of 90 kW/m 2 or less, 75 kW/m 2 or less, 60 kW/m 2 or less, or 50 kW/m or less as measured according to ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , and a Ds-4 of 300 or less, 250 or less, 200 or less, 150 or less, or 100 or less measured according to ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m . These values can be obtained in articles having a wide range of thicknesses, for example from 0.1 to 10 mm, or 0.5 to 5 mm.

[0082] Use of the organophosphorus compound can lower heat release, smoke density, or both to the desired levels. Thus, in some embodiments the compositions can have a MAHRE of 90 kW/m or less as measured according to ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m and a Ds-4 smoke density of 300 or less as measured according to ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , resulting in R6 applications in compliance with Hazard Level 2 rating for the EN45545 (2013) standard; a MAHRE of 60 kW/m 2 or less as measured according to ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m and a Ds-4 smoke density of

150 or less as measured according to ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , resulting in R6 applications in compliance with Hazard Level 3 rating for the EN45545 (2013) norm. For example, these values can be obtained when the poly(carbonate-arylate) is an ITR-PC comprising bisphenol-A carbonate units and ITR ester units, or an ITR-PC- siloxane comprising bisphenol-A carbonate units, ITR ester units, and siloxane units (9b-2), (9b-3), or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing as described above, and an aromatic organophosphorus compound, e.g., RDP, BPADP, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing aromatic organophosphorus compounds. These values can be obtained in articles having a wide range of thicknesses, for example from 0.1 to 10 mm, or 0.5 to 5 mm.

[0083] The compositions can also have a critical heat flux at extinguishment (CFE) at or above 20 kW/m 2 , at or above 22 kW/m 2 , at or above 24 kW/m 2 , or at or above 26 kW/m 2 measured according to ISO 5658-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque.

[0084] Thus, in some embodiments the compositions can have a MAHRE of 90 kW/m 2 or less as measured according to ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m 2 , a Ds-4 smoke density of 300 or less as measured according to ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m 2 , and a critical heat flux at extinguishment (CFE) at or above 20 kW/m 2 measured according to ISO 5658-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque, resulting in Rl applications in compliance with Hazard Level 2 rating for the EN45545 (2013) standard; a MAHRE of 60 kW/m 2 or less as measured according to ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m 2 , a Ds-4 smoke density of 150 or less as measured according to ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m 2 , and a critical heat flux at extinguishment (CFE) at or above 20 kW/m 2 measured according to ISO 5658-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque resulting in Rl applications in compliance with Hazard Level 3 rating for the EN45545 (2013) norm. For example, these values can be obtained when the poly(carbonate-arylate) is an ITR-PC comprising bisphenol- A carbonate units and ITR ester units, or an ITR-PC-siloxane comprising bisphenol-A carbonate units, ITR ester units, and siloxane units (9b-2), (9b-3), or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing as described above, and an aromatic

organophosphorus compound, e.g., RDP, BPADP, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing aromatic organophosphorus compounds. These values can be obtained in articles having a wide range of thicknesses, for example from 0.1 to 10 mm, or 0.5 to 5 mm.

[0085] The articles comprising the thermoplastic compositions can further have a smoke density after 1.5 min (Dsl.5) of less than or equal to 100 measured according to ASTM E662-12 in flaming and in non-flaming mode on a 3 mm thick plaque, and a smoke density after 4 min (Ds4) of less than or equal to 200 measured according to ASTM E662-12 in flaming and non-flaming mode on a 3 mm thick plaque, and a maximum flame spread index (Is) of 35 and less, without flaming running or dripping measured according to ASTM E162-12a on a 3 mm thick plaque. This allows meeting the requirements for railway interiors for United States railway applications as set forth by NFPA 130 (2010 edition). [0086] In the compositions meeting the requirements as set forth by NFPA 130 (2010 edition) the organophosphorus compound can be an aromatic organophosphorus compound can have at least one organic aromatic group and at least one phosphorus-containing group, such as bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate), triphenyl phosphate, resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate), tricresyl phosphate, a phenol/bi-phenol polyphosphate, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, or an organic compound having at least one phosphorus-nitrogen bond such as a phosphazene, phosphorus ester amide, phosphoric acid amide, phosphonic acid amide, phosphinic acid amide, tris(aziridinyl) phosphine oxide, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing; optionally, the composition comprises up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, for example 0.05 to 10.0 wt.% of a light diffuser additive comprising silicone,

polymethylsilsesquioxane, crosslinked poly(methyl methacrylate), methyl

methacrylate/ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate copolymer, Ti0 2 , or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, based on the total weight of the polymers in the thermoplastic composition, or 0.00002 to 5.0 wt.% of one or more colorants based on the total weight of the polymers in the thermoplastic composition; or no or substantially no flame retarding brominated compounds, flame retardant salts, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing are present in the thermoplastic composition. In an embodiment, the foregoing articles comprise 3.5 to 12 wt.% of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate); 88 to 96.5 wt.% of a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate-resorcinol ester)-co- poly(siloxane) which comprises 1 to 40 mol% of bisphenol A carbonate units, 50 to 95 mol% of isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-resorcinol units, and siloxane units of the formula 9b-2, 9b-3, 9b-4 or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing (specifically of formula 9b-2), wherein E has an average value of 5 to 50, and the siloxane units are present in an amount effective to provide 0.1 to 10 wt.% of siloxane units, based on the weight of the poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate-resorcinol ester)-co- poly(siloxane).

[0087] Generally, the thermoplastic compositions can be formulated to have lower densities, in particular a density of 1.35 g/cc or less, 1.34 g/cc or less, 1.33 g/cc or less, 1.32 g/cc or less, 1.31 g/cc or less, 1.30 g/cc or less, or 1.29 g/cc or less. The same or similar values can be obtained in articles having a wide range of thicknesses, for example from 0.1 to 10 mm, or 0.5 to 6 mm. [0088] The thermoplastic compositions can further have good melt viscosities, which aid processing. The thermoplastic compositions can have a melt volume flow rate (MVR, cubic centimeter per 10 minutes (cc/10 min), of 4 to 30, greater than or equal to 7, greater than or equal to 8, greater than or equal to 10, greater than or equal to 12, greater than or equal to 15, greater than or equal to 16, greater than or equal to 17, greater than or equal to 18, greater than or equal to 19, or greater than or equal to 20 cc/min, measured at 300°C/ 1.2 Kg at 360 second dwell according to ISO 1133. The same or similar values can be obtained in articles having a wide range of thicknesses, for example from 0.1 to 10 mm, or 0.5 to 5 mm.

[0089] The thermoplastic compositions can further have excellent impact properties, in particular multiaxial impact (MAI) and ductility, which provides information on how the compositions behave under multiaxial deformation conditions. The deformation applied can be a high-speed puncture. Properties reported include total energy absorbed, which is expressed in Joules (J) and ductility of parts in percent (% D) based on whether the part fractured in a brittle or ductile manner. A ductile part shows yielding where it is penetrated by the tip, a brittle part splits into pieces or has a section punched out that shows no yielding. The thermoplastic compositions can have an MAI equal to or higher than 100 J, determined at 23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on discs with a thickness of 3.2 mm. The compositions can have a ductility in multiaxial impact of 100%, determined at 23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on discs with a thickness of 3.2 mm. The same or similar values can be obtained in articles having a wide range of thicknesses, for example from 0.1 to 10 mm, but particularly at 0.5 to 5 mm.

[0090] The thermoplastic compositions can further have excellent impact strength, particularly when the average value of E is higher, i.e., 25 to 200, 25 to 100, or 25 to 50. Such compositions often have higher siloxane levels, i.e., at least 2.0 wt.%, specifically 2.0 to 10 wt.%, 2.0 to 8 wt.%, or 2.0 to 6 wt.%, each based on the total weight of the polymers in the thermoplastic composition. An article molded from the thermoplastic compositions can have a notched Izod impact of greater than 10 kJ/m as measured according to ISO 180/lA at 23°C, 5.5 J, on impact bars with a 4 mm thickness. The same or similar values can be obtained in articles having a wide range of thicknesses, for example from 0.1 to 10 mm, but particularly at 0.5 to 5 mm.

[0091] The thermoplastic compositions can advantageously be formulated to have high clarity, medium clarity, to be transparent, and/or to be light diffusive by adjusting the type and amount of the poly(carbonate-arylate ester) and the addition of light diffusive additives where light diffusivity is desired. Light-diffusive compositions can be used to manufacture articles that have good luminance, in which the article provides a high level of transmission of incident light (such as natural light through a window or skylight, or artificial light) with a minimum light loss by reflectance or scattering, where it is not desirable to either see the light source or other objects on the other side of the article. An article, e.g., a sheet having a high degree of hiding power (i.e., luminance) allows a significant amount of light through, but is sufficiently diffusive so that a light source or image is not discernible through the panel. The terms "high clarity," "transparent," "medium clarity," and the like are simply for convenience, and refer to the level of transmission/haze before any light diffusive additives are added to the compositions. Such railway components include, for example, a seat component, a partition, a room divider, an interior door or lining for internal and external doors, a window insulation, an overhead and vertical luggage rack, a luggage container and compartment, a window frame, an optionally folding table with downward facing surface; or a device for passenger information.

[0092] The thermoplastic compositions can further be formulated to have a haze less than 3%, or less than 2%, and a transmission greater than 85%, each measured using the color space CIE1931 (Illuminant C and a 2° observer) according to ASTM D 1003 (2007) at a 3 mm thickness. In some embodiments, the thermoplastic compositions can be formulated such that an article molded from the composition has both a haze less of than 3% and a transmission of greater than 85%, each measured using the color space CIE1931 (Illuminant C and a 2° observer) according to ASTM D 1003 (2007) at a 3 mm thickness. Such an article can be a railway component such as a seat component, a partitions, a room divider, an interior door or lining for internal and external doors; a window insulation, an overhead and vertical luggage rack, a luggage container and compartment; a window frame; a (folding) table with downward facing surface; or a device for passenger information, such as information display screens.

[0093] In some embodiments the articles can have all three of a haze less of than 3%, a transmission of greater than 85%, and an MAI equal to or higher than 100 J, determined at 23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on discs with a thickness of 3.2 mm.

[0094] Railway components, in particular seat components and claddings for train interiors that are molded or extruded from the thermoplastic compositions are also provided. Molding can be by a variety of means such as injection molding, rotational molding, blow molding, and the like. In an embodiment, the molding is by injection molding. As used herein, "claddings" means components that provide a surface of an article. Illustrative claddings include, for example, interior vertical surfaces, such as side walls, front walls, end- walls, partitions, room dividers, flaps, boxes, hoods and louvres; interior doors and linings for internal and external doors; window insulations, kitchen interior surfaces, interior horizontal surfaces, such as ceiling paneling, flaps, boxes, hoods and louvres; luggage storage areas, such as overhead and vertical luggage racks, luggage containers and compartments; driver's desk applications, such as paneling and surfaces of driver's desk; interior surfaces of gangways, such as interior sides of gangway membranes (bellows) and interior linings;

window frames (including sealants and gaskets); (folding) tables with downward facing surface; interior and exterior surface of air ducts, and devices for passenger information (such as information display screens) and the like. In a specific embodiment, the claddings include, for example, a side wall, a front wall, an end- walls, a partition, a room divider, an interior door, a window insulation, a lining, a kitchen interior surface, a ceiling panel, an overhead or vertical luggage rack, a luggage container, a luggage compartment, a window frame, a (folding) table with downward facing surface, or an information display screen.

[0095] In an embodiment, the seat components and claddings meet certain criteria set forth in European Railway standard EN-45545 (2013). The European Union has approved the introduction of a set of fire testing standards for the railroad industry that prescribes certain flammability, flame spread rate, heat release, smoke emission, and smoke toxicity requirements for materials used in railway vehicles, known as European Railway standard EN-45545 (2013). Based on the vehicle material, end-use, and fire risks, 26 different "Requirement" categories for materials have been established (R1-R26). Seat components fall under the R6 application type. Lighting strips fall under the R3 application type. The Rl application type covers, amongst others interior vertical surfaces, side walls, front walls, end- walls, partitions, room dividers, flaps, boxes, hoods and louvres; interior doors and linings for internal and external doors; window insulations, kitchen interior surfaces, interior horizontal surfaces, such as ceiling paneling, flaps, boxes, hoods and louvres; luggage storage areas, such as overhead and vertical luggage racks, luggage containers and compartments; driver's desk applications, such as paneling and surfaces of driver's desk; interior surfaces of gangways, such as interior sides of gangway membranes (bellows) and interior linings;

window frames (including sealants and gaskets); (folding) tables with downward facing surface; interior and exterior surface of air ducts, and devices for passenger information (such as information display screens) and the like..

[0096] "Hazard Levels" (HL1 to HL3) have been designated, reflecting the degree of probability of personal injury as the result of a fire. The levels are based on dwell time and are related to operation and design categories. HL1 is the lowest hazard level and is typically applicable to vehicles that run under relatively safe conditions (easy evacuation of the vehicle). HL3 is the highest hazard level and represents most dangerous operation/design categories (difficult and/or time-consuming evacuation of the vehicle, e.g. in underground rail cars). For each application type, different test requirements for the hazard levels are defined. The testing methods, and smoke density and maximum heat release rate values for the various hazard levels in the European Railway standard EN-45545 (2013) are shown in Table 1A for R6 applications.

Table 1A.

[0097] The testing methods, and smoke density, maximum heat release rate values and critical heat flux at extinguishment for the various hazard levels in the European Railway standard EN-45545 (2013) are shown in Table IB for Rl applications.

Table IB.

[0098] Data in the Examples shows that the compositions herein can meet the requirements for HL2, and some compositions can meet the requirements for HL3, for both Rl and R6 applications.

[0099] While the compositions described herein are designed for use specifically in railway interiors, it is to be understood that the compositions are also useful in other interior railway components that are required to meet the test standards for HL2 or HL3, for both Rl and R6 applications. Interior bus components are specifically mentioned. Current discussions directed to increasing bus safety include proposals to apply the HL2 and HL3 standards to interior bus components. This invention accordingly includes interior bus components, including seat components and claddings as described above and comprising the specific compositions described herein, and particularly below, that meet the tests specified in the HL2 or HL3 standards described above.

[0100] In a particularly advantageous feature, the compositions described herein can meet other stringent standards for railway applications. For example, for interior applications used in the United States railway market, materials need to fulfill meet NFPA 130 (2010 edition). This standard imposes requirements on rate of smoke generation and surface flammability. The generation of smoke is measured via the ASTM E662-12 smoke density test and the requirements are a specific smoke density after 1.5 min (Dsl.5) of 100 and less and a specific smoke density after 4 min (Ds4) of 200 and less, in either flaming or non- flaming mode. Surface flammability is measured via the ASTM E162-12a flame spread test and the requirements are a maximum flame spread index (Is) of 35 and less, and no flaming running or dripping allowed. It is calculated from multiplying the flame spread factor (Fs) and the heat evolution factor (Q) determined during the test. Certain of the more specific compositions described herein, and particularly below, can also meet these standards.

[0101] In an embodiment, provided herein is an a railway component wherein the component is a seat component, and wherein the railway component is molded or formed from a thermoplastic polymer composition comprising, based on the total weight of the composition, 88 to 98 wt of a poly(carbonate-arylate ester); 2 to 12 wt.% of an aromatic organophosphorus compound such as BPADP or RDP; and optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein an article having a thickness of 0.5 to 10 mm molded from the composition has a Ds-4 smoke density of less than or equal to 300 or less than or equal to 150 measured according to ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of equal to or less than 300 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m 2 , and a MAHRE of less than or equal to 90 kW/m 2 or less than or equal to 60 measured according to ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , a multiaxial impact energy at or above 100 J and a ductility of 100% , measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs, and optionally, the component is injectin molded, and the thermoplastic composition has a melt volume flow rate of greater than 7 cc/10 min measured at 300°C under 1.2 kg force according to ISO 1133, and optionally the component is extruded or injection molded, and the thermoplastic composition has a transmission of 85% or more or a haze of 3% or less, each measured according to ASTM D1003 using the color space CIE1931 (Illuminant C and a 2° observer) at a thickness of 3 mm, and optionally the component is extruded, and the thermoplastic composition has a Vicat B120 of less than 130 °C measured according to ISO 306.

[0102] Also provided herein is a railway component wherein the component is a seat component, and wherein the railway component is molded or formed from a thermoplastic polymer composition comprising, based on the total weight of the composition, 88 to 96.5 wt.% of a poly(carbonate-arylate ester); 3.5 to 12 wt.% of an aromatic organophosphorus compound such as BPADP or RDP; optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein an article having a thickness of 0.5 to 10 mm molded from the composition has a Ds-4 smoke density of less than or equal to 150 measured according to ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of equal to or less than 300 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , and a

MAHRE of less than or equal to 60 kW/m measured according to ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , a multiaxial impact energy at or above 100 J and a ductility of 100% , measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs, and optionally, the component is injectin molded, and the

thermoplastic composition has a melt volume flow rate of greater than 7 cc/10 min measured at 300°C under 1.2 kg force according to ISO 1133, and the component is extruded or injection molded, and the thermoplastic composition has a transmission of 85% or more or a haze of 3% or less, each measured according to ASTM D1003 using the color space CIE1931 (Illuminant C and a 2° observer) at a thickness of 3 mm, and optionally the component is extruded, and the thermoplastic composition has a Vicat B120 of less than 130 °C measured according to ISO 306.

[0103] Also provided herein is a railway component wherein the component is a cladding, in particular an interior vertical surface, such as side walls, front walls, end-walls, partitions, room dividers, flaps, boxes, hoods and louvres; an interior door or lining for internal and external doors; a window insulation, a kitchen interior surface, an interior horizontal surface, such as ceiling paneling, flaps, boxes, hoods and louvres; a luggage storage area, such as overhead and vertical luggage racks, luggage containers and

compartments; a driver's desk application, such as paneling and surfaces of driver's desk; an interior surface of gangways, such as interior sides of gangway membranes (bellows) and interior linings; a window frame (including sealants and gaskets); a (folding) table with downward facing surface; an interior or exterior surface of air ducts, or a device for passenger information, such as information display screens, and wherein the railway component is molded or formed from a thermoplastic polymer composition comprising, based on the total weight of the composition, 88 to 98 wt.% of a poly(carbonate-arylate ester); 2 to 12 wt.% of an aromatic organophosphorus compound such as BPADP or RDP; and optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultraviolet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein an article having a thickness of 0.5 to 10 mm molded from the composition has a Ds-4 smoke density of less than or equal to 300 or less than or equal to 150 measured according to ISO

5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of equal to or less than 600 measured in accordance with ISO

5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , and a MAHRE of less than or equal to 90 kW/m or less than or equal to 60 kW/m measured according to ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , a critical heat flux at extinguishment (CFE) of equal to or more than 20 kW/m measured according to ISO 5658-2 at a 3 mm thick plaque, a multiaxial impact energy at or above 100 J and a ductility of 100% , measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs, and optionally, the component is injection molded, and the thermoplastic composition has a melt volume flow rate of greater than 7 cc/10 min measured at 300°C under 1.2 kg force according to ISO 1133, and optionally the component is extruded or injection molded, and the component has a transmission of 85% or more or a haze of 3% or less, each measured according to ASTM D1003 using the color space CIE1931 (Illuminant C and a 2° observer) at a thickness of 3 mm, and optionally the component is extruded, and the thermoplastic composition has a Vicat B120 of less than 130 °C measured according to ISO 306.

[0104] Also provided herein is a railway component wherein the component is a cladding, in particular an interior vertical surface, such as side walls, front walls, end-walls, partitions, room dividers, flaps, boxes, hoods and louvres; an interior door or lining for internal and external doors; a window insulation, a kitchen interior surface, an interior horizontal surface, such as ceiling paneling, flaps, boxes, hoods and louvres; a luggage storage area, such as overhead and vertical luggage racks, luggage containers and

compartments; a driver's desk application, such as paneling and surfaces of driver's desk; an interior surface of gangways, such as interior sides of gangway membranes (bellows) and interior linings; a window frame (including sealants and gaskets); a (folding) table with downward facing surface; an interior or exterior surface of air ducts, or a device for passenger information, such as information display screens, and wherein the railway component is molded or formed from a thermoplastic polymer composition comprising, based on the total weight of the composition, 88 to 96.5 wt.% of a poly(carbonate-arylate ester); 3.5 to 12 wt.% of an aromatic organophosphorus compound such as BPADP or RDP; optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein an article having a thickness of 0.5 to 10 mm molded from the composition has a Ds-4 smoke density of less than or equal to 150 measured according to ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , an integral of the smoke density as a function of time up to 4 minutes (VOF4) of equal to or less than 300 measured in accordance with ISO 5659-2 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m 2 , and a MAHRE of less than or equal to 60 kW/m 2 measured according to ISO 5660-1 on a 3 mm thick plaque at 50 kW/m , a critical heat flux at extinguishment (CFE) of equal to or more than 20 kW/m measured according to ISO 5658- 2 at a 3 mm thick plaque, a multiaxial impact energy at or above 100 J and a ductility of 100% , measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs, and optionally, the component is injection molded, and the

thermoplastic composition has a melt volume flow rate of greater than 7 cc/10 min measured at 300°C under 1.2 kg force according to ISO 1133, and optionally the component is extruded or injection molded, and the component has a transmission of 85% or more or a haze of 3% or less, each measured according to ASTM D1003 using the color space CIE1931 (Illuminant C and a 2° observer) at a thickness of 3 mm, and optionally the component is extruded, and the thermoplastic composition has a Vicat B120 of less than 130 °C measured according to ISO 306.

[0105] Also provided herein is a railway component wherein the component is a seat component; an interior vertical surface, such as side walls, front walls, end-walls, partitions, room dividers, flaps, boxes, hoods, and louvres; an interior door or lining for internal and external doors; a window insulation, a kitchen interior surface, an interior horizontal surface, such as ceiling paneling, flaps, boxes, hoods, and louvres; a luggage storage area, such as overhead and vertical luggage racks, luggage containers and compartments; a driver's desk application, such as paneling and surfaces of driver's desk; an interior surface of gangways, such as interior sides of gangway membranes (bellows) and interior linings; a window frame (including sealants and gaskets); a (folding) table with downward facing surface; an interior or exterior surface of air ducts, or a device for passenger information, such as information display screens, and wherein the railway component is molded or formed from a

thermoplastic polymer composition comprising, based on the total weight of the composition, 88 to 98 wt.% of a poly(carbonate-arylate ester); 2 to 12 wt.% of an aromatic

organophosphorus compound such as BPADP or RDP; optionally, up to 5 wt.% of an additive selected from a processing aid, a heat stabilizer, an ultra violet light absorber, a colorant, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, wherein the

thermoplastic composition optionally has a melt volume flow rate of greater than 7 cc/10 min measured at 300°C under 1.2 kg force according to ISO 1133, and wherein an article having a thickness of 0.5 to 10 mm molded from the composition has a smoke density after 1.5 min (Dsl.5) of less than or equal to 100 measured according to ASTM E662-12 in flaming and in non-flaming mode on a 3 mm thick plaque, and a smoke density after Amin (Ds4) of less than or equal to 200 measured according to ASTM E662-12 in flaming and non-flaming mode on a 3 mm thick plaque, and a maximum flame spread index (Is) of 35 and less, without flaming running or dripping measured according to ASTM E162-12a on a 3 mm thick plaque, a multiaxial impact energy at or above 100 J and a ductility of 100% , measured at +23°C at an impact speed of 4.4 m/second in accordance with ISO 6603 on 3.2 mm thick discs, and optionally a molded or formed sample of the thermoplastic polymer composition has a transmission of 85% or more or a haze of 3% or less, each measured according to ASTM D1003 using the color space CIE1931 (Illuminant C and a 2° observer) at a thickness of 3 mm.

[0106] In an embodiment, the poly(carbonate-arylate ester) comprises 2 to 20 mol% of bisphenol-A carbonate units, 60 to 98 mol% of isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid- resorcinol ester units, optionally, 1 to 20 mol% of resorcinol carbonate units, isophthalic acid- terephthalic acid-bisphenol-A ester units, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing. [0107] In another embodiment, the poly(carbonate-arylate ester) comprises units of the formula

wherein m is 4 to 100, and the mole ratio of x:m is 99:1 to 1:99. Such a poly(carbonate- arylate ester) is also referred to as a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate- terephthalate-resorcinol ester).

[0108] In another embodiment, the poly(carbonate-arylate ester), also referred to as poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate-resorcinol ester)-co- poly(siloxane), comprises 1 to 40 mol% of bisphenol A carbonate units, 50 to 95 mol% of isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-resorcinol units, and siloxane units in an amount effective to provide 0.1 to 10 wt.% of siloxane units, based on the weight of the poly(carbonate-arylate ester), wherein the siloxane units are of the fo

or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing (specifically of formula 9b-2), wherein E has an average value of 2 to 90, 2 to 50, or 2 to 30.

[0109] The poly(carbonate-arylate ester) can also comprise a combination

comprising, based on the total weight of the poly(carbonate-arylate ester)s, 20 to 80 wt.% of a poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate-resorcinol ester) comprising units of the formula

wherein m is 4 to 100, and the mole ratio of x:m is 99:1 to 1:99; and 20 to 80 wt.% of the poly(bisphenol-A carbonate)-co-poly(isophthalate-terephthalate-resorcinol ester)-co- poly(siloxane). [0110] In various embodiments, one or more of the following conditions can apply: the organophosphorus compound is effective to provide phosphorus in an amount of 0.1% to 1.0% of phosphorus, based on the weight of the thermoplastic composition; no or substantially no flame retarding brominated compounds, flame retardant salts, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing are present in the thermoplastic composition; the thermoplastic composition further comprises 0.05 to 10.0 wt.% of a light diffuser additive comprising silicone, polymethylsilsesquioxane, crosslinked poly(methyl methacrylate), methyl methacrylate/ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate copolymer, Ti0 2 , or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, based on the total weight of the polymers in the thermoplastic composition; or the thermoplastic composition further comprises 0.00002 to 5.0 wt.% of one or more colorants based on the total weight of the polymers in the thermoplastic composition.

[0111] The seat components or claddings are further illustrated by the following non- limiting examples, which use the following components.

EXAMPLES

[0112] The materials used in the Examples are described in Table 2. Amounts of components are in wt.%, unless otherwise indicated.

" able 2.

COMPONENT Trade name; chemical description SOURCE

PCI Linear Bisphenol A Polycarbonate, produced via interfacial SABIC

polymerization, Mw of about 30,000 g/mol as determined by GPC using

polycarbonate standards, phenol end-capped

PC2 Linear Bisphenol A Polycarbonate, produced via interfacial SABIC

polymerization, Mw of about 21,800 g/mol as determined by GPC using

polycarbonate standards, phenol end-capped

PC3 Branched Bisphenol A polycarbonate, produced via interfacial SABIC

polymerization, 0.3 mol% l,l,l-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethane (THPE) branching agent, Mw about 33,600 g/mol as determined by GPC using polycarbonate standards, para-cumylphenol (PCP) end-capped

PC-Ester Poly(phthalate-carbonate) copolymer, produced via interfacial SABIC

polymerization, about 81 mol% ester units, Mw about 28,500 g/mol as determined via GPC using polycarbonate standards, para-cumylphenol (PCP) end-capped

SiPC PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) - Bisphenol A Polycarbonate copolymer, SABIC

produced via interfacial polymerization, 6 wt.% siloxane containing eugenol endcaps, average PDMS block length of 45 units (D45), Mw about 23,000 g/mol as determined by GPC using polycarbonate

standards, para-cumylphenol (PCP) end-capped*

PC105BR TetrabromoBPA/ bisphenol A polycarbonate copolymer, bromine SABIC

content of 26 wt.%, Mw about 23,700 g/mol, para-cumyl phenol end- capped

ITR-PC ITR (Isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-resorcinol) - bisphenol A SABIC

copolyestercarbonate copolymer, ester content 83 mol%, interfacial polymerization, Mw about 21,000 g/mol, para-cumyl phenol end-capped

ITR-PC-SI Polysiloxane-ITR (Isophthalic acid-terephthalic acid-resorcinol) - SABIC

bisphenol- A copolyestercarbonate copolymer, ester content 83 mol%, siloxane content 1 wt.% (average siloxane chain length about 10

containing eugenol endcaps), interfacial polymerization, Mw about 24,500 g/mol, para-cumyl phenol end-capped

BPADP CR-741 ; Bisphenol A diphosphate NAGASE

(EUROPE)

GMBH

RDP FyrfolEX; Tetraphenyl resorcinol diphosphate ICL- IP

EUROPE

PEPQ Tetrakis(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) [1,1 -biphenyl] -4,4'diylbisphosphonite CLARIANT

Ti0 2 Coated titanium dioxide DUPONT

CARBON BLACK Amorphous Carbon CABOT

TP100 Songflame TP-100; phenol bi-phenol polyphosphate SONGWON

INDUSTRIAL

BORON Boron orthophosphate BUDENHEIM PHOSPHATE

KSS Potassium 3-(phenylsulfonyl)benzenesulfonate Sloss Industries

Corporation

Rimar Potassium nonafluoro- 1 -butanesulfonate Lanxess

Octaphenyl- Octaphenylcyclotetrasiloxane MOMENTIVE cyclotetrasiloxane

PTFE Encapsulated PTFE SABIC

ABS R360 Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin, 360, butadiene content 51.8%, SABIC

styrene content 36.9%, acrylonitrile content 11.3%

PEI Polyetherimide resin, made via reaction of bisphenol A dianhydride with SABIC

equimolar amount of m-phenylene diamine, Mw about 33,000 g/mol, determined via GPC using Polystyrene standards

PPSU Radel 5100; poly(phenylenesulfone) SOLVAY Can be manufactured by the methods described in U.S. 6,072,011 to Hoover. [0113] The tests performed are summarized in Table 3.

Table 3.

[0114] ISO smoke density measurements were performed on 7.5 x 7.5 cm plaques with 3 mm thickness using an NBS Smoke Density Chamber from Fire Testing Technology Ltd (West Sussex, United Kingdom). All measurements were performed according to ISO 5659-2, with an irradiance of 50 kW/m at the sample position and a sample-to-cone distance of 5 cm in view of the charring behavior of the samples (as prescribed by ISO 5659-2). Ds-4 was determined as the measured smoke density after 240 seconds. The tests executed are indicative tests. They were performed according to ISO 5659-2, but were not executed by an officially certified test institute.

[0115] ISO heat release measurements were performed on 10 x 10 cm plaques with 3 mm thickness using a Cone Calorimeter. All measurements were performed according to ISO 5660-1, with 50 kW/m irradiance at the sample position and a sample-to-cone distance of 6 cm in view of the charring behavior of the samples (as prescribed by ISO 5660-1). Heat release is measured as MAHRE in kW/m as prescribed by ISO5660-1. The tests executed are indicative tests. They were performed according to ISO 5660-1, but were not executed by an officially certified test institute. [0116] ISO flame spread measurements were performed on a 800 x 155 mm plaques with 3 mm thickness using according to ISO 5658-2. Flame spread is measured as critical heat flux at extinguishment (CFE) in kW/m as prescribed by ISO 5658-2. The tests executed are official tests executed by an officially certified test institute according to ISO 5658-2.

[0117] Smoke density testing (ASTM E-662-83, ASTM F-814-83, Airbus ABD0031, Boeing BSS 7239) was performed on 7.5 x 7.5 cm plaques of 3 mm thickness according to the method shown in FAR 25.853 (d), and in Appendix F, section V (FAR F25.5). Smoke density was measured under flaming mode. Smoke density (Ds) at 4.0 minutes (min) was reported. The tests executed are official tests executed by an officially certified test institute according to ASTM E-662-83.

[0118] OSU peak heat release testing was performed on 15.2 x 15.2 cm plaques of 3 mm thickness, using the Ohio State University (OSU) rate-of-heat release apparatus, in accordance with the method shown in FAR 25.853(d), and in Appendix F, section IV (FAR

F25.4). Total heat release was measured at the two-minute mark in kW-min/m (kilowatt minutes per square meter). Peak heat release was measured as kW/m (kilowatts per square meter). The heat release test method is also described in the "Aircraft Materials Fire Test Handbook" DOT/FAA/AR-00/12, Chapter 5 "Heat Release Test for Cabin Materials." The tests executed are official tests executed by an officially certified test institute according to the method shown in FAR 25.853(d).

[0119] Smoke density testing for NFPA 130 was performed on 7.5 x 7.5 cm plaques of 3 mm thickness according to ASTM E662-12 measured in both flaming and non-flaming mode. Smoke density (Ds) at 1.5 min (Dsl.5) and after 4.0 minutes (Ds4) were reported. The tests executed are official tests executed by an officially certified test institute according to ASTM E662-12.

[0120] Surface flammability testing for NFPA 130 was performed on 152.4 x 457.2 mm plaques of 3 mm thickness according to ASTM E162-12a. Reported parameter is flame spread index (Is), which is calculated from multiplying the flame spread factor (Fs) and the heat evolution factor (Q) determined during the test. Furthermore, the occurrence of flaming running or dripping is monitored. The tests executed are official tests executed by an officially certified test institute according to ASTM El 62- 12a. Blending, Extrusion and Molding Conditions.

[0121] The compositions were made as follows. All solid additives (stabilizers, colorants, solid flame retardants) were dry blended off-line as concentrates using one of the primary polymer powders as a carrier and starve-fed via gravimetric feeder(s) into the feed throat of the extruder. The remaining polymer(s) were starve-fed via gravimetric feeder(s) into the feed throat of the extruder as well. The liquid flame retardants (e.g., BPADP, RDP) were fed before the vacuum using a liquid injection system. It will be recognized by one skilled in the art that the method is not limited to these temperatures or processing equipment.

[0122] Extrusion of all materials was performed on a 27 mm Werner-Pfleiderer ZAK twin-screw extruder (L/D ratio of 33/1) with a vacuum port located near the die face. The extruder has 9 zones, which were set at temperatures of 40°C (feed zone), 200°C (zone 1), 250°C (zone 2), and 270°C (zone 3) and 280-300° C zone 4 to 8. Screw speed was 300 rpm and throughput was between 15 and 25 kg/hr.

[0123] The compositions were molded after drying at 100-110°C for 6 hrs on a 45-ton Engel molding machine with 22 mm screw or 75-ton Engel molding machine with 30 mm screw operating at a temperature 270-300°C with a mold temperature of 70-90°C. It will be recognized by one skilled in the art that the method is not limited to these temperatures or processing equipment.

Examples 1-4.

[0124] Examples 1-4 demonstrate the effect of the addition of an aromatic

organophosphorus compound (BPADP) to poly(carbonate-arylate ester)s with high ITR contents, namely a blend of ITR-PC-siloxane and ITR-PC copolymers. Formulations and results are shown in Table 4.

Table 4.

[0125] The results shown in Table 4 demonstrate that in the absence of an aromatic organophosphorus compound (BPADP), the blend of ITR-PC and ITR-PC-siloxane copolymers (CEx3) has a smoke density (Ds-4 of 158) at 3 mm thickness at 50 kW/m that meets the requirements for HL-2 or HL-3 in the European Railway standard EN-45545 (Ds-4

2 2

at or below 300 at 50 kW/nr, Ds-4 at or below 150 at 50 kW/nr). The same or similar values are expected in compositions forming articles having a wide range of thicknesses, for example from 0.1 to 10 mm, or 0.5 to 5 mm. However, the heat release (MAHRE of 96 kW/m 2" at 3 mm thickness at 50 kW/m 2 ) does not meet the requirements for HL-2 in the

European Railway standard EN-45545 (MAHRE at or below 90 kW/m at 3 mm thickness at 50 kW/m 2 , MAHRE at or below 60 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ).

[0126] As shown in Table 4, the addition of an aromatic organophosphorus compound (BPADP in these examples) to the blend of ITR-PC-siloxane and ITR-PC (Exl, Ex2) yields slightly improved Ds-4 values in the ISO 5659-2 smoke density test compared to the Comparative Example (CEx3) without the aromatic organophosphorus compound.

[0127] In contrast, in the ASTM E662 smoke density test, the addition of an aromatic organophosphorus compound, such as BPADP, has a clear negative effect, increasing Ds-4 values from 29 in the composition with the aromatic organophosphorus compound to 162 in the composition without the aromatic organophosphorus compound (Ex2 and CEx3), all measured at 3 mm thickness.

[0128] The main effect of the addition of an aromatic organophosphorus compound (BPADP) is the highly positive effect on the heat release (MAHRE), reducing it from a values of 96 kW/m for the blend of ITR-PC-siloxane and ITR-PC without an aromatic organophosphorus compound (CEx3) down to MAHRE values of 52 kW/m (Exl) and 41 kW/m" (Ex2) at 3 mm thickness, all measured according to ISO 5660-1 at 50 kW/m . The reduction in MAHRE values makes these materials suitable for Hazard Level 2 (HL-2) (Ds-4 <300 at 50 kW/m 2 and MAHRE <90 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ) or potentially even HL-3 (Ds-4 <150 at 50 kW/m 2 and MAHRE <60 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ) in the European Railway standard EN-45545 for class R6 applications (2013), whereas the blend of ITR-PC-siloxane and ITR- PC copolymers (CEx3) without an aromatic organophosphorus compound either does not comply or complies only marginally with HL-2 of European Railway standard EN-45545 standard.

[0129] The aromatic organophosphorus compound does not have this positive effect in the OSU peak heat release test (Ex2 and CEx3) with the measured OSU values very comparable for Ex2 (40) and CEx3 (46), all measured at 3 mm thickness.

[0130] An additional advantage of the addition of aromatic organophosphorus compounds, such as BPADP, is that it provides a significant improvement in the melt flow properties compared to the blend of ITR-PC-siloxane and ITR-PC without an aromatic organophosphorus compound. The improvement in MVR, measured at 300°C and 1.2 kg according to ISO 1133, is from 6.9 cc/10 min (CEx3) to 10.1 cc/10 min (Exl) or 13.5 cc/10 min (Ex2), without compromising multiaxial impact (MAI) energy or ductility at room temperature, as shown in Table 4.

[0131] Comparative Example 4 (CEx4), shows that improvement in reducing heat release values is unexpected and is not necessarily observed in other conventional flame- retardants, such as brominated polymers. The addition of a brominated polycarbonate (Br- PC) to the formulation actually results in a worse heat release, as shown for the blend of ITR- PC and ITR-PC-siloxane (CEx4). Comparing (CEx4) with (CEx3) shows that the addition of brominated polycarbonate actually results in an increase in MAHRE from 96 to 106 kW/m at 3 mm thickness at 50 kW/m . Furthermore, the use of a brominated polycarbonate flame retardant decreases the melt flow (CEx4), due to its higher M w (about 24,000 g/mole compared with 21,000 g/mole).

[0132] The Examples demonstrate the ability of an aromatic organophosphorus compound such as BPADP, present at the amounts shown, to achieve a unique balance of low smoke and low heat release, as measured according to European Railway standard EN-45545 testing, in combination with high flow rate (MVR) and high practical multiaxial impact (MAI) at room temperature, which could not be achieved for compositions without the addition of an aromatic organophosphorus compound such as BPADP. Furthermore, these results are not observed in alternative smoke and heat release testing, such as those of Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) part 25.853.

Examples 5-9

[0133] Examples 5-9 demonstrate the effect of the addition of an aromatic

organophosphorus compound (BPADP) to ITR-PC copolymer. Formulations and results are shown in Table 5.

Table 5.

[0134] The results shown in Table 5 demonstrate that in the absence of an aromatic organophosphorus compound (BPADP), ITR-PC siloxane copolymer (CEx 9) has a smoke density (Ds-4 of 186 at 50 kW/m") at 3 mm thickness that meets the requirements for HL-2 in the European Railway standard EN-45545 (Ds-4 value <300 at 50 kW/m 2 , Ds-4 at or below 150 at 50 kW/m 2 ). However, the heat release (MAHRE of 125 kW/m 2 ) at 3 mm thickness does not meet the requirements for HL-2 in the European Railway standard EN-45545 (MAHRE at or below 90 kW/m 2 at 3 mm thickness at 50 kW/m 2 , MAHRE at or below 60 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ).

[0135] As shown in Table 5 and illustrated in FIG. 1, the addition of an aromatic organophosphorus compound (BPADP in these examples) to ITR-PC (Ex5, Ex6, Ex7, Ex8) yields slightly improved or comparable Ds-4 values in the ISO 5659-2 smoke density test at 50 kW/m compared to the Comparative Example without the aromatic organophosphorus compound (CEx9). The aromatic organophosphorus compound therefore does not have a negative impact on the smoke density when measured according to ISO 5659-2.

[0136] In addition, as shown in Table 5 and FIG 2, the aromatic organophosphorus compound (BPADP) has a positive effect on the heat release (MAHRE), reducing it from a value of 125 kW/m for ITR-PC without an aromatic organophosphorus compound (CEx9), down to MAHRE values below 90 kW/m 2 (Ex6, Ex7, Ex8) at 3 mm thickness, all at 50 kW/m 2 .

[0137] As shown in Examples 5-8 and illustrated graphically in FIG. 1 and 2, the relative amount of the aromatic organophosphorus compounds (e.g., BPADP) has no significant effect on Ds-4 at 50 kW/m . In contrast, the addition of larger amounts of an aromatic organophosphorus compound such as BPADP to an ITR-PC copolymer results in a continuous decrease in heat release rate, decreasing the MAHRE from around 125 kW/m without BPADP to 78 kW/m 2 for 7.5 wt.% BPADP (a decrease of 33% in MAHRE) at 3 mm thickness, all measured at 50 kW/m .

[0138] An additional advantage of the addition of aromatic organophosphorus compounds, such as BPADP, is that it provides a significant improvement in the melt flow properties compared to the ITR-PC copolymer without an aromatic organophosphorus compound. The improvement in MVR, measured at 300 °C and 1.2 kg according to ISO 1133, is from 9.5 cc/10 min (CEx9) to 18.2 cc/10 min up to 21.4 cc/10 min (Ex 6, 7 and 8) without compromising high multiaxial impact (MAI) energy or ductility at room temperature, as shown in Table 5.

[0139] The reduction in MAHRE values combined with the low smoke density makes these materials suitable for Hazard Level 2 (HL-2) (Ds-4 <300 at 50 kW/m 2 and MAHRE <90 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ) or potentially even HL-3 (Ds-4 <150 at 50 kW/m 2 and MAHRE

<60 kW/m at 50 kW/m ) in European Railway standard EN-45545 class R6 applications, whereas ITR-PC copolymer without an aromatic organophosphorus compound does not comply with these new standards (CEx9).

[0140] Furthermore, these compositions can be formulated to have high transparency values (above 87%) and low haze (below 3) measured according to ASTM D1003 using the color space CIE1931 (Illuminant C and a 2° observer) at 3 mm thickness. As such, these compositions are also suitable for rail components requiring high transparency and/or low haze. Examples 10-16

[0141] Examples 10-16 demonstrate the effect of the addition of alternative phosphorus compounds, effective to provide a given amount of phosphorus to the composition, to ITR-PC copolymers (Boron monophosphate, BPADP, RDP, and TPlOO in these examples). Formulations and results are shown in Table 6.

Table 6.

[0142] The results shown in Table 6 demonstrate that at similar percent phosphorus (% P of 0.65 to 0.67), alternative aromatic organophosphorus compounds, namely TPlOO (ExlO) and RDP (Exl l) perform similarly to BPADP (Exl2). The Ds-4 either remains similar or decreases compared to the Comparative Example (CExl6) without the aromatic organophosphorus compound. The aromatic organophosphorus compounds therefore do not have a negative impact or even a positive effect on Ds-4 when measured according to ISO

5659-2 on 3 mm thick plaques at 50 kW/m .

[0143] In addition, as shown Table 6, the aromatic organophosphorus compounds, namely TPlOO (ExlO), RDP (Exl l) and BPADP (Exl2) all have similar positive effects on the heat release (MAHRE), reducing it from 135 kW/m for ITR-PC copolymer without an aromatic organophosphorus compound (CExl6) to MAHRE values below 90 kW/m

(respectively 89, 85 and 89 kW/m 2 for TPlOO, RDP and BPADP), all measured on 3 mm thick plaques at 50 kW/m . The reduction in MAHRE values makes these materials suitable for Hazard Level 2 (HL-2) (Ds-4 <300 at 50 kW/m 2 and MAHRE <90 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ) in European Railway standard EN-45545 class R6 applications, whereas ITR-PC copolymer without an aromatic organophosphorus compound does not comply (CExl6).

[0144] In contrast, the positive effect on heat release (MAHRE) is not observed for a non-aromatic organophosphorus compound, namely boron phosphate (CExl5). Addition of this compound to ITR-PC copolymer results in a negative effect on heat release, as an increase from 135 to 159 kW/m in MAHRE is observed, all measured at 3 mm thickness at 50 kW/m 2 .

[0145] The positive effect of BPADP in ITR-PC copolymer on the heat release properties is observed irrespective of whether a heat stabilizer (PEPQ) is (Exl2), or is not added (Ex 13) to the composition.

[0146] The reduction in MAHRE values combined with the low smoke density makes compositions with ITR-PC copolymer and aromatic organophosphorus compounds suitable for Hazard Level 2 (HL-2) (Ds-4 <300 at 50 kW/m 2 and MAHRE <90 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ) in European Railway standard EN-45545 class R6 applications, whereas ITR-PC copolymer without an aromatic organophosphorus compound does not comply (CExl6).

Examples 17-18

[0147] Examples 17-18 show the effect of adding an aromatic organophosphorus compound (BPADP) to ITR- PC-Si -on smoke density measured according to ISO 5659-1, heat release measured according to ISO 5660-2 and flame spread measured according to ISO 5658-2, as well as physical properties. Formulations and results are shown in Table 7.

Table 7.

[0148] As shown in Table 7, the addition of an aromatic organophosphorus compound (BPADP in these examples) to the ITR-PC-siloxane copolymer (Exl7) yields slightly increased Ds-4 values (127 compared to 104 in CExl8) in the ISO smoke density test at 50 kW/m 2 and a significant reduction in the MAHRE values (56 kW/m 2 compared to 113 kW/m ) in the ISO heat release test compared to the composition without the aromatic organophosphorus compound (CExl8), all measured at 3 mm thickness at 50 kW/m . The reduction in MAHRE values makes these materials suitable for Hazard Level 2 (HL-2) (Ds-4 <300 at 50 kW/m 2 and MAHRE <90 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ) or potentially even HL-3 (Ds-4 <150 at 50 kW/m 2 and MAHRE <60 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ) in European Railway standard EN-45545 class R6 applications, whereas the ITR-PC-siloxane copolymers without an aromatic organophosphorus compound (CExl8) do not comply with HL-2 or HL-3 of European Railway standard EN-45545 standard.

[0149] The composition containing both the ITR-PC-siloxane copolymer and

BPADP has a critical heat flux at extinguishment (CFE) of 27 kW/m , far exceeding the threshold for HL2 or HL3 requirements for Rl applications, which both require a value at or above 20 kW/m . As such, combined with the MAHRE and Ds-4 values described above, these materials are also suitable for Hazard Level 2 (HL-2) (Ds-4 <300 at 50 kW/m 2 , CFE>20 kW/m 2 and MAHRE <90 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ) or potentially even HL-3 (Ds-4 <150 at 50 kW/m 2 , CFE> 20 kW/m 2 , and MAHRE <60 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ) in European Railway standard EN-45545 class Rl applications, whereas the ITR-PC-siloxane copolymers without an aromatic organophosphorus compound (CExl8) do not comply with HL-2 of European Railway standard EN-45545 standard for Rl applications.

[0150] Furthermore, the composition containing the BPADP, also has improved melt flow, indicated by the increased MVR from 4.8 cc/10 min (Comparative Example 18) to 9.3 cc/10 min (Example 17). This flow improvement is achieved without compromising MAI, as indicated by the high MAI energy (143 J) and ductility (100%) for Example 17, comparable to Comparative Example 18 (113 J and 100% ductility). Slight decreases in INI are observed for composition containing BPADP compared to the same composition without

BPADP (13 kJ/m for Example 17, 22 kJ/m for Comparative example 18), but values are still above 10 kJ/m .

[0151] The Examples demonstrate the ability of an aromatic organophosphorus compound such as BPADP, present at the amounts shown, to achieve a unique balance of low smoke, low flame spread and low heat release in PC-ITR-Si, as measured according to European Railway standard EN-45545 testing, in combination with high flow rate (MVR) and high practical multiaxial impact (MAI) at room temperature, which could not be achieved for compositions without the addition of an aromatic organophosphorus compound such as BPADP. Example 19

[0152] Examples 19 shows the effect of adding an aromatic organophosphorus compound (BPADP) to ITR-PC-Si in natural color on smoke density, measured according to IS05659-1, heat release, measured according to ISO5660-2 and flame spread measured according to ISO 5658-2, as well as physical properties. All were measured at 3 mm thickness. Formulations and results are shown in Table 8.

Table 8.

[0153] As shown in Table 8, the addition of an aromatic organophosphorus compound (BPADP in these examples) to the ITR-PC-siloxane copolymer yields low smoke density Ds-4 values (113 at 50 kW/m 2 ), low MAHRE values (56 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ), both below the thresholds for HL-3 (Ds-4 <150 and MAHRE <60 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ) in European Railway standard EN-45545 class R6. This combined with the high transparency of 87.7% and low haze of 1.68 makes these compositions highly suitable for transparent or diffusive seat components requiring meeting HL2 or HL3 requirements for EN45545 for R6 applications.

[0154] Furthermore, these compositions also have a high critical heat flux at extinguishment (CFE, 25 kW/m ), exceeding the requirement for HL2 or HL3 applications for Rl applications (CFE equal to or above 20 kW/m ). As such, combined with the

MAHRE and Ds-4 values described above, these materials are also suitable for Hazard Level 2 (HL-2) (Ds-4 <300 at 50 kW/m 2 , CFE>20 kW/m 2 and MAHRE <90 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ) or even HL-3 (Ds-4 <150 at 50 kW/m 2 , CFE> 20 kW/m 2 , and MAHRE <60 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m ) in European Railway standard EN-45545 class Rl applications. This, combined with the high transparency of 87.7% and low haze of 1.68, makes these compositions highly suitable for transparent or diffusive cladding components requiring meeting HL2 or HL3 requirements for EN45545 for Rl applications. Examples 20-23

[0155] Examples 20-23 show the effect of adding an aromatic organophosphorus compound (BPADP) to other copolymers, namely PC-Ester, as well as a polycarbonate homopolymer. Formulations and results are shown in Table 9.

Table 9.

[0156] Table 9 shows that the addition of an aromatic organophosphorus compound (BPADP in these examples) to PC-ester copolymer (Ex20) significantly decreases both Ds-4 values (340 compared to 1140) in the ISO smoke density test at 50 kW/m 2 and the MAHRE values (120 kW/m 2 compared to 217 kW/m 2 ) in the ISO heat release test at 50 kW/m 2 compared to the composition without the aromatic organophosphorus compound (CEx21), all measured on 3 mm thick plaques. This demonstrates that the effect of the aromatic organophosphorus compound (BPADP) also translates to other poly(carbonate-arylate ester)s.

[0157] Table 9 also shows that addition of BPADP to a polycarbonate homopolymer (PC) (CEx22 vs. CEx23) has a negative effect on the Ds-4 smoke density measured according to ISO 5659-2 at 50 kW/m and a neutral effect on the heat release (MAHRE) measured according to ISO 5660-1 at 50 kW/m , all measured on a 3 mm thick plaque.

Combined with the results shown in Tables 4-8, these results indicate that the positive effect of adding an organophosphorus compound to poly(carbonate-arylate ester)s does not occur with all polycarbonates, and instead is copolymer specific.

Examples 24-28

[0158] Examples 24-28 show the effect of adding an aromatic organophosphorus compound (BPADP) to ITR-PC-Si in various quantities on the heat release. Formulations and results are shown in Table 10. Table 10.

[0159] As shown in Table 10, the addition of an aromatic organophosphorus compound (BPADP in these examples) to the ITR-PC-siloxane copolymer (Ex23-27) in various quantities ranging from 6.5% (Example 24) to 10.5% (Example 28) yields low MAHRE values (all below 50 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ), significantly below the threshold for HL3 compliance for R6 applications (MAHRE < 60 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ).

[0160] This shows that sufficiently low MAHRE values can be achieved upon addition of BPADP to ITR-PC-siloxane copolymer to make these materials suitable for Hazard Level 2 (HL-2) (Ds-4 <300 at 50 kW/m 2 and MAHRE <90 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ) or potentially even HL-3 (Ds-4 <150 at 50 kW/m 2 and MAHRE <60 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ) in European Railway standard EN-45545 class R6 applications, using a broad range of BPADP levels, which allows tuning of other properties, such as flow and/or impact. Already at BPADP levels as low as 6.5 wt.%, MVR values above 7 cc/10 min are achieved (Example 23). Upon incorporating higher amounts, such as 7.5 (Example 25), or 8.5 wt.% (Example 26), MVR values increase further to 9.4 cc/10 min and 10.0 cc/10 min respectively. This is achieved without any significant compromise on MAI energy (values all far above 100 J) or impact (all 100% ductility) and INI (from 14 kJ/m 2 to 12 kJ/m 2 ) at RT.

Examples 29-33

[0161] Examples 29-33 show the effect of the thickness of the molded plaque on the smoke density and the heat release for ITR-PC-Si with 7.5 wt. % BPADP to demonstrate that the low values in DS-4 and MAHRE obtained at 3 mm thickness can also be obtained in the case of smaller and larger thicknesses. Formulations and results are shown in Table 11. Table 11.

[0162] As shown in Table 11, Ds-4 values below 150 at 50 kW/m are obtained for ITR-PC-Si with 7.5% of BPADP at all thicknesses between 2 and 6 mm. MAHRE values are all around 55 to 70 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2. This demonstrates that these compositions are suitable for Hazard Level 2 (HL-2) (Ds-4 <300 at 50 kW/m 2 and MAHRE <90 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ) or potentially even HL-3 (Ds-4 <150 at 50 kW/m 2 and MAHRE <60 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m ) in European Railway standard EN-45545 class R6 applications, at a range of thicknesses between 2 and 6 mm. This demonstrates that the disclosure is not limited to a thickness of 3 mm, but can be used in the practical range of thicknesses employed in rail applications.

Examples 34-39

[0163] Examples 34-39 show the effect of the color of the composition on the smoke density and the heat release for ITR-PC-Si with 7.5 wt.% BPADP to demonstrate that the low values in DS-4 and MAHRE can be obtained in a range of different colors.

Formulations and results are shown in Table 12.

Table 12.

[0164] As shown in Table 12, for all colors in these examples, including grey, opaque blue, natural, black, and orange, Ds-4 values below 150 are obtained at 50 kW/m , whereas the measured samples on MAHRE all have values below 60 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2. This demonstrates that these compositions are suitable for Hazard Level 2 (HL-2) (Ds-4 <300 at 50 kW/m 2 and MAHRE <90 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ) or potentially even HL-3 (Ds-4 <150 at 50 kW/m 2 and MAHRE <60 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 ) in European Railway standard EN-45545 class R6 (or Rl applications provided CFE values are above 20 kW/m ) applications, at a range of colors. This demonstrates that the disclosed article can be used in the practical range of colors typically employed in rail applications.

Examples 40 - 45

[0165] These comparative examples show that meeting the smoke density and heat release requirements of the EN45545 standard is not possible with regular flame retardant polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene blends and flame retardant polycarbonate resins. Formulations and results are shown in Table 13.

Table 13.

[0166] Comparative example 40 is an example of a flame retardant

polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PC/ ABS) blend. The composition has the maximum measurable smoke density value (DS-4) of 1320 at 50 kW/m and a heat release (MAHRE) of 140 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 , which do not meet the EN45545 rail standard (2013) thresholds for Rl or R6 applications for smoke density (DS-4 <600 for HL-1, DS-4 < 300 for HL2 and DS-4<150 for HL3, all at 50 kW/m 2 ) and also do not meet the EN45545 rail standard (2013) thresholds for heat release (MAHRE < 90 kW/m 2 for HL2 and MAHRE < 60 kW/m 2 for HL3, all at 50 kW/m 2 ). Therefore, typical flame retardant

polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PC/ ABS) blends are not suitable for seat components or claddings requiring meeting HL2 or HL3 requirements of the EN45545 standard.

[0167] Comparative examples 41 to 43 are examples of flame retardant bisphenol A polycarbonate resins. All compositions have high smoke density values (Ds-4) above 1000 at 50 kW/m 2 , which do not meet the EN45545 rail standard (2013) thresholds for Rl or R6 applications for smoke density (DS-4 <600 for HL-1, DS-4 < 300 for HL2 and DS-4<150 for

HL3, all at 50 kW/m ) at any hazard level. Therefore, typical flame retardant polycarbonate resins are not suitable for seat components or claddings requiring meeting HL2 or HL3 requirements of the EN45545 standard.

[0168] Comparative examples 44 to 45 are examples of flame retardant

poly(carbonate-siloxane) resins. All compositions have high smoke density values (Ds-4) above 600 at 50 kW/m 2 , which do not meet the EN45545 rail standard (2013) thresholds for Rl or R6 applications for smoke density (DS-4 <600 for HL-1, DS-4 < 300 for HL2 and DS- 4<150 for HL3, all at 50 kW/m ) at any hazard level. Furthermore, these compositions have heat release (MAHRE) values above 150 kW/m 2 at 50 kW/m 2 , which do not meet the EN45545 rail standard (2013) thresholds for heat release (MAHRE < 90 kW/m 2 for HL2 and MAHRE < 60 kW/m 2 for HL3, all at 50 kW/m 2 ). Therefore, typical flame retardant poly(carbonate-siloxane) resins are not suitable for seat components or claddings requiring meeting HL2 or HL3 requirements of the EN45545 standard.

Examples 46 - 47

[0169] These comparative examples show that meeting the smoke density and heat release requirements of the EN45545 standard is possible with certain high heat polymers, but that these polymers do not have a suitable property profile for rail interior applications. Formulations and results are shown in Table 14.

Table 14.

[0170] Comparative examples 46 and 47 show that both PEI and PPSU have very low smoke density (Ds-4) values around 60-70 and low heat release (MAHRE) values of 43 and

15 kW/m 2 respectively at 50 kW/m 2. As such, these resins are fully compliant with the HL2 or HL3 requirements for Rl and R6 applications according to EN45545 for smoke density (DS-4 < 300 for HL2 and DS-4<150 for HL3, all at 50 kW/m 2 ) and heat release (MAHRE < 90 kW/m 2 for HL2 and MAHRE < 60 kW/m 2 for HL3, all at 50 kW/m 2 ).

[0171] However, these resins both have limited practical impact properties, as indicated by their 0% ductility in MAI testing at room temperature. Furthermore, due to their high glass transition temperatures of 216 and 220 °C respectively, the melt flow is limited, such that MVR and MV values cannot be measured at 300°C, which makes these resins less suitable for molding of large and complex parts, using conventional tooling for PC/ABS and PC resins, which have glass transition temperatures of 150 °C and lower, depending on the composition. Furthermore, the high glass transition temperatures of these resins make them very difficult to form using for instance thermoforming.

[0172] As such, despite meeting the HL2 or HL3 requirements for Rl and R6 applications according to EN45545 for smoke density (DS-4 < 300 for HL2 and DS-4<150 for HL3, all at 50 kW/m 2 ) and heat release (MAHRE < 90 for HL2 and MAHRE < 60 for HL3, all at 50 kW/m"), these resins are less suitable for molding or forming of rail interior applications.

Example 48

[0173] Example 48 shows the results of testing according to NFPA 130 (2010 edition) on a composition comprising ITR-PC-Si and BPADP, including smoke density and surface flammability.

Table 15.

[0174] Example 48 shows that the composition comprising BPADP and ITR-PC-Si has smoke density after 1.5 min (Dsl.5) values of 1 and 5 in non-flaming and in flaming mode respectively, which is far below the maximum allowed Dsl.5 value of 100.

Furthermore, the composition has smoke density after 4 min (Ds4) values of 5 and 92 in non- flaming and in flaming mode respectively, which is far below the maximum allowed Ds4 value of 200. Further, the composition has a flame spread index (Is) of 5, which is far below the maximum allowed Is of 35. Finally, the composition does not have flaming running or dripping during the ASTM E162-12 test, which is another requirement of this test.

Therefore, these compositions can meet the requirements set forth by NFPA 130 (2010 edition) and can be used in railway components for United States rail interiors.

[0175] Furthermore, the composition containing the BPADP and ITR-PC-Si also has improved melt flow, indicated by the MVR of 9.3 cc/10 min and high MAI energy (143 J) and ductility (100%) at room temperature.

[0176] This example demonstrates the suitable of these compositions for railway interior applications; since they meet the strict NFPA 130 (2010 edition) requirements and have a good balance of high melt flow and good practical impact.

[0177] The singular forms "a," "an," and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. "Or" means "and/or." The endpoints of all ranges directed to the same component or property are inclusive and independently combinable. The suffix "(s)" as used herein is intended to include both the singular and the plural of the term that it modifies, thereby including at least one of that term (e.g., "colorant(s)" includes at least one colorant). "Optional" or "optionally" means that the subsequently described event or circumstance can or cannot occur, and that the description includes instances where the event occurs and instances where it does not. Unless defined otherwise, technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as is commonly understood by one of skill in the art to which this invention belongs.

[0178] As used herein, a "combination" is inclusive of blends, mixtures, alloys, reaction products, and the like. Compounds are described using standard nomenclature. For example, any position not substituted by any indicated group is understood to have its valency filled by a bond as indicated, or a hydrogen atom. A dash ("-") that is not between two letters or symbols is used to indicate a point of attachment for a substituent. For example, -CHO is attached through carbon of the carbonyl group.

[0179] As used herein, the term "hydrocarbyl" and "hydrocarbon" refer broadly to a substituent comprising carbon and hydrogen, optionally with 1 to 3 heteroatoms, for example, oxygen, nitrogen, halogen, silicon, sulfur, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing; "alkyl" refers to a straight or branched chain, saturated monovalent hydrocarbon group; "alkylene" refers to a straight or branched chain, saturated, divalent hydrocarbon group; "alkylidene" refers to a straight or branched chain, saturated divalent hydrocarbon group, with both valences on a single common carbon atom; "alkenyl" refers to a straight or branched chain monovalent hydrocarbon group having at least two carbons joined by a carbon-carbon double bond; "cycloalkyl" refers to a non-aromatic monovalent monocyclic or multicylic hydrocarbon group having at least three carbon atoms, "cycloalkenyl" refers to a non-aromatic cyclic divalent hydrocarbon group having at least three carbon atoms, with at least one degree of unsaturation; "aryl" refers to an aromatic monovalent group containing only carbon in the aromatic ring or rings; "arylene" refers to an aromatic divalent group containing only carbon in the aromatic ring or rings; "alkylaryl" refers to an aryl group that has been substituted with an alkyl group as defined above, with 4-methylphenyl being an exemplary alkylaryl group; "arylalkyl" refers to an alkyl group that has been substituted with an aryl group as defined above, with benzyl being an exemplary arylalkyl group; "acyl" refers to an alkyl group as defined above with the indicated number of carbon atoms attached through a carbonyl carbon bridge (-C(=0)-); "alkoxy" refers to an alkyl group as defined above with the indicated number of carbon atoms attached through an oxygen bridge (-0-); and "aryloxy" refers to an aryl group as defined above with the indicated number of carbon atoms attached through an oxygen bridge (-0-).

[0180] Unless otherwise indicated, each of the foregoing groups can be unsubstituted or substituted, provided that the substitution does not significantly adversely affect synthesis, stability, or use of the compound. The term "substituted" as used herein means that at least one hydrogen on the designated atom or group is replaced with another group, provided that the designated atom's normal valence is not exceeded. When the substituent is oxo (i.e., =0), then two hydrogens on the atom are replaced. Combinations of substituents and/or variables are permissible provided that the substitutions do not significantly adversely affect synthesis or use of the compound. Exemplary groups that can be present on a "substituted" position include, but are not limited to, cyano; hydroxyl; nitro; azido; alkanoyl (such as a C 2 -6 alkanoyl group such as acyl); carboxamido; Ci_ 6 or Ci_ 3 alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl (including groups having at least one unsaturated linkages and from 2 to 8, or 2 to 6 carbon atoms); C 1-6 or C 1-3 alkoxy groups; C 6 -io aryloxy such as phenoxy; C 1-6 alkylthio; C 1-6 or Ci_ 3 alkylsulfinyl; Ci_ 6 or Ci_ 3 alkylsulfonyl; aminodi(Ci_6 or Ci_ 3 )alkyl; C 6-12 aryl having at least one aromatic rings (e.g., phenyl, biphenyl, naphthyl, or the like, each ring either substituted or unsubstituted aromatic); C7-19 alkylenearyl having 1 to 3 separate or fused rings and from 6 to 18 ring carbon atoms, with benzyl being an exemplary arylalkyl group; or arylalkoxy having 1 to 3 separate or fused rings and from 6 to 18 ring carbon atoms, with benzyloxy being an exemplary arylalkoxy group. [0181] All references cited herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety. While typical embodiments have been set forth for the purpose of illustration, the foregoing descriptions should not be deemed to be a limitation on the scope herein. Accordingly, various modifications, adaptations, and alternatives can occur to one skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope herein.