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Title:
A LIQUID PASTEURISED BATTER
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2003/022062
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention concerns a method of producing a liquid pasteurised batter, wherein a pasteurised liquid phase substance and a solid phase substance comprising flour and at least one disaccharide ester are mixed, followed by heat treatment at a temperature above 55°C. The invention discloses a liquid pasteurised batter having a viscosity of 1000-30.000 Centi Poise at 5°C as measured by a viscosity-meter. Further, the invention discloses the use of a liquid pasteurised batter for making ready-to-cook food items, such as pancakes.

Inventors:
CARSTENS JAN HOEY (DK)
PEDERSEN HENRIK (DK)
PETERS LARS VALENTIN (DK)
Application Number:
PCT/DK2002/000587
Publication Date:
March 20, 2003
Filing Date:
September 09, 2002
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
SANOVO FOODS AS (DK)
CARSTENS JAN HOEY (DK)
PEDERSEN HENRIK (DK)
PETERS LARS VALENTIN (DK)
International Classes:
A21D10/04; (IPC1-7): A21D10/04
Domestic Patent References:
WO2002037970A12002-05-16
Foreign References:
US5534285A1996-07-09
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Høiberg, A/s (Copenhagen K., DK)
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Claims:
Claims
1. A method of producing a liquid pasteurised batter, comprising mixing a pasteurised liquid phase substance and a solid phase substance comprising flour and at least one disaccharide ester, obtaining a liquid mixture of batter, followed by pasteurising said liquid mixture of batter by heat treatment at a temperature above 55 °C. obtaining a liquid pasteurised batter.
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the liquid phase substance comprises a food acceptable liquid and optionally sugar.
3. The method according to claim 2, wherein the liquid phase substance further comprises at least one disaccharide ester.
4. The method according to the claims 2 or 3, wherein the liquid phase substance further comprises eggs.
5. The method according to claim 1, wherein the solid phase substance further comprises at least one disaccharide ester.
6. The method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the liquid phase substance as defined in the claims 2 or 3 or 4 is mixed with the solid phase substance as defined in the claims 1 or 5.
7. The method according to claim 6, wherein the mixing of the liquid phase substance and the solid phase substance comprises, obtaining the liquid phase substance, followed by the addition of the solid phase substance, thereby obtaining a liquid mixture of batter.
8. The method according to claim 6, wherein the mixing of the liquid phase substance and the solid phase substance comprises, obtaining the solid phase substance, followed by the addition of the liquid phase substance, thereby obtaining a liquid mixture of batter.
9. The method according to claim 1, wherein the disaccharide ester is selected from sucrose ester, lactose ester, maltose ester and/or cellobiose ester.
10. The method according to claim 1, wherein the disaccharide ester is sucrose ester.
11. The method according to claim 1, wherein the liquid mixture of batter is heated at a temperature of between 55140 °C.
12. The method according to claim 1, wherein the liquid mixture of batter is heated at a temperature of between 60120 °C.
13. The method according to claim 1, wherein the liquid mixture of batter is heated at a temperature of between 65100 °C.
14. The method according to claim 10, wherein the sucrose ester has a concentration of between 15 weight% relative to the flour concentration.
15. The method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the heat treatment is performed between 1 second20 minutes, preferably between 115 minutes, more preferably between 212 minutes, most preferably between 36 minutes.
16. The method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the solid phase substance has a total plate count value of between 100.000 to 1.000. 000 total plate count/gram dry matter (tpc/gram dry matter) prior to the heat treatment.
17. The method according to any of the claims 115, wherein the solid phase substance has a total mould value of between 100 to 1.000. 000 tpc/gram dry matter prior to the heat treatment.
18. The method according to any of the claims 115, wherein the liquid pasteurised batter has a total plate count value of between 1 to 150.000 tpc/gram dry matter after the heat treatment.
19. The method according to any of the claims 115, wherein the liquid pasteurised batter has a total mould value of between 0 to 30 tpc/gram dry matter after the heat treatment.
20. The method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the liquid pasteurised batter has a preservation period of at least 25 days when kept at temperatures of between 0 to 8 °C.
21. The method according to the claims 120, wherein the liquid pasteurised batter has a preservation period of at least 12 months when kept at temperatures of between18 to 0 °C.
22. The method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the pasteurisation is performed by the means of a sterile pasteurising apparatus.
23. A liquid pasteurised batter as defined in any of the claims 122 having a viscosity of 100030.000 Centi Poise at 5 °C as measured by a viscositymeter.
24. The liquid pasteurised batter according to claim 23 having a concentration of sucrose ester of between 0.21. 5 weight% per kg. of liquid pasteurised batter.
25. The liquid pasteurised batter according to the claims 2324 essentially free from mould and/or yeast.
26. The liquid pasteurised batter according to the claims 2325, capable of being cooked.
27. Use of a liquid pasteurised batter as defined by the claims 2326, for making readytocook food items, such as pancakes.
Description:
A liquid pasteurised batter Technical field of the invention The present invention relates to a method of pasteurising a liquid batter product generally, and to the batter product obtained thereby, said product having a prolonged storage life.

Background of the invention The use of pre-fabricated batters and dough in modern life domestic cooking has created a major research field within the food industry concerned with ready-to-use bakery compositions.

Examples of such ready-to-use products are mixtures, which include the basic ingredients comprising whole eggs, fat, sugar, and flour and optionally water.

Manufacturers of such ready-to-use dry mixtures or liquid batter products have encountered several significant problems in providing these intermediate products.

One problem has been degradation of the intermediate product in storage due to undesirable chemical reactions. Dough and batters, such as bread dough and cake batters are complicated chemical systems. In a case of yeast leavened bread dough, the dough is not only a complicated chemical system but is also a complicated biological system because of living yeast cells within the dough.

Storage of yeast leavened dough or batter at refrigerated temperatures has resulted in premature leavening of the batter or dough, which has produced an undesirable baked good.

It is known that in order for manufacturers to overcome problems related to storage, such as long term preservation of the batter a conventional method of preserving is to sterilise the batter composition by heating at a high temperature.

However, there are major problems caused by exposing a batter mixture to high temperatures. When reaching a temperature of approximately 55 °C or more the batter stiffens, which makes it unsuitable for use in the manufacture of the desired products.

When sterilising the batter composition at temperatures below 55 °C not every pathogenic micro-organism, such as bacteria, mould and/or yeast will die.

Considering the product in question this is highly inconvenient since the liquid batter composition is most susceptible to bacterial infection and may undergo physical and possibly chemical changes while standing. This may in the end lead to a poor batter and thus poor cooked products.

US 5,384, 139 concerns a method for the preservation of food compositions of the pancake and fritter type by essentially distributing into two phases the constituents of the paste: a powder phase including the whites of eggs in addition to flour and sugar, and a liquid phase including the yolks in addition to the other constituents, each of these phases being introduced in a distinct aseptic packing system.

US 6,056, 984 concerns obtaining shelf-stable complete pre-mixes by storing the components separately and mix them right before use.

The heat pasteurisation of a cake batter is disclosed in US 3,970, 763. Here a batter comprising eggs, flour, sugar and fat is pasteurised at temperatures above 70 °C. It is possible to perform the pasteurisation at such temperature without degradation of the flour because the batter does not comprise water.

The present invention concerns a method of producing a liquid pasteurised batter, and a batter obtainable thereby. The pasteurisation of the water-based batter is successfully achieved, i. e. without any swelling of the flour. The pasteurisation leads to a product having a prolonged shelf life.

Summary of the invention Accordingly, the present invention concerns a method of producing a liquid pasteurised batter, comprising - mixing a pasteurised liquid phase substance and a solid phase substance comprising flour and at least one disaccharide ester, - obtaining a liquid mixture of batter, followed by

- pasteurising said liquid mixture of batter by heat treatment at a temperature above 55 °C.

- obtaining a liquid pasteurised batter.

By using the present method a liquid pasteurised batter having a viscosity of 1000- 30.000 Centi Poise at 5 °C as measured by a viscosity-meter is obtained.

Such liquid pasteurised batter may be used for making ready-to-cook food items, such as pancakes.

Detailed description of the invention To overcome the obstacles of producing a liquid batter which is pasteurised and thereby is capable of a prolonged shelf-life the present invention discloses a method of producing a liquid pasteurised batter, comprising - mixing a pasteurised liquid phase substance and a solid phase substance comprising flour and at least one disaccharide ester, - obtaining a liquid mixture of batter, followed by - pasteurising said liquid mixture of batter by heat treatment at a temperature above 55 °C.

- obtaining a liquid pasteurised batter.

Definitions In the present context the term"batter"refers to an intermediate food product that essentially contains flour, water and salt and optionally eggs, fat and sugar. Liquid added to make the batter will form a continuous batter medium in which other ingre- dients are dispersed. A batter cooks into a soft, moist and sometimes crumbly prod- uct. A batter is typically prepared by blending, stirring or whipping and is generally thin enough to poor.

"Ready-to-cook"as used herein refers to combined food ingredients that require additional cooking (e. g. baking, frying, micro-waving) to form a ready-to-eat food or beverage product.

"Food product"as used herein refers to food compositions in a ready-to-eat form.

"Shelf-stable"as used herein refers to the resistance towards microbial growth/activity at a temperature of from about 0 °C to about 10 °C with minimum change in component characteristics due to ingredient interactions, while retaining desirable attributes with respect to functionality, aroma, flavour, and colour.

"Shelf life"refers to the lifetime of the present liquid batter in which the requirements as defined under"shelf stable"are fulfilled.

The term"food acceptable liquid"refers to any liquid acceptable for human consumption, such as water or milk.

Liquid phase substance In one embodiment of the invention the liquid phase substance comprises a food acceptable liquid and optionally sugar.

In another embodiment of the invention the liquid phase substance comprises a food acceptable liquid and at least one disaccharide ester and optionally sugar.

In yet another embodiment of the invention the liquid phase substance comprises a food acceptable liquid, eggs and optionally sugar.

In yet a further embodiment of the invention the liquid phase substance comprises a food acceptable liquid, at least one disaccharide ester, eggs and optionally sugar.

Solid phase substance According to the invention the solid phase substance comprises flour and at least one disaccharide ester.

Mixing the batter ingredients In one embodiment of the invention a liquid phase substance comprising a food acceptable liquid and optionally sugar is mixed with a solid phase substance comprising either flour alone or flour comprising at least one disaccharide ester.

In another embodiment of the invention a liquid phase substance comprising a food acceptable liquid and at least one disaccharide ester and optionally sugar is mixed with a solid phase substance comprising either flour alone, or flour comprising at least one disaccharide ester.

In yet another embodiment of the invention a liquid phase substance comprising a food acceptable liquid, eggs and optionally sugar is mixed with a solid phase substance comprising either flour alone, or flour comprising at least one disaccharide ester.

In yet a further embodiment of the invention a liquid phase substance comprising a food acceptable liquid, at least one disaccharide ester, eggs and optionally sugar is mixed with a solid phase substance comprising either flour alone, or flour comprising at least one disaccharide ester.

In an important aspect of the invention the order with which the individual ingredients of the present liquid mixture of batter is mixed may have a positive effect on how high a temperature the liquid mixture of batter can be pasteurised at.

Accordingly, in a preferred embodiment of the invention the mixing of the liquid phase substance and the solid phase substance comprises the steps of, - obtaining the liquid phase substance, followed by - the addition of the solid phase substance, thereby - obtaining a liquid mixture of batter.

Here, the ingredients comprising the liquid phase substance are mixed together prior to the addition of the solid phase substance. Example 2 in the present description discloses such order of mixing ingredients.

In another embodiment the mixing of the liquid phase substance and the solid phase substance comprises, - obtaining the solid phase substance, followed by - the addition of the liquid phase substance, thereby - obtaining a liquid mixture of batter.

In this embodiment the solid phase ingredient (s) is provided prior to the addition of the liquid phase substance.

It is within the present invention to provide a variety of orders of mixing the individual ingredients of the liquid phase substance, and the solid phase substance respectively. Further, according to the invention the temperature levels of the different steps of the mixture process may in one embodiment be the same temperature and in another embodiment be different.

Disaccharide A conventional use of disaccharides in the food manufacture industry is as emulsifiers, which may be added to a starch based food composition to improve its physical properties, e. g. to aid the dispersion of fat and air bubbles into mixture of water and flour and thereby improve viscosity and homogeneity of said food composition, such as a liquid batter.

"Emulsifier"as used herein refers to mono-and di-glycerides polyglycerol esters, lecithin, polyoxyethylene sorbitan sodium stearyl lactylate, sorbitan fatty acid esters, propylene glycol, esters of alginic acid and mixtures thereof as well as egg yolk solids, protein, gum arabic, carob bean gum, guar gum, propylene glycol esters of alginic acid, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, polysorbates and mixtures thereof.

In one aspect of the invention the addition of an emulsifier, such as a disaccharide surprisingly allows the temperature of the heating process to be elevated, and thereby allowing the present liquid batter to be pasteurised. Past problems of not being able to pasteurise a liquid batter mixture due to swelling of the flour in the liquid batter mixture have been overcome by the present method.

In one embodiment the disaccharide ester is selected from sucrose ester, lactose ester, maltose ester and/or cellobiose ester. Other disaccharides are also within the scope of the invention. Thus, in a preferred embodiment of the invention the disaccharide ester to be used in the manufacturing process is sucrose ester.

In one preferred embodiment the present inventors have found that the addition of sucrose ester to the solid phase substance at a concentration of between 1-5 weight-% relative to the flour concentration is preferred.

Pasteurisation When food items are to be preserved for periods of days or perhaps weeks or months it is desirable to stabilise the microbial activity in the various components of the food item, such as components of a liquid batter mixture. The microbial and chemical stabilisation may be achieved by pasteurising said food components.

Pasteurisation is obtained when substantially all pathogenic micro-organisms, such as bacteria, mould and/or yeast in said food item are killed. The temperature by which a product is defined as being pasteurised depends on the fat content and water activity of the particular food composition in question along with the duration of the heating process and level of the heating temperature. Accordingly, it is important to know the heat tolerance of the various food components so that pasteurisation does not spoil other characteristics of the food components necessary to achieve the desired food item. Pasteurisation may be performed in steps, such as pasteurisation of a single food component before pasteurisation of another single food component or the pasteurisation may be performed on more than one food component at a time.

In one embodiment of the invention a liquid phase substance comprising eggs and optionally sugar is pasteurised in a first step. After the addition of a solid phase substance comprising flour and at least one disaccharide ester a second step of pasteurisation is performed. According to the invention the second step of pasteurisation is made possible by the prior addition of at least one disaccharide ester, such as sucrose ester.

To obtain a product with reduced amounts of spoilage micro-organisms the pasteurisation is performed by the means of a sterile pasteurising apparatus. In one

embodiment of the invention the apparatus should be sterilised before the liquid phase substance and the liquid mixture of batter is passed through said apparatus.

Sterilising may be accomplished by passing hot water under pressure through the pasteurising apparatus for a period of time sufficient to sterilise the heating surface.

Pasteurisation may be performed in a continuous flow pasteurising apparatus, such that mixing is accomplished by introducing turbulence into the stream of the product at least periodically while it is being heated.

Temperature Prior to the present invention pasteurisation of a liquid mixture of batter was not possible, since an elevation of the temperature above 55 °C necessary to eliminate all pathogenic and food-spoiling micro-organisms, such as bacteria, mould and/or yeast in the liquid mixture of batter caused the flour to swell and the batter to cook.

Thus, in one embodiment of the invention the liquid mixture of batter is heated at a temperature of above 55 °C, such as between 55-140 °C. In another embodiment the liquid mixture of batter is heated at a temperature of between 60-120 °C and in a further embodiment the liquid mixture of batter is heated at a temperature of between 65-100 °C.

Time To obtain pasteurisation of a food item the duration of the heat treatment is crucial.

The length of the heat treatment will depend on the type of food item in question.

For example milk is pasteurised at a temperature of 70 °C for approx. 15 seconds, UHT milk is pasteurised at 140 °C for approx. 2-4 seconds and juice is pasteurised at 90 °C for approx. 20-30 seconds. In one embodiment of the present invention the heat treatment is performed between 1 second-2 minutes, preferably between 1-5 minutes, more preferably between 2-12 minutes, and even more preferably between 3-6 minutes.

Total plate count The present liquid mixture of batter comprises eliminating all pathogenic and food- spoiling micro-organisms, such as bacteria, mould and/or yeast. The presence of mould in the liquid batter initiates an enzymatic reaction resulting in the destruction

of the flour. The pasteurisation process will destroy the pathogenic and food-spoiling micro-organisms.

The average typical microbiological specifications of flour are a total plate count (tpc) per gram dry matter of 500.000. Typical bacterial tpc values are Coliforme : 1000 tpc/gram dry matter, Coli : 50 tpc/gram dry matter, Bacillus cereus: 1000 tpc/gram dry matter and mould 5000 tpc/gram dry matter.

In the present invention the solid phase substance has a total plate count value of between 100.000 to 1.000. 000 tpc/gram dry matter (tpc/gram dry matter) prior to the heat treatment.

Further, according to the invention the solid phase substance has a total mould value of between 100 to 1.000. 000 tpc/gram dry matter prior to the heat treatment.

After the pasteurising heat treatment the liquid pasteurised batter has a total plate count value of between 1 to 150.000 tpc/gram dry matter.

The total mould count value of the liquid pasteurised batter after heat treatment is between 0 to 30 tpc/gram dry matter. Accordingly, by using the method of the present invention a significant reduction in the bacteria and mould count values are obtained.

Shelf life The above described method of producing a liquid pasteurised batter results in one embodiment said liquid pasteurised batter having a shelf-life or preservation period of at least 25 days provided said batter is kept at temperatures of between 0 to 8 °C.

In another embodiment of the invention the liquid pasteurised batter has a preservation period of at least 12 months when kept at temperatures of between-18 to 0 °C, for example between-15 to-5 °C.

The present batter may be stored in conventional and/or domestic refrigerators and/or freezers.

Product Consumer habits with respect to food preparation have changed dramatically over the past 25 years. The days of a homemaker routinely making products such as breads, cakes, cookies, muffins, or pancakes"from scratch"within the home are substantially gone. Changing lifestyles for both consumers and manufacturers of food have resulted in a situation where time is a limiting factor when domestic cooking is concerned. In response to these changes in consumer habits and expectations, manufacturers of products such as breads, cakes, cookies and pancakes have prepared intermediate (ready-to-cook) products for sale. The intermediate forms have included products such as batters and doughs. These intermediate forms of food products have been made available to satisfy the consumer's need for a freshly baked food item, while spending a minimum amount of time for food preparation along with a minimum risk of failure.

The present batter may be sold to e. g. supermarkets and/or cafeterias in containers, such as plastic containers at a size of for example 250-500 mi or 5-10 litres.

Accordingly, the liquid pasteurised batter of the invention is capable of being cooked, such as cooked on a pan, oven or in a microwave.

The present liquid pasteurised batter is characterised by having a viscosity of 1000- 30.000 Centi Poise at 5 °C as measured by a viscosity-meter making it particularly suitable for pancake cooking. In one embodiment of the invention the viscosity- meter may be a Broke Field viscosity-meter.

Further in one aspect the liquid pasteurised batter is having a concentration of sucrose ester of between 0.2 weight-% and 1-5 weight-% per kg. of liquid pasteurised batter.

It is within the scope of the invention to provide a liquid pasteurised batter essentially free from pathogenic and food-spoiling micro-organisms, such as bacteria, mould and/or yeast.

Use According to the invention the liquid pasteurised batter may be used for making ready-to-cook food items, such as pancakes. The batter may be stored in a container that is substantially free of pressurisation at a refrigeration and/or freezer temperature, and may be cooked to make for example pancakes and/or waffles and/or doughnuts.

Experimentals The following examples are meant to be non-limiting illustrations of the present invention.

Example 1 Description of the product The product is a liquid pasteurised batter ready for use. The product comprises whole egg (19%), flour (18%), skim milk, water, whole fat milk, sugar, oil, dextrose, emulsifier (E471), salt, antioxidant (E307), natural vanilla extract.

Manufacture of egg-mass The product is essentially produced in two phases. This makes it possible to pas- teurise the egg-mass at high temperatures.

"Egg mass" The following ingredients per 100 litre whole egg are used: 1.208 kg water and 32 litre palm oil are added to the mixture tank.

2.100 litre whole egg is added where upon the following are dissolved through the recombination plant : - 46 kg sugar - 18 kg dextrose - 3. 0 kg potassium sorbate - 1. 6 kg salt 3. The whole egg mass is pasteurised at 71 °C with a holding time of 5.5 min. and is cooled to a temperature of max. 4 °C. A bacteriological test from the product is taken from the pasteur. The egg mass may be stored cool for up to a month.

The egg-mass is mixed with the other ingredients and is pasteurised according to the following: "End product" 4. The following ingredients are mixed with the egg-mass through the recombi- nation plant : - 102 kg cake flour - 6. 6 kg Sanovo 1-emulsifier - 2. 8 kg Sisterne SP70, sucrose ester - 17 kg skim milk powder - 1. 1 kg vanilla extract - 1. 7 kg antioxidant Grindox (which has been pre-prepared by dispensing it in 5 litres of palm oil.

5. After blending the mixture is homogenised at 150-200 kg/cm2.

6. The mixture is de-aired for a minimum of 2 hours.

7. The mixture product is hereafter pasteurised at approx. 61 °C for 5.5 min.

After pasteurisation the mass is cooled to max. 4°C and is lead directly to a vat (this is done under sterile conditions). The mass is now filled through a 100 mesh-filter into the desired containers, which are stored cool at 0 to +4°C.

Example 2 The following is a recipe for mixing the above ingredients to obtain a pancake batter capable of being pasteurised at elevated temperatures.

Step 1: Milk and water are heated to 60-65 °C and sucrose ester is added while stir- ring.

Step 2: The milk and water mixture is cooled to 50-55 °C and the flower is added while stirring.

Step 3: Mono-and diglycerides of lipids are added while stirring.

Step 4: Eggs are added while stirring.

Step 5: The remaining ingredients are added.

Step 6: The pancake batter is then pasteurised, cooled and filled on containers.

The following tables show the results of experiments performed with batter with emulsifier or without emulsifier.

Example 3 Table 1. shows the viscosity of a batter mix with or without emulsifier Ingredients Unit Without sucrose ester With sucrose ester Wheat flour, 12-14% gluten % 30 30 Water% 7069. 5 Sucrose-ester % 0 0, 5 Temperature C 70 70 Holding time Min 5 5 Viscosity CP 50000 5000 From table 1 it can be concluded that the emulsifier (here sucrose-ester) provides a coating effect to the swelling on the wheat flour, i. e. the viscosity stays low during heat treatment. The difference in viscosity between batter without emulsifier and with emulsifier is a factor 10.

Example 4 Table 2. shows the viscosity of a pancake batter with or without emulsifier Ingredients Unit Without emulsifier With emulsifier Palm oil % 6.60 6.60 Sugar % 8. 50 8. 50 Water % 37. 00 37. 00 Wheat flour, 12-14% luten % 14. 20 14. 20 Dextrose % 3. 10 3. 10 Vanilla BA 1861 % 0. 07 0. 07 Polyphosthate % 0. 70 0. 70 Antioxidant % 0. 20 0. 20 Cerestar C*Tex 06214 (modified starch) % 8. 00 8. 00 Sucrose ester % 0. 00 0. 50 Potassium sorbat % 0. 35 0. 35 Sodium benzoat % 0. 35 0. 35 Skim milk powder% 4. 00 3. 50 Salt % 0. 11 0. 11 Whole egg % 16. 50 16. 50 emperature C 70.00 70. 00 Holding time Min 5. 00 5. 00 Viscosity CP 78500 1200

From table 2 it can be seen that the effect of emulsifier on the viscosity of a pancake batter is even more progressive (more than 60 fold) than the viscosity of a batter mix as illustrated in table 1.

Example 5

Table 3 shows the viscosity of a pancake batter with or without emulsifier Ingredients : Unit Without emulsifier With emulsifier (propylene glycol and sor- bitan fatty acid ester) Palm oil % 6. 60 6. 60 Sugar % 8.50 8.50 Water % 37.00 37.00 Wheat flour % 14.20 14. 20 Dextrose % 3. 10 3. 10 anilla BA 1861 % 0.07 0. 07 Polyphosthate % 0. 70 0. 70 Antioxidant % 0. 20 0. 20 Cerestar C*Tex 06214 (modified starch) % 8. 00 8. 00 Propylene glycol % 0. 00 0. 80 Sorbitan fatty acid ester % 0. 00 0. 40 Sodium benzoat % 0. 35 0. 30 Skim milk powder% 4. 00 3. 30 Salt % 0. 11 0. 11 Whole egg % 16. 50 16. 50 Temperature C 70. 00 70. 00 Holding time Min 5. 00 5. 00 Viscosity CP 76500 2200

The data from table 3 show that the emulsifier combination of propylene glycol and sorbitan fatty acid ester has the effect of reducing the viscosity during heat treat- ment, i. e. the swelling point of the wheat flower is increased.

Example 6 Table 4 Control Pancake batter Batter mix (pancake batter with sucrose ester (20% wheat flour, without 0.5% sucrose ester, sucrose ester) water) Temperature [°C]/ Holding 5 min Viscosity [cP] Viscosity [cP] Viscosity [cP] 40 850 850 300 45 800 800 280 50 800 800 280 55 3500 1000 700 60 25000 1100 1500 65 45000 1200 2800 70 50500 1400 3200 Table 4 shows the viscosity of a pancake batter and a batter, respectively at ele- vated temperatures. Further, it shows how the viscosity of a complex batter (pan- cake batter) comprising eggs, sugar and emulsifier (see table 2 for a complete list of ingredients of a pancake batter), remains stable even at elevated temperatures of 60,65 and 70 °C. This can be compared to the viscosity of a more primitive batter comprising only flour, water and emulsifier. The emulsifier has a protective effect on the egg mixture of the pancake batter allowing the pasteurisation process to be performed at elevated temperatures.