Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
MACROCYCLIC SULFONYLAMIDE DERIVATIVES USEFUL AS NLRP3 INHIBITORS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/032588
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to macrocyclic compounds, such as macrocyclic sulfonyl amides. The present invention further relates to associated salts, solvates, prodrugs and pharmaceutical compositions, and to the use of such compounds in the treatment and prevention of medical disorders and diseases, most especially by NLRP3 inhibition.

Inventors:
COOPER MATTHEW (GB)
MILLER DAVID (GB)
MACLEOD ANGUS (GB)
THOM STEPHEN (GB)
SHANNON JONATHAN (GB)
INCERTI-PRADILLOS CELIA AMPARO (GB)
MCPHERSON CHRISTOPHER GORDON (GB)
Application Number:
EP2020/072745
Publication Date:
February 25, 2021
Filing Date:
August 13, 2020
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
INFLAZOME LTD (IE)
International Classes:
C07D515/18; A61K31/439; A61P29/00; C07D513/18; C07D515/08
Domestic Patent References:
WO2020097577A12020-05-14
WO2019079119A12019-04-25
WO2017184604A12017-10-26
WO2017184604A12017-10-26
WO2019079119A12019-04-25
WO2018225018A12018-12-13
WO2019023145A12019-01-31
WO2019023147A12019-01-31
WO2019068772A12019-04-11
Foreign References:
Other References:
MASTERS, CLIN IMMUNOL, vol. 147, no. 3, 2013, pages 223 - 228
MENU ET AL., CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 166, 2011, pages 1 - 15
HENAO-MEIJA ET AL., NATURE, vol. 482, 2012, pages 179 - 185
VOGEL ET AL., BLOOD, vol. 130, no. 1, 2017, pages 2234
NALBANDIAN ET AL., INFLAMMATION, vol. 40, no. 1, 2017, pages 366 - 386
COOK ET AL., EUR J IMMUNOL, vol. 40, 2010, pages 595 - 653
OZAKI ET AL., J INFLAMMATION RESEARCH, vol. 8, 2015, pages 15 - 27
SCHRODER ET AL., CELL, vol. 140, 2010, pages 821 - 832
BRADDOCK ET AL., NAT REV DRUG DISC, vol. 3, 2004, pages 1 - 10
INOUE ET AL., IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 139, 2013, pages 11 - 18
COLL ET AL., NAT MED, vol. 21, no. 3, 2015, pages 248 - 55
SCOTT ET AL., CLIN EXP RHEUMATOL, vol. 34, no. 1, 2016, pages 88 - 93
PONTILLO ET AL., AUTOIMMUNITY, vol. 43, no. 8, 2010, pages 583 - 589
GUO ET AL., CLIN EXP IMMUNOL, vol. 194, no. 2, 2018, pages 231 - 243
GOV ET AL., J IMMUNOL, vol. 199, no. 8, 2017, pages 2855 - 2864
ZHAO ET AL., ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, vol. 65, no. 12, 2013, pages 3176 - 3185
XU ET AL., J CELL BIOCHEM, vol. 120, no. 4, 2019, pages 5160 - 5168
ARTLETT ET AL., ARTHRITIS RHEUM, vol. 63, no. 11, 2011, pages 3563 - 74
CASSEL ET AL., PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, vol. 105, no. 26, 2008, pages 9035 - 9040
CHEN ET AL., ERJ OPEN RESEARCH, vol. 4, 2018, pages 00130 - 2017
CHEN ET AL., TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES, vol. 170, no. 2, 2019, pages 462 - 475
DAMBY ET AL., FRONT IMMUN, vol. 8, 2018, pages 2000
DE NARDO ET AL., AM J PATHOL, vol. 184, 2014, pages 42 - 54
LV ET AL., J BIOL CHEM, vol. 293, no. 48, 2018, pages 18454
KIM ET AL., AM J RESPIR CRIT CARE MED, vol. 196, no. 3, 2017, pages 283 - 97
WALSH ET AL., NATURE REVIEWS, vol. 15, 2014, pages 84 - 97
CHENG ET AL., AUTOPHAGY, 2020, pages 1 - 13
COUTURIER ET AL., J NEUROINFLAMM, vol. 13, 2016, pages 20
DEMPSEY ET AL., BRAIN BEHAV IMMUN, vol. 61, 2017, pages 306 - 316
ZHANG ET AL., J STROKE & CEREBROVASCULAR DIS, vol. 24, no. 5, 2015, pages 972 - 979
REN ET AL., STROKE, vol. 49, no. 1, 2018, pages 184 - 192
FAUZIA ET AL., FRONT PHARMACOL, vol. 9, 2018, pages 1034
HONG ET AL., NEURAL PLASTICITY, vol. 2018, 2018, pages 8
YE ET AL., EXPERIMENTAL NEUROLOGY, vol. 292, 2017, pages 46 - 55
FAN ET AL., FRONT CELL NEUROSCI, vol. 12, 2018, pages 426
FU ET AL., INFLAMMATION, vol. 42, no. 1, 2019, pages 306 - 318
FU ET AL., INTERNATIONAL IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY, vol. 82, 2020, pages 106317
LUO ET AL., BRAIN RES BULL, vol. 146, 2019, pages 320 - 326
ISMAEL ET AL., J NEUROTRAUMA, vol. 35, no. 11, 2018, pages 1294 - 1303
CHEN ET AL., BRAIN RESEARCH, vol. 1710, 2019, pages 163 - 172
WEN ET AL., NATURE IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 13, 2012, pages 352 - 357
DUEWELL ET AL., NATURE, vol. 464, 2010, pages 1357 - 1361
MRIDHA ET AL., J HEPATOL, vol. 66, no. 5, 2017, pages 1037 - 46
CHEN ET AL., JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION, vol. 6, no. 9, 2017, pages e006347
CHEN ET AL., BIOCHEM BIOPHYS RES COMMUN, vol. 495, no. 1, 2018, pages 382 - 387
VAN HOUT ET AL., EUR HEART J, vol. 38, no. 11, 2017, pages 828 - 36
JANOUDI ET AL., EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL, vol. 37, no. 25, 2016, pages 1959 - 1967
GAN ET AL., BIOCHIM BIOPHYS ACTA, vol. 1864, no. 1, 2018, pages 1 - 10
SANO ET AL., J AM COLL CARDIOL, vol. 71, no. 8, 2018, pages 875 - 66
WU ET AL., ARTERIOSCLER THROMB VASE BIOL, vol. 37, no. 4, 2017, pages 694 - 706
PAVILLARD ET AL., ONCOTARGET, vol. 8, no. 59, 2017, pages 99740 - 99756
ZHANG ET AL., BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA, vol. 1863, no. 6, 2017, pages 1556 - 1567
YAO ET AL., CIRCULATION, vol. 138, no. 20, 2018, pages 2227 - 2242
RIDKER ET AL., N ENGL J MED, 2017
DOYLE ET AL., NATURE MEDICINE, vol. 18, 2012, pages 791 - 798
TARALLO ET AL., CELL, vol. 149, no. 4, 2012, pages 847 - 59
LOUKOVAARA ET AL., ACTA OPHTHALMOL, vol. 95, no. 8, 2017, pages 803 - 808
PUYANG ET AL., SCI REP, vol. 6, 19 February 2016 (2016-02-19), pages 20998
YU ET AL., TRANSPLANTATION, vol. 103, no. 2, 2019, pages 353 - 362
POURCET ET AL., GASTROENTEROLOGY, vol. 154, no. 5, 2018, pages 1449 - 1464,e20
ZHANG ET AL., PARASIT VECTORS, vol. 12, no. 1, 2019, pages 29
WANG ET AL., HEPATOL RES, vol. 48, no. 3, 2018, pages E194 - E202
ANDERS ET AL., KIDNEY INT, vol. 93, no. 3, 2018, pages 656 - 669
LUDWIG-PORTUGALL ET AL., KIDNEY INT, vol. 90, no. 3, 2016, pages 525 - 39
ZHAO ET AL., MEDIATORS OF INFLAMMATION, 2019
ZHANG ET AL., DIABETES, METABOLIC SYNDROME AND OBESITY: TARGETS AND THERAPY, vol. 12, 2019, pages 1297 - 1309
KRISHNAN ET AL., BR J PHARMACOL, vol. 173, no. 4, 2016, pages 752 - 65
KRISHNAN ET AL., CARDIOVASC RES, vol. 115, no. 4, 2019, pages 776 - 787
DINH ET AL., AGING, vol. 9, no. 6, 2017, pages 1595 - 1606
ZHAI ET AL., MOLECULES, vol. 23, no. 3, 2018, pages 522
ZHANG ET AL., CELL DEATH DIS, vol. 8, no. 7, 2017, pages e2941
CHEN ET AL., BMC COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE, vol. 18, 2018, pages 192
ZHANG ET AL., BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA (BBA) - MOLECULAR BASIS OF DISEASE, vol. 1863, no. 6, 2017, pages 1556 - 1567
PRIMIANO ET AL., J IMMUNOL, vol. 197, no. 6, 2016, pages 2421 - 33
XU ET AL., BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS, vol. 503, no. 4, 2018, pages 3031 - 3037
LI ET AL., EXPERIMENTAL CELL RESEARCH, vol. 362, no. 2, 2018, pages 489 - 497
FANG ET AL., J DERMATOL SCI, vol. 83, no. 2, 2016, pages 116 - 23
NIEBUHR ET AL., ALLERGY, vol. 69, no. 8, 2014, pages 1058 - 67
ALIKHAN ET AL., JAM ACAD DERMATOL, vol. 60, no. 4, 2009, pages 539 - 61
QIN ET AL., J INVEST DERMATOL, vol. 134, no. 2, 2014, pages 381 - 88
JAGER ET AL., AM J RESPIR CRIT CARE MED, vol. 191, 2015, pages A5816
JIN ET AL., PNAS, vol. 108, no. 36, 2011, pages 14867 - 14872
VERMA: "Linkoping University Medical Dissertations", 2011
GUGLIANDOLO ET AL., INFLAMMATION, vol. 41, no. 1, 2018, pages 93 - 103
IANNITTI ET AL., NAT COMMUN, vol. 7, 2016, pages 10791
HE ET AL., JOURNAL OF NEUROINFLAMMATION, vol. 16, 2019, pages 78
GRANATA ET AL., PLOS ONE, vol. 10, no. 3, 2015, pages e0122272
VAKRAKOU ET AL., JOURNAL OF AUTOIMMUNITY, vol. 91, 2018, pages 23 - 33
TAKAHASHI ET AL., SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 7, 2017, pages 13097
NEUDECKER ET AL., J EXP MED, vol. 214, no. 6, 2017, pages 1737 - 52
WU ET AL., MEDIATORS INFLAMM, vol. 2018, 2018, pages 3048532
LAZARIDIS ET AL., DIG DIS SCI, vol. 62, no. 9, 2017, pages 2348 - 56
ZHANG ET AL., DIG DIS SCI, vol. 63, no. 1, 2018, pages 81 - 91
HASEGAWA ET AL., BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS, vol. 477, no. 3, 2016, pages 329 - 335
SCHRODER ET AL., SCIENCE, vol. 327, 2010, pages 296 - 300
CHAKRABORTY ET AL., EXP DERMATOL, vol. 27, no. 1, 2018, pages 71 - 79
KHAN ET AL., INFLAMMOPHARMACOLOGY, vol. 26, no. 1, 2018, pages 77 - 86
ZHANG ET AL., PROSTATE, vol. 79, no. 12, 2019, pages 1439 - 1449
CHEN ET AL., PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH, vol. 147, 2019, pages 104339
GOMEZ-LOPEZ ET AL., BIOL REPROD, vol. 100, no. 5, 2019, pages 1306 - 1318
ALHALLAF ET AL., CELL REPORTS, vol. 23, no. 4, 2018, pages 1085 - 1098
ROBINSON ET AL., JCI INSIGHT, vol. 3, no. 7, 2018, pages e97470
SUBBARAO ET AL., SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 10, 2020, pages 3709
MATHUR ET AL., NAT MICROBIOL, vol. 4, 2019, pages 362 - 374
DIAMOND ET AL., SCI REP, vol. 7, no. 1, 2017, pages 6861
LAROCK ET AL., SCIENCE IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 1, no. 2, 2016, pages eaah3539
AMSLER ET AL., FUTURE VIROL, vol. 8, no. 4, 2013, pages 357 - 370
COATES ET AL., FRONT IMMUNOL, vol. 8, 2017, pages 782
CHEN ET AL., NAT MICROBIOL, vol. 2, no. 10, 2017, pages 1435 - 1445
TUCEY ET AL., MSPHERE, vol. 1, no. 3, 2016, pages e00074 - 16
NOVAIS ET AL., PLOS PATHOGENS, vol. 13, no. 2, 2017, pages e1006196
STRANGWARD ET AL., PNAS, vol. 115, no. 28, 2018, pages 7404 - 7409
PONTILLO ET AL., J AQUIR IMMUNE DEFIC SYNDR, vol. 54, no. 3, 2010, pages 236 - 240
RAVIMOHAN ET AL., OPEN FORUM INFECTIOUS DISEASES, vol. 5, no. 5, 2018, pages ofy075
RIDKER ET AL., LANCET, 2017
WANG ET AL., ONCOL REP, vol. 35, no. 4, 2016, pages 2053 - 64
CHOW ET AL., CANCER RES, vol. 72, no. 22, 2012, pages 5721 - 32
BASIORKA ET AL., BLOOD, vol. 128, no. 25, 2016, pages 2960 - 2975
LI ET AL., AM J CANCER RES, vol. 5, no. 1, 2015, pages 442 - 449
ALLEN ET AL., J EXP MED, vol. 207, no. 5, 2010, pages 1045 - 56
DUNN ET AL., CANCER LETT, vol. 314, no. 1, 2012, pages 24 - 33
GUO ET AL., SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 6, 2016, pages 36107
HU ET AL., PNAS, vol. 10, no. 50, 2010, pages 21635 - 40
LI ET AL., HEMATOLOGY, vol. 21, no. 3, 2016, pages 144 - 51
HUANG ET AL., J EXP CLIN CANCER RES, vol. 36, no. 1, 2017, pages 116
CHEN ET AL., CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR LIFE SCIENCES, vol. 75, 2018, pages 2045 - 2058
JIA ET AL., MOL PAIN, vol. 13, 2017, pages 1 - 11
YAN-GANG LIU ET AL., CELL DEATH & DISEASE, vol. 8, no. 2, 2017, pages e2579
ALEXANDER WREE ET AL., HEPATOLOGY, vol. 59, no. 3, 2014, pages 898 - 910
ALEX BALDWIN ET AL., JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 59, no. 5, 2016, pages 1691 - 1710
EMA OZAKI ET AL., JOURNAL OF INFLAMMATION RESEARCH, vol. 8, 2015, pages 15 - 27
ZHEN XIEGANG ZHAO, NEUROIMMUNOLOGYNEUROINFLAMMATION, vol. 1, no. 2, 2014, pages 60 - 65
MATTIA COCCO ET AL., JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 57, no. 24, 2014, pages 10366 - 10382
T. SATOH ET AL., CELL DEATH & DISEASE, vol. 4, 2013, pages e644
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
JOHNSON, Stephen et al. (GB)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims 1. A compound of formula (I): wherein: J is -SO-, -SO2- or -SO(=NRj)-; Q is O or S; X is -C(R2)2-; L is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbylene group, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S in its carbon skeleton; -J-N(R1)-C(=Q)-X- and -L- together form a ring, such that the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R1)-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L- is from 8 to 30 atoms; each Rj and R1 is independently selected from hydrogen or a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may be straight- chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S in its carbon skeleton; and each R2 is independently selected from hydrogen or a halo, -OH, -NO2, -NH2, -N3, -SH, -SO2H, -SO2NH2, or a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms N, O or S in its carbon skeleton, or wherein two R2 may, together with the carbon atom to which they are attached, form a cyclic group, wherein the cyclic group may optionally be substituted. 2. A compound as claimed in claim 1, wherein J is -SO2-. 3. A compound as claimed in claim 1 or claim 2, wherein Q is O. 4. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein R1 is hydrogen and X is -CH2-. 5. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein L is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbylene group, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may be straight- chained or branched, wherein the hydrocarbylene group includes an aromatic cyclic group directly attached to X, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally include one or more further cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S in its carbon skeleton. 6. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 5, having the formula (Ia): wherein: J, R1, Q and X are as previously defined; -J-N(R1)-C(=Q)-X- and -L1-L2-L3-L4- together form a ring, such that the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R1)-, -C(=Q)-, -X-, -L1-, -L2-, -L3- and -L4- is from 8 to 30 atoms; L1 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12- membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents; L2 is an alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group, wherein the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, and wherein the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents; L3 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12- membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents; and L4 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12- membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents. 7. A compound as claimed in claim 6, wherein L1 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, either of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. 8. A compound as claimed in claim 6 or claim 7, wherein L2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or include a single monocyclic group, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. 9. A compound as claimed in claim 8, wherein L2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group is straight-chained or branched, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents.

10. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 9, wherein L3 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered monocyclic heteroaryl group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents. 11. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 10, wherein the ring of the divalent monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic group of L4 that is directly attached to X is aromatic. 12. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 11, having the formula (Ib): Formula (Ib) wherein: J is -SO-, -SO2- or -SO(=NH)-; X is -CH2-; -J-NH-C(=O)-X- and -L1-L2-L3-L4- together form a ring, such that the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-NH-C(=O)-X-, -L1-, -L2-, -L3- and -L4- is from 8 to 30 atoms; L1 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, wherein the divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group or divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents RL; L2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups; L3 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents RL; L4 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents RL; the ring atom of L4 that is directly attached to L3 is at the a-position relative to the ring atom of L4 that is directly attached to X; each RL is independently selected from a C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 haloalkenyl, -R11-R12, -R11-CN, -R11-N3, -R11-NO2, -R11-N(R13)2, -R11-OR13, -R11-COR13, -R11-COOR13, -R11-CON(R13)2, -R11-C(=NR13)R13, -R11-C(=NR13)N(R13)2, -R11-C(=NOR13)R13, -R11-SO2R13 or -R11-SO2N(R13)2 group, and/or any two RL attached to the same divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L3 or L4 may, together with the atoms of the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group to which they are attached, form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 haloalkenyl, -R11-R12, -R11-CN, -R11-N3, -R11-NO2, -R11-N(R13)2, -R11-OR13, -R11-COR13, -R11-COOR13, -R11-CON(R13)2, -R11-C(=NR13)R13, -R11-C(=NR13)N(R13)2, -R11-C(=NOR13)R13, -R11-SO2R13 or -R11-SO2N(R13)2 group; each R11 is independently selected from a bond or a C1-C4 alkylene group, wherein the C1-C4 alkylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include a C3-C4 cycloalkylene group, and wherein the C1-C4 alkylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups; each R12 is independently selected from a 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from -CN, -NO2, -R14, -OH, -OR14, -NH2, -NHR14 and -N(R14)2; each R13 is independently selected from hydrogen or a C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 haloalkenyl, or 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from -CN, -NO2, -R14, -OH, -OR14, -NH2, -NHR14 and -N(R14)2, or any two R13 attached to the same nitrogen atom may together form a C2-C5 alkylene or C2-C5 haloalkylene group; and each R14 is independently selected from a C1-C4 alkyl or C1-C4 haloalkyl group.

13. A compound as claimed in claim 12, wherein L1 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, wherein the divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group or divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents RL. 14. A compound as claimed in claim 12 or claim 13, wherein L2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or include a single monocyclic group, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and wherein L2 contains in total from 2 to 15 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. 15. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 12 to 14, wherein: (i) the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L4 is substituted at the a'-position, relative to the ring atom of L4 that is directly attached to X, with a C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 haloalkenyl, or 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6- membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups; or (ii) the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L4 is ortho- fused to a 5- or 6-membered cyclic group across the a',b'-positions, relative to the ring atom of L4 that is directly attached to X, wherein the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is optionally substituted with one or more halo groups. 16. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 15, wherein the minimum single ring size that encompasses: (i) all or part of each of -J-, -N(R1)-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L-; or (ii) all or part of each of -J-, -N(R1)-, -C(=Q)-, -X-, -L1-, -L2-, -L3- and -L4-; or (iii) all or part of each of -J-NH-C(=O)-X-, -L1-, -L2-, -L3- and -L4-; is from 12 to 24 atoms.

17. A compound as claimed in claim 16, wherein the minimum single ring size that encompasses: (i) all or part of each of -J-, -N(R1)-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L-; or (ii) all or part of each of -J-, -N(R1)-, -C(=Q)-, -X-, -L1-, -L2-, -L3- and -L4-; or (iii) all or part of each of -J-NH-C(=O)-X-, -L1-, -L2-, -L3- and -L4-; is from 14 to 20 atoms. 18. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 17, having the formula (Ic): Formula (Ic) wherein: A1 and A3 are each independently selected from C and N, and A2, A4 and A5 are each independently selected from N, C-H, C-Hal and N-H, such that ring Ac is a 5- membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; B1, B2, B3 and B4 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring B is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; m is 0, 1 or 2; n is 0, 1 or 2; each RA is independently selected from -OH, -NH2, -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each RA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two RA attached to A4 and A5 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and RAA; each RAA is independently selected from -OH, -NH2, -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each RAA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; each RB is independently selected from a -CN, -NO2, -RB1, -OH, -ORB1, -NH2, -NHRB1 or -N(RB1)2 group, wherein each RB1 is independently selected from a C1-C4 alkyl or C1-C4 fluoroalkyl group; each Hal is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; L2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups RL2, wherein each RL2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C1-C4 alkyl, -O-(C1-C4 alkyl), C1-C4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C1-C4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two RL2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a 3- to 7-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 7-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups; R4 is selected from a C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl or C3-C6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R5 is selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R20)3 or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group, or R4 and R5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH2CH2CH2-, -CH=CHCH2-, -CH2CH=CH-, -CH2CH2O- and -OCH2CH2-, wherein the divalent group formed by R4 and R5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R6 and R7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R20)3 or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group; and each R20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F.

19. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 17, having the formula (Id): wherein: A6 and A7 are each independently selected from C and N, and A8, A9 and A10 are each independently selected from N, C-H, C-Hal and N-H, such that ring Ad is a 5- membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; B1, B2, B3 and B4 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring B is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; p is 0, 1 or 2; n is 0, 1 or 2; each RA is independently selected from -OH, -NH2, -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each RA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two RA attached to A8 and A9 or to A9 and A10 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and RAA; each RAA is independently selected from -OH, -NH2, -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each RAA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; each RB is independently selected from a -CN, -NO2, -RB1, -OH, -ORB1, -NH2, -NHRB1 or -N(RB1)2 group, wherein each RB1 is independently selected from a C1-C4 alkyl or C1-C4 fluoroalkyl group; each Hal is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; L2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups RL2, wherein each RL2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C1-C4 alkyl, -O-(C1-C4 alkyl), C1-C4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C1-C4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two RL2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a 3- to 7-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 7-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups; R4 is selected from a C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl or C3-C6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R5 is selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R20)3 or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group or R4 and R5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH2CH2CH2-, -CH=CHCH2-, -CH2CH=CH-, -CH2CH2O- and -OCH2CH2-, wherein the divalent group formed by R4 and R5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R6 and R7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R20)3 or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group; and each R20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F. 20. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 17, having the formula (Ie):

wherein: A11, A12, A13 and A14 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring Ae is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; B1, B2, B3 and B4 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring B is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; q is 0, 1 or 2; n is 0, 1 or 2; each RA is independently selected from -OH, -NH2, -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each RA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two RA attached to A12 and A13 or to A13 and A14 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and RAA; each RAA is independently selected from -OH, -NH2, -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each RAA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; each RB is independently selected from a -CN, -NO2, -RB1, -OH, -ORB1, -NH2, -NHRB1 or -N(RB1)2 group, wherein each RB1 is independently selected from a C1-C4 alkyl or C1-C4 fluoroalkyl group; each Hal is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; L2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups RL2, wherein each RL2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C1-C4 alkyl, -O-(C1-C4 alkyl), C1-C4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C1-C4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two RL2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a 3- to 7-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 7-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups; R4 is selected from a C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl or C3-C6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R5 is selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R20)3 or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group, or R4 and R5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH2CH2CH2-, -CH=CHCH2-, -CH2CH=CH-, -CH2CH2O- and -OCH2CH2-, wherein the divalent group formed by R4 and R5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R6 and R7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R20)3 or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group; and each R20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F. 21. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 17, having the formula (If):

wherein: A15, A16, A17 and A18 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring Af is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; B1, B2, B3 and B4 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring B is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; r is 0, 1 or 2; n is 0, 1 or 2; each RA is independently selected from -OH, -NH2, -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each RA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two RA attached to A15 and A16 or to A16 and A17 or to A17 and A18 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and RAA; each RAA is independently selected from -OH, -NH2, -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each RAA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; each RB is independently selected from a -CN, -NO2, -RB1, -OH, -ORB1, -NH2, -NHRB1 or -N(RB1)2 group, wherein each RB1 is independently selected from a C1-C4 alkyl or C1-C4 fluoroalkyl group; each Hal is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; L2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups RL2, wherein each RL2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C1-C4 alkyl, -O-(C1-C4 alkyl), C1-C4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C1-C4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two RL2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a 3- to 7-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 7-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups; R4 is selected from a C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl or C3-C6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R5 is selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R20)3 or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group, or R4 and R5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH2CH2CH2-, -CH=CHCH2-, -CH2CH=CH-, -CH2CH2O- and -OCH2CH2-, wherein the divalent group formed by R4 and R5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R6 and R7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R20)3 or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group; and each R20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F. 22. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 17, having the formula (Ig):

wherein: A19 and A22 are each independently selected from N, CH, CY and CRAG, and each A20 and A21 is independently selected from O, NH, NRAGG, C=O, CH2, CH(Y), CH(RAG), C(Y)2, C(Y)(RAG) and C(RAG)2, such that ring Ag contains one or two atoms independently selected from oxygen and nitrogen in its ring structure; ga is 1, 2 or 3, and gb is 1, 2 or 3, provided that ga + gb £ 5; each Y is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; each RAG is independently selected from -OH, -NH2, -CN, or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each RAG contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; each RAGG is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each RAGG contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; B1, B2, B3 and B4 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring B is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; n is 0, 1 or 2; each RB is independently selected from a -CN, -NO2, -RB1, -OH, -ORB1, -NH2, -NHRB1 or -N(RB1)2 group, wherein each RB1 is independently selected from a C1-C4 alkyl or C1-C4 fluoroalkyl group; each Hal is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; L2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups RL2, wherein each RL2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C1-C4 alkyl, -O-(C1-C4 alkyl), C1-C4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C1-C4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two RL2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a 3- to 7-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 7-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups; R4 is selected from a C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl or C3-C6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R5 is selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R20)3 or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group, or R4 and R5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH2CH2CH2-, -CH=CHCH2-, -CH2CH=CH-, -CH2CH2O- and -OCH2CH2-, wherein the divalent group formed by R4 and R5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R6 and R7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R20)3 or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group; and each R20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F. 23. A compound selected from the group consisting of: F F F O O O O S N HN N O N , , , , , , F O O O S N H N N N N and H . 24. A pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of a compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 23. 25. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 23, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug as claimed in claim 24, and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

26. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 23, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug as claimed in claim 24, or a pharmaceutical composition as claimed in claim 25, for use in medicine. 27. A compound, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition as claimed in claim 26, for use in the treatment or prevention of a disease, disorder or condition, wherein the disease, disorder or condition is responsive to NLRP3 inhibition. 28. A compound, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition as claimed in claim 26 or 27, for use in the treatment or prevention of a disease, disorder or condition, wherein the disease, disorder or condition is selected from: (i) inflammation; (ii) an auto-immune disease; (iii) cancer; (iv) an infection; (v) a central nervous system disease; (vi) a metabolic disease; (vii) a cardiovascular disease; (viii) a respiratory disease; (ix) a liver disease; (x) a renal disease; (xi) an ocular disease; (xii) a skin disease; (xiii) a lymphatic condition; (xiv) a psychological disorder; (xv) graft versus host disease; (xvi) pain; (xvii) a condition associated with diabetes; (xviii) a condition associated with arthritis; (xix) a headache; (xx) a wound or burn; and (xxi) any disease where an individual has been determined to carry a germline or somatic non-silent mutation in NLRP3.

29. A compound, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition as claimed in claim 26 or 27, for use in the treatment or prevention of a disease, disorder or condition, wherein the disease, disorder or condition is selected from: (i) cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS); (ii) Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS); (iii) familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS); (iv) neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID); (v) familial Mediterranean fever (FMF); (vi) pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne syndrome (PAPA); (vii) hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS); (viii) Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor-Associated Periodic Syndrome (TRAPS); (ix) systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis; (x) adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD); (xi) relapsing polychondritis; (xii) Schnitzler’s syndrome; (xiii) Sweet’s syndrome; (xiv) Behcet’s disease; (xv) anti-synthetase syndrome; (xvi) deficiency of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (DIRA); and (xvii) haploinsufficiency of A20 (HA20). 30. A method of inhibiting NLRP3, the method comprising the use of a compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 23, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug as claimed in claim 24, or a pharmaceutical composition as claimed in claim 25, to inhibit NLRP3.

Description:
Novel Compounds Field of the Invention The present invention relates to macrocyclic compounds, such as macrocyclic sulfonyl amides. The present invention further relates to associated salts, solvates, prodrugs and pharmaceutical compositions, and to the use of such compounds in the treatment and prevention of medical disorders and diseases, most especially by NLRP3 inhibition. Background of the Invention The NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, pyrin domain–containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a component of the inflammatory process, and its aberrant activity is pathogenic in inherited disorders such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) and complex diseases such as multiple sclerosis, type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease and atherosclerosis. NLRP3 is an intracellular signalling molecule that senses many pathogen-derived, environmental and host-derived factors. Upon activation, NLRP3 binds to apoptosis- associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain (ASC). ASC then polymerises to form a large aggregate known as an ASC speck. Polymerised ASC in turn interacts with the cysteine protease caspase-1 to form a complex termed the inflammasome. This results in the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves the precursor forms of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1b and IL-18 (termed pro-IL-1b and pro-IL-18 respectively) to thereby activate these cytokines. Caspase-1 also mediates a type of inflammatory cell death known as pyroptosis. The ASC speck can also recruit and activate caspase-8, which can process pro-IL-1b and pro-IL-18 and trigger apoptotic cell death. Caspase-1 cleaves pro-IL-1b and pro-IL-18 to their active forms, which are secreted from the cell. Active caspase-1 also cleaves gasdermin-D to trigger pyroptosis. Through its control of the pyroptotic cell death pathway, caspase-1 also mediates the release of alarmin molecules such as IL-33 and high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1). Caspase-1 also cleaves intracellular IL-1R2 resulting in its degradation and allowing the release of IL-1a. In human cells caspase-1 may also control the processing and secretion of IL-37. A number of other caspase-1 substrates such as components of the cytoskeleton and glycolysis pathway may contribute to caspase-1-dependent inflammation. NLRP3-dependent ASC specks are released into the extracellular environment where they can activate caspase-1, induce processing of caspase-1 substrates and propagate inflammation. Active cytokines derived from NLRP3 inflammasome activation are important drivers of inflammation and interact with other cytokine pathways to shape the immune response to infection and injury. For example, IL-1b signalling induces the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF. IL-1b and IL-18 synergise with IL-23 to induce IL-17 production by memory CD4 Th17 cells and by gd T cells in the absence of T cell receptor engagement. IL-18 and IL-12 also synergise to induce IFN-g production from memory T cells and NK cells driving a Th1 response. The inherited CAPS diseases Muckle–Wells syndrome (MWS), familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS) and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID) are caused by gain-of-function mutations in NLRP3, thus defining NLRP3 as a critical component of the inflammatory process. NLRP3 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of complex diseases, notably including metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, obesity and gout. A role for NLRP3 in diseases of the central nervous system is emerging, and lung diseases have also been shown to be influenced by NLRP3. Furthermore, NLRP3 has a role in the development of liver disease, kidney disease and aging. Many of these associations were defined using Nlrp3 -/- mice, but there have also been insights into the specific activation of NLRP3 in these diseases. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), the deposition of islet amyloid polypeptide in the pancreas activates NLRP3 and IL-1b signalling, resulting in cell death and inflammation. Several small molecules have been shown to inhibit the NLRP3 inflammasome. Glyburide inhibits IL-1b production at micromolar concentrations in response to the activation of NLRP3 but not NLRC4 or NLRP1. Other previously characterised weak NLRP3 inhibitors include parthenolide, 3,4-methylenedioxy-b-nitrostyrene and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), although these agents have limited potency and are nonspecific. Current treatments for NLRP3-related diseases include biologic agents that target IL-1. These are the recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra, the neutralizing IL-1b antibody canakinumab and the soluble decoy IL-1 receptor rilonacept. These approaches have proven successful in the treatment of CAPS, and these biologic agents have been used in clinical trials for other IL-1b-associated diseases. Certain sulfonylamide-containing compounds are also disclosed as inhibitors of NLRP3 (see for example WO 2017/184604 A1 and WO 2019/079119 A1), as are certain sulfoximine-containing compounds (see for example WO 2018/225018 A1, WO 2019/023145 A1, WO 2019/023147 A1, and WO 2019/068772 A1). There is a need to provide compounds with improved pharmacological and/or physiological and/or physicochemical properties and/or those that provide a useful alternative to known compounds. Summary of the Invention A first aspect of the invention provides a compound of formula (I): wherein: J is -SO-, -SO 2 - or -SO(=NR j )-; Q is O or S; X is -C(R 2 )2-; L is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbylene group, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S in its carbon skeleton; -J-N(R 1 )-C(=Q)-X- and -L- together form a ring, such that the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L- is from 8 to 30 atoms; each R j and R 1 is independently selected from hydrogen or a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may be straight- chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S in its carbon skeleton; and each R 2 is independently selected from hydrogen or a halo, -OH, -NO2, -NH 2 , -N3, -SH, -SO2H, -SO2NH 2 , or a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms N, O or S in its carbon skeleton, or wherein two R 2 may, together with the carbon atom to which they are attached, form a cyclic group, wherein the cyclic group may optionally be substituted. In the context of the present specification, a “hydrocarbyl” substituent group or a hydrocarbyl moiety in a substituent group only includes carbon and hydrogen atoms but, unless stated otherwise, does not include any heteroatoms, such as N, O or S, in its carbon skeleton. A hydrocarbyl group/moiety may be saturated or unsaturated (including aromatic), and may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include cyclic groups wherein, unless stated otherwise, the cyclic group does not include any heteroatoms, such as N, O or S, in its carbon skeleton. Examples of hydrocarbyl groups include alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl and aryl groups/moieties and combinations of all of these groups/moieties. Typically a hydrocarbyl group is a C1-C20 hydrocarbyl group. More typically a hydrocarbyl group is a C 1 -C 15 hydrocarbyl group. More typically a hydrocarbyl group is a C 1 -C 10 hydrocarbyl group. A “hydrocarbylene” group is similarly defined as a divalent hydrocarbyl group. An “alkyl” substituent group or an alkyl moiety in a substituent group may be linear (i.e. straight-chained) or branched. Examples of alkyl groups/moieties include methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl, n-butyl, i-butyl, t-butyl and n-pentyl groups/moieties. Unless stated otherwise, the term “alkyl” does not include “cycloalkyl”. Typically an alkyl group is a C 1 -C 12 alkyl group. More typically an alkyl group is a C 1 -C 6 alkyl group. An “alkylene” group is similarly defined as a divalent alkyl group. An “alkenyl” substituent group or an alkenyl moiety in a substituent group refers to an unsaturated alkyl group or moiety having one or more carbon-carbon double bonds. Examples of alkenyl groups/moieties include ethenyl, propenyl, 1-butenyl, 2-butenyl, 1- pentenyl, 1-hexenyl, 1,3-butadienyl, 1,3-pentadienyl, 1,4-pentadienyl and 1,4- hexadienyl groups/moieties. Unless stated otherwise, the term “alkenyl” does not include “cycloalkenyl”. Typically an alkenyl group is a C 2 -C 12 alkenyl group. More typically an alkenyl group is a C 2 -C 6 alkenyl group. An “alkenylene” group is similarly defined as a divalent alkenyl group. An “alkynyl” substituent group or an alkynyl moiety in a substituent group refers to an unsaturated alkyl group or moiety having one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds. Examples of alkynyl groups/moieties include ethynyl, propargyl, but-1-ynyl and but-2- ynyl groups/moieties. Typically an alkynyl group is a C 2 -C 12 alkynyl group. More typically an alkynyl group is a C 2 -C 6 alkynyl group. An “alkynylene” group is similarly defined as a divalent alkynyl group. A “cyclic” substituent group or a cyclic moiety in a substituent group refers to any hydrocarbyl ring, wherein the hydrocarbyl ring may be saturated or unsaturated (including aromatic) and may include one or more heteroatoms, e.g. N, O or S, in its carbon skeleton. Examples of cyclic groups include cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclic, aryl and heteroaryl groups as discussed below. A cyclic group may be monocyclic, bicyclic (e.g. bridged, fused or spiro), or polycyclic. Typically, a cyclic group is a 3- to 12-membered cyclic group, which means it contains from 3 to 12 ring atoms. More typically, a cyclic group is a 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, which means it contains from 3 to 7 ring atoms. As used herein, where it is stated that a monovalent cyclic group is monocyclic, it is to be understood that the monovalent cyclic group is not substituted with a divalent bridging substituent (e.g. -O-, -S-, -NH-, -N(R b )-, -N(O)(R b )-, -N + (R b ) 2 - or -R a -) so as to form a bridged, fused or spiro substituent. However, unless stated otherwise, a substituted monovalent monocyclic group may be substituted with one or more further monovalent cyclic groups. Similarly, where it is stated that a monovalent cyclic group is bicyclic, it is to be understood that the monovalent cyclic group including any bridged, fused or spiro divalent bridging substituents attached to the monovalent cyclic group, but excluding any monovalent cyclic substituents, is bicyclic. Likewise, where it is stated that a divalent cyclic group is monocyclic, it is to be understood that while one or more bridged, fused or spiro ring structures may be formed via the two positions of attachment of the divalent cyclic group to the remainder of the molecule, the divalent cyclic group is not substituted at other positions with a divalent bridging substituent (e.g. -O-, -S-, -NH-, -N(R b )-, -N(O)(R b )-, -N + (R b ) 2 - or -R a -) so as to form a further bridged, fused or spiro substituent. However, unless stated otherwise, a substituted divalent monocyclic group may be substituted with one or more further monovalent cyclic groups. Similarly, where it is stated that a divalent cyclic group is bicyclic, it is to be understood that the divalent cyclic group including any bridged, fused or spiro divalent bridging substituents attached to the cyclic group, but excluding any monovalent cyclic substituents or any structures formed via the two positons of attachment of the divalent cyclic group to the remainder of the molecule, is bicyclic. A “heterocyclic” substituent group or a heterocyclic moiety in a substituent group refers to a cyclic group or moiety including one or more carbon atoms and one or more (such as one, two, three or four) heteroatoms, e.g. N, O or S, in the ring structure. Examples of heterocyclic groups include heteroaryl groups as discussed below and non-aromatic heterocyclic groups such as azetinyl, azetidinyl, oxetanyl, thietanyl, pyrrolidinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydrothiophenyl, pyrazolidinyl, imidazolidinyl, dioxolanyl, oxathiolanyl, piperidinyl, tetrahydropyranyl, thianyl, piperazinyl, dioxanyl, morpholinyl and thiomorpholinyl groups. A “cycloalkyl” substituent group or a cycloalkyl moiety in a substituent group refers to a saturated hydrocarbyl ring containing, for example, from 3 to 7 carbon atoms, examples of which include cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl and cyclohexyl. Unless stated otherwise, a cycloalkyl substituent group or moiety may include monocyclic, bicyclic or polycyclic hydrocarbyl rings. A “cycloalkenyl” substituent group or a cycloalkenyl moiety in a substituent group refers to a non-aromatic unsaturated hydrocarbyl ring having one or more carbon- carbon double bonds and containing, for example, from 3 to 7 carbon atoms, examples of which include cyclopent-1-en-1-yl, cyclohex-1-en-1-yl and cyclohex-1,3-dien-1-yl. Unless stated otherwise, a cycloalkenyl substituent group or moiety may include monocyclic, bicyclic or polycyclic hydrocarbyl rings. An “aryl” substituent group or an aryl moiety in a substituent group refers to an aromatic hydrocarbyl ring. The term “aryl” includes monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic fused ring aromatic hydrocarbons wherein all of the fused ring systems (excluding any ring systems which are part of or formed by optional substituents) are aromatic. Examples of aryl groups/moieties include phenyl, naphthyl, anthracenyl and phenanthrenyl. Unless stated otherwise, the term “aryl” does not include “heteroaryl”. A “heteroaryl” substituent group or a heteroaryl moiety in a substituent group refers to an aromatic heterocyclic group or moiety. The term “heteroaryl” includes monocyclic aromatic heterocycles and polycyclic fused ring aromatic heterocycles wherein all of the fused ring systems (excluding any ring systems which are part of or formed by optional substituents) are aromatic. Examples of heteroaryl groups/moieties include the following: wherein G = O, S or NH. Particular examples of 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl groups include furanyl, thiophenyl, pyrrolyl, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, isothiazolyl, triazolyl, furazanyl, oxadiazolyl, thiadiazolyl, tetrazolyl, pyridinyl, pyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl and triazinyl groups. Unless stated otherwise, where a cyclic group or moiety is stated to be non-aromatic, such as a cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl or non-aromatic heterocyclic group, it is to be understood that the group or moiety, excluding any ring systems which are part of or formed by substituents, is non-aromatic. Similarly, where a cyclic group or moiety is stated to be aromatic, such as an aryl or a heteroaryl group, it is to be understood that the group or moiety, excluding any ring systems which are part of or formed by substituents, is aromatic. A cyclic group or moiety is considered non-aromatic, when it does not have any tautomers that are aromatic. When a cyclic group or moiety has a tautomer that is aromatic, it is considered aromatic, even if it has tautomers that are not aromatic. By way of example, the following are considered aromatic heterocyclic groups, because they have an aromatic tautomer: For the avoidance of doubt, the term “non-aromatic heterocyclic group” does not exclude heterocyclic groups or moieties which may possess aromatic character only by virtue of mesomeric charge separation. For example, the following is considered a non- aromatic heterocyclic group, because it does not have an aromatic tautomer: because the last shown structure is not taken into consideration because of mesomeric charge separation. For the avoidance of doubt, where is is stated that a bicyclic or polycyclic group is “saturated” it is to be understood that all of the ring systems within the bicyclic or polycyclic group (excluding any ring systems which are part of or formed by optional substituents) are saturated. For the purposes of the present specification, where a combination of moieties is referred to as one group, for example, arylalkyl, arylalkenyl, arylalkynyl, alkylaryl, alkenylaryl or alkynylaryl, the last mentioned moiety contains the atom by which the group is attached to the rest of the molecule. An example of an arylalkyl group is benzyl. For the purposes of the present specification, in an optionally substituted group or moiety, such as L: (i) each hydrogen atom may optionally be replaced by a monovalent substituent independently selected from halo; -CN; -NO2; -N3; -R b ; -OH; -OR b ; -R a -halo; -R a -CN; -R a -NO2; -R a -N3; -R a -R b ; -R a -OH; -R a -OR b ; -SH; -SR b ; -SOR b ; -SO2H; -SO2R b ; -SO 2 NH 2 ; -SO 2 NHR b ; -SO 2 N(R b ) 2 ; -R a -SH; -R a -SR b ; -R a -SOR b ; -R a -SO 2 H; -R a -SO 2 R b ; -R a -SO 2 NH 2 ; -R a -SO 2 NHR b ; -R a -SO 2 N(R b ) 2 ; -Si(R b ) 3 ; -O-Si(R b ) 3 ; -R a -Si(R b ) 3 ; -R a -O-Si(R b )3; -NH 2 ; -NHR b ; -N(R b )2; -N(O)(R b )2; -N + (R b )3; -R a -NH 2 ; -R a -NHR b ; -R a -N(R b )2; -R a -N(O)(R b )2; -R a -N + (R b )3; -CHO; -COR b ; -COOH; -COOR b ; -OCOR b ; -R a -CHO; -R a -COR b ; -R a -COOH; -R a -COOR b ; -R a -OCOR b ; -C(=NH)R b ; -C(=NH)NH 2 ; -C(=NH)NHR b ; -C(=NH)N(R b ) 2 ; -C(=NR b )R b ; -C(=NR b )NHR b ; -C(=NR b )N(R b ) 2 ; -C(=NOH)R b ; -C(=NOR b )R b ; -C(N2)R b ; -R a -C(=NH)R b ; -R a -C(=NH)NH 2 ; -R a -C(=NH)NHR b ; -R a -C(=NH)N(R b )2; -R a -C(=NR b )R b ; -R a -C(=NR b )NHR b ; -R a -C(=NR b )N(R b ) 2 ; -R a -C(=NOH)R b ; -R a -C(=NOR b )R b ; -R a -C(N 2 )R b ; -NH-CHO; -NR b -CHO; -NH-COR b ; -NR b -COR b ; -NH-COOR b ; -NR b -COOR b ; -NH-C(=NH)R b ; -NR b -C(=NH)R b ; -NH-C(=NH)NH 2 ; -NR b -C(=NH)NH 2 ; -NH-C(=NH)NHR b ; -NR b -C(=NH)NHR b ; -NH-C(=NH)N(R b )2; -NR b -C(=NH)N(R b )2; -NH-C(=NR b )R b ; -NR b -C(=NR b )R b ; -NH-C(=NR b )NHR b ; -NR b -C(=NR b )NHR b ; -NH-C(=NR b )N(R b ) 2 ; -NR b -C(=NR b )N(R b ) 2 ; -NH-C(=NOH)R b ; -NR b -C(=NOH)R b ; -NH-C(=NOR b )R b ; -NR b -C(=NOR b )R b ; -CONH 2 ; -CONHR b ; -CON(R b )2; -NH-CONH 2 ; -NR b -CONH 2 ; -NH-CONHR b ; -NR b -CONHR b ; -NH-CON(R b )2; -NR b -CON(R b )2; -R a -NH-CHO; -R a -NR b -CHO; -R a -NH-COR b ; -R a -NR b -COR b ; -R a -NH-COOR b ; -R a -NR b -COOR b ; -R a -NH-C(=NH)R b ; -R a -NR b -C(=NH)R b ; -R a -NH-C(=NH)NH 2 ; -R a -NR b -C(=NH)NH 2 ; -R a -NH-C(=NH)NHR b ; -R a -NR b -C(=NH)NHR b ; -R a -NH-C(=NH)N(R b )2; -R a -NR b -C(=NH)N(R b )2; -R a -NH-C(=NR b )R b ; -R a -NR b -C(=NR b )R b ; -R a -NH-C(=NR b )NHR b ; -R a -NR b -C(=NR b )NHR b ; -R a -NH-C(=NR b )N(R b ) 2 ; -R a -NR b -C(=NR b )N(R b ) 2 ; -R a -NH-C(=NOH)R b ; -R a -NR b -C(=NOH)R b ; -R a -NH-C(=NOR b )R b ; -R a -NR b -C(=NOR b )R b ; -R a -CONH 2 ; -R a -CONHR b ; -R a -CON(R b )2; -R a -NH-CONH 2 ; -R a -NR b -CONH 2 ; -R a -NH-CONHR b ; -R a -NR b -CONHR b ; -R a -NH-CON(R b ) 2 ; -R a -NR b -CON(R b ) 2 ; -O-R a -OH; -O-R a -OR b ; -O-R a -NH 2 ; -O-R a -NHR b ; -O-R a -N(R b ) 2 ; -O-R a -N(O)(R b ) 2 ; -O-R a -N + (R b ) 3 ; -NH-R a -OH; -NH-R a -OR b ; -NH-R a -NH 2 ; -NH-R a -NHR b ; -NH-R a -N(R b )2; -NH-R a -N(O)(R b )2; -NH-R a -N + (R b )3; -NR b -R a -OH; -NR b -R a -OR b ; -NR b -R a -NH 2 ; -NR b -R a -NHR b ; -NR b -R a -N(R b ) 2 ; -NR b -R a -N(O)(R b ) 2 ; -NR b -R a -N + (R b ) 3 ; -N(O)R b -R a -OH; -N(O)R b -R a -OR b ; -N(O)R b -R a -NH 2 ; -N(O)R b -R a -NHR b ; -N(O)R b -R a -N(R b ) 2 ; -N(O)R b -R a -N(O)(R b )2; -N(O)R b -R a -N + (R b )3; -N + (R b )2-R a -OH; -N + (R b )2-R a -OR b ; -N + (R b )2-R a -NH 2 ; -N + (R b )2-R a -NHR b ; -N + (R b )2-R a -N(R b )2; or -N + (R b )2-R a -N(O)(R b )2; and/or (ii) any two hydrogen atoms attached to the same carbon or nitrogen atom may optionally be replaced by a p-bonded substituent independently selected from oxo (=O), =S, =NH or =NR b ; and/or (iii) any sulfur atom may optionally be substituted with one or two p-bonded substituents independently selected from oxo (=O), =NH or =NR b ; and/or (iv) any two hydrogen atoms attached to the same or different atoms, within the same optionally substituted group or moiety, may optionally be replaced by a bridging substituent independently selected from -O-, -S-, -NH-, -N=N-, -N(R b )-, -N(O)(R b )-, -N + (R b ) 2 - or -R a -; wherein each -R a - is independently selected from an alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group, wherein the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group contains from 1 to 6 atoms in its backbone, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms N, O or S, wherein one or more -CH 2 - groups in the backbone of the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more -N(O)(R b )- or -N + (R b ) 2 - groups, and wherein the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo and/or -R b groups; and wherein each -R b is independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 alkynyl or C 2 -C 6 cyclic group, or wherein any two or three -R b attached to the same nitrogen atom may, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form a C 2 -C 7 cyclic group, and wherein any -R b may optionally be substituted with one or more C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C3-C7 halocycloalkyl, -O(C 1 -C 4 alkyl), -O(C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl), -O(C3-C7 cycloalkyl), -O(C3-C7 halocycloalkyl), -CO(C 1 -C 4 alkyl), -CO(C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl), -CO(C 3 -C 7 cycloalkyl), -CO(C 3 -C 7 halocycloalkyl), -COO(C 1 -C 4 alkyl), -COO(C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl), -COO(C 3 -C 7 cycloalkyl), -COO(C 3 -C 7 halocycloalkyl), halo, -OH, -NH 2 , -CN, -CºCH, oxo (=O), phenyl, halophenyl, or optionally halo-substituted 4- to 6-membered heterocyclic group. Typically, the compounds of the present invention comprise at most one quaternary ammonium group such as -N + (R b ) 3 or -N + (R b ) 2 -. Where reference is made to a -R a -C(N2)R b group, what is intended is: Typically a substituted group comprises 1, 2, 3 or 4 substituents, more typically 1, 2 or 3 substituents, more typically 1 or 2 substituents, and more typically 1 substituent. Unless stated otherwise, any optional substituent is only attached to the group or moiety which is optionally substituted. For example, any divalent bridging substituent (e.g. -O-, -S-, -NH-, -N(R b )-, -N(O)(R b )-, -N + (R b )2- or -R a -) of an optionally substituted group or moiety (e.g. R 1 ) must only be attached to the specified group or moiety and may not be attached to a second group or moiety (e.g. R 2 ), even if the second group or moiety can itself be optionally substituted. The term “halo” includes fluoro, chloro, bromo and iodo. Unless stated otherwise, where a group is prefixed by the term “halo”, such as a haloalkyl or halomethyl group, it is to be understood that the group in question is substituted with one or more halo groups independently selected from fluoro, chloro, bromo and iodo. Typically, the maximum number of halo substituents is limited only by the number of hydrogen atoms available for substitution on the corresponding group without the halo prefix. For example, a halomethyl group may contain one, two or three halo substituents. A haloethyl or halophenyl group may contain one, two, three, four or five halo substituents. Similarly, unless stated otherwise, where a group is prefixed by a specific halo group, it is to be understood that the group in question is substituted with one or more of the specific halo groups. For example, the term “fluoromethyl” refers to a methyl group substituted with one, two or three fluoro groups. Similarly, unless stated otherwise, where a group is said to be “halo-substituted”, it is to be understood that the group in question is substituted with one or more halo groups independently selected from fluoro, chloro, bromo and iodo. Typically, the maximum number of halo substituents is limited only by the number of hydrogen atoms available for substitution on the group said to be halo-substituted. For example, a halo- substituted methyl group may contain one, two or three halo substituents. A halo- substituted ethyl or halo-substituted phenyl group may contain one, two, three, four or five halo substituents. Unless stated otherwise, any reference to an element is to be considered a reference to all isotopes of that element. Thus, for example, unless stated otherwise any reference to hydrogen is considered to encompass all isotopes of hydrogen including deuterium and tritium. Unless stated otherwise, any reference to a compound or group is to be considered a reference to all tautomers of that compound or group. Where reference is made to a hydrocarbyl or other group including one or more heteroatoms N, O or S in its carbon skeleton, or where reference is made to a carbon atom of a hydrocarbyl or other group being replaced by an N, O or S atom, what is intended is that: . . . is replaced by ; –CH 2 – is replaced by –NH–, –O– or –S–; –CH3 is replaced by –NH 2 , –OH or –SH; –CH= is replaced by –N=; CH 2 = is replaced by NH=, O= or S=; or CHº is replaced by Nº; provided that the resultant group comprises at least one carbon atom. For example, methoxy, dimethylamino and aminoethyl groups are considered to be hydrocarbyl groups including one or more heteroatoms N, O or S in their carbon skeleton. Where reference is made to a -CH 2 - group in the backbone of a hydrocarbyl or other group being replaced by a -N(O)(R b )- or -N + (R b )2- group, what is intended is that: –CH 2 – is replaced –CH 2 – is replaced In the context of the present specification, unless otherwise stated, a C x -C y group is defined as a group containing from x to y carbon atoms. For example, a C 1 -C 4 alkyl group is defined as an alkyl group containing from 1 to 4 carbon atoms. Optional substituents and moieties are not taken into account when calculating the total number of carbon atoms in the parent group substituted with the optional substituents and/or containing the optional moieties. For the avoidance of doubt, replacement heteroatoms, e.g. N, O or S, are not to be counted as carbon atoms when calculating the number of carbon atoms in a Cx-Cy group. For example, a morpholinyl group is to be considered a C 4 heterocyclic group, not a C 6 heterocyclic group. For the purposes of the present specification, where it is stated that a first atom or group is “directly attached” to a second atom or group it is to be understood that the first atom or group is covalently bonded to the second atom or group with no intervening atom(s) or group(s) being present. So, for example, for the group -(C=O)N(CH3)2, the carbon atom of each methyl group is directly attached to the nitrogen atom and the carbon atom of the carbonyl group is directly attached to the nitrogen atom, but the carbon atom of the carbonyl group is not directly attached to the carbon atom of either methyl group. For the avoidance of doubt, where it is stated that a compound or a group, such as R 1 , R 2 or L, contains from x to y atoms other than hydrogen or halogen, it is to be understood that the compound or group as a whole, including any optional substituents, contains from x to y atoms other than hydrogen or halogen. Such a compound or group may contain any number of hydrogen or halogen atoms. Similarly, where it is stated that a compound or a group, such as R 1 , R 2 or L, contains from x to y atoms other than hydrogen, it is to be understood that the compound or group as a whole, including any optional substituents, contains from x to y atoms other than hydrogen. Such a compound or group may contain any number of hydrogen atoms. As stated, J is -SO-, -SO 2 - or -SO(=NR j )-. More typically, J is -SO 2 - or -SO(=NR j )-. As stated, R j is selected from hydrogen or a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S in its carbon skeleton. In one embodiment, R j is selected from hydrogen, -CN or a saturated C 1 -C 6 hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated C 1 -C 6 hydrocarbyl group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include a cyclic group, wherein the saturated C 1 -C 6 hydrocarbyl group may optionally include one or two heteroatoms independently selected from N and O in its carbon skeleton, and wherein the saturated C 1 -C 6 hydrocarbyl group may optionally be substituted with one or more groups independently selected from halo, -CN, -OH, -NH 2 and oxo (=O). More typically, R j is selected from hydrogen, -CN or a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C4 cycloalkyl or C3-C4 fluorocycloalkyl group. For example, R j may be selected from hydrogen, -CN, or a methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl or cyclopropyl group, wherein any methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl or cyclopropyl group may optionally be substituted with one or more fluoro groups. Yet more typically, R j is selected from hydrogen or -CN. Most typically, R j is hydrogen. In one embodiment, J is -SO-, -SO 2 - or -SO(=NH)-. More typically in such an embodiment, J is -SO2- or -SO(=NH)-. Most typically, J is -SO 2 -. As stated, Q is O or S. Most typically, Q is O. As stated, R 1 is selected from hydrogen or a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S in its carbon skeleton. In one embodiment, R 1 is selected from hydrogen or a saturated C 1 -C 6 hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated C 1 -C 6 hydrocarbyl group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include a cyclic group, wherein the saturated C 1 -C 6 hydrocarbyl group may optionally include one or two heteroatoms independently selected from N and O in its carbon skeleton, and wherein the saturated C 1 -C 6 hydrocarbyl group may optionally be substituted with one or more groups independently selected from halo, -CN, -OH, -NH 2 and oxo (=O). More typically, R 1 is selected from hydrogen or a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C4 cycloalkyl or C3-C4 fluorocycloalkyl group. For example, R 1 may be selected from hydrogen or a methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl or cyclopropyl group, wherein any methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl or cyclopropyl group may optionally be substituted with one or more fluoro groups. Yet more typically, R 1 is selected from hydrogen or a methyl group, wherein the methyl group may optionally be substituted with one or more fluoro groups. More typically still, R 1 is hydrogen. As stated, each R 2 is independently selected from hydrogen or a halo, -OH, -NO 2 , -NH 2 , -N 3 , -SH, -SO 2 H, -SO 2 NH 2 , or a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms N, O or S in its carbon skeleton, or wherein two R 2 may, together with the carbon atom to which they are attached, form a cyclic group, wherein the cyclic group may optionally be substituted. In one embodiment, each R 2 is independently selected from hydrogen or a halo, -OH, -NO2, -NH 2 , -N3, -SH, -SO2H, -SO2NH 2 , or a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms N, O or S in its carbon skeleton. Typically in such an embodiment, each R 2 is independently selected from hydrogen or a halo, -CN, -OH, -NH 2 , or a saturated C1- C 6 hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated C 1 -C 6 hydrocarbyl group may be straight- chained or branched, or be or include a cyclic group, wherein the saturated C 1 -C 6 hydrocarbyl group may optionally include one or two heteroatoms independently selected from N and O in its carbon skeleton, and wherein the saturated C 1 -C 6 hydrocarbyl group may optionally be substituted with one or more groups independently selected from halo, -CN, -OH, -NH 2 and oxo (=O). In another embodiment, two R 2 , together with the carbon atom to which they are attached, form a cyclic group, wherein the cyclic group may optionally be substituted. As will be understood, such a cyclic group is attached to the ring formed by -J-N(R 1 )-C(=Q)-X- and -L- as a spiro-group. Typically in such an embodiment, two R 2 , together with the carbon atom to which they are attached, together form a 3- to 7- membered saturated cyclic group, wherein the saturated cyclic group may optionally include one or two ring heteroatoms independently selected from N and O in its carbon skeleton, and wherein the saturated cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more groups independently selected from halo, -CN, -OH, -NH 2 and oxo (=O). More typically, each R 2 is independently selected from hydrogen or a fluoro or a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C4 cycloalkyl or C3-C4 fluorocycloalkyl group, or two R 2 may, together with the carbon atom to which they are attached, form a 3- or 4-membered cycloalkyl group, or form an oxetanyl group, wherein the 3- or 4-membered cycloalkyl group or the oxetanyl group may optionally be fluoro-substituted. For example, each R 2 may independently be selected from hydrogen or a fluoro or a methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl or cyclopropyl group, or two R 2 may, together with the carbon atom to which they are attached, form a cyclopropyl group, wherein any methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl or cyclopropyl group may optionally be substituted with one or more fluoro groups. Yet more typically, each R 2 is independently selected from hydrogen or a fluoro or a methyl group, wherein the methyl group may optionally be substituted with one or more fluoro groups. More typically still, each R 2 is hydrogen, i.e. X is -CH 2 -. Most typically, in accordance with any of the above embodiments, R 1 is hydrogen and X is -CH 2 -. As stated, L is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbylene group, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S in its carbon skeleton. Typically, the atom of the hydrocarbylene group that is directly attached to X is a carbon or a nitrogen atom. Typically, the atom of the hydrocarbylene group that is directly attached to J is a carbon or a nitrogen atom. In one embodiment, L is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbylene group, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O in its carbon skeleton. Typically the hydrocarbylene group of L includes at least one cyclic group. For example, L may be a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbylene group, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may be straight-chained or branched, wherein the hydrocarbylene group includes a cyclic group directly attached to X, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally include one or more further cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S in its carbon skeleton. Typically in such an embodiment, the cyclic group directly attached to X is aromatic. Typically L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 1 to 10 nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. More typically L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 2 to 8 nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. Yet more typically L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 2 to 6 nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. In one embodiment, L contains only atoms selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halo, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an embodiment L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 1 to 10 nitrogen and oxygen atoms. More typically L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 2 to 8 nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Yet more typically L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 2 to 6 nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 10 to 40 carbon atoms. More typically L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 15 to 30 carbon atoms. Typically L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 4 to 50 carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. More typically L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 10 to 40 carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. More typically still L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 20 to 35 carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. As stated, -J-N(R 1 )-C(=Q)-X- and -L- together form a ring, such that the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L- is from 8 to 30 atoms. Typically, the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L- is from 12 to 24 atoms. More typically, the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L- is from 14 to 20 atoms. As will be understood, the compounds of the invention may be monocyclic ring systems, or may be bicyclic, tricyclic or polycyclic ring systems, for example due to the presence of cyclic groups within -L-. However, the compounds of formula (I) must meet the criteria that -J-N(R 1 )-C(=Q)-X- and -L- together form a ring, such that the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L- is from 8 to 30 atoms. It will be appreciated that for bicyclic, tricyclic or polycyclic ring systems, alternate single ring sizes that encompass all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L- may be identified; it is the smallest of these possible alternate single ring sizes that is relevant for determining the minimum ring size. By way of example, consider the bicyclic structure (A) below: Three single ring sizes within the bicyclic structure may be identified, namely a 18-atom ring illustrated in bold in structure (A1), a 14-atom ring illustrated in bold in structure (A2), and a 6-atom ring illustrated in bold in structure (A3). Of these three single ring sizes, only the two rings illustrated in bold in (A1) and (A2) encompass all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L-. Of these two rings, the ring illustrated in bold in structure (A2) is the smallest. Hence for structure (A), the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L- is 14 atoms. In one embodiment of the first aspect of the invention, the compound has the formula (Ia): wherein: J, R 1 , Q and X are as previously defined; -J-N(R 1 )-C(=Q)-X- and -L 1 -L 2 -L 3 -L 4 - together form a ring, such that the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X-, -L 1 -, -L 2 -, -L 3 - and -L 4 - is from 8 to 30 atoms; L 1 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12- membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents; L 2 is an alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group, wherein the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, and wherein the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents; L 3 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12- membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents; and L 4 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12- membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents. In one aspect of such an embodiment, where the compound has the formula (Ia): L 1 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11- membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents; L 3 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11- membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents; and L 4 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11- membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents. For the avoidance of doubt: where L 1 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11- or 5- to 12-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16- or 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, a ring atom of the monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic group of L 1 is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J, and the same or a different ring atom of the monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic group of L 1 is directly attached to L 2 ; where L 3 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11- or 5- to 12-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16- or 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, a ring atom of the monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic group of L 3 is directly attached to a ring atom of the monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic group of L 4 , and the same or a different ring atom of the monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic group of L 3 is directly attached to L 2 ; and a ring atom of the divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, divalent 5- to 11- or 5- to 12-membered bicyclic group, or divalent 7- to 16- or 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group of L 4 is directly attached to the carbon atom of X (i.e. the carbon atom underlined in -C(R 2 )2-), and the same or a different ring atom of the monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic group of L 4 is either (i) directly attached to a ring atom of the divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, divalent 5- to 11- or 5- to 12-membered bicyclic group, or divalent 7- to 16- or 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group of L 3 , or (ii), where L 3 is a bond, directly attached to L 2 . Where L 1 is a cyclic group, such as a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11- or 5- to 12-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16- or 7- to 18- membered tricyclic group, the ring atom of the cyclic group that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J may be a nitrogen or a carbon atom. In one embodiment, the ring atom of the cyclic group of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J is a carbon atom. The ring atom of the divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, divalent 5- to 11- or 5- to 12-membered bicyclic group, or divalent 7- to 16- or 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group of L 4 that is directly attached to the carbon atom of X (i.e. the carbon atom underlined in -C(R 2 )2-) may be a nitrogen or a carbon atom. Typically, the ring atom of the cyclic group of L 4 that is directly attached to the carbon atom of X is a carbon atom. As stated, -J-N(R 1 )-C(=Q)-X- and -L 1 -L 2 -L 3 -L 4 - together form a ring, such that the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X-, -L 1 -, -L 2 -, -L 3 - and -L 4 - is from 8 to 30 atoms. Typically, the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X-, -L 1 -, -L 2 -, -L 3 - and -L 4 - is from 12 to 24 atoms. More typically, the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X-, -L 1 -, -L 2 -, -L 3 - and -L 4 - is from 14 to 20 atoms. As stated, L 1 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. Typically, L 1 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. More typically, L 1 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 9- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one embodiment, L 1 is a bond. In one embodiment, where L 1 is a bond, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J is a nitrogen or a carbon atom. In a further embodiment, where L 1 is a bond, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J is a carbon atom. In another embodiment, L 1 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. Typically in such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. More typically in such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 9- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one embodiment, L 1 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, either of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one aspect of such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent phenyl, naphthalene, 5- or 6- membered monocyclic heteroaryl, or 8- to 10-membered (e.g.9- or 10-membered) bicyclic heteroaryl group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents. More typically in such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent phenyl, or 5- or 6-membered monocyclic heteroaryl group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents. In another aspect of such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent fused 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, wherein a first ring in the bicyclic structure is aromatic and a second ring in the bicyclic structure is non-aromatic, wherein the first ring may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and wherein the second ring may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents. Typically in such an embodiment, the first ring is a 5- or 6- membered ring and the second ring is a 5- or 6-membered ring. In yet another aspect of such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent saturated 3- to 7- membered monocyclic group, or a divalent saturated 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. For example, L 1 may be a 3- to 7-membered monocyclic cycloalkylene group, a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, a 7- to 11-membered bicyclic cycloalkylene group, or a divalent saturated 7- to 11-membered bicyclic heterocyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one embodiment, L 1 is a divalent saturated 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one aspect of such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group (such as a divalent azetidinyl, oxetanyl, thietanyl, pyrrolidinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydrothiophenyl, pyrazolidinyl, imidazolidinyl, oxazolidinyl, isoxazolidinyl, thiazolidinyl, isothiazolidinyl, dioxolanyl, dithiolanyl, piperidinyl, tetrahydropyranyl, thianyl, piperazinyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, dioxanyl, dithianyl, azepanyl, diazepanyl, oxepanyl or thiepanyl group), which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In another embodiment, L 1 is a divalent saturated 7- to 11-membered fused bicyclic group, which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one aspect of such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent saturated 7- to 11-membered fused bicyclic heterocyclic group, which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In yet another embodiment, L 1 is a divalent 5- to 12-membered spiro bicyclic group, which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. Typically in such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent 7- to 11- membered spiro bicyclic group, which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. For example, L 1 may be a divalent saturated 7- to 11-membered spiro bicyclic group, which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one aspect of such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent saturated 7- to 11-membered spiro bicyclic heterocyclic group, which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In a further embodiment, L 1 is a divalent 6- to 10-membered bridged bicyclic group, which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. For example, L 1 may be a divalent saturated 7- to 9-membered bridged bicyclic group, which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one aspect of such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent saturated 7- to 9-membered bridged bicyclic heterocyclic group, which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. As stated, L 2 is an alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group, wherein the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, and wherein the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. As will be understood, where an alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group of L 2 is or includes one or more cyclic groups, the one or more cyclic groups may be monocyclic, bicyclic or polycyclic and selected from cycloalkyl, saturated heterocyclic, cycloalkenyl, partially unsaturated heterocyclic, aryl and heteroaryl groups. Typically, the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group of L 2 is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes one or two monocyclic groups, or is or includes a single bicyclic group. More typically, the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group of L 2 is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a single monocyclic group. In one embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. In another embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or include a single cyclic group, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. Typically in such an embodiment, the single cyclic group where present is monocyclic or bicyclic. More typically, the single cyclic group where present is monocyclic. More typically still, the single cyclic group where present is selected from a phenyl, 5- or 6- membered monocyclic heteroaryl, 3- to 7-membered monocyclic cycloalkyl or saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group. In another embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group is straight-chained or branched, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. In a further embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. In another embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or include a single cyclic group, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. Typically in such an embodiment, the single cyclic group where present is monocyclic or bicyclic. More typically, the single cyclic group where present is monocyclic. More typically still, the single cyclic group where present is selected from a phenyl, 5- or 6- membered monocyclic heteroaryl, 3- to 7-membered monocyclic cycloalkyl or saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group. In a further embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group is straight-chained or branched, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. In one embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene group, wherein the alkylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or include a single cyclic group, wherein the alkylene group optionally includes one, two or three heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, and wherein the alkylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. As will be understood, in such an embodiment the single cyclic group where present may be a cycloalkyl or a saturated heterocyclic group. Typically in such an embodiment, the single cyclic group where present is monocyclic. More typically, the single cyclic group where present is selected from a 3- to 7-membered monocyclic cycloalkyl or a saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group (such as a divalent azetidinyl, oxetanyl, thietanyl, pyrrolidinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydrothiophenyl, pyrazolidinyl, imidazolidinyl, oxazolidinyl, isoxazolidinyl, thiazolidinyl, isothiazolidinyl, dioxolanyl, dithiolanyl, piperidinyl, tetrahydropyranyl, thianyl, piperazinyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, dioxanyl, dithianyl, azepanyl, diazepanyl, oxepanyl or thiepanyl group). In another embodiment, L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, and wherein the straight-chained alkylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. Typically, any alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group of L 2 includes at least one heteroatom independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton. In one embodiment, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to L 3 is O or N. In a further embodiment, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to L 3 is O. Typically L 2 , including any optional substituents, contains in total from 1 to 5 nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. More typically L 2 , including any optional substituents, contains in total from 1 to 3 nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. In one embodiment, L 2 contains only atoms selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halo, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an embodiment L 2 , including any optional substituents, contains in total from 1 to 5 nitrogen and oxygen atoms. More typically L 2 , including any optional substituents, contains in total from 1 to 3 nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically L 2 , including any optional substituents, contains in total from 1 to 15 carbon atoms. More typically L 2 , including any optional substituents, contains in total from 1 to 8 carbon atoms. Typically L 2 , including any optional substituents, contains in total from 1 to 20 carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. More typically L 2 , including any optional substituents, contains in total from 2 to 15 carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. More typically still L 2 , including any optional substituents, contains in total from 2 to 10 carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. Typically, L 2 has a chain length of from 1 to 15 atoms. More typically, L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 12 atoms. More typically still, L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms. As will be understood, the “chain length” of L 2 refers to the number of atoms of L 2 that are bonded to each other in a continuous chain between L 1 and L 3 , as measured by the shortest route. By way of example, structure (C) has a chain length of 3 atoms, whereas structure (D) has a chain length of 5 atoms: (C) (D) As stated, L 3 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. Typically, L 3 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. More typically, L 3 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 9- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one embodiment, L 3 is a bond. In another embodiment, L 3 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. Typically in such an embodiment, L 3 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. More typically in such an embodiment, L 3 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 9- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one embodiment, L 3 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, either of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one aspect of such an embodiment, L 3 is a divalent phenyl, naphthalene, 5- or 6-membered monocyclic heteroaryl, or 8- to 10 membered (e.g.9- or 10-membered) bicyclic heteroaryl group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents. Typically in such an embodiment, L 3 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered monocyclic heteroaryl group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents. More typically, L 3 is a divalent phenyl or 6-membered monocyclic heteroaryl group, such as a divalent pyridazinyl or divalent pyridinyl group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents. Typically, where L 3 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12-membered (e.g.5- to 11-membered or 7- to 11-membered) bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered (e.g.7- to 16-membered or 9- to 16-membered) tricyclic group, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to L 3 is O or N. More typically in such an embodiment, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to L 3 is O. As stated, L 4 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12- membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents. Typically, L 4 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. More typically, L 4 is a divalent 3- to 7- membered monocyclic group, a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 9- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one embodiment, the ring of the divalent monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic group of L 4 that is directly attached to X is aromatic. For example, L 4 may be selected from: (i) a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents; or (ii) a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, wherein a first ring in the bicyclic structure is aromatic, and a second ring in the bicyclic structure is aromatic or non- aromatic, wherein X is directly attached to a ring atom of the first ring, wherein L 3 is directly attached to a ring atom of either the first or the second ring, and wherein the divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents; or (iii) a divalent 9- to 16-membered tricyclic group, such as a divalent 9- to 16- membered fused tricyclic group, wherein a first ring in the tricyclic structure is aromatic, a second ring in the tricyclic structure is aromatic or non-aromatic, and a third ring in the tricyclic structure is aromatic or non-aromatic, wherein X is directly attached to a ring atom of the first ring, wherein L 3 is directly attached to a ring atom of any of the first, second or third rings, and wherein the divalent 9- to 16-membered tricyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one embodiment, L 4 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, either of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. Typically in such an embodiment, L 4 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered fused bicyclic group, either of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. More typically in such an embodiment, L 4 is a divalent 5- or 6-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 8- to 10-membered fused bicyclic group, either of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. For example, L 4 may be a phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, optionally wherein a 5- or 6- membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein X is directly attached to a ring atom of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein L 3 is directly attached to a ring atom of any of the phenyl, 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl or fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic groups, wherein the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one aspect of such an embodiment, X and L 3 are directly attached to the same ring of L 4 . For example, L 4 may be a phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, optionally wherein a 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein X is directly attached to a first ring atom of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein L 3 is directly attached to a second ring atom of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. Typically, where X and L 3 are directly attached to the same ring of L 4 , L 3 is not a bond. Typically, where X and L 3 are directly attached to the same ring of L 4 , the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to L 3 is at the a-position relative to the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to X. Typically in such an embodiment, the ring to which X and L 3 are directly attached is further substituted at the a'-position, typically wherein the substituent at the a'-position comprises at least one carbon atom and/or forms part of a ring structure that is ortho-fused to the ring to which X and L 3 are directly attached across the a',b' positions. For example, L 4 may be a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, wherein the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to L 3 is at the a-position relative to the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to X, wherein either (i) a 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group across the a',b' positions, wherein the fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents; or (ii) the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is substituted at the a'-position with a monovalent substituent comprising at least one carbon atom; and wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or more monovalent substituents. As used herein, the nomenclature a, b, a', b' refers to the position of the atoms of a cyclic group, such as L 4 , relative to the specified point of attachment of the cyclic group to the remainder of the molecule. For example, where L 4 is a divalent 2,3-dihydro-1H- indenyl moiety attached to X at the 4-position and to L 3 at the 5-position, the a, b, a' and b' positions relative to the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to X are as follows: For the avoidance of doubt, where it is stated that a cyclic group, such as a phenyl or a heteroaryl group, is substituted at the a and/or a' positions, it is to be understood that one or more hydrogen atoms at the a and/or a' positions respectively are replaced by one or more substituents, such as any optional substituent as defined herein. Unless stated otherwise, the term “substituted” does not include the replacement of one or more ring carbon atoms by one or more ring heteroatoms. In another embodiment, L 4 is a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 9- to 16-membered tricyclic group, either of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. Typically in such an embodiment, L 4 is a divalent 7- to 11-membered fused bicyclic group, or a divalent 9- to 16-membered fused tricyclic group, either of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. More typically in such an embodiment, L 4 is a divalent 8- to 10-membered fused bicyclic group or a divalent 11- to 14-membered fused tricyclic group, either of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. For example, L 4 may be a phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein a first 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, optionally wherein a second 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein X is directly attached to a ring atom of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein L 3 is directly attached to a ring atom of any of the phenyl, 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl or fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic groups, wherein the phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic groups may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one aspect of such an embodiment, X and L 3 are directly attached to different rings within the bicyclic or tricyclic group. For example, L 4 may be a phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, wherein a ring atom of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is directly attached to X, wherein a first 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein a ring atom of the first fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is directly attached to L 3 , wherein optionally a second 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, wherein the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and wherein either fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. Typically, where X and L 3 are directly attached to different rings within the divalent bicyclic or tricyclic group of L 4 , L 3 is a bond, such that X and L 2 are directly attached to different rings within the bicyclic or tricyclic group of L 4 . Typically, X is directly attached to a ring atom of a first ring of the bicyclic or tricyclic group, a second ring of the bicyclic or tricyclic group is ortho-fused to the first ring across the a,b positions of the first ring, relative to the ring atom of the first ring that is directly attached to X, and L 3 (or L 2 where L 3 is a bond) is directly attached to a ring atom of the second ring that is not also a ring atom of the first ring. Typically, the ring atom of the second ring that is directly attached to L 3 (or directly attached to L 2 where L 3 is a bond) is also directly attached to the ring atom at the a-position of the first ring. For example, L 4 may be a phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein a ring atom of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is directly attached to X, wherein a first 5- or 6- membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group across the a,b positions of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, relative to the ring atom that is directly attached to X, wherein a ring atom of the first fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is directly attached to L 2 , wherein either (i) a second 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group across the a',b' positions; or (ii) the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is substituted at the a'- position with a monovalent substituent comprising at least one carbon atom; wherein the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or two monovalent substituents, and wherein either fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. Typically, the ring atom of the first fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group that is directly attached to L 2 is also directly attached to the ring atom at the a-position of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group. Where L 1 , L 2 , L 3 or L 4 is substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, the monovalent substituents may be independently selected from any monovalent substituent as discussed above. Typically, where any moiety selected from L 1 , L 2 , L 3 or L 4 is substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, the moiety is substituted with one, two, three or four monovalent substituents. More typically, where any moiety selected from L 1 , L 2 , L 3 or L 4 is substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, the moiety is substituted with one, two, or three monovalent substituents. In one embodiment, where L 1 , L 2 , L 3 or L 4 is substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, each monovalent substituent is independently selected from a halo, C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 11 -R 12 , -R 11 -CN, -R 11 -N3, -R 11 -NO 2 , -R 11 -N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -OR 13 , -R 11 -COR 13 , -R 11 -COOR 13 , -R 11 -CON(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NOR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -SO 2 R 13 or -R 11 -SO2N(R 13 )2 group, wherein: each R 11 is independently selected from a bond, or a C 1 -C 4 alkylene group, wherein the C 1 -C 4 alkylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include a C 3 -C 4 cycloalkylene group, and wherein the C 1 -C 4 alkylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups; each R 12 is independently selected from a 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from -CN, -NO2, -R 14 , -OH, -OR 14 , -NH 2 , -NHR 14 and -N(R 14 )2; each R 13 is independently selected from hydrogen or a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, or 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from -CN, -NO2, -R 14 , -OH, -OR 14 , -NH 2 , -NHR 14 and -N(R 14 )2, or any two R 13 attached to the same nitrogen atom may together form a C 2 -C 5 alkylene or C 2 -C 5 haloalkylene group; and each R 14 is independently selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl or C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl group. Where L 1 , L 2 , L 3 or L 4 is substituted with one or more p-bonded substituents, the p- bonded substituents may be independently selected from any p-bonded substituent as discussed above. Typically, where any moiety selected from L 1 , L 2 , L 3 or L 4 is substituted with one or more p-bonded substituents, the moiety is substituted with one or two p-bonded substituents. More typically, where any moiety selected from L 1 , L 2 , L 3 or L 4 is substituted with one or more p-bonded substituents, the moiety is substituted with a single p-bonded substituent. In one embodiment, where L 1 , L 2 , L 3 or L 4 is substituted with one or more p-bonded substituents, each p-bonded substituent is independently selected from =O or =NR 13 , wherein R 13 is as defined above. In one embodiment of the first aspect of the invention, the compound has the formula (Ib): wherein: J is -SO-, -SO2- or -SO(=NH)-; X is -CH 2 -; -J-NH-C(=O)-X- and -L 1 -L 2 -L 3 -L 4 - together form a ring, such that the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-NH-C(=O)-X-, -L 1 -, -L 2 -, -L 3 - and -L 4 - is from 8 to 30 atoms; and L 1 , L 2 , L 3 and L 4 are as previously defined. Typically, where the compound has the formula (Ib), J is -SO2-. Typically, the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-NH-C(=O)-X-, -L 1 -, -L 2 -, -L 3 - and -L 4 - is from 12 to 24 atoms. More typically, the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-NH-C(=O)-X-, -L 1 -, -L 2 -, -L 3 - and -L 4 - is from 14 to 20 atoms. In a first exemplary embodiment, where the compound has the formula (Ib): L 1 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, wherein the divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group or divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L ; L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups; L 3 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents R L ; L 4 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents R L ; the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to L 3 is at the a-position relative to the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to X; each R L is independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 11 -R 12 , -R 11 -CN, -R 11 -N3, -R 11 -NO2, -R 11 -N(R 13 )2, -R 11 -OR 13 , -R 11 -COR 13 , -R 11 -COOR 13 , -R 11 -CON(R 13 )2, -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )N(R 13 )2, -R 11 -C(=NOR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -SO 2 R 13 or -R 11 -SO 2 N(R 13 ) 2 group, and/or any two R L attached to the same divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 3 or L 4 may, together with the atoms of the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group to which they are attached, form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 11 -R 12 , -R 11 -CN, -R 11 -N3, -R 11 -NO2, -R 11 -N(R 13 )2, -R 11 -OR 13 , -R 11 -COR 13 , -R 11 -COOR 13 , -R 11 -CON(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NOR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -SO 2 R 13 or -R 11 -SO 2 N(R 13 ) 2 group; and R 11 , R 12 and R 13 are as previously defined. Typically in accordance with the first exemplary embodiment, each R L is independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 )2, -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 , -R 15 -CON(R 17 )2, -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )N(R 17 )2, -R 15 -C(=NOR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -SO2R 17 or -R 15 -SO 2 N(R 17 ) 2 group, and/or any two R L attached to the same divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 3 or L 4 may, together with the atoms of the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group to which they are attached, form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 )2, -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 , -R 15 -CON(R 17 )2, -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NOR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -SO 2 R 17 or -R 15 -SO 2 N(R 17 ) 2 group, wherein: each R 15 is independently selected from a bond, or a C 1 -C 4 alkylene group, wherein the C 1 -C 4 alkylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include a C 3 -C 4 cycloalkylene group, and wherein the C 1 -C 4 alkylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups; each R 16 is independently selected from a 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from -CN, -R 18 , -OH, -OR 18 , -NH 2 , -NHR 18 and -N(R 18 )2; each R 17 is independently selected from hydrogen or a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, or 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from -CN, -R 18 , -OH, -OR 18 , -NH 2 , -NHR 18 and -N(R 18 )2, or any two R 17 attached to the same nitrogen atom may together form a C 2 -C 5 alkylene or C 2 -C 5 haloalkylene group; and each R 18 is independently selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl or C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl group. In one aspect of the first exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a bond. In another aspect of the first exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, wherein the divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group or divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . In one aspect of the first exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a divalent phenyl, or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically, where L 1 is a divalent phenyl, or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, it is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents R L . In another aspect of the first exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a divalent phenyl, or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is ortho-fused to a 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from halo groups and R L , and wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is (aside from the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group) unsubstituted or further substituted with one or two halo groups and/or a single substituent R L . Typically, the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents independently selected from oxo (=O) and R L . In one embodiment, the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is non-aromatic, such as a fused non-aromatic 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic group. In another embodiment, the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is aromatic, such as a fused 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group. In another aspect of the first exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a divalent saturated 4- to 7- membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, wherein the divalent saturated 4- to 7- membered monocyclic heterocyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . For example, L 1 may be a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, wherein the divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from nitrogen and oxygen in its ring structure, and wherein the divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically, the divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group includes at least one nitrogen atom in its ring structure. For example, L 1 may be selected from a divalent azetidinyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl or morpholinyl group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically, where L 1 is a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, such as a divalent azetidinyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl or morpholinyl group, it is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or one or two substituents R L . In one embodiment, where the divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group includes at least one nitrogen atom in its ring structure, the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J is a nitrogen atom. Typically, where L 1 is a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the a-, b- or g-position relative to the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J. In one embodiment, where L 1 is a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the b-position relative to the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J. Typically in accordance with the first exemplary embodiment, L 2 contains in total (i.e. including any optional substituents) from 2 to 15 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. More typically, L 2 contains in total from 2 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically, L 2 includes at least one heteroatom independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton. Typically, L 2 contains in total from 1 to 3 nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to L 3 is O or N. More typically, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to L 3 is O. Typically in accordance with the first exemplary embodiment, L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 12 atoms. More typically, L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms. In one aspect of the first exemplary embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or include a single monocyclic group, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups, and wherein L 2 contains in total from 2 to 15 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically, the single monocyclic group where present is selected from a phenyl, 5- or 6-membered monocyclic heteroaryl, 3- to 7-membered monocyclic cycloalkyl or saturated 4- to 7- membered monocyclic heterocyclic group. In another aspect of the first exemplary embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene group, wherein the alkylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or include a single monocyclic group, wherein the alkylene group includes one, two or three heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the alkylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups, and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein L 2 contains in total from 2 to 15 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically, the single monocyclic group where present is selected from a 3- to 7- membered monocyclic cycloalkyl or saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group. In one aspect of the first exemplary embodiment, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group of L 4 is substituted at the a'-position, relative to the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to X, with a substituent R L , wherein R L is as defined above. Typically, the substituent at the a'-position is selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 or -R 15 -CON(R 17 ) 2 group, wherein R 15 , R 16 and R 17 are as previously defined. More typically, the substituent at the a'-position is selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, or 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups. In another aspect of the first exemplary embodiment, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group of L 4 is ortho-fused to a 5- or 6-membered cyclic group across the a',b'-positions, relative to the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to X, wherein the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is optionally substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R -R 11 -COR 13 , -R 11 -COO -R 11 -C(=NOR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -SO2R 13 or -R 11 -SO2N(R 13 )2 group, wherein R 11 , R 12 and R 13 are as previously defined. Typically, the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is non- aromatic. For example, the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may be an ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cycloalkyl group or an ortho-fused non-aromatic 5- or 6- membered heterocyclic group. Typically, the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or is substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one oxo (=O) group and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 )2, -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 , -R 15 -CON(R 17 )2, -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NOR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -SO 2 R 17 or -R 15 -SO 2 N(R 17 ) 2 group, wherein R 15 , R 16 and R 17 are as previously defined. More typically, the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or is substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one oxo (=O) group and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a -OH, -CN, C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl, -O(C 1 -C 4 alkyl) or -O(C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl) group. More typically still, the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups. As will be understood, in either of the above two aspects of the first exemplary embodiment, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 4 may optionally be further substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more further substituents R L . Typically, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 4 may optionally be further substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents each independently selected from a -CN, methyl, halomethyl, -OC(R 19 )3 or -C(R 19 )2-OC(R 19 )3 group, wherein each R 19 is independently selected from hydrogen or a halo group. More typically, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 4 may optionally be further substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents each independently selected from a -CN, methyl, halomethyl, -OMe or -O-(halomethyl) group. In a second exemplary embodiment, where the compound has the formula (Ib): L 1 is a bond or a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group; L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups; L 3 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group; L 4 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group; the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to L 3 is at the a-position relative to the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to X; any divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents R L , wherein each R L is independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R -R 11 -COR 13 , -R 11 -COO -R 11 -C(=NOR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -SO2R 13 or -R 11 -SO2N(R 13 )2 group, and/or any two R L attached to the same divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may, together with the atoms of the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group to which they are attached, form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 11 -R 12 , -R 11 -CN, -R 11 -N 3 , -R 11 -NO 2 , -R 11 -N(R 13 )2, -R 11 -OR 13 , -R 11 -COR 13 , -R 11 -COOR 13 , -R 11 -CON(R 13 )2, -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )N(R 13 )2, -R 11 -C(=NOR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -SO2R 13 or -R 11 -SO2N(R 13 )2 group; and R 11 , R 12 and R 13 are as previously defined. Typically in accordance with the second exemplary embodiment, each R L is independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 , -R 15 -CON(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NOR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -SO 2 R 17 or -R 15 -SO2N(R 17 )2 group, and/or any two R L attached to the same divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may, together with the atoms of the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group to which they are attached, form a fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 , -R 15 -CON(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NOR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -SO 2 R 17 or -R 15 -SO2N(R 17 )2 group, wherein R 15 , R 16 and R 17 are as previously defined. In one aspect of the second exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a bond. In another aspect of the second exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents R L , as set out above. Typically, where L 1 is a divalent phenyl, or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, it is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents R L . As will be understood, in accordance with the second exemplary embodiment the alkylene or alkenylene group of L 2 may be straight-chained or branched. Typically in such an embodiment L 2 contains in total (i.e. including any optional substituents) from 2 to 15 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. More typically, L 2 contains in total from 2 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically, L 2 includes at least one heteroatom independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton. Typically, L 2 contains in total from 1 to 3 nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to L 3 is O or N. More typically, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to L 3 is O. Typically in accordance with the second exemplary embodiment, L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 12 atoms. More typically, L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms. In one aspect of the second exemplary embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene group, wherein the alkylene group may be straight-chained or branched, wherein the alkylene group includes one, two or three heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the alkylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups, and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein L 2 contains in total from 2 to 15 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In one aspect of the second exemplary embodiment, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group of L 4 is substituted at the a'-position, relative to the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to X, with a substituent R L , wherein R L is as defined above. Typically, the substituent at the a'-position is selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 11 -R 12 , -R 11 -CN, -R 11 -N(R 13 )2, -R 11 -OR 13 , -R 11 -COR 13 , -R 11 -COOR 13 or -R 11 -CON(R 13 )2 group, wherein R 11 , R 12 and R 13 are as previously defined. More typically, the substituent at the a'-position is selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 )2, -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 or -R 15 -CON(R 17 )2 group, wherein R 15 , R 16 and R 17 are as previously defined. More typically still, the substituent at the a'- position is selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, or 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups. In another aspect of the second exemplary embodiment, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group of L 4 is ortho-fused to a 5- or 6-membered cyclic group across the a',b'-positions, relative to the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to X, wherein the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is optionally substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 11 -R 12 , -R 11 -CN, -R 11 -SO 2 N(R 13 ) 2 group, wherein R 11 , R 12 and R 13 are as previously defined. Typically, the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is non-aromatic. For example, the ortho- fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may be an ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cycloalkyl group or an ortho-fused non-aromatic 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic group. In one embodiment, the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 )2, -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 , -R 15 -CON(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NOR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -SO 2 R 17 or -R 15 -SO 2 N(R 17 ) 2 group, wherein R 15 , R 16 and R 17 are as previously defined. In another embodiment, the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a -OH, -CN, -NO 2 , C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl, -O(C 1 -C 4 alkyl) or -O(C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl) group. Typically, the ortho-fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a -OH, -CN, C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl, -O(C 1 -C 4 alkyl) or -O(C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl) group. More typically, the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups. As will be understood, in accordance with either of the above two aspects of the second exemplary embodiment, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 4 may optionally be further substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more further substituents R L . Typically, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 4 may optionally be further substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents each independently selected from a -CN, methyl, halomethyl, -OC(R 19 )3 or -C(R 19 )2-OC(R 19 )3 group, wherein each R 19 is independently selected from hydrogen or a halo group. More typically, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group of L 4 may optionally be further substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents each independently selected from a -CN, methyl, halomethyl, -OMe or -O-(halomethyl) group. More typically still, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 4 may optionally be further substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two methyl and/or halomethyl substituents. In one aspect of either the first or second exemplary embodiment, where L 1 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the a- or b-position relative to the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J. In a further aspect of either the first or second exemplary embodiment, where L 1 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the b-position relative to the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J. In another aspect of either the first or second exemplary embodiment, where L 3 is a divalent phenyl, or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, it is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents R L . In one aspect, where L 3 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, the ring atom of L 3 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the a- or b-position relative to the ring atom of L 3 that is directly attached to L 4 . In a further aspect of either the first or second exemplary embodiment, where L 3 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, the ring atom of L 3 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the b-position relative to the ring atom of L 3 that is directly attached to L 4 . In yet another aspect of either the first or second exemplary embodiment, L 3 is a divalent phenyl or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 6- membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically in such an aspect, the divalent phenyl or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 3 is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents R L . Typically in such an aspect, the ring atom of L 3 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the a- or b-position relative to the ring atom of L 3 that is directly attached to L 4 . More typically in such an aspect, the ring atom of L 3 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the b-position relative to the ring atom of L 3 that is directly attached to L 4 . In a third exemplary embodiment, where the compound has the formula (Ib): L 1 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, wherein the divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group or divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L ; L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups; L 3 is a bond; L 4 is a phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein a ring atom of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is directly attached to X, wherein a first 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group across the a,b positions of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, relative to the ring atom that is directly attached to X, wherein a ring atom of the first fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is directly attached to L 2 , wherein optionally a second 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents R L , and wherein either fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L ; each R L is independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 11 -R 12 , -R 11 -CN, -R 11 -N3, -R 11 -NO2, -R 11 -N(R 13 )2, -R 11 -OR 13 , -R 11 -COR 13 , -R 11 -COOR 13 , -R 11 -CON(R 13 )2, -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )N(R 13 )2, -R 11 -C(=NOR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -SO 2 R 13 or -R 11 -SO 2 N(R 13 ) 2 group; and R 11 , R 12 and R 13 are as previously defined. Typically in accordance with the third exemplary embodiment, each R L is independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 , -R 15 -CON(R 17 )2, -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )N(R 17 )2, -R 15 -C(=NOR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -SO2R 17 or -R 15 -SO2N(R 17 )2 group, wherein R 15 , R 16 and R 17 are as previously defined. In one aspect of the third exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a bond. In another aspect of the third exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a divalent 3- to 7- membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, wherein the divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group or divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . In one aspect of the third exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a divalent phenyl, or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically, where L 1 is a divalent phenyl, or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, it is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents R L . In another aspect of the third exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a divalent phenyl, or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is ortho-fused to a 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from halo groups and R L , and wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is (aside from the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group) unsubstituted or further substituted with one or two halo groups and/or a single substituent R L . Typically, the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents independently selected from oxo (=O) and R L . In one embodiment, the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is non-aromatic, such as a fused non-aromatic 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic group. In another embodiment, the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is aromatic, such as a fused 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group. Typically, in either of the above two aspects of the third exemplary embodiment, where L 1 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the a- or b-position relative to the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J. More typically, where L 1 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the b-position relative to the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J. In another aspect of the third exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a divalent saturated 4- to 7- membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, wherein the divalent saturated 4- to 7- membered monocyclic heterocyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . For example, L 1 may be a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, wherein the divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from nitrogen and oxygen in its ring structure, and wherein the divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically, the divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group includes at least one nitrogen atom in its ring structure. For example, L 1 may be selected from a divalent azetidinyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl or morpholinyl group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically, where L 1 is a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, such as a divalent azetidinyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl or morpholinyl group, it is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or one or two substituents R L . In one embodiment, where the divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group includes at least one nitrogen atom in its ring structure, the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J is a nitrogen atom. Typically, where L 1 is a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the a-, b- or g-position relative to the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J. In one embodiment, where L 1 is a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the b-position relative to the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J. Typically in accordance with the third exemplary embodiment, L 2 contains in total from 2 to 15 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. More typically, L 2 contains in total from 2 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically, L 2 contains in total from 0 to 3 nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in accordance with the third exemplary embodiment, L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 12 atoms. More typically, L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms. In one aspect of the third exemplary embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups. More typically in such an aspect, L 2 is an alkylene group, wherein the alkylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or include a single monocyclic group, wherein the alkylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups, and wherein L 2 contains in total from 2 to 15 carbon atoms. More typically still, L 2 is an alkylene group, wherein the alkylene group may be straight-chained or branched, wherein the alkylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups, and wherein L 2 contains in total from 2 to 15 carbon atoms. Typically, in accordance with the third exemplary embodiment, the first fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group of L 4 and, if present, the second fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group of L 4 are non-aromatic. For example, the first and the second fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic groups may each be independently selected from an ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cycloalkyl group or an ortho-fused non-aromatic 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic group. In one aspect of the third exemplary embodiment, L 4 is a phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein a ring atom of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is directly attached to X, wherein a 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group across the a,b positions of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, relative to the ring atom that is directly attached to X, wherein a ring atom of the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is directly attached to L 2 , wherein the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 4 is substituted at the a'-position with a substituent R L , wherein the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or two halo groups and/or one or two further substituents R L , and wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically, the substituent at the a'-position is selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 )2, -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 or -R 15 -CON(R 17 )2 group, wherein R 15 , R 16 and R 17 are as previously defined. More typically, the substituent at the a'-position is selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, or 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups. Typically, where the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is further substituted with one or two halo groups and/or one or two further substituents R L , the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is further substituted with one or two substituents each independently selected from a halo, -CN, methyl, halomethyl, -OC(R 19 )3 or -C(R 19 )2-OC(R 19 )3 group, wherein each R 19 is independently selected from hydrogen or a halo group. More typically where the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is further substituted with one or two halo groups and/or one or two further substituents R L , the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is further substituted with one or two substituents each independently selected from a halo, -CN, methyl, halomethyl, -OMe or -O-(halomethyl) group. In another aspect of the third exemplary embodiment, L 4 is a phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, wherein a ring atom of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is directly attached to X, wherein a first 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group across the a,b positions of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, relative to the ring atom that is directly attached to X, wherein a ring atom of the first fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is directly attached to L 2 , wherein a second 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group across the a',b'-positions of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the phenyl group of L 4 may optionally be further substituted with a halo group or a substituent R L , and wherein either fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically, where the phenyl group of L 4 is further substituted with a halo group or a substituent R L , the phenyl group is further substituted with a halo, -CN, methyl, halomethyl, -OC(R 19 ) 3 or -C(R 19 ) 2 -OC(R 19 ) 3 group, wherein each R 19 is independently selected from hydrogen or a halo group. More typically where the phenyl group of L 4 is further substituted with a halo group or a substituent R L , the phenyl group is further substituted with a halo, -CN, methyl, halomethyl, -OMe or -O-(halomethyl) group. Typically, in either of the the above two aspects of the third exemplary embodiment, any 5- or 6-membered cyclic group that is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 4 is unsubstituted or is substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, - -R 11 -COOR 13 , -R 11 -C(=NOR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -SO 2 R 13 or -R 11 -SO 2 N(R 13 ) 2 group, wherein R 11 , R 12 and R 13 are as previously defined. Typically, any such fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or is substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one oxo (=O) group and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 , -R 15 -CON(R 17 )2, -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )N(R 17 )2, -R 15 -C(=NOR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -SO2R 17 or -R 15 -SO2N(R 17 )2 group, wherein R 15 , R 16 and R 17 are as previously defined. More typically, any such fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or is substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one oxo (=O) group and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a -OH, -CN, C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl, -O(C 1 -C 4 alkyl) or -O(C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl) group. More typically still, any such fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups. Typically, in accordance with the third exemplary embodiment, the ring atom of the (first) fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group of L 4 that is directly attached to L 2 is also directly attached to the ring atom at the a-position of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 4 . In a fourth exemplary embodiment of the first aspect of the invention, the compound has the formula (Ic): Formula (Ic) wherein: A 1 and A 3 are each independently selected from C and N, and A 2 , A 4 and A 5 are each independently selected from N, C-H, C-Hal and N-H, such that ring A c is a 5- membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; B 1 , B 2 , B 3 and B 4 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring B is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; m is 0, 1 or 2; n is 0, 1 or 2; each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 4 and A 5 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; each R AA is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; each R B is independently selected from a -CN, -NO2, -R B1 , -OH, -OR B1 , -NH 2 , -NHR B1 or -N(R B1 )2 group, wherein each R B1 is independently selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl or C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl group; each Hal is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1 -C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1 -C 4 alkyl), C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a 3- to 7-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 7-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups; R 4 is selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 )3 or -C(R 20 )2-OC(R 20 )3 group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 )3 or -C(R 20 )2-OC(R 20 )3 group; and each R 20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F. In one aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 4 and A 5 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; each R AA is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; R 4 is selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro- substituted; and R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group. In another aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally fluoro-substituted, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, methyl or fluoromethyl group, or wherein any two R L2 attached to the same carbon atom may together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a cyclopropyl group, wherein the cyclopropyl group may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R 4 is selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br or a methyl or fluoromethyl group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; and R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. For the purposes of the present specification, where it is stated that A 2 , A 4 or A 5 may be N-H or C-H, it is to be understood that this refers to A 2 , A 4 and A 5 before possible substitution with R A is considered. Thus, where it is stated that A 2 , A 4 or A 5 may be N-H, it is to be understood that A 2 , A 4 or A 5 may be N-H or N-R A after substitution is considered. Similarly, where it is stated that A 2 , A 4 or A 5 may be C-H, it is to be understood that A 2 , A 4 or A 5 may be C-H or C-R A after substitution is considered. Likewise, where it is stated that B 1 , B 2 , B 3 or B 4 may be C-H, it is to be understood that this refers to B 1 , B 2 , B 3 and B 4 before possible substitution with R B is considered. Thus, where it is stated that B 1 , B 2 , B 3 or B 4 may be C-H, it is to be understood that B 1 , B 2 , B 3 or B 4 may be C-H or C-R B after substitution is considered. In one aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment, ring A c is a 5-membered heteroaryl ring containing two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. In another aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment, A 1 is C, A 3 is independently selected from C and N, and A 2 , A 4 and A 5 are each independently selected from N, C-H, C-Hal and N-H, such that ring A c is a 5-membered heteroaryl ring containing two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. Typically in such an aspect, ring A c is a 5- membered heteroaryl ring containing two nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. In one embodiment of such an aspect, ring A c is a pyrazole ring. In one aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 4 and A 5 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; and each R AA is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In a further aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 4 and A 5 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; and each R AA is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In one aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment, m is 0 or 1. In another aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment, m is 0. In one aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment, each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an aspect, each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an aspect, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 (or, more typically, from 1 to 6) carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In another aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or a single oxo (=O) group, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 5 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In one embodiment of such an aspect, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally fluoro-substituted, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 4 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In one aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment, two R A attached to A 4 and A 5 together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA . Typically, the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or is substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or a single oxo (=O) group and/or a single R AA group. In one embodiment of such an aspect, the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is a fused phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, such as a fused pyridinyl group. In another embodiment of such an aspect, the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is a fused 5- or 6-membered cycloalkyl group or a fused non-aromatic 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic group, such as a fused piperidine group. In one aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment, each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In another aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment, each R AA is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 (or, more typically, from 1 to 6) carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In another aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment, each R AA is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or a single oxo (=O) group, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 5 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In one embodiment of such an aspect, each R AA is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally fluoro-substituted, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 4 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In a further embodiment of such an aspect, each R AA is independently selected from a methyl or ethyl group, wherein the methyl or ethyl group may optionally be fluoro-substituted. In a fifth exemplary embodiment of the first aspect of the invention, the compound has the formula (Id): Formula (Id) wherein: A 6 and A 7 are each independently selected from C and N, and A 8 , A 9 and A 10 are each independently selected from N, C-H, C-Hal and N-H, such that ring A d is a 5- membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; B 1 , B 2 , B 3 and B 4 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring B is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; p is 0, 1 or 2; n is 0, 1 or 2; each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 8 and A 9 or to A 9 and A 10 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; each R AA is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; each R B is independently selected from a -CN, -NO 2 , -R B1 , -OH, -OR B1 , -NH 2 , -NHR B1 or -N(R B1 ) 2 group, wherein each R B1 is independently selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl or C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl group; each Hal is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1 -C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1 -C 4 alkyl), C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a 3- to 7-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 7-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups; R 4 is selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl or C3-C6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group; and each R 20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F. In one aspect of the fifth exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 8 and A 9 or to A 9 and A 10 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; each R AA is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; R 4 is selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl or C3-C6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro- substituted; and R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group. For the purposes of the present specification, where it is stated that A 8 , A 9 or A 10 may be N-H or C-H, it is to be understood that this refers to A 8 , A 9 and A 10 before possible substitution with R A is considered. Thus, where it is stated that A 8 , A 9 or A 10 may be N-H, it is to be understood that A 8 , A 9 or A 10 may be N-H or N-R A after substitution is considered. Similarly, where it is stated that A 8 , A 9 or A 10 may be C-H, it is to be understood that A 8 , A 9 or A 10 may be C-H or C-R A after substitution is considered. In one aspect of the fifth exemplary embodiment, ring A d is a 5-membered heteroaryl ring containing two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. In another aspect of the fifth exemplary embodiment, A 6 is C, A 7 is independently selected from C and N, and A 8 , A 9 and A 10 are each independently selected from N, C-H, C-Hal and N-H, such that ring A d is a 5-membered heteroaryl ring containing two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. Typically in such an aspect, ring A d is a 5- membered heteroaryl ring containing two nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. In one embodiment of such an aspect, ring A d is a pyrazole ring. In one aspect of the fifth exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 8 and A 9 or to A 9 and A 10 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; and each R AA is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In a further aspect of the fifth exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 8 and A or to A 9 and A 10 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; and each R AA is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In one aspect of the fifth exemplary embodiment, p is 0 or 1. In another aspect of the fifth exemplary embodiment, p is 0. In one aspect of the fifth exemplary embodiment, each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an aspect, each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an aspect, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 (or, more typically, from 1 to 6) carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In another aspect of the fifth exemplary embodiment, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or a single oxo (=O) group, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 5 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In one embodiment of such an aspect, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally fluoro-substituted, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 4 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In a sixth exemplary embodiment of the first aspect of the invention, the compound has the formula (Ie):

wherein: A 11 , A 12 , A 13 and A 14 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring A e is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; B 1 , B 2 , B 3 and B 4 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring B is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; q is 0, 1 or 2; n is 0, 1 or 2; each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 12 and A 13 or to A 13 and A 14 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; each R AA is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; each R B is independently selected from a -CN, -NO 2 , -R B1 , -OH, -OR B1 , -NH 2 , -NHR B1 or -N(R B1 ) 2 group, wherein each R B1 is independently selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl or C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl group; each Hal is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1 -C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1 -C 4 alkyl), C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a 3- to 7-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 7-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups; R 4 is selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl or C3-C6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group; and each R 20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F. In one aspect of the sixth exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 12 and A 13 or to A 13 and A 14 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; each R AA is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; R 4 is selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl or C3-C6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro- substituted; and R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group. For the purposes of the present specification, where it is stated that A 11 , A 12 , A 13 or A 14 may be C-H, it is to be understood that this refers to A 11 , A 12 , A 13 and A 14 before possible substitution with R A is considered. Thus, where it is stated that A 11 , A 12 , A 13 or A 14 may be C-H, it is to be understood that A 11 , A 12 , A 13 or A 14 may be C-H or C-R A after substitution is considered. In one aspect of the sixth exemplary embodiment, ring A e is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one or two nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. In a further aspect of the sixth exemplary embodiment, ring A e is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one nitrogen atom in its ring structure. As will be understood, in such an aspect ring A e is a phenyl or a pyridinyl ring. In one embodiment, A 11 , A 12 , A 13 and A 14 are each independently selected from C-H and C-Hal, such that ring A e is a 6-membered aryl ring. In one aspect of the sixth exemplary embodiment, q is 0 or 1. In another aspect of the sixth exemplary embodiment, q is 0. In one aspect of the sixth exemplary embodiment, each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an aspect, each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an aspect, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 (or, more typically, from 1 to 6) carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In another aspect of the sixth exemplary embodiment, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or a single oxo (=O) group, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 5 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In one embodiment of such an aspect, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally fluoro-substituted, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 4 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In a seventh exemplary embodiment of the first aspect of the invention, the compound has the formula (If):

wherein: A 15 , A 16 , A 17 and A 18 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring A f is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; B 1 , B 2 , B 3 and B 4 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring B is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; r is 0, 1 or 2; n is 0, 1 or 2; each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 15 and A 16 or to A 16 and A 17 or to A 17 and A 18 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; each R AA is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; each R B is independently selected from a -CN, -NO 2 , -R B1 , -OH, -OR B1 , -NH 2 , -NHR B1 or -N(R B1 ) 2 group, wherein each R B1 is independently selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl or C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl group; each Hal is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1 -C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1 -C 4 alkyl), C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a 3- to 7-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 7-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups; R 4 is selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl or C3-C6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group; and each R 20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F. In one aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 15 and A 16 or to A 16 and A 17 or to A 17 and A 18 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; each R AA is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; R 4 is selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl or C3-C6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro- substituted; and R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group. For the purposes of the present specification, where it is stated that A 15 , A 16 , A 17 or A 18 may be C-H, it is to be understood that this refers to A 15 , A 16 , A 17 and A 18 before possible substitution with R A is considered. Thus, where it is stated that A 15 , A 16 , A 17 or A 18 may be C-H, it is to be understood that A 15 , A 16 , A 17 or A 18 may be C-H or C-R A after substitution is considered. In one aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment, ring A f is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one or two nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. In a further aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment, ring A f is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one nitrogen atom in its ring structure. As will be understood, in such an aspect ring A f is a phenyl or a pyridinyl ring. In one embodiment, A 18 is N, and A 15 , A 16 and A 17 are each independently selected from C-H and C-Hal, such that ring A f is a pyridinyl ring. In one aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment, r is 0 or 1. In another aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment, r is 0. In one aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment, each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an aspect, each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an aspect, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 (or, more typically, from 1 to 6) carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In another aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or a single oxo (=O) group, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 5 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In one embodiment of such an aspect, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally fluoro-substituted, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 4 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In an eighth exemplary embodiment of the first aspect of the invention, the compound has the formula (Ig):

wherein: A 19 and A 22 are each independently selected from N, CH, CY and CR AG , and each A 20 and A 21 is independently selected from O, NH, NR AGG , C=O, CH 2 , CH(Y), CH(R AG ), C(Y)2, C(Y)(R AG ) and C(R AG )2, such that ring A g contains one or two atoms independently selected from oxygen and nitrogen in its ring structure; ga is 1, 2 or 3, and gb is 1, 2 or 3, provided that ga + gb £ 5; each Y is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; each R AG is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN, or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AG contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; each R AGG is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AGG contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; B 1 , B 2 , B 3 and B 4 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring B is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; n is 0, 1 or 2; each R B is independently selected from a -CN, -NO 2 , -R B1 , -OH, -OR B1 , -NH 2 , -NHR B1 or -N(R B1 )2 group, wherein each R B1 is independently selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl or C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl group; each Hal is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1 -C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1 -C 4 alkyl), C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a 3- to 7-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 7-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups; R 4 is selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl or C3-C6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 )3 or -C(R 20 )2-OC(R 20 )3 group; and each R 20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F. In one aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment: each R AG is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN, or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AG contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; each R AGG is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AGG contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; R 4 is selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro- substituted; and R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, Cl, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group. As will be understood, since ring A g contains one or two atoms independently selected from oxygen and nitrogen in its ring structure, all other atoms within the ring structure of ring A g will be carbon atoms. Typically, each ring carbon atom of ring A g is directly attached to at least one other ring carbon atom of ring A g . Typically, each ring nitrogen or oxygen atom of ring A g is directly attached to two ring carbon atoms of ring A g . Typically, in accordance with the eighth exemplary embodiment of the first aspect of the invention, each Y is F or Cl. More typically, each Y is F. Typically, 3 £ ga + gb £ 4. In one aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, A 19 and A 22 are each independently selected from N, CH and CY, any two A 20 and/or A 21 are each independently selected from O, NH, NR AGG , C=O, CH 2 , CH(Y), CH(R AG ), C(Y)2, C(Y)(R AG ) and C(R AG )2, and each remaining A 20 and A 21 is independently selected from O, NH, CH 2 , CH(Y), and C(Y) 2 . In a further aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, A 19 and A 22 are each independently selected from N, CH and CF, one A 20 or A 21 is independently selected from O, NH, NR AGG , C=O, CH 2 , CHF, CH(R AG ), CF 2 , CF(R AG ) and C(R AG ) 2 , and each remaining A 20 and A 21 is independently selected from O, NH, CH 2 , CHF, and CF 2 . In one aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, A 19 and A 22 are each independently selected from N, CH, CY and CR AG , and each A 20 and A 21 is independently selected from NH, NR AGG , C=O, CH 2 , CH(Y), CH(R AG ), C(Y) 2 , C(Y)(R AG ) and C(R AG ) 2 , such that ring A g contains a single nitrogen atom in its ring structure. Typically in such an aspect, A 19 and A 22 are each independently selected from N, CH and CY, any two A 20 and/or A 21 are each independently selected from NH, NR AGG , C=O, CH 2 , CH(Y), CH(R AG ), C(Y) 2 , C(Y)(R AG ) and C(R AG ) 2 , and each remaining A 20 and A 21 is independently selected from NH, CH 2 , CH(Y), and C(Y)2. In one embodiment of such an aspect, A 19 is N. More typically, A 19 is N, A 22 is independently selected from CH and CF, one A 20 or A 21 is independently selected from C=O, CH 2 , CHF, CH(R AG ), CF 2 , CF(R AG ) and C(R AG ) 2 , and each remaining A 20 and A 21 is independently selected from CH 2 , CHF, and CF 2 . In a further aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, A 19 and A 22 are each independently selected from N, CH and CY, and each A 20 and A 21 is independently selected from NH, CH 2 , CH(Y), and C(Y) 2 , such that ring A g contains a single nitrogen atom in its ring structure. In one embodiment of such an aspect, A 19 is N. More typically, A 19 is N, A 22 is independently selected from CH and CF, and each A 20 and A 21 is independently selected from CH 2 , CHF, and CF 2 . In one aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, each R AG is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AG contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an aspect, each R AG contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In another aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, each R AG is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or a single oxo (=O) group, and wherein each R AG contains, in total, from 1 to 5 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In one embodiment of such an aspect, each R AG is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally fluoro-substituted, and wherein each R AG contains, in total, from 1 to 4 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In one aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, each R AGG contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In another aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, each R AGG is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or a single oxo (=O) group, and wherein each R AGG contains, in total, from 1 to 5 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an aspect, each R AGG is independently selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 4 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 4 fluorocycloalkyl group. In one aspect of any of the fourth to eighth exemplary embodiments, ring B is a 6- membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one or two nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. In one embodiment of such an aspect, ring B is a 6- membered heteroaryl ring containing one or two nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. For example, B 1 and B 2 may each be independently selected from C-H and C-Hal, B 3 may be selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, and B 4 may be N. In a further aspect of any of the fourth to eighth exemplary embodiments, ring B is a 6- membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing a single nitrogen atom in its ring structure. In one example of such an aspect, B 1 , B 2 and B 3 are each independently selected from C-H and C-Hal, and B 4 is selected from N, C-H and C-Hal. In one aspect of any of the fourth to eighth exemplary embodiments, each R B is independently selected from a -CN, -R B1 , -OH, -OR B1 , -NH 2 , -NHR B1 or -N(R B1 ) 2 group, wherein each R B1 is independently selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl or C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl group. In another aspect of any of the fourth to eighth exemplary embodiments, n is 0 or 1. Typically in such an aspect, R B where present is selected from a -CN, -R B1 , -OH, -OR B1 , -NH 2 , -NHR B1 or -N(R B1 )2 group, wherein each R B1 is independently selected from a C1- C 4 alkyl or C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl group. More typically in such an aspect, R B where present is selected from a methyl or fluoromethyl group. In another aspect of any of the fourth to eighth exemplary embodiments, n is 0. In one aspect of any of the fourth to eighth exemplary embodiments, each Hal is F. In one aspect of any of the fourth to eighth exemplary embodiments, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to ring B is O or N. In one aspect of any of the fourth to eighth exemplary embodiments, L 2 is a straight- chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more (e.g. one, two, three or four) groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1 -C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1 -C 4 alkyl), C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene group to which they are attached form a monocyclic C3-C6 cycloalkyl or a monocyclic 4- to 6- membered saturated heterocyclic group, wherein the monocyclic C3-C6 cycloalkyl or the monocyclic 4- to 6-membered saturated heterocyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups. Typically in such an aspect, the straight-chained alkylene group includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton. In one embodiment of such an aspect, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to ring B is O. In another embodiment of such an aspect, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to ring B is N. In another aspect of any of the fourth to eighth exemplary embodiments, L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more (e.g. one, two, three or four) groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1 -C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1 -C 4 alkyl), C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together with the atoms of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a phenyl or a 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group (such as a pyridinyl group), wherein the phenyl or the 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more fluoro groups. Typically in such an aspect, the straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton. In one embodiment of such an aspect, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to ring B is O. In another embodiment of such an aspect, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to ring B is N. In a further aspect of any of the fourth to eighth exemplary embodiments, L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one oxo (=O) group and/or with one, two, three or four groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, methyl or fluoromethyl group, or wherein any two R L2 attached to the same carbon atom may together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a cyclopropyl group, wherein the cyclopropyl group may optionally be fluoro-substituted. In one embodiment of such an aspect, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to ring B is O. In another embodiment of such an aspect, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to ring B is N. Typically in accordance with any aspect of any of the fourth to eighth exemplary embodiments, L 2 has a chain length of from 3 to 6 atoms. Typically in accordance with any aspect of any of the fourth to eighth exemplary embodiments, L 2 contains in total from 2 to 15 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. More typically, L 2 contains in total from 3 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In one aspect of any of the fourth to eighth exemplary embodiments, R 4 is selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. Typically in such an aspect, R 5 is hydrogen or F. In another aspect of any of the fourth to eighth exemplary embodiments, R 4 is selected from a C3-C4 alkyl, C3-C4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C5 cycloalkyl or C3-C5 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. Typically in such an aspect, R 5 is hydrogen or F. In yet another aspect of any of the fourth to eighth exemplary embodiments, R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro- substituted. In one aspect of any of the fourth to eighth exemplary embodiments, R 6 is selected from hydrogen, F, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group (wherein R 20 is as previously defined), and R 7 is selected from hydrogen, F, or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. Typically in such an aspect, R 6 is selected from hydrogen, F, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group, and R 7 is selected from hydrogen, F, or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. In another aspect of any of the fourth to eighth exemplary embodiments, R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. Typically in such an aspect, R 6 is hydrogen or F and R 7 is hydrogen, F, or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. Typically in accordance with any aspect of any of the fourth to eighth exemplary embodiments, at least one of R 5 , R 6 or R 7 is selected from hydrogen or F. More typically, at least one of R 6 or R 7 is selected from hydrogen or F. In one embodiment of the first aspect of the invention, any compound of formula (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Ic), (Id), (Ie), (If) or (Ig) contains from 10 to 80 atoms other than hydrogen or halogen. More typically, any compound of formula (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Ic), (Id), (Ie), (If) or (Ig) contains from 15 to 60 atoms other than hydrogen or halogen. Yet more typically, any compound of formula (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Ic), (Id), (Ie), (If) or (Ig) contains from 20 to 50 atoms other than hydrogen or halogen. Yet more typically, any compound of formula (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Ic), (Id), (Ie), (If) or (Ig) contains from 22 to 45 atoms other than hydrogen or halogen. More typically still, any compound of formula (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Ic), (Id), (Ie), (If) or (Ig) contains from 25 to 40 atoms other than hydrogen or halogen. In one aspect of any of the above embodiments, the compound of formula (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Ic), (Id), (Ie), (If) or (Ig) has a molecular weight of from 250 to 2000 Da. Typically, the compound of formula (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Ic), (Id), (Ie), (If) or (Ig) has a molecular weight of from 275 to 900 Da. More typically, the compound of formula (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Ic), (Id), (Ie), (If) or (Ig) has a molecular weight of from 280 to 700 Da. More typically still, the compound of formula (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Ic), (Id), (Ie), (If) or (Ig) has a molecular weight of from 300 to 600 Da. A second aspect of the invention provides a compound selected from the group consisting of:

A third aspect of the invention provides a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of any compound of the first or second aspect of the invention. The compounds of the present invention can be used both, in their free base form and their acid addition salt form. For the purposes of this invention, a “salt” of a compound of the present invention includes an acid addition salt. Acid addition salts are preferably pharmaceutically acceptable, non-toxic addition salts with suitable acids, including but not limited to inorganic acids such as hydrohalogenic acids (for example, hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, hydrobromic or hydroiodic acid) or other inorganic acids (for example, nitric, perchloric, sulfuric or phosphoric acid); or organic acids such as organic carboxylic acids (for example, propionic, butyric, glycolic, lactic, mandelic, citric, acetic, benzoic, salicylic, succinic, malic or hydroxysuccinic, tartaric, fumaric, maleic, hydroxymaleic, mucic or galactaric, gluconic, pantothenic or pamoic acid), organic sulfonic acids (for example, methanesulfonic, trifluoromethanesulfonic, ethanesulfonic, 2-hydroxyethanesulfonic, benzenesulfonic, toluene-p-sulfonic, naphthalene-2-sulfonic or camphorsulfonic acid) or amino acids (for example, ornithinic, glutamic or aspartic acid). The acid addition salt may be a mono-, di-, tri- or multi-acid addition salt. A preferred salt is a hydrohalogenic, sulfuric, phosphoric or organic acid addition salt. A preferred salt is a hydrochloric acid addition salt. Where a compound of the invention includes a quaternary ammonium group, typically the compound is used in its salt form. The counter ion to the quaternary ammonium group may be any pharmaceutically acceptable, non-toxic counter ion. Examples of suitable counter ions include the conjugate bases of the protic acids discussed above in relation to acid addition salts. The compounds of the present invention can also be used both, in their free acid form and their salt form. For the purposes of this invention, a “salt” of a compound of the present invention includes one formed between a protic acid functionality (such as a carboxylic acid group) of a compound of the present invention and a suitable cation. Suitable cations include, but are not limited to lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and ammonium. The salt may be a mono-, di-, tri- or multi-salt. Preferably the salt is a mono- or di-lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium or ammonium salt. More preferably the salt is a mono- or di-sodium salt or a mono- or di- potassium salt. Preferably any salt is a pharmaceutically acceptable non-toxic salt. However, in addition to pharmaceutically acceptable salts, other salts are included in the present invention, since they have potential to serve as intermediates in the purification or preparation of other, for example, pharmaceutically acceptable salts, or are useful for identification, characterisation or purification of the free acid or base. The compounds and/or salts of the present invention may be anhydrous or in the form of a hydrate (e.g. a hemihydrate, monohydrate, dihydrate or trihydrate) or other solvate. Such other solvates may be formed with common organic solvents, including but not limited to, alcoholic solvents e.g. methanol, ethanol or isopropanol. In some embodiments of the present invention, therapeutically inactive prodrugs are provided. Prodrugs are compounds which, when administered to a subject such as a human, are converted in whole or in part to a compound of the invention. In most embodiments, the prodrugs are pharmacologically inert chemical derivatives that can be converted in vivo to the active drug molecules to exert a therapeutic effect. Any of the compounds described herein can be administered as a prodrug to increase the activity, bioavailability, or stability of the compound or to otherwise alter the properties of the compound. Typical examples of prodrugs include compounds that have biologically labile protecting groups on a functional moiety of the active compound. Prodrugs include, but are not limited to, compounds that can be oxidized, reduced, aminated, deaminated, hydroxylated, dehydroxylated, hydrolyzed, dehydrolyzed, alkylated, dealkylated, acylated, deacylated, phosphorylated, and/or dephosphorylated to produce the active compound. The present invention also encompasses salts and solvates of such prodrugs as described above. The compounds, salts, solvates and prodrugs of the present invention may contain at least one chiral centre. The compounds, salts, solvates and prodrugs may therefore exist in at least two isomeric forms. The present invention encompasses racemic mixtures of the compounds, salts, solvates and prodrugs of the present invention as well as enantiomerically enriched and substantially enantiomerically pure isomers. For the purposes of this invention, a “substantially enantiomerically pure” isomer of a compound comprises less than 5% of other isomers of the same compound, more typically less than 2%, and most typically less than 0.5% by weight. The compounds, salts, solvates and prodrugs of the present invention may contain any stable isotope including, but not limited to 12 C, 13 C, 1 H, 2 H (D), 14 N, 15 N, 16 O, 17 O, 18 O, 19 F and 127 I, and any radioisotope including, but not limited to 11 C, 14 C, 3 H (T), 13 N, 15 O, 18 F, 123 I, 124 I, 125 I and 131 I. The compounds, salts, solvates and prodrugs of the present invention may be in any polymorphic or amorphous form. A fourth aspect of the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of the first or second aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect of the invention, and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. Conventional procedures for the selection and preparation of suitable pharmaceutical formulations are described in, for example, “Aulton’s Pharmaceutics - The Design and Manufacture of Medicines”, M. E. Aulton and K. M. G. Taylor, Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 4 th Ed., 2013. Pharmaceutically acceptable excipients including adjuvants, diluents or carriers that may be used in the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention are those conventionally employed in the field of pharmaceutical formulation, and include, but are not limited to, sugars, sugar alcohols, starches, ion exchangers, alumina, aluminium stearate, lecithin, serum proteins such as human serum albumin, buffer substances such as phosphates, glycerine, sorbic acid, potassium sorbate, partial glyceride mixtures of saturated vegetable fatty acids, water, salts or electrolytes such as protamine sulfate, disodium hydrogen phosphate, potassium hydrogen phosphate, sodium chloride, zinc salts, colloidal silica, magnesium trisilicate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, cellulose-based substances, polyethylene glycol, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, polyacrylates, waxes, polyethylene-polyoxypropylene-block polymers, polyethylene glycol and wool fat. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect of the invention additionally comprises one or more further active agents. In a further embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect of the invention may be provided as a part of a kit of parts, wherein the kit of parts comprises the pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect of the invention and one or more further pharmaceutical compositions, wherein the one or more further pharmaceutical compositions each comprise a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient and one or more further active agents. A fifth aspect of the invention provides a compound of the first or second aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect of the invention, for use in medicine, and/or for use in the treatment or prevention of a disease, disorder or condition. Typically, the use comprises the administration of the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition to a subject. In one embodiment, the use comprises the co-administration of one or more further active agents. The term “treatment” as used herein refers equally to curative therapy, and ameliorating or palliative therapy. The term includes obtaining beneficial or desired physiological results, which may or may not be established clinically. Beneficial or desired clinical results include, but are not limited to, the alleviation of symptoms, the prevention of symptoms, the diminishment of extent of disease, the stabilisation (i.e., not worsening) of a condition, the delay or slowing of progression/worsening of a condition/symptom, the amelioration or palliation of a condition/symptom, and remission (whether partial or total), whether detectable or undetectable. The term “palliation”, and variations thereof, as used herein, means that the extent and/or undesirable manifestations of a physiological condition or symptom are lessened and/or time course of the progression is slowed or lengthened, as compared to not administering a compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition of the present invention. The term “prevention” as used herein in relation to a disease, disorder or condition, relates to prophylactic or preventative therapy, as well as therapy to reduce the risk of developing the disease, disorder or condition. The term “prevention” includes both the avoidance of occurrence of the disease, disorder or condition, and the delay in onset of the disease, disorder or condition. Any statistically significant (p £ 0.05) avoidance of occurrence, delay in onset or reduction in risk as measured by a controlled clinical trial may be deemed a prevention of the disease, disorder or condition. Subjects amenable to prevention include those at heightened risk of a disease, disorder or condition as identified by genetic or biochemical markers. Typically, the genetic or biochemical markers are appropriate to the disease, disorder or condition under consideration and may include for example, inflammatory biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in the case of inflammation; total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin resistance and C-peptide in the case of NAFLD and NASH; and more generally IL-1b and IL-18 in the case of a disease, disorder or condition responsive to NLRP3 inhibition. A sixth aspect of the invention provides the use of a compound of the first or second aspect, or a pharmaceutically effective salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect, in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment or prevention of a disease, disorder or condition. Typically, the treatment or prevention comprises the administration of the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or medicament to a subject. In one embodiment, the treatment or prevention comprises the co-administration of one or more further active agents. A seventh aspect of the invention provides a method of treatment or prevention of a disease, disorder or condition, the method comprising the step of administering an effective amount of a compound of the first or second aspect, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect, or a pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect, to thereby treat or prevent the disease, disorder or condition. In one embodiment, the method further comprises the step of co-administering an effective amount of one or more further active agents. Typically, the administration is to a subject in need thereof. An eighth aspect of the invention provides a compound of the first or second aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect of the invention, for use in the treatment or prevention of a disease, disorder or condition in an individual, wherein the individual has a germline or somatic non-silent mutation in NLRP3. The mutation may be, for example, a gain-of-function or other mutation resulting in increased NLRP3 activity. Typically, the use comprises the administration of the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition to the individual. In one embodiment, the use comprises the co-administration of one or more further active agents. The use may also comprise the diagnosis of an individual having a germline or somatic non-silent mutation in NLRP3, wherein the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition is administered to an individual on the basis of a positive diagnosis for the mutation. Typically, identification of the mutation in NLRP3 in the individual may be by any suitable genetic or biochemical means. A ninth aspect of the invention provides the use of a compound of the first or second aspect, or a pharmaceutically effective salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect, in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment or prevention of a disease, disorder or condition in an individual, wherein the individual has a germline or somatic non-silent mutation in NLRP3. The mutation may be, for example, a gain-of-function or other mutation resulting in increased NLRP3 activity. Typically, the treatment or prevention comprises the administration of the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or medicament to the individual. In one embodiment, the treatment or prevention comprises the co- administration of one or more further active agents. The treatment or prevention may also comprise the diagnosis of an individual having a germline or somatic non-silent mutation in NLRP3, wherein the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or medicament is administered to an individual on the basis of a positive diagnosis for the mutation. Typically, identification of the mutation in NLRP3 in the individual may be by any suitable genetic or biochemical means. A tenth aspect of the invention provides a method of treatment or prevention of a disease, disorder or condition, the method comprising the steps of diagnosing an individual as having a germline or somatic non-silent mutation in NLRP3, and administering an effective amount of a compound of the first or second aspect, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect, or a pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect, to the positively diagnosed individual, to thereby treat or prevent the disease, disorder or condition. In one embodiment, the method further comprises the step of co-administering an effective amount of one or more further active agents. Typically, the administration is to a subject in need thereof. In general embodiments, the disease, disorder or condition may be a disease, disorder or condition of the immune system, the cardiovascular system, the endocrine system, the gastrointestinal tract, the renal system, the hepatic system, the metabolic system, the respiratory system, the central nervous system, may be a cancer or other malignancy, and/or may be caused by or associated with a pathogen. It will be appreciated that these general embodiments defined according to broad categories of diseases, disorders and conditions are not mutually exclusive. In this regard any particular disease, disorder or condition may be categorized according to more than one of the above general embodiments. A non-limiting example is type I diabetes which is an autoimmune disease and a disease of the endocrine system. In one embodiment of the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth or tenth aspect of the invention, the disease, disorder or condition is responsive to NLRP3 inhibition. As used herein, the term “NLRP3 inhibition” refers to the complete or partial reduction in the level of activity of NLRP3 and includes, for example, the inhibition of active NLRP3 and/or the inhibition of activation of NLRP3. There is evidence for a role of NLRP3-induced IL-1 and IL-18 in the inflammatory responses occurring in connection with, or as a result of, a multitude of different disorders (Menu et al., Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 166: 1-15, 2011; Strowig et al., Nature, 481: 278-286, 2012). Genetic diseases in which a role for NLRP3 has been suggested include sickle cell disease (Vogel et al., Blood, 130(Suppl 1): 2234, 2017), and Valosin Containing Protein disease (Nalbandian et al., Inflammation, 40(1): 21-41, 2017). NLRP3 has been implicated in a number of autoinflammatory diseases, including Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS), pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (PAPA), Sweet’s syndrome, chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO), and acne vulgaris (Cook et al., Eur J Immunol, 40: 595-653, 2010). In particular, NLRP3 mutations have been found to be responsible for a set of rare autoinflammatory diseases known as CAPS (Ozaki et al., J Inflammation Research, 8: 15-27, 2015; Schroder et al., Cell, 140: 821-832, 2010; and Menu et al., Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 166: 1-15, 2011). CAPS are heritable diseases characterized by recurrent fever and inflammation and are comprised of three autoinflammatory disorders that form a clinical continuum. These diseases, in order of increasing severity, are familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS), Muckle- Wells syndrome (MWS), and chronic infantile cutaneous neurological articular syndrome (CINCA; also called neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease, NOMID), and all have been shown to result from gain-of-function mutations in the NLRP3 gene, which leads to increased secretion of IL-1b. A number of autoimmune diseases have been shown to involve NLRP3 including, in particular, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes (T1D), psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Behcet’s disease, Schnitzler’s syndrome, macrophage activation syndrome, Coeliac disease (Masters, Clin Immunol, 147(3): 223-228, 2013; Braddock et al., Nat Rev Drug Disc, 3: 1-10, 2004; Inoue et al., Immunology, 139: 11-18, 2013; Coll et al., Nat Med, 21(3): 248-55, 2015; Scott et al., Clin Exp Rheumatol, 34(1): 88-93, 2016; Pontillo et al., Autoimmunity, 43(8): 583-589, 2010; and Guo et al., Clin Exp Immunol, 194(2): 231-243, 2018), systemic lupus erythematosus (Lu et al., J Immunol, 198(3): 1119-29, 2017) including lupus nephritis (Zhao et al., Arthritis and Rheumatism, 65(12): 3176-3185, 2013), multiple sclerosis (Xu et al., J Cell Biochem, 120(4): 5160- 5168, 2019), and systemic sclerosis (Artlett et al., Arthritis Rheum, 63(11): 3563-74, 2011). NLRP3 has also been shown to play a role in a number of respiratory and lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), asthma (including steroid- resistant asthma and eosinophilic asthma), bronchitis, asbestosis, volcanic ash induced inflammation, and silicosis (Cassel et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(26): 9035-9040, 2008; Chen et al., ERJ Open Research, 4: 00130-2017, 2018; Chen et al., Toxicological Sciences, 170(2): 462-475, 2019; Damby et al., Front Immun, 8: 2000, 2018; De Nardo et al., Am J Pathol, 184: 42-54, 2014; Lv et al., J Biol Chem, 293(48): 18454, 2018; and Kim et al., Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 196(3): 283- 97, 2017). NLRP3 has also been suggested to have a role in a number of central nervous system conditions, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), dementia, Huntington’s disease, cerebral malaria, brain injury from pneumococcal meningitis (Walsh et al., Nature Reviews, 15: 84-97, 2014; Cheng et al., Autophagy, 1-13, 2020; Couturier et al., J Neuroinflamm, 13: 20, 2016; and Dempsey et al., Brain Behav Immun, 61: 306-316, 2017), intracranial aneurysms (Zhang et al., J Stroke & Cerebrovascular Dis, 24(5): 972-979, 2015), intracerebral haemorrhages (ICH) (Ren et al., Stroke, 49(1): 184-192, 2018), cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injuries (Fauzia et al., Front Pharmacol, 9: 1034, 2018; Hong et al., Neural Plasticity, 2018: 8, 2018; Ye et al., Experimental Neurology, 292: 46-55, 2017), general anesthesia neuroinflammation (Fan et al., Front Cell Neurosci, 12: 426, 2018), sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) (Fu et al., Inflammation, 42(1): 306-318, 2019), perioperative neurocognitive disorders including postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) (Fan et al., Front Cell Neurosci, 12: 426, 2018; and Fu et al., International Immunopharmacology, 82: 106317, 2020), early brain injury (subarachnoid haemorrhage SAH) (Luo et al., Brain Res Bull, 146: 320-326, 2019), and traumatic brain injury (Ismael et al., J Neurotrauma, 35(11): 1294- 1303, 2018; and Chen et al., Brain Research, 1710: 163-172, 2019). NRLP3 activity has also been shown to be involved in various metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D), atherosclerosis, obesity, gout, pseudo-gout, metabolic syndrome (Wen et al., Nature Immunology, 13: 352-357, 2012; Duewell et al., Nature, 464: 1357-1361, 2010; Strowig et al., Nature, 481: 278-286, 2012), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (Mridha et al., J Hepatol, 66(5): 1037-46, 2017). A role for NLRP3 via IL-1b has also been suggested in atherosclerosis (Chen et al., Journal of the American Heart Association, 6(9): e006347, 2017; and Chen et al., Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 495(1): 382-387, 2018), myocardial infarction (van Hout et al., Eur Heart J, 38(11): 828-36, 2017), cardiovascular disease (Janoudi et al., European Heart Journal, 37(25): 1959-1967, 2016), cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis (Gan et al., Biochim Biophys Acta, 1864(1): 1-10, 2018), heart failure (Sano et al., J Am Coll Cardiol, 71(8): 875-66, 2018), aortic aneurysm and dissection (Wu et al., Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 37(4): 694-706, 2017), cardiac injury induced by metabolic dysfunction (Pavillard et al., Oncotarget, 8(59): 99740-99756, 2017; and Zhang et al., Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1863(6): 1556-1567, 2017), atrial fibrillation (Yao et al., Circulation, 138(20): 2227-2242, 2018), hypertension (Gan et al., Biochim Biophys Acta, 1864(1): 1-10, 2018), and other cardiovascular events (Ridker et al., N Engl J Med, doi: 10.1056/ NEJMoa1707914, 2017). Other diseases, disorders and conditions in which NLRP3 has been shown to be involved include: - ocular diseases such as both wet and dry age-related macular degeneration (Doyle et al., Nature Medicine, 18: 791-798, 2012; and Tarallo et al., Cell, 149(4): 847- 59, 2012), diabetic retinopathy (Loukovaara et al., Acta Ophthalmol, 95(8): 803-808, 2017) and optic nerve damage (Puyang et al., Sci Rep, 6: 20998, 2016 Feb 19); - liver diseases including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (Henao-Meija et al., Nature, 482: 179-185, 2012), ischemia reperfusion injury of the liver (Yu et al., Transplantation, 103(2): 353-362, 2019), fulminant hepatitis (Pourcet et al., Gastroenterology, 154(5): 1449-1464, e20, 2018), liver fibrosis (Zhang et al., Parasit Vectors, 12(1): 29, 2019), and liver failure including acute liver failure (Wang et al., Hepatol Res, 48(3): E194-E202, 2018); - kidney diseases including nephrocalcinosis (Anders et al., Kidney Int, 93(3): 656-669, 2018), kidney fibrosis including chronic crystal nephropathy (Ludwig- Portugall et al., Kidney Int, 90(3): 525-39, 2016), obesity related glomerulopathy (Zhao et al., Mediators of Inflammation, article 3172647, 2019), acute kidney injury (Zhang et al., Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, 12: 1297-1309, 2019), and renal hypertension (Krishnan et al., Br J Pharmacol, 173(4): 752-65, 2016; Krishnan et al., Cardiovasc Res, 115(4): 776-787, 2019; Dinh et al., Aging, 9(6): 1595- 1606, 2017); - conditions associated with diabetes including diabetic encephalopathy (Zhai et al., Molecules, 23(3): 522, 2018), diabetic retinopathy (Zhang et al., Cell Death Dis, 8(7): e2941, 2017), diabetic nephropathy (also called diabetic kidney disease) (Chen et al., BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 18: 192, 2018), and diabetic hypoadiponectinemia (Zhang et al., Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease, 1863(6): 1556-1567, 2017); - inflammatory reactions in the lung and skin (Primiano et al., J Immunol, 197(6): 2421-33, 2016) including lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (Xu et al., Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 503(4): 3031-3037, 2018), epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) (Li et al., Experimental Cell Research, 362(2): 489-497, 2018), contact hypersensitivity (such as bullous pemphigoid (Fang et al., J Dermatol Sci, 83(2): 116-23, 2016)), atopic dermatitis (Niebuhr et al., Allergy, 69(8): 1058-67, 2014), Hidradenitis suppurativa (Alikhan et al., J Am Acad Dermatol, 60(4): 539-61, 2009), acne vulgaris (Qin et al., J Invest Dermatol, 134(2): 381-88, 2014), and sarcoidosis (Jager et al., Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 191: A5816, 2015); - inflammatory reactions in the joints (Braddock et al., Nat Rev Drug Disc, 3: 1- 10, 2004) and osteoarthritis (Jin et al., PNAS, 108(36): 14867-14872, 2011); - conditions associated with arthritis including arthritic fever (Verma, Linköping University Medical Dissertations, No.1250, 2011); - amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Gugliandolo et al., Inflammation, 41(1): 93-103, 2018); - cystic fibrosis (Iannitti et al., Nat Commun, 7: 10791, 2016); - stroke (Walsh et al., Nature Reviews, 15: 84-97, 2014; Ye et al., Experimental Neurology, 292: 46-55, 2017); - headaches including migraine (He et al., Journal of Neuroinflammation, 16: 78, 2019); - chronic kidney disease (Granata et al., PLoS One, 10(3): e0122272, 2015); - Sjogren’s syndrome (Vakrakou et al., Journal of Autoimmunity, 91: 23-33, 2018); - graft-versus-host disease (Takahashi et al., Scientific Reports, 7: 13097, 2017); - sickle cell disease (Vogel et al., Blood, 130(Suppl 1): 2234, 2017); and - colitis and inflammatory bowel diseases including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease (Braddock et al., Nat Rev Drug Disc, 3: 1-10, 2004; Neudecker et al., J Exp Med, 214(6): 1737-52, 2017; Wu et al., Mediators Inflamm, 2018: 3048532, 2018; and Lazaridis et al., Dig Dis Sci, 62(9): 2348-56, 2017), and sepsis (intestinal epithelial disruption) (Zhang et al., Dig Dis Sci, 63(1): 81-91, 2018). Genetic ablation of NLRP3 has been shown to protect from HSD (high sugar diet), HFD (high fat diet) and HSFD-induced obesity (Pavillard et al., Oncotarget, 8(59): 99740- 99756, 2017). The NLRP3 inflammasome has been found to be activated in response to oxidative stress, sunburn (Hasegawa et al., Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 477(3): 329-335, 2016), and UVB irradiation (Schroder et al., Science, 327: 296-300, 2010). NLRP3 has also been shown to be involved in inflammatory hyperalgesia (Dolunay et al., Inflammation, 40: 366-386, 2017), wound healing (Ito et al., Exp Dermatol, 27(1): 80-86, 2018), burn healing (Chakraborty et al., Exp Dermatol, 27(1): 71-79, 2018), pain including allodynia, multiple sclerosis-associated neuropathic pain (Khan et al., Inflammopharmacology, 26(1): 77-86, 2018), chronic pelvic pain (Zhang et al., Prostate, 79(12): 1439-1449, 2019) and cancer-induced bone pain (Chen et al., Pharmacological Research, 147: 104339, 2019), and intra-amniotic inflammation/ infection associated with preterm birth (Faro et al., Biol Reprod, 100(5): 1290-1305, 2019; and Gomez-Lopez et al., Biol Reprod, 100(5): 1306-1318, 2019). The inflammasome, and NLRP3 specifically, has also been proposed as a target for modulation by various pathogens including bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (Cohen et al., Cell Reports, 22(9): 2431-2441, 2018; and Robinson et al., JCI Insight, 3(7): e97470, 2018), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) (Subbarao et al., Scientific Reports, 10: 3709, 2020), bacillus cereus (Mathur et al., Nat Microbiol, 4: 362-374, 2019), salmonella typhimurium (Diamond et al., Sci Rep, 7(1): 6861, 2017), and group A streptococcus (LaRock et al., Science Immunology, 1(2): eaah3539, 2016); viruses such as DNA viruses (Amsler et al., Future Virol, 8(4): 357-370, 2013), influenza A virus (Coates et al., Front Immunol, 8: 782, 2017), chikungunya, Ross river virus, and alpha viruses (Chen et al., Nat Microbiol, 2(10): 1435-1445, 2017); fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans (Tucey et al., mSphere, 1(3), pii: e00074-16, 2016); and other pathogens such as T. gondii (Gov et al., J Immunol, 199(8): 2855-2864, 2017), helminth worms (Alhallaf et al., Cell Reports, 23(4): 1085-1098, 2018), leishmania (Novais et al., PLoS Pathogens, 13(2): e1006196, 2017), and plasmodium (Strangward et al., PNAS, 115(28): 7404-7409, 2018). NLRP3 has been shown to be required for the efficient control of viral, bacterial, fungal, and helminth pathogen infections (Strowig et al., Nature, 481: 278-286, 2012). NLRP3 activity has also been associated with increased susceptibility to viral infection such as by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (Pontillo et al., J Aquir Immune Defic Syndr, 54(3): 236-240, 2010). An increased risk for early mortality amongst patients co-infected with HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) has also been associated with NLRP3 activity (Ravimohan et al., Open Forum Infectious Diseases, 5(5): ofy075, 2018). NLRP3 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many cancers (Menu et al., Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 166: 1-15, 2011; and Masters, Clin Immunol, 147(3): 223-228, 2013). For example, several previous studies have suggested a role for IL-1b in cancer invasiveness, growth and metastasis, and inhibition of IL-1b with canakinumab has been shown to reduce the incidence of lung cancer and total cancer mortality in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Ridker et al., Lancet, S0140- 6736(17)32247-X, 2017). Inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome or IL-1b has also been shown to inhibit the proliferation and migration of lung cancer cells in vitro (Wang et al., Oncol Rep, 35(4): 2053-64, 2016), and NLRP3 has been shown to suppress NK cell- mediated control of carcinogenesis and metastases (Chow et al., Cancer Res, 72(22): 5721-32, 2012). A role for the NLRP3 inflammasome has been suggested in myelodysplastic syndromes (Basiorka et al., Blood, 128(25): 2960-2975, 2016) and also in the carcinogenesis of various other cancers including glioma (Li et al., Am J Cancer Res, 5(1): 442-449, 2015), colon cancer (Allen et al., J Exp Med, 207(5): 1045-56, 2010), melanoma (Dunn et al., Cancer Lett, 314(1): 24-33, 2012), breast cancer (Guo et al., Scientific Reports, 6: 36107, 2016), inflammation-induced tumours (Allen et al., J Exp Med, 207(5): 1045-56, 2010; and Hu et al., PNAS, 107(50): 21635-40, 2010), multiple myeloma (Li et al., Hematology, 21(3): 144-51, 2016), and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (Huang et al., J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 36(1): 116, 2017; and Chen et al., Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 75: 2045-2058, 2018). Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome has also been shown to mediate chemoresistance of tumour cells to 5-fluorouracil (Feng et al., J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 36(1): 81, 2017), and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in peripheral nerves contributes to chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain (Jia et al., Mol Pain, 13: 1-11, 2017). Accordingly, any of the diseases, disorders or conditions listed above may be treated or prevented in accordance with the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth or tenth aspect of the present invention. Particular examples of diseases, disorders or conditions which may be responsive to NLRP3 inhibition and which may be treated or prevented in accordance with the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth or tenth aspect of the present invention include: (i) inflammation, including inflammation occurring as a result of an inflammatory disorder, e.g. an autoinflammatory disease, inflammation occurring as a symptom of a non-inflammatory disorder, inflammation occurring as a result of infection, or inflammation secondary to trauma, injury or autoimmunity; (ii) auto-immune diseases such as acute disseminated encephalitis, Addison’s disease, ankylosing spondylitis, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), anti- synthetase syndrome, aplastic anemia, autoimmune adrenalitis, autoimmune hepatitis, autoimmune oophoritis, autoimmune polyglandular failure, autoimmune thyroiditis, Coeliac disease including paediatric Coeliac disease, Crohn’s disease, type 1 diabetes (T1D), Goodpasture’s syndrome, Graves’ disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), Hashimoto’s disease, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Kawasaki’s disease, lupus erythematosus including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS) including primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) and relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), myasthenia gravis, opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS), optic neuritis, Ord’s thyroiditis, pemphigus, pernicious anaemia, polyarthritis, primary biliary cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis or Still’s disease, refractory gouty arthritis, Reiter’s syndrome, Sjögren’s syndrome, systemic sclerosis a systemic connective tissue disorder, Takayasu’s arteritis, temporal arteritis, warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia, Wegener’s granulomatosis, alopecia universalis, Behcet’s disease, Chagas’ disease, dysautonomia, endometriosis, hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), interstitial cystitis, neuromyotonia, psoriasis, sarcoidosis, scleroderma, ulcerative colitis, Schnitzler’s syndrome, macrophage activation syndrome, Blau syndrome, vitiligo or vulvodynia; (iii) cancer including lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, myelodysplastic syndrome, leukaemia including acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), adrenal cancer, anal cancer, basal and squamous cell skin cancer, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, bile duct cancer, bladder cancer, bone cancer, brain and spinal cord tumours, breast cancer, cervical cancer, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML), colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, oesophagus cancer, Ewing family of tumours, eye cancer, gallbladder cancer, gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours, gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), gestational trophoblastic disease, glioma, Hodgkin lymphoma, Kaposi sarcoma, kidney cancer, laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer, liver cancer, lung carcinoid tumour, lymphoma including cutaneous T cell lymphoma, malignant mesothelioma, melanoma skin cancer, Merkel cell skin cancer, multiple myeloma, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, non-small cell lung cancer, oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer, osteosarcoma, ovarian cancer, penile cancer, pituitary tumours, prostate cancer, retinoblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, salivary gland cancer, skin cancer, small cell lung cancer, small intestine cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, stomach cancer, testicular cancer, thymus cancer, thyroid cancer including anaplastic thyroid cancer, uterine sarcoma, vaginal cancer, vulvar cancer, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, and Wilms tumour; (iv) infections including viral infections (e.g. from influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), alphavirus (such as Chikungunya and Ross River virus), flaviviruses (such as Dengue virus and Zika virus), herpes viruses (such as Epstein Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, Varicella-zoster virus, and KSHV), poxviruses (such as vaccinia virus (Modified vaccinia virus Ankara) and Myxoma virus), adenoviruses (such as Adenovirus 5), or papillomavirus), bacterial infections (e.g. from Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA), Helicobacter pylori, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bordatella pertussis, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Corynebacterium diptheriae, Clostridium tetani, Clostridium botulinum, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, Hemophilus influenzae, Pasteurella multicida, Shigella dysenteriae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Rickettsia rickettsii, Legionella pneumophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes, Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia trachomatis, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella typhi, Borrelia burgdorferi, Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) or Yersinia pestis), fungal infections (e.g. from Candida or Aspergillus species), protozoan infections (e.g. from Plasmodium, Babesia, Giardia, Entamoeba, Leishmania or Trypanosomes), helminth infections (e.g. from schistosoma, roundworms, tapeworms or flukes), prion infections, and co-infections with any of the aforementioned (e.g. with HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis); (v) central nervous system diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, motor neuron disease, Huntington’s disease, cerebral malaria, brain injury from pneumococcal meningitis, intracranial aneurysms, intracerebral haemorrhages, sepsis-associated encephalopathy, perioperative neurocognitive disorder, postoperative cognitive dysfunction, early brain injury, traumatic brain injury, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, stroke, general anesthesia neuroinflammation and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; (vi) metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), atherosclerosis, obesity, gout, and pseudo-gout; (vii) cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, ischaemia, reperfusion injury including post-MI ischemic reperfusion injury, stroke including ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction including recurrent myocardial infarction, heart failure including congestive heart failure and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, embolism, aneurysms including abdominal aortic aneurysm, metabolism induced cardiac injury, and pericarditis including Dressler’s syndrome; (viii) respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), asthma such as allergic asthma, eosinophilic asthma, and steroid-resistant asthma, asbestosis, silicosis, volcanic ash induced inflammation, nanoparticle induced inflammation, cystic fibrosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; (ix) liver diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non- alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) including advanced fibrosis stages F3 and F4, alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), ischemia reperfusion injury of the liver, fulminant hepatitis, liver fibrosis, and liver failure including acute liver failure; (x) renal diseases including chronic kidney disease, oxalate nephropathy, nephrocalcinosis, glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, obesity related glomerulopathy, kidney fibrosis including chronic crystal nephropathy, acute renal failure, acute kidney injury, and renal hypertension; (xi) ocular diseases including those of the ocular epithelium, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (dry and wet), Sjögren’s syndrome, uveitis, corneal infection, diabetic retinopathy, optic nerve damage, dry eye, and glaucoma; (xii) skin diseases including dermatitis such as contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, psoriasis, sunburn, skin lesions, hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), other cyst-causing skin diseases, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne vulgaris including acne conglobata; (xiii) lymphatic conditions such as lymphangitis and Castleman’s disease; (xiv) psychological disorders such as depression and psychological stress; (xv) graft versus host disease; (xvi) pain such as pelvic pain, hyperalgesia, allodynia including mechanical allodynia, neuropathic pain including multiple sclerosis-associated neuropathic pain, and cancer- induced bone pain; (xvii) conditions associated with diabetes including diabetic encephalopathy, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic vascular endothelial dysfunction, and diabetic hypoadiponectinemia; (xviii) conditions associated with arthritis including arthritic fever; (xix) headache including cluster headaches, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, migraine, low pressure headaches (e.g. post-lumbar puncture), Short-Lasting Unilateral Neuralgiform Headache With Conjunctival Injection and Tearing (SUNCT), and tension-type headaches; (xx) wounds and burns, including skin wounds and skin burns; and (xxi) any disease where an individual has been determined to carry a germline or somatic non-silent mutation in NLRP3. In one embodiment, the disease, disorder or condition is selected from: (i) inflammation; (ii) an auto-immune disease; (iii) cancer; (iv) an infection; (v) a central nervous system disease; (vi) a metabolic disease; (vii) a cardiovascular disease; (viii) a respiratory disease; (ix) a liver disease; (x) a renal disease; (xi) an ocular disease; (xii) a skin disease; (xiii) a lymphatic condition; (xiv) a psychological disorder; (xv) graft versus host disease; (xvi) allodynia; (xvii) a condition associated with diabetes; and (xviii) any disease where an individual has been determined to carry a germline or somatic non-silent mutation in NLRP3. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder or condition is selected from: (i) cancer; (ii) an infection; (iii) a central nervous system disease; (iv) a cardiovascular disease; (v) a liver disease; (vi) an ocular disease; or (vii) a skin disease. More typically, the disease, disorder or condition is selected from: (i) cancer; (ii) an infection; (iii) a central nervous system disease; or (iv) a cardiovascular disease. In one embodiment, the disease, disorder or condition is selected from: (i) acne conglobata; (ii) atopic dermatitis; (iii) Alzheimer’s disease; (iv) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; (v) age-related macular degeneration (AMD); (vi) anaplastic thyroid cancer; (vii) cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS); (viii) contact dermatitis; (ix) cystic fibrosis; (x) congestive heart failure; (xi) chronic kidney disease; (xii) Crohn’s disease; (xiii) familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS); (xiv) Huntington’s disease; (xv) heart failure; (xvi) heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; (xvii) ischemic reperfusion injury; (xviii) juvenile idiopathic arthritis; (xix) myocardial infarction; (xx) macrophage activation syndrome; (xxi) myelodysplastic syndrome; (xxii) multiple myeloma; (xxiii) motor neuron disease; (xxiv) multiple sclerosis; (xxv) Muckle-Wells syndrome; (xxvi) non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); (xxvii) neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID); (xxviii) Parkinson’s disease; (xxix) sickle cell disease; (xxx) systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis; (xxxi) systemic lupus erythematosus; (xxxii) traumatic brain injury; (xxxiii) transient ischemic attack; (xxxiv) ulcerative colitis; or (xxxv) Valosin Containing Protein disease. In another embodiment of the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth or tenth aspect of the present invention, the treatment or prevention comprises a reduction in susceptibility to viral infection. For instance, the treatment or prevention may comprise a reduction in susceptibility to HIV infection. In a further typical embodiment of the invention, the disease, disorder or condition is inflammation. Examples of inflammation that may be treated or prevented in accordance with the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth or tenth aspect of the present invention include inflammatory responses occurring in connection with, or as a result of: (i) a skin condition such as contact hypersensitivity, bullous pemphigoid, sunburn, psoriasis, atopical dermatitis, contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, seborrhoetic dermatitis, lichen planus, scleroderma, pemphigus, epidermolysis bullosa, urticaria, erythemas, or alopecia; (ii) a joint condition such as osteoarthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, adult-onset Still’s disease, relapsing polychondritis, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile chronic arthritis, gout, or a seronegative spondyloarthropathy (e.g. ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis or Reiter’s disease); (iii) a muscular condition such as polymyositis or myasthenia gravis; (iv) a gastrointestinal tract condition such as inflammatory bowel disease (including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis), colitis, gastric ulcer, Coeliac disease, proctitis, pancreatitis, eosinopilic gastro-enteritis, mastocytosis, antiphospholipid syndrome, or a food-related allergy which may have effects remote from the gut (e.g., migraine, rhinitis or eczema); (v) a respiratory system condition such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma (including eosinophilic, bronchial, allergic, intrinsic, extrinsic or dust asthma, and particularly chronic or inveterate asthma, such as late asthma and airways hyper-responsiveness), bronchitis, rhinitis (including acute rhinitis, allergic rhinitis, atrophic rhinitis, chronic rhinitis, rhinitis caseosa, hypertrophic rhinitis, rhinitis pumlenta, rhinitis sicca, rhinitis medicamentosa, membranous rhinitis, seasonal rhinitis e.g. hay fever, and vasomotor rhinitis), sinusitis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), sarcoidosis, farmer’s lung, silicosis, asbestosis, volcanic ash induced inflammation, adult respiratory distress syndrome, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, or idiopathic interstitial pneumonia; (vi) a vascular condition such as atherosclerosis, Behcet’s disease, vasculitides, or Wegener’s granulomatosis; (vii) an autoimmune condition such as systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren’s syndrome, systemic sclerosis, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, type I diabetes, idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura, or Graves disease; (viii) an ocular condition such as uveitis, allergic conjunctivitis, or vernal conjunctivitis; (ix) a nervous condition such as multiple sclerosis or encephalomyelitis; (x) an infection or infection-related condition, such as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), acute or chronic bacterial infection, acute or chronic parasitic infection, acute or chronic viral infection, acute or chronic fungal infection, meningitis, hepatitis (A, B or C, or other viral hepatitis), peritonitis, pneumonia, epiglottitis, malaria, dengue hemorrhagic fever, leishmaniasis, streptococcal myositis, mycobacterium tuberculosis (including mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV co- infection), mycobacterium avium intracellulare, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, orchitis/epidydimitis, legionella, Lyme disease, influenza A, Epstein-Barr virus infection, viral encephalitis/aseptic meningitis, or pelvic inflammatory disease; (xi) a renal condition such as mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, nephritis, glomerular nephritis, obesity related glomerulopathy, acute renal failure, acute kidney injury, uremia, nephritic syndrome, kidney fibrosis including chronic crystal nephropathy, or renal hypertension; (xii) a lymphatic condition such as Castleman’s disease; (xiii) a condition of, or involving, the immune system, such as hyper IgE syndrome, lepromatous leprosy, familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, or graft versus host disease; (xiv) a hepatic condition such as chronic active hepatitis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), alcohol-induced hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), primary biliary cirrhosis, fulminant hepatitis, liver fibrosis, or liver failure; (xv) a cancer, including those cancers listed above; (xvi) a burn, wound, trauma, haemorrhage or stroke; (xvii) radiation exposure; (xviii) a metabolic disease such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), atherosclerosis, obesity, gout or pseudo-gout; and/or (xix) pain such as inflammatory hyperalgesia, pelvic pain, allodynia, neuropathic pain, or cancer-induced bone pain. In one embodiment of the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth or tenth aspect of the present invention, the disease, disorder or condition is an autoinflammatory disease such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS), familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID), Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor-Associated Periodic Syndrome (TRAPS), hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS), deficiency of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), Majeed syndrome, pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne syndrome (PAPA), adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD), haploinsufficiency of A20 (HA20), pediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA), PLCG2-associated antibody deficiency and immune dysregulation (PLAID), PLCG2- associated autoinflammatory, antibody deficiency and immune dysregulation (APLAID), or sideroblastic anaemia with B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers and developmental delay (SIFD). Examples of diseases, disorders or conditions which may be responsive to NLRP3 inhibition and which may be treated or prevented in accordance with the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth or tenth aspect of the present invention are listed above. Some of these diseases, disorders or conditions are substantially or entirely mediated by NLRP3 inflammasome activity, and NLRP3-induced IL-1b and/or IL-18. As a result, such diseases, disorders or conditions may be particularly responsive to NLRP3 inhibition and may be particularly suitable for treatment or prevention in accordance with the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth or tenth aspect of the present invention. Examples of such diseases, disorders or conditions include cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS), neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID), familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne syndrome (PAPA), hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS), Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor-Associated Periodic Syndrome (TRAPS), systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD), relapsing polychondritis, Schnitzler’s syndrome, Sweet’s syndrome, Behcet’s disease, anti- synthetase syndrome, deficiency of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), and haploinsufficiency of A20 (HA20). Moreover, some of the diseases, disorders or conditions mentioned above arise due to mutations in NLRP3, in particular, resulting in increased NLRP3 activity. As a result, such diseases, disorders or conditions may be particularly responsive to NLRP3 inhibition and may be particularly suitable for treatment or prevention in accordance with the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth or tenth aspect of the present invention. Examples of such diseases, disorders or conditions include cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS), and neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID). An eleventh aspect of the invention provides a method of inhibiting NLRP3, the method comprising the use of a compound of the first or second aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect of the invention, to inhibit NLRP3. In one embodiment of the eleventh aspect of the present invention, the method comprises the use of a compound of the first or second aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect of the invention, in combination with one or more further active agents. In one embodiment of the eleventh aspect of the present invention, the method is performed ex vivo or in vitro, for example in order to analyse the effect on cells of NLRP3 inhibition. In another embodiment of the eleventh aspect of the present invention, the method is performed in vivo. For example, the method may comprise the step of administering an effective amount of a compound of the first or second aspect, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect, or a pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect, to thereby inhibit NLRP3. In one embodiment, the method further comprises the step of co-administering an effective amount of one or more further active agents. Typically, the administration is to a subject in need thereof. Alternately, the method of the eleventh aspect of the invention may be a method of inhibiting NLRP3 in a non-human animal subject, the method comprising the steps of administering the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition to the non-human animal subject and optionally subsequently mutilating or sacrificing the non-human animal subject. Typically, such a method further comprises the step of analysing one or more tissue or fluid samples from the optionally mutilated or sacrificed non-human animal subject. In one embodiment, the method further comprises the step of co-administering an effective amount of one or more further active agents. A twelfth aspect of the invention provides a compound of the first or second aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect of the invention, for use in the inhibition of NLRP3. Typically, the use comprises the administration of the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition to a subject. In one embodiment, the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition is co-administered with one or more further active agents. A thirteenth aspect of the invention provides the use of a compound of the first or second aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutically effective salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect of the invention, in the manufacture of a medicament for the inhibition of NLRP3. Typically, the inhibition comprises the administration of the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or medicament to a subject. In one embodiment, the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or medicament is co-administered with one or more further active agents. In any embodiment of any of the fifth to thirteenth aspects of the present invention that comprises the use or co-administration of one or more further active agents, the one or more further active agents may comprise for example one, two or three different further active agents. The one or more further active agents may be used or administered prior to, simultaneously with, sequentially with or subsequent to each other and/or to the compound of the first or second aspect of the invention, the pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect of the invention, or the pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect of the invention. Where the one or more further active agents are administered simultaneously with the compound of the first or second aspect of the invention, or the pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect of the invention, a pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect of the invention may be administered wherein the pharmaceutical composition additionally comprises the one or more further active agents. In one embodiment of any of the fifth to thirteenth aspects of the present invention that comprises the use or co-administration of one or more further active agents, the one or more further active agents are selected from: (i) chemotherapeutic agents; (ii) antibodies; (iii) alkylating agents; (iv) anti-metabolites; (v) anti-angiogenic agents; (vi) plant alkaloids and/or terpenoids; (vii) topoisomerase inhibitors; (viii) mTOR inhibitors; (ix) stilbenoids; (x) STING agonists; (xi) cancer vaccines; (xii) immunomodulatory agents; (xiii) antibiotics; (xiv) anti-fungal agents; (xv) anti-helminthic agents; and/or (xvi) other active agents. It will be appreciated that these general embodiments defined according to broad categories of active agents are not mutually exclusive. In this regard any particular active agent may be categorized according to more than one of the above general embodiments. A non-limiting example is urelumab which is an antibody that is an immunomodulatory agent for the treatment of cancer. As will be understood, where the further active agent is a small chemical entity, any reference to a specific small chemical entity below is to be understood to encompass all salt, hydrate, solvate, polymorphic and prodrug forms of the specific small chemical entity. Similarly, where the further active agent is a biologic such as a monoclonal antibody, any reference to a specific biologic below is to be understood to encompass all biosimilars thereof. In some embodiments, the one or more chemotherapeutic agents are selected from abiraterone acetate, altretamine, amsacrine, anhydrovinblastine, auristatin, azacitidine, 5-azacytidine, azathioprine, adriamycin, bexarotene, bicalutamide, BMS 184476, bleomycin, bortezomib, N,N-dimethyl-L-valyl-L-valyl-N-methyl-L-valyl-L-prolyl-L- proline-t-butylamide, cisplatin, carboplatin, carboplatin cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, cachectin, cemadotin, cyclophosphamide, carmustine, cladribine, cryptophycin, cytarabine, docetaxel, doxetaxel, doxorubicin, dacarbazine (DTIC), dactinomycin, daunorubicin, decitabine, dolastatin, etoposide, etoposide phosphate, enzalutamide (MDV3100), 5-fluorouracil, fludarabine, flutamide, gemcitabine, hydroxyurea and hydroxyureataxanes, idarubicin, ifosfamide, irinotecan, ixazomib, lenalidomide, lenalidomide-dexamethasone, leucovorin, lonidamine, lomustine (CCNU), larotaxel (RPR109881), mechlorethamine, mercaptopurine, methotrexate, mitomycin C, mitoxantrone, melphalan, mivobulin, 3',4'-didehydro-4'-deoxy-8'-norvin- caleukoblastine, nilutamide, oxaliplatin, onapristone, prednimustine, procarbazine, paclitaxel, platinum-containing anti-cancer agents, 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro-N-(3-fluoro- 4-methoxyphenyl)benzene sulfonamide, prednimustine, revlimid, rhizoxin, sertenef, streptozocin, stramustine phosphate, tretinoin, tasonermin, taxol, topotecan, tamoxifen, teniposide, taxane, tegafur/uracil, thalidomide, vincristine, vinblastine, vinorelbine, vindesine, vindesine sulfate, and/or vinflunine. Alternatively or in addition, the one or more chemotherapeutic agents may be selected from CD59 complement fragment, fibronectin fragment, gro-beta (CXCL2), heparinases, heparin hexasaccharide fragment, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), Type I interferon ligands such as interferon alpha and interferon beta, Type I interferon mimetics, Type II interferon ligands such as interferon gamma, Type II interferon mimetics, interferon inducible protein (IP-10), kringle 5 (plasminogen fragment), metalloproteinase inhibitors (TIMPs), 2-methoxyestradiol, placental ribonuclease inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor, platelet factor-4 (PF4), prolactin 16 kD fragment, proliferin-related protein (PRP), various retinoids, tetrahydrocortisol-S, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-b), vasculostatin, vasostatin (calreticulin fragment), cytokines (including interleukins, such as interleukin-1, interleukin-2, interleukin-5, interleukin-10, interleukin-12, and interleukin-33), interleukin-1 ligands and mimetics (such as rilonacept, anakinra, and anakinra-dexamethasone), interleukin-2 ligands and mimetics, interleukin-5 ligands and mimetics, interleukin-10 ligands and mimetics, interleukin-12 ligands and mimetics, and/or interleukin-33 ligands and mimetics. In some embodiments, the one or more antibodies may comprise one or more monoclonal antibodies. In some embodiments, the one or more antibodies are anti‐TNFa and/or anti‐IL‐6 antibodies, in particular anti‐TNFa and/or anti‐IL‐6 monoclonal antibodies. In some embodiments, the one or more antibodies are selected from abatacept, abciximab, adalimumab, alemtuzumab, atezolizumab, atlizumab, avelumab, basiliximab, belimumab, benralizumab, bevacizumab, bretuximab vedotin, brodalumab, canakinumab, cetuximab, ceertolizumab pegol, daclizumab, denosumab, dupilumab, durvalumab, eculizumab, efalizumab, elotuzumab, gemtuzumab, golimumab, guselkumab, ibritumomab tiuxetan, infliximab, ipilimumab, ixekizumab, mepolizumab, muromonab-CD3, natalizumab, nivolumab, ofatumumab, omalizumab, palivizumab, panitumuab, pembrolizumab, ranibizumab, reslizumab, risankizumab, rituximab, sarilumab, secukinumab, siltuximab, tildrakizumab, tocilizumab, tositumomab, trastuzumab, and/or ustekinumab. In some embodiments, the one or more alkylating agents may comprise an agent capable of alkylating nucleophilic functional groups under conditions present in cells, including, for example, cancer cells. In some embodiments, the one or more alkylating agents are selected from cisplatin, carboplatin, mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, ifosfamide and/or oxaliplatin. In some embodiments, the alkylating agent may function by impairing cell function by forming covalent bonds with amino, carboxyl, sulfhydryl, and/or phosphate groups in biologically important molecules. In some embodiments, the alkylating agent may function by modifying a cell’s DNA. In some embodiments, the one or more anti-metabolites may comprise an agent capable of affecting or preventing RNA or DNA synthesis. In some embodiments, the one or more anti-metabolites are selected from azathioprine and/or mercaptopurine. In some embodiments, the one or more anti-angiogenic agents are selected from thalidomide, lenalidomide, endostatin, angiogenin inhibitors, angioarrestin, angiostatin (plasminogen fragment), basement-membrane collagen-derived anti- angiogenic factors (tumstatin, canstatin, or arrestin), anti-angiogenic antithrombin III, and/or cartilage-derived inhibitor (CDI). In some embodiments, the one or more plant alkaloids and/or terpenoids may prevent microtubule function. In some embodiments, the one or more plant alkaloids and/or terpenoids are selected from a vinca alkaloid, a podophyllotoxin and/or a taxane. In some embodiments, the one or more vinca alkaloids may be derived from the Madagascar periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus (formerly known as Vinca rosea), and may be selected from vincristine, vinblastine, vinorelbine and/or vindesine. In some embodiments, the one or more taxanes are selected from taxol, paclitaxel, docetaxel and/or ortataxel. In some embodiments, the one or more podophyllotoxins are selected from an etoposide and/or teniposide. In some embodiments, the one or more topoisomerase inhibitors are selected from a type I topoisomerase inhibitor and/or a type II topoisomerase inhibitor, and may interfere with transcription and/or replication of DNA by interfering with DNA supercoiling. In some embodiments, the one or more type I topoisomerase inhibitors may comprise a camptothecin, which may be selected from exatecan, irinotecan, lurtotecan, topotecan, BNP 1350, CKD 602, DB 67 (AR67) and/or ST 1481. In some embodiments, the one or more type II topoisomerase inhibitors may comprise an epipodophyllotoxin, which may be selected from an amsacrine, etoposid, etoposide phosphate and/or teniposide. In some embodiments, the one or more mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin, also known as the mechanistic target of rapamycin) inhibitors are selected from rapamycin, everolimus, temsirolimus and/or deforolimus. In some embodiments, the one or more stilbenoids are selected from resveratrol, piceatannol, pinosylvin, pterostilbene, alpha-viniferin, ampelopsin A, ampelopsin E, diptoindonesin C, diptoindonesin F, epsilon-vinferin, flexuosol A, gnetin H, hemsleyanol D, hopeaphenol, trans-diptoindonesin B, astringin, piceid and/or diptoindonesin A. In some embodiments, the one or more STING (Stimulator of interferon genes, also known as transmembrane protein (TMEM) 173) agonists may comprise cyclic di- nucleotides (CDNs), such as c-di-AMP, c-di-GMP, and cGAMP, and/or modified cyclic di-nucleotides that may include one or more of the following modification features: 2'-O/3'-O linkage, phosphorothioate linkage, adenine and/or guanine analogue, and/or 2'-OH modification (e.g. protection of the 2'-OH with a methyl group or replacement of the 2'-OH by -F or -N3). In some embodiments, the one or more STING agonists are selected from BMS-986301, MK-1454, ADU-S100, a diABZI, 3’3’-cGAMP, and/or 2’3’- cGAMP. In some embodiments, the one or more cancer vaccines are selected from an HPV vaccine, a hepatitis B vaccine, Oncophage, and/or Provenge. In some embodiments, the one or more immunomodulatory agents may comprise an immune checkpoint inhibitor. The immune checkpoint inhibitor may target an immune checkpoint receptor, or combination of receptors comprising, for example, CTLA-4, PD-1, PD-L1, PD-L2, T cell immunoglobulin and mucin 3 (TIM3 or HAVCR2), galectin 9, phosphatidylserine, lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein (LAG3), MHC class I, MHC class II, 4-1BB, 4-1BBL, OX40, OX40L, GITR, GITRL, CD27, CD70, TNFRSF25, TL1A, CD40, CD40L, HVEM, LIGHT, BTLA, CD160, CD80, CD244, CD48, ICOS, ICOSL, B7- H3, B7-H4, VISTA, TMIGD2, HHLA2, TMIGD2, a butyrophilin (including BTNL2), a Siglec family member, TIGIT, PVR, a killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, an ILT, a leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor, NKG2D, NKG2A, MICA, MICB, CD28, CD86, SIRPA, CD47, VEGF, neuropilin, CD30, CD39, CD73, CXCR4, and/or CXCL12. In some embodiments, the immune checkpoint inhibitor is selected from urelumab, PF-05082566, MEDI6469, TRX518, varlilumab, CP-870893, pembrolizumab (PD1), nivolumab (PD1), atezolizumab (formerly MPDL3280A) (PD-L1), MEDI4736 (PD-L1), avelumab (PD-L1), PDR001 (PD1), BMS-986016, MGA271, lirilumab, IPH2201, emactuzumab, INCB024360, galunisertib, ulocuplumab, BKT140, bavituximab, CC- 90002, bevacizumab, and/or MNRP1685A. In some embodiments, the one or more immunomodulatory agents may comprise a complement pathway modulator. Complement pathway modulators modulate the complement activation pathway. Complement pathway modulators may act to block action of the C3 and/or C3a and/or C3aR1 receptor, or may act to block action of the C5 and/or C5a and/or C5aR1 receptor. In some embodiments, the complement pathway modulator is a C5 complement pathway modulator and may be selected from eculizumab, ravulizumab (ALXN1210), ABP959, RA101495, tesidolumab (LFG316), zimura, crovalimab (RO7112689), pozelimab (REGN3918), GNR-045, SOBI005, and/or coversin. In some embodiments, the complement pathway modulator is a C5a complement pathway modulator and may be selected from cemdisiran (ALN-CC5), IFX-1, IFX-2, IFX-3, and/or olendalizumab (ALXN1007). In some embodiments, the complement pathway modulator is a C5aR1 complement pathway modulator and may be selected from ALS-205, MOR-210/TJ210, DF2593A, DF3016A, DF2593A, avacopan (CCX168), and /or IPH5401. In some embodiments, the one or more immunomodulatory agents may comprise an anti-TNFa agent. In some embodiments, the anti-TNFa agent may be an antibody or an antigen-binding fragment thereof, a fusion protein, a soluble TNFa receptor (e.g. a soluble TNFR1 or soluble TNFR2), an inhibitory nucleic acid, or a small molecule TNFa antagonist. In some embodiments, the inhibitory nucleic acid may be a ribozyme, a small hairpin RNA, a small interfering RNA, an antisense nucleic acid, or an aptamer. In some embodiments, the anti-TNFa agent is selected from adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab, CDP571, and biosimilars thereof (such as adalimumab-adbm, adalimumab-adaz, adalimumab-atto, etanercept-szzs, infliximab- abda and infliximab-dyyb). In some embodiments, the one or more immunomodulatory agents may comprise azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, levofloxacin and/or roxithromycin. In some embodiments, the one or more antibiotics are selected from amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, netilmicin, tobramycin, paromomycin, streptomycin, spectinomycin, geldanamycin, herbimycin, rifaximin, loracarbef, ertapenem, doripenem, imipenem, cilastatin, meropenem, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefalotin, cefalothin, cefalexin, cefaclor, cefamandole, cefoxitin, cefprozil, cefuroxime, cefixime, cefdinir, cefditoren, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefpodoxime, ceftazidime, ceftibuten, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, ceftaroline fosamil, ceftobiprole, teicoplanin, vancomycin, telavancin, dalbavancin, oritavancin, clindamycin, lincomycin, daptomycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, dirithromycin, erythromycin, roxithromycin, troleandomycin, telithromycin, spiramycin, aztreonam, furazolidone, nitrofurantoin, linezolid, posizolid, radezolid, torezolid, amoxicillin, ampicillin, azlocillin, carbenicillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, flucloxacillin, mezlocillin, methicillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, penicillin G, penicillin V, piperacillin, temocillin, ticarcillin, calvulanate, ampicillin, subbactam, tazobactam, ticarcillin, clavulanate, bacitracin, colistin, polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, moxifloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, trovafloxacin, grepafloxacin, sparfloxacin, temafloxacin, mafenide, sulfacetamide, sulfadiazine, silver sulfadiazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfanamide, sulfasalazine, sulfisoxazole, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfonamideochrysoidine, demeclocycline, minocycline, oytetracycline, tetracycline, clofazimine, dapsone, dapreomycin, cycloserine, ethambutol, ethionamide, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin, rifabutin, rifapentine, streptomycin, arsphenamine, chloramphenicol, fosfomycin, fusidic acid, metronidazole, mupirocin, platensimycin, quinupristin, dalopristin, thiamphenicol, tigecycyline, tinidazole, trimethoprim, and/or teixobactin. In some embodiments, the one or more antibiotics may comprise one or more cytotoxic antibiotics. In some embodiments, the one or more cytotoxic antibiotics are selected from an actinomycin, an anthracenedione, an anthracycline, thalidomide, dichloroacetic acid, nicotinic acid, 2-deoxyglucose, and/or chlofazimine. In some embodiments, the one or more actinomycins are selected from actinomycin D, bacitracin, colistin (polymyxin E) and/or polymyxin B. In some embodiments, the one or more antracenediones are selected from mitoxantrone and/or pixantrone. In some embodiments, the one or more anthracyclines are selected from bleomycin, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), daunorubicin (daunomycin), epirubicin, idarubicin, mitomycin, plicamycin and/or valrubicin. In some embodiments, the one or more anti-fungal agents are selected from bifonazole, butoconazole, clotrimazole, econazole, ketoconazole, luliconazole, miconazole, omoconazole, oxiconazole, sertaconazole, sulconazole, tioconazole, albaconazole, efinaconazole, epoziconazole, fluconazole, isavuconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, propiconazole, ravusconazole, terconazole, voriconazole, abafungin, amorolfin, butenafine, naftifine, terbinafine, anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, benzoic acid, ciclopirox, flucytosine, 5-fluorocytosine, griseofulvin, haloprogin, tolnaflate, undecylenic acid, and/or balsam of Peru. In some embodiments, the one or more anti-helminthic agents are selected from benzimidazoles (including albendazole, mebendazole, thiabendazole, fenbendazole, triclabendazole, and flubendazole), abamectin, diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin, suramin, pyrantel pamoate, levamisole, salicylanilides (including niclosamide and oxyclozanide), and/or nitazoxanide. In some embodiments, other active agents are selected from growth inhibitory agents; anti-inflammatory agents (including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents; small molecule anti-inflammatory agents (such as colchicine); and anti-inflammatory biologics that target for example TNF, IL-5, IL-6, IL-17 or IL-33); JAK inhibitors; phosphodiesterase inhibitors; CAR T therapies; anti-psoriatic agents (including anthralin and its derivatives); vitamins and vitamin-derivatives (including retinoinds, and VDR receptor ligands); steroids; corticosteroids; glucocorticoids (such as dexamethasone, prednisone and triamcinolone acetonide); ion channel blockers (including potassium channel blockers); immune system regulators (including cyclosporin, FK 506, and glucocorticoids); lutenizing hormone releasing hormone agonists (such as leuprolidine, goserelin, triptorelin, histrelin, bicalutamide, flutamide and/or nilutamide); hormones (including estrogen); and/or uric acid lowering agents (such as allopurinol). Unless stated otherwise, in any of the fifth to thirteenth aspects of the invention, the subject may be any human or other animal. Typically, the subject is a mammal, more typically a human or a domesticated mammal such as a cow, pig, lamb, sheep, goat, horse, cat, dog, rabbit, mouse etc. Most typically, the subject is a human. Any of the medicaments employed in the present invention can be administered by oral, parenteral (including intravenous, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intradermal, intratracheal, intraperitoneal, intraarticular, intracranial and epidural), airway (aerosol), rectal, vaginal, ocular or topical (including transdermal, buccal, mucosal, sublingual and topical ocular) administration. Typically, the mode of administration selected is that most appropriate to the disorder, disease or condition to be treated or prevented. Where one or more further active agents are administered, the mode of administration may be the same as or different to the mode of administration of the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition of the invention. For oral administration, the compounds, salts, solvates or prodrugs of the present invention will generally be provided in the form of tablets, capsules, hard or soft gelatine capsules, caplets, troches or lozenges, as a powder or granules, or as an aqueous solution, suspension or dispersion. Tablets for oral use may include the active ingredient mixed with pharmaceutically acceptable excipients such as inert diluents, disintegrating agents, binding agents, lubricating agents, sweetening agents, flavouring agents, colouring agents and preservatives. Suitable inert diluents include sodium and calcium carbonate, sodium and calcium phosphate, and lactose. Corn starch and alginic acid are suitable disintegrating agents. Binding agents may include starch and gelatine. The lubricating agent, if present, may be magnesium stearate, stearic acid or talc. If desired, the tablets may be coated with a material, such as glyceryl monostearate or glyceryl distearate, to delay absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Tablets may also be effervescent and/or dissolving tablets. Capsules for oral use include hard gelatine capsules in which the active ingredient is mixed with a solid diluent, and soft gelatine capsules wherein the active ingredient is mixed with water or an oil such as peanut oil, liquid paraffin or olive oil. Powders or granules for oral use may be provided in sachets or tubs. Aqueous solutions, suspensions or dispersions may be prepared by the addition of water to powders, granules or tablets. Any form suitable for oral administration may optionally include sweetening agents such as sugar, flavouring agents, colouring agents and/or preservatives. Formulations for rectal administration may be presented as a suppository with a suitable base comprising, for example, cocoa butter or a salicylate. Formulations suitable for vaginal administration may be presented as pessaries, tampons, creams, gels, pastes, foams or spray formulations containing in addition to the active ingredient such carriers as are known in the art to be appropriate. For parenteral use, the compounds, salts, solvates or prodrugs of the present invention will generally be provided in a sterile aqueous solution or suspension, buffered to an appropriate pH and isotonicity. Suitable aqueous vehicles include Ringer’s solution and isotonic sodium chloride or glucose. Aqueous suspensions according to the invention may include suspending agents such as cellulose derivatives, sodium alginate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and gum tragacanth, and a wetting agent such as lecithin. Suitable preservatives for aqueous suspensions include ethyl and n-propyl p-hydroxybenzoate. The compounds of the invention may also be presented as liposome formulations. For ocular administration, the compounds, salts, solvates or prodrugs of the invention will generally be provided in a form suitable for topical administration, e.g. as eye drops. Suitable forms may include ophthalmic solutions, gel-forming solutions, sterile powders for reconstitution, ophthalmic suspensions, ophthalmic ointments, ophthalmic emulsions, ophthalmic gels and ocular inserts. Alternatively, the compounds, salts, solvates or prodrugs of the invention may be provided in a form suitable for other types of ocular administration, for example as intraocular preparations (including as irrigating solutions, as intraocular, intravitreal or juxtascleral injection formulations, or as intravitreal implants), as packs or corneal shields, as intracameral, subconjunctival or retrobulbar injection formulations, or as iontophoresis formulations. For transdermal and other topical administration, the compounds, salts, solvates or prodrugs of the invention will generally be provided in the form of ointments, cataplasms (poultices), pastes, powders, dressings, creams, plasters or patches. Suitable suspensions and solutions can be used in inhalers for airway (aerosol) administration. The dose of the compounds, salts, solvates or prodrugs of the present invention will, of course, vary with the disease, disorder or condition to be treated or prevented. In general, a suitable dose will be in the range of 0.01 to 500 mg per kilogram body weight of the recipient per day. The desired dose may be presented at an appropriate interval such as once every other day, once a day, twice a day, three times a day or four times a day. The desired dose may be administered in unit dosage form, for example, containing 1 mg to 50 g of active ingredient per unit dosage form. For the avoidance of doubt, insofar as is practicable any embodiment of a given aspect of the present invention may occur in combination with any other embodiment of the same aspect of the present invention. In addition, insofar as is practicable it is to be understood that any preferred, typical or optional embodiment of any aspect of the present invention should also be considered as a preferred, typical or optional embodiment of any other aspect of the present invention. Examples – compound synthesis All solvents, reagents and compounds were purchased and used without further purification unless stated otherwise. Abbreviations 2-MeTHF 2-methyltetrahydrofuran Ac 2 O acetic anhydride AcOH acetic acid app apparent aq aqueous B 2 Pin 2 bis(pinacolato)diboron, also called 4,4,4',4',5,5,5',5'-octamethyl- 2,2'-bi(1,3,2-dioxaborolane) Boc tert-butyloxycarbonyl BOP (benzotriazol-1-yloxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate br broad CAN ceric ammonium nitrate Cbz carboxybenzyl CDI 1,1-carbonyl-diimidazole conc concentrated d doublet DABCO 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane DBU 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene DCE 1,2-dichloroethane, also called ethylene dichloride DCM dichloromethane dd double doublet ddd double double doublet DIAD diisopropyl azodicarboxylate DIC N,N'-diisopropylcarbodiimide DIPEA N,N-diisopropylethylamine, also called Hünig’s base DMA dimethylacetamide DMAP 4-dimethylaminopyridine, also called N,N-dimethylpyridin-4- amine DME dimethoxyethane DMF N,N-dimethylformamide DMPU N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-propylene urea DMSO dimethyl sulfoxide EDC 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide eq or equiv equivalent (ES + ) electrospray ionization, positive mode Et ethyl EtOAc ethyl acetate EtOH ethanol Ex example FC flash column chromatography on silica gel h hour(s) HATU 1-[bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5- b]pyridinium 3-oxid hexafluorophosphate HPLC high performance liquid chromatography Hz hertz Int intermediate KOAc potassium acetate KO t Bu potassium tert-butoxide LC liquid chromatography m multiplet m-CPBA 3-chloroperoxybenzoic acid Me methyl MeCN acetonitrile MeOH methanol (M+H) + protonated molecular ion MHz megahertz min minute(s) MS mass spectrometry Ms mesyl, also called methanesulfonyl MsCl mesyl chloride, also called methanesulfonyl chloride MTBE methyl tert-butyl ether, also called tert-butyl methyl ether m/z mass-to-charge ratio NaO t Bu sodium tert-butoxide NBS 1-bromopyrrolidine-2,5-dione, also called N-bromosuccinimide NCS 1-chloropyrrolidine-2,5-dione, also called N-chlorosuccinimide NMP N-methylpyrrolidine NMR nuclear magnetic resonance (spectroscopy) p pentuplet Pd2(dba)3 tris(dibenzylideneacetone) dipalladium(0) PdCl 2 (dppf) [1,1¢-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene] dichloropalladium(II), also called Pd(dppf)Cl 2 PE petroleum ether Ph phenyl PMB p-methoxybenzyl, also called 4-methoxybenzyl prep-HPLC preparative high performance liquid chromatography prep-TLC preparative thin layer chromatography PTSA p-toluenesulfonic acid q quartet QPhos 1,2,3,4,5-pentaphenyl-1¢-(di-tert-butylphosphino)ferrocene RP reversed phase RT room temperature s singlet sat saturated SCX solid supported cation exchange (resin) sept septuplet SPhos-Pd-G3 (2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2¢,6¢-dimethoxybiphenyl) [2-(2¢- amino-1,1¢-biphenyl)]palladium(II) methanesulfonate t triplet T3P propylphosphonic anhydride TBME tert-butyl methyl ether, also called methyl tert-butyl ether TEA triethylamine Tf triflyl, also called trifluoromethanesulfonyl TFA 2,2,2-trifluoroacetic acid THF tetrahydrofuran TLC thin layer chromatography wt % weight percent or percent by weight XantPhos 4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-9,9-dimethylxanthene XPhos 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2¢,4¢,6¢-triisopropylbiphenyl XPhos-Pd-G3 (2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2¢,4¢,6¢-triisopropyl-1,1¢-biph enyl)[2- (2¢-amino-1,1¢-biphenyl)]palladium(II) methanesulfonate Experimental Methods Nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectra were recorded at 300, 400 or 500 MHz. Spectra were measured at 298 K, unless indicated otherwise, and were referenced relative to the solvent resonance. The chemical shifts are reported in parts per million. Spectra were recorded using one of the following machines: - a Bruker Avance III spectrometer at 400 MHz fitted with a BBO 5mm liquid probe, - a Bruker 400 MHz spectrometer using ICON-NMR, under TopSpin program control, - a Bruker Avance III HD spectrometer at 500 MHz, equipped with a Bruker 5mm SmartProbe TM , - an Agilent VNMRS 300 instrument fitted with a 7.05 Tesla magnet from Oxford instruments, indirect detection probe and direct drive console including PFG module, or - an Agilent MercuryPlus 300 instrument fitted with a 7.05 Tesla magnet from Oxford instruments, 4 nuclei auto-switchable probe and Mercury plus console. LC-MS LC-MS Methods: Using SHIMADZU LCMS-2020, Agilent 1200 LC/G1956A MSD and Agilent 1200\G6110A, Agilent 1200 LC & Agilent 6110 MSD. Mobile Phase: A: 0.025% NH 3 ·H 2 O in water (v/v); B: acetonitrile. Column: Kinetex EVO C182.1 x 30 mm, 5µm. Preparative Reversed Phase HPLC General Methods Acidic prep HPLC (x-y% MeCN in water): Waters X-Select CSH column C18, 5 µm (19 x 50 mm), flow rate 28 mL min -1 eluting with a H 2 O-MeCN gradient containing 0.1% v/v formic acid over 6.5 min using UV detection at 254 nm. Gradient information: 0.0-0.2 min, x% MeCN; 0.2-5.5 min, ramped from x% MeCN to y% MeCN; 5.5-5.6 min, ramped from y% MeCN to 95% MeCN; 5.6-6.5 min, held at 95% MeCN. Acidic prep HPLC (x-y% MeOH in water): Waters X-Select CSH column C18, 5 µm (19 x 50 mm), flow rate 28 mL min -1 eluting with a 10mM aq formic acid-MeOH gradient over 7.5 min using UV detection at 254 nm. Gradient information: 0.0-1.5 min, x% MeOH; 1.5-6.8 min, ramped from x% MeOH to y% MeOH; 6.8-6.9 min, ramped from y% MeOH to 95% MeOH; 6.9-7.5 min, held at 95% MeOH. Basic prep HPLC (x-y% MeCN in water): Waters X-Bridge Prep column C18, 5 µm (19 x 50 mm), flow rate 28 mL min -1 eluting with a 10 mM NH 4 HCO 3 -MeCN gradient over 6.5 min using UV detection at 254 nm. Gradient information: 0.0-0.2 min, x% MeCN; 0.2-5.5 min, ramped from x% MeCN to y% MeCN; 5.5-5.6 min, ramped from y% MeCN to 95% MeCN; 5.6-6.5 min, held at 95% MeCN. Synthesis of intermediates Intermediate A1: 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)- 1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Step A: lithium 1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-sulfinate A solution of n-BuLi (100 mL, 250 mmol, 2.5M in hexanes) was added slowly to a solution of 1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole (36.2 g, 238 mmol) in THF (500 mL), keeping the temperature below -65 °C. The mixture was stirred for 1.5 h, then sulfur dioxide was bubbled through for 10 min. The mixture was allowed to warm to RT, the solvent evaporated and the residue triturated with MTBE (300 mL) and filtered. The solid was washed with MTBE and isohexane and dried to afford the crude title compound (54.89 g, 99 %). LCMS m/z 215 (M-Li)- (ES-). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.26 (d, J=1.6Hz, 1H), 6.10 (d, J=1.7Hz, 1H), 5.99 (dd, J=10.0, 2.5Hz, 1H), 3.92-3.87 (m, 1H), 3.56-3.49 (m, 1H), 2.25-2.15 (m, 1H), 2.00-1.91 (m, 1H), 1.75-1.69 (m, 1H), 1.66-1.46 (m, 3H). Step B: N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyr azole-5- sulfonamide NCS (12.0 g, 90 mmol) was added to a suspension of lithium 1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran- 2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-sulfinate (20 g, 90 mmol) in DCM (250 mL) cooled in an ice bath. The mixture was stirred for 4 h, quenched with water (100 mL), and then partitioned between DCM (300 mL) and water (200 mL). The organic phase was washed with water (200 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated to ~50mL. The solution was added to a mixture of bis(4-methoxybenzyl)amine (24 g, 93 mmol) and triethylamine (40 mL, 287 mmol) in DCM (300 mL) cooled in an ice bath. After stirring for 1 h, the mixture was warmed to RT, and then partitioned between DCM (300 mL) and water (250 mL). The organic layer was washed with water (250 mL), aq 1M HCl (2 x 250 mL), water (250 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered, and evaporated to afford the crude title compound (41.02 g, 97 %) as a brown oil. LCMS m/z 494.2 (M+Na) + (ES + ). Step C: N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide A mixture of N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyr azole-5- sulfonamide (41 g, 87 mmol) and aq 1M HCl (30 mL) in THF (300 mL) and MeOH (50 mL) was stirred at RT for 18 h. The solvent was evaporated and the residue partitioned between EtOAc (400 mL) and aq 1M HCl (200 mL). The organic layer was washed with 10% brine (200 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated. The residue was triturated with MTBE, filtered and dried to afford the title compound (24.87 g, 69 %) as an off white solid. LCMS m/z 388 (M+H) + (ES + ); 386 (M-H)- (ES-). 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 7.88 (d, J=2.4Hz, 1H), 7.06-7.02 (m, 4H), 6.79-6.75 (m, 4H), 6.63 (d, J=2.4Hz, 1H), 4.31 (s, 4H), 3.78 (s, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step D: methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2- methylpropanoate N,N-bis(4-Methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (2.00 g, 5.16 mmol) and K2CO3 (2.14 g, 15.49 mmol) were suspended in DMF (30 mL). Methyl 2-bromo-2- methylpropanoate (1.00 mL, 7.74 mmol) was added and the mixture was heated to 80 °C overnight. The reaction mixture was cooled to RT, diluted with water (20 mL), poured onto brine (200 mL) and washed with MTBE (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4) and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-70% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (2.45 g, 94%) as a clear colourless oil. LCMS m/z 510.6 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.18 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.05 - 6.95 (m, 4H), 6.85 - 6.78 (m, 4H), 6.78 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.65 (s, 3H), 1.81 (s, 6H). Step E: 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1 H-pyrazole-3- sulfonamide Methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2- methyl- propanoate (3.28 g, 6.73 mmol) was dissolved in THF (30 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. LiAlH 4 (2 M in THF, 3.36 mL, 6.73 mmol) was added drop-wise and the reaction was stirred at RT for 16 h, quenched with slow addition of water (20 mL), diluted with brine (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (phase separator) and concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound (3.43 g, 100%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 482.3 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.00 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.04-6.98 (m, 4H), 6.84-6.80 (m, 4H), 6.69 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 5.14 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H), 4.20 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.61 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H), 1.50 (s, 6H). Intermediate A2: 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3- sulfonamide N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A1, Step C) (1 g, 2.58 mmol) and K2CO3 (0.892 g, 6.45 mmol) were suspended in MeCN (25 mL) under N 2 .2-Bromoethanol (0.2 mL, 2.84 mmol) was added and the mixture was heated to 50 °C for 4 h. After cooling to RT, water (50 mL) and EtOAc (75 mL) were added and the organic layer separated, dried (MgSO4) and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (682.4 mg, 58%) as a thick colourless oil. LCMS m/z 454.1 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 7.93 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.04 - 6.98 (m, 4H), 6.85 - 6.79 (m, 4H), 6.71 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 5.01 (t, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.27 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 2H), 4.20 (s, 4H), 3.78 (q, J = 5.4 Hz, 2H), 3.72 (s, 6H). Intermediate A3: 5-((dimethylamino)methyl)-1-(5-hydroxypentyl)-N,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Step A: 1-(5-hydroxypentyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-s ulfonamide Prepared according to the general procedure of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A2) to afford the title compound (1.13 g, 49%) as a thick colourless oil. LCMS m/z 496.3 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.97 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.08 - 6.94 (m, 4H), 6.90 - 6.75 (m, 4H), 6.71 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.39 (t, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 4.25 - 4.15 (m, 6H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.44 - 3.34 (m, 2H), 1.80 (p, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 1.51 - 1.38 (m, 2H), 1.32 - 1.21 (m, 2H). Step B: 5-((dimethylamino)methyl)-1-(5-hydroxypentyl)-N,N-bis(4-meth oxybenzyl)- 1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide 1-(5-Hydroxypentyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-s ulfonamide (1.25 g, 2.64 mmol) was dissolved in THF (50 mL) and cooled to -78 °C. n-BuLi (2.5 M in hexanes, 2.64 mL, 6.60 mmol) was added immediately followed by N-methyl-N- methylenemethanaminium iodide (1.95 g, 10.54 mmol). The reaction was stirred for 1 h while allowing to warm to RT. The reaction was quenched with water (50 mL), extracted with MTBE (2 x 50 mL), dried (phase separator) and concentrated in vacuo. The resulting residue was dissolved in MeOH (100 mL) and stirred with SCX (7.5 g) for 30 min. The resin was washed with methanol (150 mL) and the desired product was eluted with 0.7 M ammonia in methanol (250 mL). The resulting solution was concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound (416 mg, 29%) as a yellow oil. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 7.04-6.99 (m, 4H), 6.83-6.78 (m, 4H), 6.57 (s, 1H), 4.38 (t, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 4.23-4.15 (m, 6H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.47 (s, 2H), 3.40-3.35 (m, 2H), 2.17 (s, 6H), 1.78 (p, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.45 (p, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H), 1.33-1.25 (m, 2H). Intermediate A4: 4-fluoro-1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxy - benzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide O O PMB F S N PMB N N OH Step A: 4-fluoro-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole A solution of 4-fluoro-1H-pyrazole (2 g, 23.24 mmol), 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran (9 mL, 99 mmol) and TFA (0.40 mL, 5.19 mmol) in THF (25 mL) was heated to reflux overnight. The reaction was concentrated in vacuo and the crude product was purified by FC (0- 50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (4.33 g, 93 %) as a pale yellow oil. 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 7.48 (d, J = 4.7 Hz, 1H), 7.40 (d, J = 4.3 Hz, 1H), 5.34 - 5.24 (m, 1H), 4.07 – 4.04 (m, 1H), 3.77 - 3.61 (m, 1H), 2.12 - 1.94 (m, 3H), 1.76 - 1.55 (m, 3H). Step B: lithium 4-fluoro-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-sulfinat e n-BuLi (2.5 M in THF) (5 mL, 12.50 mmol) was added slowly to a solution of 4-fluoro- 1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole (2 g, 11.75 mmol) in THF (25 mL) keeping the temperature below -65 °C. The mixture was stirred for 1.5 h then SO 2 was bubbled through for 10 min. The mixture was allowed to warm to RT, the solvent evaporated and the residue triturated with MTBE (50 mL) and filtered. The solid was washed with MTBE, isohexane and dried to afford the title compound (1.91 g, 64%) as a white solid. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.25 (d, J = 4.6 Hz, 1H), 6.08 (dd, J = 10.2, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.93 - 3.86 (m, 1H), 3.54 - 3.46 (m, 1H), 2.19 - 2.08 (m, 1H), 1.98 - 1.89 (m, 1H), 1.71 - 1.64 (m, 1H), 1.64 - 1.51 (m, 1H), 1.51 - 1.43 (m, 2H). Step C: 4-fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-y l)-1H- pyrazole-5-sulfonamide NCS (2.78 g, 20.82 mmol) was added to a suspension of lithium 4-fluoro-1-(tetrahydro- 2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-sulfinate (5.00 g, 20.82 mmol) in DCM (100 mL) cooled in an ice bath. The mixture was stirred for 18 h, quenched with water (10 mL) then partitioned between DCM (50 mL) and water (20 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (2 x 100 mL) and the organic layers were dried (MgSO 4 ) and concentrated in vacuo to ~100 mL. The solution was added to a mixture of bis(4-methoxybenzyl)amine (5.63 g, 21.86 mmol) and triethylamine (3.4 mL, 24.39 mmol) in DCM (30 mL) cooled in an ice bath. The mixture was allowed to warm to RT and stirred for 18 h, then partitioned between DCM (60 mL) and water (40 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (2 x 30 mL) and the combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4) and concentrated to dryness to afford a yellow oil. The crude product was purified by FC (0- 50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (5.05 g, 40%) as a yellow crystalline solid. LCMS m/z 512.1 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 7.86 (d, J = 4.5 Hz, 1H), 7.03 - 6.95 (m, 4H), 6.86 - 6.78 (m, 4H), 5.79 (dd, J = 9.6, 2.6 Hz, 1H), 4.42 (d, J = 15.4 Hz, 2H), 4.23 (d, J = 15.5 Hz, 2H), 3.95 - 3.80 (m, 1H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.61 - 3.50 (m, 1H), 2.41 - 2.19 (m, 1H), 2.08 - 1.93 (m, 1H), 1.93 - 1.80 (m, 1H), 1.70-1.65 (m, 1H), 1.55 - 1.44 (m, 2H). Step D: 4-fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide HCl (4 M in dioxane, 1 mL, 4.00 mmol) was added to a solution of 4-fluoro-N,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-su lfonamide (4.25 g, 6.95 mmol) in DCM (50 mL). The mixture was heated at 40 °C for 3 days and concentrated in vacuo. The product was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (3.54 g, quantitative yield) as a thick yellow oil. LCMS m/z 512.2 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.30 (d, J = 4.6 Hz, 1H), 7.09 - 7.03 (m, 4H), 6.86 - 6.81 (m, 4H), 5.43 (dd, J = 9.3, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 4.37 - 4.19 (m, 4H), 3.93 - 3.87 (m, 1H), 3.73 (s, 6H), 3.70 - 3.62 (m, 1H), 2.08 - 1.95 (m, 1H), 1.94 - 1.81 (m, 2H), 1.74 - 1.62 (m, 1H), 1.61 - 1.46 (m, 2H). Step E: 4-fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Concentrated HCl (10 mL, 120 mmol) was added to 4-fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxy- benzyl)-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonami de (3.50 g, 6.86 mmol) in MeOH (80 mL) at RT. The mixture was stirred at RT for 18 h. The methanol was removed in vacuo and the remaining aqueous suspension was quenched with sat aq NaHCO3 drop-wise to pH 8. EtOAc (50 mL) was added and the organic layer was collected. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (50 mL) and the combined organic layers were concentrated in vacuo to afford a white solid which was triturated with MTBE (50 mL) to give a first crop of title compound (1.90 g). The filtrate was concentrated to dryness and purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane). Both batches were combined to afford the title compound (2.59 g, 92%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 427.3 (M+Na) + (ES + ); 404.1 (M-H)- (ES-). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.11 - 7.87 (m, 1H), 7.13 - 6.99 (m, 4H), 6.87 - 6.72 (m, 4H), 4.24 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step F: methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-1H-pyrazol -1-yl)-2- methylpropanoate 4-Fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (1.00 g, 2.466 mmol) and K2CO3 (1.10 g, 7.96 mmol) were suspended in dry DMF (45 mL). Methyl 2-bromo- 2-methylpropanoate (0.48 mL, 3.71 mmol) was added and the mixture was warmed to 80 °C for 3 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to RT, diluted with water (20 mL), poured onto brine (100 mL) and extracted with MTBE (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (1.22 g, 92 %) as a thick colourless oil. LCMS m/z 527.7 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.41 (d, J = 4.5 Hz, 1H), 7.09 - 6.96 (m, 4H), 6.88 - 6.75 (m, 4H), 4.23 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.66 (s, 3H), 1.76 (s, 6H). Step G: 4-fluoro-1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxy benzyl)-1H- pyrazole-3-sulfonamide LiBH4 (4 M solution in THF) (1.81 mL, 7.24 mmol) was added dropwise to a stirred solution of methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-1H-pyrazol -1- yl)-2-methylpropanoate (1.22 g, 2.413 mmol) in THF (25 mL) at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred for 17 h. The mixture was partitioned between water (20 mL) and EtOAc (50 mL). The organic layer was collected and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated to dryness to afford the title compound (1.01 g, 83%) as a sticky colourless foam. LCMS m/z 500.1 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.19 (d, J = 4.6 Hz, 1H), 7.10 - 7.00 (m, 4H), 6.87 - 6.78 (m, 4H), 5.18-5.09 (m, 1H), 4.24 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.55 (d, J = 3.8 Hz, 2H), 1.44 (s, 6H). Intermediate A5: 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-isopropyl-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H- pyrazole-3-sulfonamide A solution of n-BuLi (2.5M in hexanes) (2 mL, 5.00 mmol) was added dropwise to a stirred solution of 1-isopropyl-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonami de (2.067 g, 4.81 mmol) in THF (35 mL) at -78°C. The reaction was stirred for 1 h and oxirane (2.5 M in THF) (7.70 mL, 19.25 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was left at -78 °C for 1 h. The reaction mixture was warmed up to RT and stirred for 48 h. The reaction was quenched with water (20 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The organic layer was separated, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-10% MeOH/DCM) to afford the title compound (1.33 g, 56%) as a yellow oil. LCMS m/z 496.4 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.06 - 6.97 (m, 4H), 6.85 - 6.78 (m, 4H), 6.51 (s, 1H), 4.87 (t, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.68 (sept, J = 6.6 Hz, 1H), 4.19 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.70 - 3.63 (m, 2H), 2.84 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 1.38 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 6H). Intermediate A6: 3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)benzene- sulfonamide Step A: 3-(2-hydroxyethyl)benzene-1-sulfonyl chloride A solution of 2-(3-(benzylthio)phenyl)ethanol (1.21 g, 4.95 mmol) in MeCN (25 mL), AcOH (0.3 mL) and water (0.6 mL) was cooled to -10 °C. 1,3-Dichloro-5,5-dimethyl- imidazolidine-2,4-dione (1.50 g, 7.61 mmol) was then added and the mixture was stirred at -10 °C for 4 h. The mixture was then partitioned between DCM (50 mL) and water (50 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (100 mL) and the combined organic layers were dried (MgSO 4 ) and concentrated in vacuo to afford the crude title compound which was used without further purification in the next step. Step B: 3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)benzenesulfonamid e bis-(4-Methoxybenzyl)amine (1.30 g, 5.05 mmol) was added to a suspension of 3-(2- hydroxyethyl)benzene-1-sulfonyl chloride (1.09 g, 4.95 mmol) in DCM (25 mL) cooled in an ice bath, followed by Et3N (1.5 mL, 10.76 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 17 h, quenched with water (20 mL) then partitioned between DCM (50 mL) and water (40 mL). The organic phase was dried (MgSO 4 ) and concentrated in vacuo. The crude was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (1.40 g, 60% over 2 steps) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 464.1 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.72 - 7.61 (m, 2H), 7.57 - 7.44 (m, 2H), 7.02 - 6.93 (m, 4H), 6.83 - 6.75 (m, 4H), 4.69 (t, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (s, 4H), 3.71 (s, 6H), 3.63 (td, J = 6.7, 5.0 Hz, 2H), 2.80 (t, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H). Intermediate A7: 3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-5-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)benzenesulfonamide Step A: methyl 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-5-bromobenzoate A solution of methyl 3-(benzylthio)-5-bromobenzoate (3.76 g, 11.15 mmol) in MeCN (54 mL), AcOH (0.7 mL) and water (1.4 mL) was cooled to -10 °C (ice/acetone bath).1,3- dichloro-5,5-dimethylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (3.30 g, 16.72 mmol) was then added and the mixture was stirred at -10 °C for 4 h. The mixture was then partitioned between DCM (250 mL) and water (200 mL) and the organic layer was collected. The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (100 mL) and the combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give methyl 3-bromo-5-(chloro- sulfonyl)benzoate (3.50 g, 11.15 mmol) as a thick yellow oil. To a suspension of methyl 3-bromo-5-(chlorosulfonyl)benzoate (3.50 g, 11.15 mmol) in DCM (25 mL) was added bis(4-methoxybenzyl)amine (2.87 g, 11.15 mmol) whilst being cooled with an ice bath, followed by TEA (3 mL, 21.52 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 17 h, quenched with water (20 mL) then partitioned between DCM (50 mL) and water (40 mL). The organic phase was collected, dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give a brown oil. The brown oil was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (2.77 g, 43%) as a white solid. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.21 (app t, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 8.01 (app d, J = 1.7 Hz, 2H), 7.19 - 7.02 (m, 4H), 6.87 - 6.71 (m, 4H), 4.32 (s, 4H), 3.90 (s, 3H), 3.71 (s, 6H). Step B: 3-bromo-5-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-be nzene- sulfonamide MeMgBr (3 M in Et2O) (3.5 mL, 10.50 mmol) was added dropwise to a stirred solution of methyl 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-5-bromobenzoate (2.47 g, 4.25 mmol) in THF (2 mL) cooled to 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 1 h then left to warm to RT with stirring over 1 h. Additional MeMgBr (3 M in Et2O) (3.5 mL, 10.50 mmol) was added and the mixture stirred for a further 1 h. The mixture was quenched with water (20 mL) and brine (50 mL) at 0 °C and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound (2.50 g, 96%) as a colourless oil which crystallised to give a white solid. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.89 (t, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.86 (t, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.63 (t, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.06 - 6.99 (m, 4H), 6.83 - 6.78 (m, 4H), 5.42 (s, 1H), 4.25 (s, 4H), 3.71 (s, 6H), 1.43 (s, 6H). Step C: tert-butyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-5-(2-hydroxypropan- 2- yl)phenyl)acetate (2-(tert-Butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)zinc(II) bromide 0.44 M (29 mL, 12.76 mmol) was added to a solution of 3-bromo-5-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)- benzenesulfonamide (2.50 g, 4.07 mmol), Pd 2 (dba) 3 (0.186 g, 0.203 mmol) and QPhos (0.289 g, 0.407 mmol) in anhydrous THF (250 mL) and the reaction was stirred at 70 °C for 21 h. The reaction mixture was left to cool to RT and the mixture was quenched with water (50 mL) and the THF removed in vacuo. The red/grey emulsion obtained was diluted with EtOAc (100 mL) and filtered. The organic layer was collected and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give a red oil which was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (2.10 g, 73%) as a red oil. LCMS m/z 592.4 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 7.81 - 7.77 (m, 1H), 7.65 - 7.61 (m, 1H), 7.59 - 7.57 (m, 1H), 6.99 - 6.93 (m, 4H), 6.81 - 6.75 (m, 4H), 5.29 (s, 1H), 4.17 (s, 4H), 3.70 (s, 6H), 3.69 (s, 2H), 1.42 (s, 6H), 1.39 (s, 9H). Step D: 3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-5-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methox ybenzyl)- benzenesulfonamide 4M LiBH 4 in THF (2.76 mL, 11.06 mmol) was added dropwise to a stirred solution of tert-butyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-5-(2-hydroxypropan- 2-yl)- phenyl)acetate (2.1 g, 3.69 mmol) in THF (50 mL) cooled to 0 °C. The mixture was stirred for 2 h. Additional 4 M LiBH4 in THF (2.76 mL, 11.06 mmol) was added and allowed to stir for 1 h. Additional 4 M LiBH 4 in THF (2.76 mL, 11.06 mmol) was added and the reaction was allowed to stir overnight. Additional 4 M LiBH4 in THF (2.76 mL, 11.06 mmol) was added and the reaction allowed to stir for a further 16 h. The mixture was then partitioned between water (30 mL) and EtOAc (50 mL). The organic layer was collected and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 40 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (phase separator) and concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound (1.8 g, 88%) as a dark red oil. LCMS m/z 522.3 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.76 - 7.73 (m, 1H), 7.61 - 7.58 (m, 1H), 7.51 - 7.48 (m, 1H), 7.01 - 6.96 (m, 4H), 6.82 - 6.76 (m, 4H), 5.24 (s, 1H), 4.69 (t, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (s, 4H) 3.71 (s, 6H), 3.66 - 3.59 (m, 2H), 2.80 (t, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H), 1.43 (s, 6H). Intermediate A8: 4-fluoro-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H- pyrazole-3-sulfonamide 4-Fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A4, Step E) (1.00 g, 2.466 mmol) and potassium carbonate (1.10 g, 7.96 mmol) were suspended in dry acetonitrile (10 mL) under a N 2 atmosphere.2-bromoethanol (0.23 mL, 3.21 mmol) was added and the mixture was heated to 50 °C for 3 h. After cooling to RT, water (20 mL) and EtOAc (20 mL) were added. The organic phase was dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated to dryness to give a pale yellow oil. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (0.88 g, 70%) as a thick colourless oil. LCMS m/z 472.1 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.11 (d, J = 4.6 Hz, 1H), 7.06 - 6.99 (m, 4H), 6.85 - 6.80 (m, 4H), 5.03 (t, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.23 (s, 4H), 4.17 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 2H), 3.75 (q, J = 5.4 Hz, 2H), 3.72 (s, 6H). Intermediate A9: 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)- 1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonamide Step A: N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonamide A solution of N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyr azole-4- sulfonamide (2.12 g, 4.50 mmol) in methanol (45 mL, 45.0 mmol) and dioxane (45 mL), to which was added conc aq HCl (7.50 mL, 4.50 mmol), was stirred at 50 °C for 3 h. The mixture was partitioned between EtOAc (150 mL) and water (100 mL), the phases separated and the aqueous further extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The organic phases were combined, dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to 1/10 th of the volume and directly loaded onto the column for purification by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (1.50 g, 81 %) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 386.3 (M-H)- (ES-). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 13.64 (s, 1H), 8.10 (s, 2H), 7.09 - 7.02 (m, 4H), 6.85 - 6.74 (m, 4H), 4.12 (s, 4H), 3.71 (s, 6H). Step B: methyl 2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2- methyl- propanoate A suspension of N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonamide (403.5 mg, 1.041 mmol), methyl 2-bromo-2-methylpropanoate (0.140 mL, 1.041 mmol) and K2CO3 (430 mg, 3.11 mmol) in MeCN (10 mL) was stirred at RT for 18 h, then at 50 °C for 4.5 h. The reaction mixture was partitioned between water (30 mL) and EtOAc (50 mL), the aqueous phase was separated and further extracted with EtAOc (3 x 50 mL). The organic phases were combined, dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (20-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (424 mg, 82%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 488.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.40 (s, 1H), 7.86 (s, 1H), 7.11 - 7.06 (m, 4H), 6.85 - 6.80 (m, 4H), 4.17 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.65 (s, 3H), 1.77 (s, 6H). Step C: 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1 H-pyrazole-4- sulfonamide LiBH 4 (4 M in THF) (0.65 mL, 2.60 mmol) was added to a solution of methyl 2-(4- (N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methy lpropanoate (423.8 mg, 0.869 mmol) in anhydrous THF (5 mL) at 0 °C. The reaction was stirred for 1.5 h. The reaction mixture was partition between EtOAc (50 mL) and water (50 mL). The organic phase was separated and the aqueous was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The organic phases were combined, dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound (392 mg, 93%) as a white sticky solid which was used without further purification. LCMS m/z 460.5 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.14 (s, 1H), 7.80 (s, 1H), 7.09 - 7.04 (m, 4H), 6.84 - 6.80 (m, 4H), 5.08 (t, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.15 (s, 4H), 3.71 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 6H), 3.58 (d, J = 5.7 Hz, 2H), 1.45 (s, 6H). Intermediate A10: 2-(3-hydroxypropoxy)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)pyridine-3- sulfonamide Step A: 2-chloro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)pyridine-3-sulfonamide A suspension of 2-chloropyridine-3-sulfonyl chloride (1.5 g, 7.07 mmol) and bis(4- methoxybenzyl)amine (1.820 g, 7.07 mmol) in DCM (20 mL) was cooled to 0 °C (ice bath). TEA (2.51 mL, 17.68 mmol) was then added dropwise at 0 °C and the mixture was stirred at RT for 4 h. The mixture was diluted with water (30 mL) and the organic layer was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (2 x 20 mL) and the combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give a yellow oil. The yellow oil was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (1.5 g, 49%) as a colourless solid. LCMS m/z 433/435 (M+H) + (ES + ). Step B: 2-(3-hydroxypropoxy)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)pyridine-3-sulf onamide A mixture of propane-1,3-diol (2 mL, 3.46 mmol) and KO t Bu (0.778 g, 6.93 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was stirred at RT for 10 min.2-Chloro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)- pyridine-3-sulfonamide (1.5 g, 3.46 mmol) was then added and the mixture was stirred at RT for a further 24 h. The mixture was then diluted with water (20 mL) and EtOAc (20 mL) and the organic layer was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL) and the combined organic layers were dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give a brown oil. The crude product was purified by FC (0- 50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (360 mg, 21%) as a colourless oil. LCMS m/z 495.4 (M+Na) + (ES + ). Intermediate A11: 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-4-methoxy-N,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Step A: 1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-4-ol 1-(Tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-di oxaborolan-2-yl)-1H- pyrazole (15.6 g, 56.1 mmol) was dissolved in THF (90 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. NaOH (2 M) (56.1 mL, 112 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred for 10 min before hydrogen peroxide (30% aq) (11.46 mL, 112 mmol) was added in 0.5 mL portions over the course of 10 min. The reaction was stirred for a further 3 h whilst allowing the reaction mixture to warm to RT. Sodium sulfite (sat aq) (150 mL) was added and stirred for 5 min. The pH of the reaction mixture was adjusted to pH 9, via addition of 2 M aq HCl, and then extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The combined organics were washed with water (150 mL), brine (150 mL) and dried (MgSO 4 ). The organic layer was dry loaded onto silica and purified by FC (20-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (2.77 g, 16.47 mmol) as a white solid. The combined aqueous layers were concentrated in vacuo and the resulting residue dissolved in MeOH, dry loaded onto silica and purified by FC (20-100% EtOAc/isohexane) affording further material which was combined with the first batch to afford the title compound (5.42 g, 58%). LCMS m/z 84.9 (M+H-THP) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.47 (s, 1H), 7.27 (s, 1H), 7.05 (s, 1H), 5.18 (dd, J = 10.1, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.98 - 3.77 (m, 1H), 3.68 - 3.50 (m, 1H), 2.04 - 1.96 (m, 1H), 1.93 - 1.87 (m, 1H), 1.83 - 1.79 (m, 1H), 1.67 - 1.57 (m, 1H), 1.52 - 1.45 (m, 2H). Step B: 4-methoxy-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole 1-(Tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-4-ol (2.675 g, 15.90 mmol) was dissolved in dry DMF (10 mL), Cs2CO3 (6.22 g, 19.09 mmol) was added and the suspension was cooled to 0 °C under N2. MeI (1.09 mL, 17.49 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was allowed to reach RT and stirred for 16 h. The mixture was concentrated in vacuo and the residue was partitioned between water (10 mL) and EtOAc (20 mL). The aqueous was washed with more EtOAc (10 x 20 mL). The combined organics were dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give a yellow liquid. The crude product was purified by FC (0 - 50 % EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (5.00 g, 56%) as a colourless liquid. LCMS m/z 99.0 (M+H-THP) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 7.30 (s, 1H), 7.26 (s, 1H), 5.28 (dt, J = 9.5, 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.06 - 4.00 (m, 1H), 3.74 (s, 3H), 3.68 (td, J = 11.1, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 2.30 - 1.86 (m, 3H), 1.86 - 1.46 (m, 3H). Step C: lithium 4-methoxy-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-sulfina te In a dry 500 mL 3 neck-flask equipped with thermometer and nitrogen inlet, 4- methoxy-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole (5.00 g, 27.4 mmol) was dissolved in dry THF (200 mL) and cooled to -78 °C. n-Butyllithium (2.5 M in hexanes) (12.07 ml, 30.2 mmol) was added in 0.5 mL portions over 10 min ensuring the internal reaction temperature did not exceed -65 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at - 78 °C for 1 h. SO2 gas was bubbled through the reaction mixture for 10 min and the mixture was allowed to reach RT overnight. The reaction mixture was filtered and the resulting solid washed with TBME, then isohexane, and then dried via desiccator to afford lithium 4-methoxy-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-sulfina te (5.52 g, 80%) as a white solid. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ): d 7.12 (s, 1H), 6.19 (dd, J = 10.1, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.98 - 3.84 (m, 1H), 3.67 (s, 3H), 3.52 - 3.47 (m, 1H), 2.20 - 2.02 (m, 1H), 1.98 - 1.86 (m, 1H), 1.73 - 1.64 (m, 1H), 1.62 - 1.51 (m, 1H), 1.51 - 1.43 (m, 2H). Step D: 4-methoxy-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2- yl)-1H- pyrazole-5-sulfonamide NCS (2.92 g, 21.88 mmol) was added to a suspension of lithium 4-methoxy-1- (tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-sulfinate (5.52 g, 21.88 mmol) in DCM (60 mL) cooled in an ice bath. The mixture was stirred for 1 h, quenched with water (50 mL) then partitioned between DCM (50 mL) and water (40 mL). The organic phase was washed with water (40 mL), dried using a phase separator, and concentrated in vacuo to ~20 mL. This solution was then added to a mixture of bis(4-methoxybenzyl)amine (6.19 g, 24.07 mmol) and TEA (9.15 mL, 65.6 mmol) in DCM (50 mL) cooled in an ice bath. After stirring for 1 h the mixture was warmed to RT then partitioned between DCM (60 mL) and water (40 mL). The organic layer was washed with water (40 mL), aq 1M HCl (2 x 40 mL), and water (40 mL), dried using a phase separator, and concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound (9.27 g, 79%) as an orange oil. LCMS m/z 524.2 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.67 (s, 1H), 6.97 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 4H), 6.81 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 4H), 5.84 (dd, J = 9.8, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.42 - 4.15 (m, 4H), 3.88 - 3.82 (m, 1H), 3.75 (s, 3H), 3.71 (s, 6H), 3.57 - 3.50 (m, 1H), 2.32 - 2.24 (m, 1H), 2.02 - 1.95 (m, 1H), 1.89 - 1.80 (m, 1H), 1.70 - 1.57 (m, 1H), 1.53 - 1.45 (m, 2H). Step E: 4-methoxy-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-sulfonamide 1 M HCl (aq) (20 mL) was added to a solution of 4-methoxy-N,N-bis(4-methoxy- benzyl)-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-sulfonami de (9.274 g, 18.49 mmol) in THF (50 mL) and MeOH (25 mL). The mixture was stirred at RT for 4 h then concentrated to ~20 mL. The resulting residue was partitioned between EtOAc (100 mL) and water (40 mL), the organic layer washed with water (40 mL), dried using a phase separator, and concentrated in vacuo. The resulting solid precipitate was filtered, washed with TBME and isohexane, and dried to afford the title compound (6.106 g, 79%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 418.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 13.26 (s, 1H), 7.76 (s, 1H), 7.00 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 4H), 6.79 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 4H), 4.21 (s, 4H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 3.71 (s, 6H). Step F: 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-4-methoxy-N,N-bis(4-methox ybenzyl)-1H- pyrazole-3-sulfonamide A suspension of 4-methoxy-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-sulfonamide (2 g, 4.79 mmol), methyl 2-bromo-2-methylpropanoate (0.70 mL, 5.41 mmol) and K 2 CO 3 (1.980 g, 14.32 mmol) in MeCN (30 mL) was stirred at 50 °C for 5 h. The reaction mixture was partitioned between water (70 mL) and EtOAc (100 mL), and the aqueous phase was separated and further extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The organic phases were combined, dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to afford methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-methoxy-1H-pyrazo l-1-yl)-2- methylpropanoate as a colourless oil. The crude was taken up in dry THF (30 mL) and the solution cooled to 0 °C, then LiBH4 (4 M in THF) (7.50 mL, 15.00 mmol) was added and the resulting solution was stirred at RT for 1.5 h. The reaction was quenched by the careful addition of MeOH, then the mixture was partitioned between EtOAc (100 mL) and water (100 mL). The aqueous phase was separated and further extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The organic phases were combined, dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (50-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (1.81 g, 3.51 mmol) as a colourless oil. LCMS m/z 512.5 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.80 (s, 1H), 7.07 - 6.92 (m, 4H), 6.88 - 6.67 (m, 4H), 4.20 (s, 4H), 3.73 - 3.69 (m, 9H), 3.57 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 2H), 1.45 (s, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Intermediate A12: 4-fluoro-1-(1-(hydroxymethyl)cyclopropyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxy- benzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Step A: methyl 1-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-1H-pyrazol -1-yl)- cyclopropanecarboxylate 60 wt% NaH in mineral oil (0.50 g, 12.50 mmol) was added portion wise to a solution of 4-fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A4, Step E) (2.00 g, 4.93 mmol) in NMP (30 mL) cooled to 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 10 min until gas evolution ceased. Methyl 2,4-dibromobutanoate (1.05 mL, 7.43 mmol) was then added and the mixture was left to warm to RT with stirring over 18 h. The mixture was then quenched with water (10 mL) and partitioned between brine (300 mL) and MTBE (100 mL). The aqueous layer was discarded and the organic layer was washed with brine (300 mL). The organic layer was dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give a brown oil. The crude product was purified by FC (0-60% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (1.72 g, 60%) as a thick colourless oil. LCMS m/z 526.4 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.35 (d, J = 4.6 Hz, 1H), 7.08 - 7.00 (m, 4H), 6.88 - 6.76 (m, 4H), 4.25 (s, 4H), 3.73 (s, 6H), 3.65 (s, 3H), 1.80 - 1.72 (m, 2H), 1.66 - 1.58 (m, 2H). Step B: 4-fluoro-1-(1-(hydroxymethyl)cyclopropyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxyb enzyl)-1H- pyrazole-3-sulfonamide 4 M LiBH 4 in THF (1.30 mL, 5.20 mmol) was added dropwise to a stirred solution of methyl 1-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-1H-pyrazol -1-yl)- cyclopropanecarboxylate (1.72 g, 2.94 mmol) in THF (30 mL) cooled to 0 °C. The mixture was stirred for 17 h. The mixture was then partitioned between water (20 mL) and EtOAc (50 mL). The organic layer was collected and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give the title compound (1.36 g, 89%) as a thick pale yellow oil which was used without further purification. LCMS m/z 498.4 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.15 (d, J = 4.7 Hz, 1H), 7.06 - 6.98 (m, 4H), 6.86 - 6.78 (m, 4H), 5.12 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, 1H), 4.24 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.62 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 1.14 - 1.07 (m, 2H), 1.07 - 0.96 (m, 2H). Intermediate A13: 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)- 3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonamide Step A: N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonam ide A solution of bis(4-methoxybenzyl)amine (1.49 g, 5.78 mmol) in DCM (5 mL, 3.85 mmol) was prepared. The reaction mixture was then cooled to 0 °C followed by the dropwise addition of 3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonyl chloride (0.75 g, 3.85 mmol) and TEA (1.61 mL, 11.56 mmol) in DCM (5 mL). The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 2 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with water (10 mL) and DCM (10 mL) and the organic layer dried (phase separator) and concentrated in vacuo to yield a yellow oil. The crude product was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (760 mg, 40%) as a colourless oil. LCMS m/z 416.8 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 13.01 (s, 1H), 7.00 - 6.93 (m, 4H), 6.86 - 6.80 (m, 4H), 4.15 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 2.31 (s, 6H). Step B: methyl 2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyr azol-1- yl)-2-methylpropanoate A suspension of N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonam ide (670 mg, 1.61 mmol), methyl 2-bromo-2-methylpropanoate (0.271 ml, 2.10 mmol) and potassium carbonate (669 mg, 4.84 mmol) in DMF (20 mL) was stirred at 80 °C for 16 h. The reaction mixture was partitioned between water (30 mL) and EtOAc (50 mL), the aqueous phase was separated and further extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The organic phases were combined, washed with brine (30 mL), extracted, dried (phase separator), and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (318 mg, 36%) as a pale yellow oil. LCMS m/z 516.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 6.99 - 6.94 (m, 4H), 6.87 - 6.82 (m, 4H), 4.17 (s, 4H), 3.73 (s, 9H), 2.27 (d, J = 3.7 Hz, 6H), 1.74 (s, 6H). Step C: 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-3 ,5-dimethyl- 1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonamide 4 M LiBH 4 in THF (0.5 mL, 2.00 mmol) was added dropwise to a stirred solution of methyl 2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyr azol-1-yl)-2- methylpropanoate (318 mg, 0.617 mmol) in THF (12 mL) cooled to 0 °C. The mixture was stirred for 16 h. Additional 4 M LiBH 4 in THF (0.5 mL, 2.000 mmol) was added at 0 °C and allowed to stir for a further 60 h. The mixture was then partitioned between water (20 mL) and EtOAc (50 mL). The organic layer was collected and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (phase separator) and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0- 100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (206 mg, 62%) as a sticky colourless oil. LCMS m/z 488.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 6.99 - 6.92 (m, 4H), 6.87 - 6.79 (m, 4H), 5.08 - 5.02 (m, 1H), 4.18 - 4.12 (m, 4H), 3.75 - 3.70 (m, 6H), 3.68 - 3.63 (m, 2H), 3.35 - 3.27 (m, 3H), 2.27 - 2.22 (m, 3H), 1.56 - 1.49 (m, 6H). Intermediate A14: 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-4- sulfonamide N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonamide (Intermediate A9, Step A) (1.50 g, 3.68 mmol) and K2CO3 (1.27 g, 9.19 mmol) were suspended in MeCN (25 mL) under a N2 atmosphere.2-Bromoethanol (0.30 mL, 4.05 mmol) was added and the mixture was heated to 50 °C for 4 h. After cooling to RT, water (50 mL) and EtOAc (75 mL) were added and the organics separated. The organic phase was dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (1.29 g, 80%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 432.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.30 (s, 1H), 7.81 (s, 1H), 7.08 - 7.03 (m, 4H), 6.84 - 6.78 (m, 4H), 4.98 (t, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.19 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 2H), 4.13 (s, 4H), 3.76 (q, J = 5.4 Hz, 2H), 3.71 (s, 6H). Intermediate A15: 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-3 - methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonamide Step A: methyl 2-methyl-2-(3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)propanoate A solution of 5-methyl-1H-pyrazole (1.00 mL, 12.94 mmol) and methyl 2-bromo-2- methylpropanoate (2.2 mL, 17.00 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was cooled to 0 °C and NaH (60 wt%) (673 mg, 16.83 mmol) was added and stirred for 10 min. Then methyl 2- bromo-2-methylpropanoate (2.2 mL, 17.00 mmol) was added and stirred at RT over the weekend. The reaction mixture was partitioned between water (30 mL) and EtOAc (50 mL), and the aqueous phase was separated and further extracted with EtAOc (3 x 50 mL). The organic phases were combined, washed with brine (30 mL), extracted, dried (phase separator), and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (1.0 g, 40%) as a colourless oil. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.74 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 6.04 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 3.61 (s, 3H), 2.14 (s, 3H), 1.71 (s, 6H). Step B: methyl 2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol -1-yl)- 2-methylpropanoate To a solution of chlorosulfonic acid (2.0 mL, 30 mmol) in CHCl 3 (5 mL) at 0 °C was added a solution of methyl 2-methyl-2-(3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)propanoate (1.0 g, 5.5 mmol) in CHCl3 (5 mL) over 2 min. The mixture was refluxed at 60 °C and stirred for 24 h. The reaction was cooled to RT and thionyl chloride (0.44 mL, 6.0 mmol) was added and the reaction was heated at 60 °C for a further 2 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to RT and added to a stirred mixture of DCM (50 mL) and ice water (50 mL). The organic layer was separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (2 x 20 mL). The combined organics were dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to afford an orange oil (1.00 g). The orange oil was dissolved in DCM (10 mL) and bis(4- methoxybenzyl)amine (1.4 g, 5.5 mmol) followed by the slow addition of TEA (1.1 mL, 8.2 mmol) at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm to RT and stirred overnight. The mixture was diluted with water (30 mL) and the organic layer was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (2 x 20 mL) and the combined organic layers were dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude yellow oil was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (1.17 g, 36%) as a yellow oil, which solidified on standing to form a yellow solid. LCMS m/z 502.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.29 (s, 1H), 7.06 – 6.97 (m, 4H), 6.88 – 6.74 (m, 4H), 4.20 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.64 (s, 3H), 2.24 (s, 3H), 1.75 (s, 6H). Step C: 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-3 -methyl-1H- pyrazole-4-sulfonamide LiBH 4 (4 M in THF) (2 mL, 9.33 mmol) was added dropwise to a stirred solution of methyl 2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol -1-yl)-2- methylpropanoate (1.17 g, 2.33 mmol) in THF (15 mL) cooled to 0 °C. The mixture was stirred for 18 h. The mixture was then partitioned between water (100 mL) and EtOAc (100 mL). The organic layer was collected and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound (1.04 g, 82%) as a pale yellow oil. LCMS m/z 474.5 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.03 (s, 1H), 7.05 – 6.98 (m, 4H), 6.84 – 6.79 (m, 4H), 5.05 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (s, 4H), 3.71 (s, 6H), 3.56 (d, J = 5.7 Hz, 2H), 2.26 (s, 3H), 1.43 (s, 6H). Intermediate A16: 2-fluoro-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)benzene- sulfonamide A solution of 2-(3-(benzylthio)-4-fluorophenyl)ethanol (4.17 g, 15.90 mmol) in MeCN (90 mL), AcOH (1.05 mL) and water (2.1 mL) was cooled to -10 °C (ice/acetone bath). 1,3-Dichloro-5,5-dimethylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (4.70 g, 23.84 mmol) was then added and the mixture was stirred at -10 °C for 4 h. The mixture was then partitioned between DCM (50 mL) and water (50 mL) and the organic layer was collected. The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (100 mL) and the combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The resulting residue was taken up in DCM (100 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. bis-(4-Methoxybenzyl)amine (4.17 g, 16.21 mmol) and TEA (4.43 mL, 31.8 mmol) were then added to the solution, which was then allowed to warm to RT and stirred for 18 h. The reaction mixture was quenched with water (75 mL) then partitioned between DCM (100 mL) and water (25 mL). The organic phase was separated, and the aqueous layer re-extracted with DCM (2 x 50 mL). The organics were combined, dried (MgSO4) and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-80% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (2.68 g, 32%) as a pale yellow oil. LCMS m/z 482.5 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 7.62 (dd, J = 7.0, 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.56 - 7.52 (m, 1H), 7.36 - 7.29 (m, 1H), 7.02 - 6.96 (m, 4H), 6.81 - 6.77 (m, 4H), 4.68 (t, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 4.27 (s, 4H), 3.71 (s, 6H), 3.64 - 3.58 (m, 2H), 2.75 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H). Intermediate A17: 3-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)- benzenesulfonamide Step A: methyl 2-(3-(benzylthio)phenyl)acetate Benzyl mercaptan (1.54 mL, 13.10 mmol) was added to a stirred, N 2 -degassed solution of methyl 2-(3-bromophenyl)acetate (3 g, 13.10 mmol), XantPhos (0.76 g, 1.310 mmol), DIPEA (4.57 mL, 26.2 mmol) and Pd2(dba)3 (0.60 g, 0.655 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (80 mL) at RT. The mixture was then heated to 100 °C for 17 h. The mixture was filtered through Celite ® and dry-loaded onto silica gel (30 g). The crude product was purified by FC (0-40% DCM/isohexane) to afford the title compound (3.22 g, 89%) as an orange oil. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 7.37 - 7.33 (m, 2H), 7.31 - 7.27 (m, 2H), 7.26 - 7.20 (m, 4H), 7.09 - 7.04 (m, 1H), 4.23 (s, 2H), 3.64 (s, 2H), 3.60 (s, 3H). Step B: me hoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)phenyl)acetate A solution of methyl 2-(3-(benzylthio)phenyl)acetate (1.62 g, 5.95 mmol) in MeCN (29 mL), AcOH (0.4 mL) and water (0.8 mL) was cooled to -10 °C (ice /acetone bath).1,3- dichloro-5,5-dimethylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (1.758 g, 8.92 mmol) was then added and the mixture was stirred at -10 °C for 4 h. The mixture was then partitioned between DCM (50 mL) and water (50 mL) and the organic layer was collected. The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (100 mL) and the combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated to dryness to give crude methyl 2-(3-(chloro- sulfonyl)phenyl)acetate as a thick yellow paste. bis-(4-Methoxybenzyl)amine (1.53 g, 5.95 mmol) was added to a suspension of methyl 2-(3-(chlorosulfonyl)phenyl)acetate (1.48 g, 5.95 mmol) in DCM (25 mL) cooled in an ice bath followed by TEA (1.5 mL, 10.76 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 17 h, quenched with water (20 mL) then partitioned between DCM (50 mL) and water (40 mL). The organic phase was collected, dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated to dryness to give a brown oil. The brown oil was purified by chromatography on silica gel (80 g cartridge, 0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (2.45 g, 79%) as a white solid. Yield over 2 steps. LCMS m/z 492.0 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.79 - 7.69 (m, 2H), 7.62 - 7.50 (m, 2H), 7.02 - 6.94 (m, 4H), 6.85 - 6.73 (m, 4H), 4.19 (s, 4H), 3.84 (s, 2H), 3.71 (s, 6H), 3.64 (s, 3H). Step C: m xybenzyl)sulfamoyl)phenyl)-2-methylpropanoate Methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)phenyl)acetate (2.00 g, 4.26 mmol) was dissolved in THF (2 mL) at RT and 1M lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide in THF (9 mL, 9.37 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at RT for 5 min and iodomethane (583 µL, 9.37 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at RT for 1 h. Additional 1M lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide in THF (9 mL, 9.37 mmol) and iodomethane (583 µL, 9.37 mmol) were added and the mixture was stirred for a further 1 h, but no change was recorded. The mixture was then quenched with 1M HCl (30 mL) and diluted with DCM (100 mL). The organic layer was collected and aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated to dryness to give a brown oil. The crude product was purified twice by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane, and then again with 0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (0.54 g, 23%) as a yellow oil. LCMS m/z 520.0 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.76 (dt, J = 7.7, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.68 – 7.61 (m, 2H), 7.58 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 6.99 – 6.92 (m, 4H), 6.81 – 6.77 (m, 4H), 4.20 (s, 4H), 3.71 (s, 6H), 3.60 (s, 3H), 1.53 (s, 6H). Step D: 3-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)be nzene- sulfonamide 4M LiBH4 in THF (0.4 mL, 1.7 mmol) was added slowly to a stirred solution of methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)phenyl)-2-methylprop anoate (0.54 g, 0.87 mmol) in THF (9 mL) cooled to 0 °C. The mixture was then stirred for 17 h at RT. Additional 4M LiBH 4 in THF (0.4 mL, 1.7 mmol) was then added and the mixture was stirred for a further 3 h at RT. The mixture was then cooled to 0 °C and carefully quenched with water (20 mL) followed by 1M aq HCl (20 mL). The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 30 mL) and the combined organic layers were dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated to dryness to give a yellow oil. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (0.47 g, 92%) as a thick colourless oil. LCMS m/z 492.5 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.74 (t, J = 1.9 Hz, 1H), 7.72 – 7.64 (m, 2H), 7.55 – 7.49 (m, 1H), 6.99 – 6.92 (m, 4H), 6.80 – 6.75 (m, 4H), 4.80 (t, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (s, 4H), 3.70 (s, 6H), 3.45 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 2H), 1.23 (s, 6H). Intermediate A18: 3-cyclopropyl-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)- benzenesulfonamide Step A: methyl 2-(3-(benzylthio)-5-bromophenyl)acetate Prepared according to the general procedure of methyl 2-(3-(benzylthio)phenyl)acetate (Intermediate A17, Step A) from methyl 2-(3,5-dibromophenyl)acetate and benzyl mercaptan to afford the title compound (7.00 g, 59%) as a yellow oil. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 7.41 - 7.34 (m, 3H), 7.34 - 7.27 (m, 3H), 7.27 - 7.21 (m, 2H), 4.29 (s, 2H), 3.68 (s, 2H), 3.61 (s, 3H). Step B: methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-5-bromophenyl)aceta te Prepared according to the general procedure of methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxy- benzyl)sulfamoyl)phenyl)acetate (Intermediate A17, Step B) from methyl 2-(3- (benzylthio)-5-bromophenyl)acetate to afford the title compound (6.64 g, 55%) as an off-white solid. LCMS m/z 546.2/548.3 (M-H)- (ES-). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 7.80 (t, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.75 (t, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.68 (t, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.07-7.02 (m, 4H), 6.84-6.79 (m, 4H), 4.25 (s, 4H), 3.85 (s, 2H), 3.73 (s, 6H), 3.65 (s, 3H). Step C: methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-5-cyclopropylphenyl )- acetate Prepared according to the general procedure of methyl 2-(2-cyclopropyl-6-(2-fluoro- pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetate (Intermediate B6, Step B) from methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis- (4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-5-bromophenyl)acetate and cyclopropyl boronic acid to afford the title compound (881 mg, 43%) as a light brown solid. LCMS m/z 508.5 (M-H)- (ES-). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 7.51 (m, 1H), 7.32 (m, 1H), 7.26 (m, 1H), 7.03-6.98 (m, 4H), 6.83-6.77 (m, 4H), 4.18 (s, 4H), 3.78 (s, 2H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.63 (s, 3H), 2.05-1.98 (m, 1H), 1.03-0.97 (m, 2H), 0.72-0.66 (m, 2H). Step D: 3-cyclopropyl-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-be nzene- sulfonamide Methy l 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-5-cyclopropylphenyl )acetate (881 mg, 1.729 mmol) was dissolved in dry THF (30 mL), placed under N 2 and cooled to 0 °C. LiAlH4 (2 M in THF) (978 µL, 1.956 mmol) was added drop-wise, and the reaction mixture warmed to RT, then allowed to stir for 16 h. The reaction was quenched with slow addition of water (20 mL), then diluted with brine (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic extracts were dried using a phase separator and concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound (824 mg, 98 %) as a yellow solid. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 7.42 (t, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.26 (t, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.21 (t, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.03-6.98 (m, 4H), 6.83-6.77 (m, 4H), 4.68 (t, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.65-3.59 (m, 2H), 2.76 (t, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H), 2.03-1.96 (m, 1H), 1.02-0.96 (m, 2H), 0.72-0.67 (m, 2H). Intermediate A19: 4-fluoro-1-(4-hydroxy-2-methylbutan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxy- benzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Step A: ethyl 3-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-1H-pyrazol -1-yl)-3- methylbutanoate A solution of 4-fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A4, Step E) (1.5 g, 3.7 mmol) and ethyl 3-methylbut-2-enoate (0.77 mL, 5.5 mmol) in MeCN (20 mL) was treated with DBU (0.56 mL, 3.7 mmol) and allowed to stir at 50 °C for 18 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to RT and concentrated in vacuo to afford a colourless oil. The crude product was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (528 mg, 26%) as a colourless oil. LCMS m/z 555.9 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.30 (d, J = 4.5 Hz, 1H), 7.10 – 7.00 (m, 4H), 6.88 – 6.78 (m, 4H), 4.23 (s, 4H), 3.96 (q, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 3.73 (s, 6H), 2.90 (s, 2H), 1.60 (s, 6H), 1.09 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H). Step B: 4-fluoro-1-(4-hydroxy-2-methylbutan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxyb enzyl)-1H- pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Prepared according to the general procedure of 3-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)- N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)benzenesulfonamide (Intermediate A17, Step D) from ethyl 3-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-1H-pyrazol -1-yl)-3- methylbutanoate and lithium borohydride to afford the title compound (267 mg, 54%) as a colourless oil. LCMS m/z 514.4 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.25 (d, J = 4.5 Hz, 1H), 7.05 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 4H), 6.83 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 4H), 4.47 (t, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 4.24 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.30 – 3.23 (m, 2H), 1.98 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 1.51 (s, 6H). Intermediate A20: 1-(1-(hydroxymethyl)cyclopropyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)- 1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonamide Step A: methyl 1-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)- cyclopropane-1-carboxylate To a solution of N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonamide (Intermediate A9, Step A) (1.83 g, 4.72 mmol) in NMP (30 mL) at 0 °C was added NaH (60% dispersion in mineral oil) (472 mg, 11.8 mmol) portion-wise. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 10 min until effervescence had ceased. Methyl 2,4-dibromo- butanoate (1.00 mL, 7.08 mmol) was then added and the reaction allowed to warm to RT whilst stirring over 20 h. The mixture was then quenched with water (10 mL) and partitioned between brine (300 mL) and MTBE (100 mL). The aqueous layer was re- extracted with MTBE (100 mL) and EtOAc (100 mL). The organic layers were combined, dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-80% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (0.91 g, 1.7 mmol, 37%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 486.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.47 (s, 1H), 7.84 (s, 1H), 7.07 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 4H), 6.85 – 6.77 (m, 4H), 4.16 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.64 (s, 3H), 1.77 – 1.73 (m, 2H), 1.69 – 1.65 (m, 2H). Step B: 1-(1-(hydroxymethyl)cyclopropyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H -pyrazole-4- sulfonamide Prepared according to the general procedure of 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)- N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-3-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonamide (Intermediate A15, Step C) from methyl 1-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)- cyclopropane-1-carboxylate and lithium borohydride to afford the title compound (0.95 g, 94%) as a thick colourless oil. LCMS m/z 458.5 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.20 (s, 1H), 7.78 (s, 1H), 7.06 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 4H), 6.81 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 4H), 5.05 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 1H), 4.14 (s, 4H), 3.71 (s, 6H), 3.64 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H), 1.16 – 1.13 (m, 2H), 1.06 – 1.02 (m, 2H). Intermediate A21: 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)- 1H-imidazole-4-sulfonamide Step A: methyl 2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-2 - methylpropanoate Prepared according to the general procedure of methyl 2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxy- benzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropanoate (Intermediate A9, Step B) from N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-imidazole-4-sulfonamide and methyl 2-bromo-2- methylpropanoate to afford the title compound (1.43 g, 90%) as a colourless oil. LCMS m/z 488.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.06 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.97 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.09 – 6.97 (m, 4H), 6.85 – 6.76 (m, 4H), 4.21 (s, 4H), 3.71 (s, 6H), 3.69 (s, 3H), 1.81 (s, 6H). Step B: 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1 H-imidazole- 4-sulfonamide To a mixture of methyl 2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)- 2-methylpropanoate (1.4 g, 2.6 mmol) and THF (20 mL) was added LiBH 4 (4M in THF) (3 mL, 13 mmol) at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was left to stir at RT for 48 h. The reaction mixture was quenched with sat aq NH4Cl (100 mL), the product was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 30 mL), the combined organic extracts were passed through a phase separator and concentrated in vacuo to give the crude material as a colourless gum. The crude product was purified by FC (50-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (840 mg, 67%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 460.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.93 (s, 1H), 7.87 (s, 1H), 7.03 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 4H), 6.80 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 4H), 5.24 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 4.20 (s, 4H), 3.71 (s, 6H), 3.53 (d, J = 5.4 Hz, 2H), 1.47 (s, 6H). Intermediate A22: 2-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)- 2H-1,2,3-triazole-4-sulfonamide Step A: methyl 2-(4-(benzylthio)-2H-1,2,3-triazol-2-yl)-2-methylpropanoate Methyl 2-bromo-2-methylpropanoate (4.1 mL, 32 mmol) was added to a stirred suspension of 4-(benzylthio)-2H-1,2,3-triazole (5.00 g, 93 wt%, 24 mmol) and potassium carbonate (10 g, 73 mmol) in DMF (100 mL) at RT. The mixture was then heated to 70 °C for 3 days. The reaction mixture was left to cool to RT and partitioned between brine (1 L) and MTBE (300 mL). The organic layer was collected, dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated to dryness to give a yellow oil. The crude product was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (3.15 g, 44%) as a thick colourless oil. LCMS m/z 292.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 7.77 (s, 1H), 7.33 – 7.16 (m, 5H), 4.19 (s, 2H), 3.63 (s, 3H), 1.81 (s, 6H). Step B: methyl 2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-2H-1,2,3-triazol-2- yl)-2- methylpropanoate NCS (5.77 g, 43.2 mmol) was added to a solution of methyl 2-(4-(benzylthio)-2H-1,2,3- triazol-2-yl)-2-methylpropanoate (3.15 g, 10.8 mmol) in AcOH (40 mL) and water (20 mL). The mixture was stirred for 4h then partitioned between DCM (200 mL) and sat aq NaHCO3 (400 mL), dried (MgSO4) and filtered. bis(4-Methoxybenzyl)amine (2.78 g, 10.8 mmol) and TEA (2.19 g, 3.01 mL, 21.6 mmol) were then added and the mixture was stirred at RT for 20 h. The mixture was concentrated to ~100 mL and poured onto 1M aq HCl (300 mL). The mixture was filtered and the organic layer was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (2 x 100 mL) and the combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated to dryness to give a yellow oil. The crude product was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (0.58 g, 8 %) as a thick yellow oil. LCMS m/z 511.4 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.32 (s, 1H), 7.10 – 7.02 (m, 4H), 6.87 – 6.80 (m, 4H), 4.25 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.67 (s, 3H), 1.87 (s, 6H). Step C: 2-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-2 H-1,2,3- triazole-4-sulfonamide Prepared according to the general procedure of 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)- N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-imidazole-4-sulfonamide (Intermediate A21, Step B) from methyl 2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-2H-1,2,3-triazol-2- yl)-2- methylpropanoate and lithium borohydride to afford the title compound (0.38 g, 98%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 483.3 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.21 (s, 1H), 7.05 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 4H), 6.83 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 4H), 5.13 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 1H), 4.24 (s, 4H), 3.77 – 3.65 (m, 8H), 1.56 (s, 6H). Intermediate A23: 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)- 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-3-sulfonamide Step A: methyl 2-(3-bromo-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-1-yl)-2-methylpropanoat e 3-Bromo-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine (2.50 g, 12.6 mmol) and potassium carbonate (5.23 g, 37.9 mmol) were suspended in dry DMF (75 mL). Methyl 2-bromo-2-methyl- propanoate (2.12 mL, 16.4 mmol) was added and the mixture was warmed to 80 °C for 16 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to RT, diluted with EtOAc (100 mL) and water (100 mL) and poured on to brine (500 mL). The organics were separated and the aqueous re-extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The organics were combined, dried (MgSO4) and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-30% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (1.44 g, 38%) as a colourless oil. LCMS m/z 298.3/300.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.63 (dd, J = 4.5, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 8.15 (dd, J = 8.1, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.36 (dd, J = 8.1, 4.5 Hz, 1H), 3.61 (s, 3H), 1.92 (s, 6H). Step B: methyl 2-(3-(benzylthio)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-1-yl)-2-methylpr opanoate Prepared according to the general procedure of methyl 2-(3-(benzylthio)phenyl)acetate (Intermediate A17, Step A) from methyl 2-(3-bromo-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-1- yl)-2-methylpropanoate and benzyl mercaptan to afford the title compound (1.13 g, 83%) as a thick yellow oil. LCMS m/z 342.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.51 (dd, J = 4.5, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 8.03 (dd, J = 8.1, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.36 – 7.10 (m, 6H), 4.31 (s, 2H), 3.59 (s, 3H), 1.88 (s, 6H). Step C: methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]p yridin- 1-yl)-2-methylpropanoate Prepared according to the general procedure of methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxy- benzyl)sulfamoyl)phenyl)acetate (Intermediate A17, Step B) from methyl 2-(3- (benzylthio)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-1-yl)-2-methylpropano ate to afford the title compound (1.38 g, 68%) as a thick pale yellow oil. LCMS m/z 539.5 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.67 (dd, J = 4.5, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 8.37 (dd, J = 8.2, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.44 (dd, J = 8.2, 4.5 Hz, 1H), 7.05 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 4H), 6.75 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 4H), 4.36 (s, 4H), 3.68 (s, 6H), 3.64 (s, 3H), 1.91 (s, 6H). Step D: 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1 H-pyrazolo- [3,4-b]pyridine-3-sulfonamide Prepared according to the general procedure of 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)- N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-imidazole-4-sulfonamide (Intermediate A21, Step B) from methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]p yridin-1- yl)-2-methylpropanoate and lithium borohydride to afford the title compound (1.13 g, 84%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 511.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.67 (dd, J = 4.5, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.35 (dd, J = 8.2, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.41 (dd, J = 8.2, 4.4 Hz, 1H), 7.07 – 7.00 (m, 4H), 6.78 – 6.71 (m, 4H), 4.98 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, 1H), 4.33 (s, 4H), 4.02 (d, J = 5.9 Hz, 2H), 3.68 (s, 6H), 1.73 (s, 6H). Intermediate A24: 4-fluoro-1-(3-(hydroxymethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxy - benzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Step A: 4-fluoro-1-(3-formylpyridin-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1 H-pyrazole-3- sulfonamide 4-fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A4, Step E) (250 mg, 617 µmol), 2-chloronicotinaldehyde (96.0 mg, 678 µmol), 18-crown- 6 (8.15 mg, 30.8 µmol), KI (5.12 mg, 30.8 µmol) and K 2 CO 3 (256 mg, 1.85 mmol) were taken up in MeCN (6 mL), heated to 70 °C and stirred for 18h. This experiment was carried out twice. The two reaction mixtures were combined and the mixture was diluted with water (25 mL) and transferred into a separatory funnel. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were collected, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (170 mg, 22%) as a sticky colourless oil. 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) d 10.27 (d, J = 0.8 Hz, 1H), 8.62 (dd, J = 4.7, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.45 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 8.34 – 8.26 (m, 1H), 7.46 (ddd, J = 7.7, 4.7, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 7.13 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 4H), 6.75 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 4H), 4.42 (s, 4H), 3.73 (s, 6H). Step B: 4-fluoro-1-(3-(hydroxymethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxy benzyl)-1H- pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Prepared according to the general procedure of 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)- N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-imidazole-4-sulfonamide (Intermediate A21, Step B) from 4-fluoro-1-(3-formylpyridin-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1 H-pyrazole-3- sulfonamide and lithium borohydride to afford the title compound (0.20 g, 76%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 535.3 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.79 (d, J = 4.4 Hz, 1H), 8.47 (dd, J = 4.8, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.29 – 8.21 (m, 1H), 7.60 (dd, J = 7.7, 4.7 Hz, 1H), 7.18 – 7.04 (m, 4H), 6.83 – 6.76 (m, 4H), 5.51 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 4.72 (d, J = 5.7 Hz, 2H), 4.36 (s, 4H), 3.68 (s, 6H). Intermediate A25: 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-1-(1-hydroxy- 2-methylpropan-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid 4-Fluoro-1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxy benzyl)-1H-pyrazole- 3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A4) (1.0 g, 1.8 mmol) was dissolved in THF (20 mL) and cooled to -78 °C. nBuLi (2.5 M in hexane) (1.6 mL, 4.1 mmol) was added drop-wise, and stirred for 5 min. CO 2 gas was bubbled through the reaction mixture for 5 min and stirred at -78 °C for 10 min, and then allowed to warm to RT and stirred for 1 h. The reaction was quenched with slow addition of sat aq NH4Cl (10 mL), extracted with EtOAc (2 x 25 mL), dried (phase separator) and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-10% MeOH/DCM) to afford the title compound (425 mg, 42 %) as a colourless oil. LCMS m/z 544.4 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.16 – 7.09 (m, 4H), 6.89 – 6.81 (m, 4H), 4.61 (s, 2H), 4.33 (s, 4H), 3.73 (s, 6H), 1.47 (s, 6H). Two exchangeable protons not observed. Intermediate A26: 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)- 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-sulfonamide Step A: methyl 2-(3-bromo-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridin-1-yl)-2-methylpropanoat e 3-bromo-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine (2.50 g, 12.6 mmol) and potassium carbonate (5.23 g, 37.9 mmol) were dissolved in DMF (77 mL). Methyl 2-bromo-2-methyl- propanoate (2.97 g, 16.4 mmol) was added dropwise to the solution which was heated to 80 °C and stirred for 18 h. The solution was diluted with EtOAc (100 mL) and transferred to a separating funnel then washed with a 3:1 brine/water solution (400 mL). The aqueous was washed twice with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL) and the combined organic layers were washed with brine (200 mL), dried with MgSO4 and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (2.96 g, 75%) as a thick yellow oil. LCMS m/z 298.2/300.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 8.85 (s, 1H), 8.39 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 7.53 (dd, J = 5.6, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 3.74 (d, J = 1.0 Hz, 3H), 2.00 (s, 6H). Step B: methyl 2-(3-(benzylthio)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridin-1-yl)-2-methylpr opanoate Prepared according to the general procedure of methyl 2-(3-(benzylthio)phenyl)acetate (Intermediate A17, Step A) from methyl 2-(3-bromo-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridin-1- yl)-2-methylpropanoate and benzyl mercaptan to afford the title compound (3.0 g, 94%) as a thick yellow oil. LCMS m/z 342.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.97 (d, J = 1.3 Hz, 1H), 8.26 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H), 7.57 (dd, J = 5.6, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.28 – 7.17 (m, 5H), 4.30 (s, 2H), 3.68 (s, 3H), 1.93 (s, 6H). Step C: methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]p yridin- 1-yl)-2-methylpropanoate Prepared according to the general procedure of methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxy- benzyl)sulfamoyl)phenyl)acetate (Intermediate A17, Step B) from methyl 2-(3- (benzylthio)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridin-1-yl)-2-methylpropano ate to afford the title compound (3.47 g, 59%) as a thick pale yellow oil. LCMS m/z 539.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 9.16 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 8.45 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 7.92 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 7.05 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 4H), 6.80 – 6.72 (m, 4H), 4.36 (d, J = 4.6 Hz, 4H), 3.75 (d, J = 2.7 Hz, 3H), 3.69 (s, 6H), 1.96 (s, 6H). Step D: 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-4 ,5,6,7- tetrahydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-sulfonamide Prepared according to the general procedure of 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)- N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-imidazole-4-sulfonamide (Intermediate A21, Step B) from methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]p yridin-1- yl)-2-methylpropanoate and lithium borohydride to afford the title compound (355 mg, 7%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 515.5 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.02 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 4H), 6.81 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 4H), 5.08 (br s, 1H), 4.21 (s, 4H), 4.01 (s, 2H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.57 (s, 2H), 2.76 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 2H), 2.54 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, 2H), 1.47 (s, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Intermediate A27: potassium 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1-(1-hydroxy- 2-methylpropan-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxylate Step A: N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-7,7-dimethyl-4-oxo-6,7-dihydro-4H-p yrazolo[5,1- c][1,4]oxazine-2-sulfonamide 2.5 M butyllithium in hexanes (5.76 mL, 14.4 mmol) was added dropwise to a solution of 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1 H-pyrazole-3- sulfonamide (Intermediate A1) (3.23 g, 7.03 mmol) in 9:1 THF:DMPU (50 mL) cooled to -78 °C. The mixture was stirred at -78 °C for 10 min and CO 2 gas was bubbled in for a further 5 min. The mixture was then stirred for 5 min and left to warm to RT over 1 h. Acetic acid (30 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred at RT overnight. The mixture was poured onto sat aq NaHCO3 (200 mL). The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 30 mL) and the combined organic layers were dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated to dryness. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (1.11 g, 23%) as a thick colourless oil. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 7.33 (s, 1H), 7.10 – 7.03 (m, 4H), 6.87 – 6.81 (m, 4H), 4.63 (s, 2H), 4.27 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 1.51 (s, 6H). Step B: potassium 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1-(1-hydroxy-2-methyl- propan-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxylate To a stirred solution of N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-7,7-dimethyl-4-oxo-6,7-dihydro-4H- pyrazolo[5,1-c][1,4]oxazine-2-sulfonamide (1.11 g, 2.29 mmol) in dry THF (25 mL) under a N 2 atmosphere at RT was added potassium trimethylsilanolate (587 mg, 4.57 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred for 18 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness, dissolved in THF (10 mL) and diluted with MTBE (100 mL). The supernatant was decanted and the pale yellow gummy residue was washed with MTBE (50 mL). The supernatant was decanted and the vessel concentrated to dryness to give the title compound (1.17 g, 85%) as a pale yellow solid. LCMS m/z 526.3 (M+H+Na-K) + (ES + ); 502.3 (M-K)- (ES-). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.07 – 6.93 (m, 4H), 6.87 – 6.77 (m, 4H), 6.45 (s, 1H), 4.18 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.69 (s, 2H), 3.21 – 3.16 (m, 1H), 1.58 (s, 6H). Intermediate A28: 1-(5-hydroxypentyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-5- sulfonamide To a solution of N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A1, Step C) (4 g, 10.3 mmol) and K 2 CO 3 (4.28 g, 31.0 mmol) in MeCN (50 mL) was added 5-bromopentan-1-ol (5.17 g, 31.0 mmol) at 20°C. Then the mixture was stirred at 70°C for 12 h. The mixture was poured into water (300 mL) and extracted with DCM (2 x 200 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (300 mL), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to give the crude product as a mixture of regioisomers. The residue was purified by FC (PE: EtOAc, 3:1 to 1:1) to give the title compound as the minor regioisomer (800 mg, 16.36% yield) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 512.2 (M+K) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) d 7.50 (d, 1H), 7.00-6.97 (m, 4H), 6.85-6.82 (m, 4H), 6.57 (d, 1H), 4.36-4.30 (m, 6H), 3.81 (s, 6H), 3.64 (t, 2H), 2.05-1.92 (m, 2H), 1.61-1.57 (m, 2H), 1.43- 1.39 (m, 2H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Intermediate A29: 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1-(1-hydroxy-2- methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide Step A: ethyl 3-amino-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate To a solution of ethyl 2-cyano-3-ethoxyacrylate (20 g, 118 mmol) in EtOH (200 mL) was added N2H4.H 2 O (6.12 g, 120 mmol, 98% purity). The reaction solution was stirred at 20 °C for 3 h, then concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was triturated with MTBE (200 mL) to give the title compound (13.3 g, 72.5% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 156.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 9.68 (s, 1H), 7.57 (d, 1H), 4.30 (br s, 2H), 4.23 (q, 2H), 1.32 (t, 3H). Step B: ethyl 3-(chlorosulfonyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate To a solution of conc HCl (22 mL, 36% purity in water) and H 2 O (22 mL) was added ethyl 3-amino-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate (10.8 g, 69.6 mmol,). Then a solution of NaNO2 (5.04 g, 73.1 mmol) in H 2 O (10.8 mL) was added slowly to the mixture keeping the temperature below 3 °C. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 1 h to give a diazonium salt solution. SO 2 gas was bubbled into AcOH (80 mL) at 0~5 °C for 0.5 h, then CuCl 2 (4.68 g, 34.8 mmol) was added into the sulfur dioxide solution. The above diazonium salt solution was added dropwise into the saturated sulphur dioxide solution at 0 °C, then the mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 0.5 h. Water (200 mL) and DCM (200 mL) were added into the reaction mixture and the layers were separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with DCM (200 mL x 2). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 20:1 to 1:1) to give the title compound (5 g, 24.8% yield) as a yellow solid. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ): d 7.76 (s, 1H), 4.13-4.15 (m, 2H), 1.23 (t, 3H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step C: ethyl 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxyl ate To a solution of 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-[(4-methoxyphenyl)methyl]methanamine (4.85 g, 18.9 mmol) in DCM (50 mL) was added TEA (6.36 g, 62.9 mmol), followed by another solution of ethyl 3-(chlorosulfonyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate (5.0 g, 17.3 mmol, 82.5% purity) in THF (100 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 12 h, then concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (0.1% TFA). The eluting phase was adjusted to pH 8 with solid NaHCO 3 , and the aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (200 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum to give the title compound (8.0 g, 97.4% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 460.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ): d 8.52 (s, 1H), 7.01 (d, 4H), 6.77 (d, 4H), 4.36 (s, 4H), 4.23 (q, 2H), 3.70 (s, 6H), 1.26 (t, 3H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step D: 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxyl ic acid To a solution of ethyl 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazole-4- carboxylate (8.0 g, 17.4 mmol) in THF (80 mL) was added a solution of LiOH.H 2 O (4 g, 95.3 mmol) in H 2 O (80 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at 65 °C for 12 h, then washed with EtOAc (200 mL x 2). The aqueous layer was adjusted to pH 2 with 1M aq HCl and extracted with EtOAc (200 mL x 2). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (200 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum to give the title compound (7.0 g, 93.2% yield) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 454.1 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ): d 13.96 (br s, 1H), 12.74 (br s, 1H), 8.47 (s, 1H), 7.02-6.79 (m, 4H), 6.79-6.76 (m, 4H), 4.35 (s, 4H), 3.70 (s, 6H). Step E: 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1H-pyrazo le-4- carboxamide To a solution of 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxyl ic acid (2 g, 4.64 mmol) and dimethylamine (567 mg, 6.96 mmol, HCl salt) in DMF (30 mL) was added DIPEA (1.50 g, 11.6 mmol) and T3P (4.43 g, 6.96 mmol, 50% purity in EtOAc) at 0 o C. The solution was stirred at 25 o C for 2 h, then quenched with H 2 O (80 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (50 mL x 2). The organic phases were washed with brine (60 mL x 2), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 1:0 to 0:1) to give the title compound (2.1 g, 98.7% yield) as a colourless oil. LCMS: m/z 459.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 13.02 (s, 1H), 7.85 (s, 1H), 7.00 (d, 4H), 6.72 (d, 4H), 4.33 (s, 4H), 3.74 (s, 6H), 3.11 (s, 3H), 2.96 (s, 3H). Step F: methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-(dimethylcarbamoy l)-1H- pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropanoate To a solution of 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1H-pyrazo le-4- carboxamide (1.5 g, 3.27 mmol) and methyl 2-bromo-2-methylpropanoate (1.18 g, 6.54 mmol) in MeCN (40 mL) was added K2CO3 (904 mg, 6.54 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at 65 °C for 1 h. The mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 2:1 to 1:2) to give the title compound (1.8 g, 98.5% yield) as a colourless oil. LCMS: m/z 559.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.70 (s, 1H), 7.07 (d, 4H), 6.77 (d, 4H), 4.31 (s, 4H), 3.78 (s, 6H), 3.70 (s, 3H), 3.11 (s, 3H), 3.03 (s, 3H), 1.63 (s, 6H). Step G: 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylp ropan-2-yl)- N,N-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide To a solution of methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-(dimethyl- carbamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropanoate (2.3 g, 4.12 mmol) in EtOH (40 mL) was added NaBH 4 (467 mg, 12.4 mmol) in portions at 0 °C. The resultant solution was stirred at 25 °C for 2 h, then quenched with 1M aq HCl to pH 5 at 0 o C under N2. The mixture was diluted with H 2 O (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (50 mL x 3). The organic phases were washed with brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 1:1 to 0:1) to give the title compound (2.15 g, 98.4% yield) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 531.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.58 (s, 1H), 7.00 (d, 4H), 6.69 (d, 4H), 4.25 (s, 4H), 3.70-3.67 (m, 8H), 3.02 (s, 3H), 2.92 (s, 3H), 1.44 (s, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Intermediate A30: 4-fluoro-1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-5-((4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrazol e-3-sulfonamide Step A: 5-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-1H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylic acid To a solution of 4-fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A4, Step E) (13.5 g, 33.3 mmol) in THF (200 mL) was added slowly n-BuLi (2.5 M, 26.6 mL) at -70 °C under N2. The mixture was stirred for 0.5 h, then CO 2 (solid) was added slowly into the reaction mixture. The reaction mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 1 h, then concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% NH3.H 2 O)-MeCN) to give the title compound (3 g, 20.1% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 448.1 (M-H)- (ES-). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ): d 7.00 (d, 4H), 6.76 (d, 4H), 4.15 (s, 4H), 3.70 (s, 6H). Two exchangeable protons not observed. Step B: 4-fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-3-(4-methylpiperazine-1-ca rbonyl)-1H- pyrazole-5-sulfonamide To a solution of 5-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-1H-pyrazole-3 - carboxylic acid (500 mg, 1.11 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) was added DIPEA (431 mg, 3.34 mmol) and HATU (635 mg, 1.67 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 10 min, then 1-methylpiperazine (134 mg, 1.33 mmol) was added at 20 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 12 h, then quenched with H 2 O (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (50 mL x 3). The organic phases were washed with brine (50 mL x 2), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (DCM: MeOH, 30:1 to 20:1) to give the title compound (400 mg, 67.6% yield) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 532.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 7.08 (d, 4H), 6.78 (d, 4H), 4.38 (s, 4H), 3.79 (s, 6H), 3.73-3.78 (m, 2H), 3.62-3.59 (m, 2H), 2.55-2.51 (m, 4H), 2.40 (s, 3H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step C: methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-5-(4-methy l- piperazine-1-carbonyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropanoate To a solution of 4-fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-3-(4-methylpiperazine-1- carbonyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-sulfonamide (1.5 g, 2.82 mmol) in MeCN (10 mL) was added K 2 CO 3 (975 mg, 7.05 mmol) and methyl 2-bromo-2-methylpropanoate (613 mg, 3.39 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 70 °C for 2 h. Additional K2CO3 (975 mg, 7.05 mmol) and methyl 2-bromo-2-methylpropanoate (613 mg, 3.39 mmol) were added to the reaction mixture three times until the reaction was completed. The mixture was quenched with H 2 O (150 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (200 mL x 3). The organic phases were washed with brine (200 mL x 2), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (DCM: MeOH, 20:1 to 10:1) to give the title compound (1.5 g, 84.2% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 632.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6): d 7.11 (d, 4H), 6.83 (dd, 4H), 4.33 (s, 4H), 3.70-3.74 (m, 8H), 3.67 (s, 3H), 3.67-3.64 (m, 2H), 2.38-2.34 (m, 4H), 2.24 (s, 3H), 1.71 (s, 6H). Step D: 4-fluoro-1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxy benzyl)-5-((4- methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide To a solution of methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-5-(4- methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropan oate (500 mg, 792 µmol) in THF (10 mL) was added dropwise BH 3 -Me 2 S (10 M, 2.37 mL) at 0 °C under N2. The mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 0.5 h, then heated to 60 °C and stirred at 60 °C for 3 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to 20 °C and MeOH (20 mL) was added under N 2 . The mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 1 h, then heated to 60 °C for 12 h. The mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (320 mg, 57.5% yield, TFA salt) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 590.6 (M-TFA+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6): d 9.60 (br s, 1H), 7.08 (dd, 4H), 6.83 (d, 4H), 5.13 (br s, 1H), 4.27 (s, 4H), 3.74-3.71 (m, 8H), 3.64 (s, 2H), 3.45-3.43 (m, 2H), 3.04-2.97 (m, 2H), 2.97- 2.85 (m, 2H), 2.81 (s, 3H), 2.38-2.30 (m, 2H), 1.55 (s, 6H). Intermediate A31: 4-fluoro-1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxy - benzyl)-5-(4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulf onamide To a solution of methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-5-(4- methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropan oate (Intermediate A30, Step C) (600 mg, 950 µmol) in THF (15 mL) was added LiAlH4 (108 mg, 2.85 mmol) in portions at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 1 h, then quenched with EtOAc (10 mL) and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (0.28 g, 48.8% yield, TFA salt) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 604.5 (M-TFA+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ): d 7.12 (d, 4H), 6.86 (dd, 4H), 4.61 (s, 2H), 4.35-4.33 (m, 4H), 3.74-3.69 (m, 10H), 3.13-3.07 (m, 2H), 2.86-2.84 (m, 2H), 2.68-2.64 (m, 3H), 1.47 (s, 6H). One exchangeable proton and TFA proton not observed. Intermediate A32: 4-fluoro-1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-5-(morpholinomethyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamid e Step A: 4-fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-5-(morpholine-4-carbonyl)- 1H-pyrazole-3- sulfonamide To a solution of 5-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-1H-pyrazole-3 - carboxylic acid (Intermediate A30, Step A) (0.6 g, 1.33 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) was added DIPEA (518 mg, 4.00 mmol) and HATU (761 mg, 2.00 mmol). Then morpholine (139 mg, 1.60 mmol) was added to the mixture at 20 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 12 h, then purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (0.45 g, 65.0% yield) as a yellow gum. LCMS: m/z 519.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6): d 7.07 (d, 4H), 6.81 (d, 4H), 4.30 (s, 4H), 3.71 (s, 6H), 3.67-3.56 (m, 6H), 3.42-3.41 (m, 2H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step B: methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-5-(morphol ine-4- carbonyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropanoate To a solution of 4-fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-5-(morpholine-4-carbonyl)- 1H- pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (0.4 g, 771 µmol) in DMF (8 mL) was added Cs 2 CO 3 (754 mg, 2.31 mmol) and methyl 2-bromo-2-methylpropanoate (279 mg, 1.54 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 60 °C for 12 h, then water (100 mL) and EtOAc (100 mL) were added and the mixture was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (100 mL×2). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 1:0 to 1:1) to give the title compound (0.37 g, 78.2% yield) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 641.1 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.11 (dd, 4H), 6.81 (dd, 4H), 4.38 (s, 4H), 3.80 (s, 6H), 3.77 (s, 3H), 3.75-3.73 (m, 4H), 3.69-3.68 (m, 2H), 3.50-3.49 (m, 2H), 1.83 (s, 6H). Step C: 4-fluoro-1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxy benzyl)-5- (morpholinomethyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide To a solution of methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-5- (morpholine-4-carbonyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropanoate (0.7 g, 1.13 mmol) in THF (7 mL) was added BH3-Me2S (10 M, 7 mL) at 0 °C under N2. The reaction mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 0.5 h, then stirred at 60 °C for 12 h. The reaction mixture was quenched with MeOH (20 mL) at 0 °C, then stirred at 75 °C for 2 h. The mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (0.62 g, 93.5% yield) as a yellow gum. LCMS: m/z 577.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 7.12 (d, 4H), 6.80 (dd, 4H), 5.58 (br s, 1H), 4.40 (s, 4H), 4.34-4.31 (m, 2H), 3.97-3.89 (m, 4H), 3.80 (s, 6H), 3.71 (s, 2H), 3.22-3.30 (m, 4H), 1.67 (s, 6H). Intermediate A33: 1-(1-amino-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)- 1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonamide Step A: 2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2- methyl- propanamide To a solution of N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonamide (Intermediate A9, Step A) (2 g, 5.16 mmol) in MeCN (30 mL) was added 2-bromo- 2-methylpropanamide (1.11 g, 6.69 mmol) and K2CO3 (1.43 g, 10.4 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 60 °C for 16 h, then quenched with H 2 O (30 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (20 mL x 2). The organic phases were washed with brine (30 mL x 3), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 2:3 to 0:1) to give the title compound (2 g, 82.0% yield) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 473.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 7.73 (s, 1H), 7.58 (s, 1H), 7.15 (d, 4H), 6.83 (d, 4H), 6.03 (br s, 1H), 5.36 (br s, 1H), 4.24 (s, 4H), 3.80 (s, 6H), 1.79 (s, 6H). Step B: 1-(1-amino-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H- pyrazole-4- sulfonamide To a solution of 2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2- methyl- propanamide (2 g, 4.23 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added BH 3 -Me 2 S (10 M, 1.27 mL) at 0 °C in portions under N 2 . The resultant mixture was stirred at 60 °C for 12 h, then quenched with MeOH (30 mL) and then 1 M aq HCl (10 mL) at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 30 min, then concencentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (1.21 g, 57.8% yield, HCl salt) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 459.1 (M-HCl+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6): d 8.33 (s, 1H), 8.13 (br s, 3H), 7.91 (s, 1H), 7.09 (d, 4H), 6.82 (d, 4H), 4.18 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 2.51 (s, 2H), 1.58 (s, 6H). Intermediate B1: 2-(2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid Step A: methyl 2-(2-chloro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetate A solution of K2CO3 (44.9 g, 325 mmol) in water (50 mL) was added to methyl 2-(2,6- dichlorophenyl)acetate (17.8 g, 81 mmol), (2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)boronic acid (11.45 g, 81 mmol), XPhos (3.87 g, 8.13 mmol) and Pd 2 (dba) 3 (3.72 g, 4.06 mmol) in dioxane (500 mL) and the suspension was evacuated and backfilled with N2 three times whilst stirring at 60 °C, then the reaction was stirred at 90 °C for 1 h. The mixture was diluted with EtOAc (200 mL) and washed with water (200 mL) and brine (200 mL). The organic layer was separated, dried (MgSO4) and the product was purified by FC (0-20% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (11.5 g, 47%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 280.1/282.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 8.33 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.61 (dd, J = 8.1, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.46 (t, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.33 - 7.30 (m, 1H), 7.30 - 7.26 (m, 1H), 7.14 (br s, 1H), 3.72 (s, 2H), 3.59 (s, 3H). Step B: methyl 2-(2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-(prop-1-en-2-yl)phenyl)acetate Dioxane (200 mL) was added to methyl 2-(2-chloro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)phenyl)- acetate (11.5 g, 41.1 mmol), Pd2dba3 (1.05 g, 1.240 mmol) and XPhos (1.2 g, 2.52 mmol), under N 2 , followed by 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)-1,3,2-dioxaborolane (7.75 ml, 41.2 mmol) and a solution of K 2 CO 3 (17.05 g, 123 mmol) in water (20 mL). The reaction was heated at 95 °C for 20 h. After cooling to RT, the mixture was diluted with EtOAc (100 mL) and washed with 3:1 water/brine (2 x 200 mL). The organic layer was separated, dried (MgSO 4 ) and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-30% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (10.77 g, 90%) as a pale yellow oil. LCMS m/z 286.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.29 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.39 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 7.29 - 7.25 (m, 2H), 7.20 (dd, J = 7.6, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.14 - 7.10 (m, 1H), 5.31 - 5.18 (m, 1H), 4.90 - 4.76 (m, 1H), 3.64 (br s, 2H), 3.46 (br s, 3H), 2.00 (br s, 3H). Step C: methyl 2-(2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetate Methyl 2-(2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-(prop-1-en-2-yl)phenyl)acetate (275 mg, 0.964 mmol) and 10% Pd/C (103 mg, 0.096 mmol) were suspended in EtOH (20 mL). The reaction was stirred at RT under 2 atm H 2 for 18 h. The reaction mixture was filtered through a glass fibre filter, washing with MeOH, and concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound (290 mg, 99%) as a pale yellow oil. LCMS m/z 288.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) d 8.23 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.41 (dd, J = 7.9, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.17 - 7.14 (m, 1H), 7.04 (dd, J = 7.4, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.91 (t, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 3.68 (s, 3H), 3.59 (s, 2H), 3.06 (sept, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 1.25 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 6H). Step D: 2-(2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid 2 M NaOH (486 µL, 0.972 mmol) was added to a solution of methyl 2-(2-(2-fluoro- pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetate (254 mg, 0.884 mmol) in THF (5 mL) and the reaction stirred at RT for 3 h. Additional 2 M NaOH (486 µL, 0.972 mmol) was added and the reaction heated at 60 °C for 16 h. Further 2 M NaOH (972 mL, 1.944 mmol) was added and the reaction heated at 60 °C for 4 days. The reaction mixture was diluted with EtOAc (20 mL) and acidified to pH < 4 using aq 1 M HCl. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer extracted with EtOAc (2 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (phase separator) and concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound (0.210 g, 82%) as an orange oil. LCMS m/z 274.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 12.38 (s, 1H), 8.30 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.48 - 7.41 (m, 1H), 7.37 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.29 - 7.25 (m, 1H), 7.12 - 7.05 (m, 2H), 3.53 (s, 2H), 3.07 (sept, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 1.20 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 6H). Intermediate B2: tert-butyl 2-(2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropyl-3-methyl- phenyl)acetate Step A: 2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropyl-3-methylphenol F F OH Br N N OH + OH B OH N2 was bubbled through a stirred mixture of 2-bromo-6-isopropyl-3-methylphenol (2 g, 8.73 mmol), (2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)boronic acid (1.2 g, 8.52 mmol) and K 2 CO 3 (3.62 g, 26.2 mmol) in dioxane (30 mL) and water (5 mL) for 5 min. PdCl2(dppf).CH 2 Cl2 (319 mg, 0.436 mmol) was added and the mixture heated at 80 °C for 20 h. The mixture was cooled to RT, then partitioned between EtOAc (100 mL) and water (50 mL). The organic layer was dried (MgSO 4 ) and evaporated and the residue was purified by FC (0- 50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (1.26 g, 58% yield) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 246.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.27 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 8.08 (s, 1H), 7.21 (dt, J = 5.2, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.12 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.06 (s, 1H), 6.81 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 3.29 - 3.21 (m, 1H), 1.97 (s, 3H), 1.16 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 6H). Step B: 2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropyl-3-methylphenyl trifluoromethane- sulfonate A solution of 2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropyl-3-methylphenol (1.27 g, 5.18 mmol) in DCM (20 mL) was cooled to 0 °C. Pyridine (0.63 mL, 7.76 mmol) and Tf2O (7.76 mL, 7.76 mmol) were added sequentially to the stirred solution and the reaction mixture was warmed to RT and stirred for 18 h. The reaction was then diluted with DCM (50 mL) and washed with water (50 mL) and brine (50 mL). The organic layer was dried (phase separator) and concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound (1.72 g, 87%) as a light brown solid. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.37 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.61 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 6.49 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.28-735 (m, 1H), 7.29 (s, 1H), 3.22 (sept, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 2.12 (s, 3H), 1.26 (d, J - 6.8 Hz, 6H). Step C: tert-butyl 2-(2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropyl-3-methylphenyl)aceta te (2-(tert-Butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)zinc(II) bromide (0.33 M in THF, 6.02 mL, 1.987 mmol) was added to a solution of 2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropyl-3-methylphenyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (300 mg, 0.795 mmol), tetrabutylammonium bromide (384 mg, 1.192 mmol) and Xantphos-Pd-G3 (151 mg, 0.159 mmol) in THF (2 mL). The reaction was degassed with N 2 and stirred at 70 °C for 72 h under N 2 . The reaction was cooled to RT, quenched with water (15 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 15 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (phase separator) and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (215 mg, 78%) as an off-white solid. LCMS m/z 344.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.33 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 7.32 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.23 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.16-7.11 (m, 1H), 6.95-6.92 (m, 1H), 3.42-3.31 (m, 2H), 3.03 (sept, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 1.93 (s, 3H), 1.32 (s, 9H), 1.20-1.16 (m, 6H). Intermediate B3: tert-butyl 2-(5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-yl)- acetate Step A: 5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-amine A mixture of 5-bromo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-amine (10 g, 47.2 mmol), (2-fluoro- pyridin-4-yl)boronic acid (6.64 g, 47.2 mmol) and K2CO3 (19.6 g, 142 mmol) in dioxane (200 mL) and water (50 mL) was degassed with N2. PdCl2(dppf) (1.7 g, 2.323 mmol) was added and the reaction heated at 80°C for 20 h. After cooling at RT, the reaction was partitioned between EtOAc (100 mL) and water (50 mL). The organic layer was dried (MgSO 4 ) and evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (8.64 g, 79%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 229.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.24 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (ddd, J = 5.2, 2.2, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.16 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 6.90 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.60 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 4.82 (s, 2H), 2.84 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.71 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.03 (p, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H). Step B: 5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-ol Sodium nitrite (1.04 g, 15.07 mmol) in water (10 mL) was added to a solution of 5-(2- fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-amine (2.65 g, 11.61 mmol) in H 2 SO 4 (2 M in THF, 50 mL) at 0 °C and the reaction was stirred for 40 min. This solution was added slowly to H 2 SO4 (2 M in THF, 50 mL) and the reaction was stirred at 50 °C for 40 min, diluted with water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (150 mL). The aqueous phase was basified to pH ~8 with 2 M NaOH and extracted with EtOAc (150 mL). The combined organic phases were dried (MgSO4) and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-60% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (1.71 g, 59%) as a yellow solid. LCMS m/z 230.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 9.08 (br s, 1H), 8.21 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 7.54 - 7.49 (m, 1H), 7.30 (s, 1H), 7.19 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 6.85 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 2.90 - 2.84 (m, 4H), 2.03 (p, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H). Step C: 5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-yl trifluoromethanesulfonate 1,1,1-Trifluoro-N-phenyl-N-((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)methan esulfonamide (3.20 g, 8.95 mmol) was added portion-wise to a solution of 5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3- dihydro-1H-inden-4-ol (1.71 g, 7.46 mmol) and DIPEA (3.26 mL, 18.65 mmol) in DCM (25 mL). The reaction was stirred for 2 days, then diluted with DCM (35 ml), washed with aq 1 M HCl (2 x 100 mL) and sat aq NaHCO 3 (100 mL). The organic phase was dried (MgSO4) and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0- 50% EtOAc/isohexane) then taken up in DCM (100 mL) and washed with sat aq NaHCO 3 (100 mL). The organic phase was dried (MgSO 4 ) and concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound (2.18 g, 81%). LCMS m/z 362.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.34 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.50 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.47 (dt, J = 5.2, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.45 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (br s, 1H), 3.07 - 3.01 (m, 4H), 2.15 (p, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H). Step D: tert-butyl 2-(5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-yl)acetat e Zn dust (12.97 g, 198 mmol) was suspended in 1 M HCl (100 mL) and stirred at RT for 1 h under N2. The supernatant was removed with a syringe and the zinc washed with EtOH (2 x 100 mL) and THF (2 x 100 mL). The Zn dust was dried under vacuum for 16 h and taken up in THF (150 mL). TMSCl (1.70 mL, 13.30 mmol) and 1,2-dibromoethane (1.14 mL, 13.23 mmol) were added and the mixture was heated to reflux for 1 h. tert- Butyl 2-bromoacetate (15 mL, 66.1 mmol) was added dropwise whilst maintaining controlled reflux and the reaction was heated to reflux for 1 h. The supernatant containing the crude (2-(tert-butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)zinc(II) bromide (34.3 mL, 15.08 mmol) was added to a solution of 5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-yl trifluoromethanesulfonate (2.18 g, 6.03 mmol), Pd2(dba)3 (0.55 g, 0.601 mmol) and XPhos (0.58 g, 1.217 mmol) in THF (10 mL) and the solution was stirred at 70 °C for 1 h. After cooling to RT, the reaction was diluted with EtOAc (100 mL) and water (200 mL) and the residue was filtered. The phases were separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 150 mL), the combined organics were dried (MgSO4), loaded onto silica and purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) followed by FC (0-10% MTBE/isohexane) to afford the title compound (1.64 g, 75 %) as a colourless oil. LCMS m/z 328.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.29 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.28 - 7.24 (m, 2H), 7.10 - 7.05 (m, 2H), 3.51 (s, 2H), 2.95 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.86 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.06 (p, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.33 (s, 9H). Intermediate B4: tert-butyl 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)- acetate Step A: 2-bromo-4-fluoro-6-isopropylaniline NBS (7.16 g, 40.2 mmol) was added portion wise to a solution of 4-fluoro-2-isopropyl- aniline (6.16 g, 40.2 mmol) in DCM (150 mL) at 0 °C. The reaction was stirred at 0 °C for 1.5 h. The reaction was diluted with DCM (100 mL), washed with water (200 mL) and the organic phase was further washed with sat aq Na 2 S 2 O 3 (200 mL). The organic phase was separated, dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and purified by FC (0-30% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (6.62 g, 69%) as a deep purple oil. LCMS m/z 232.1, 234.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) d 7.06 (dd, J = 7.7, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 6.85 (dd, J = 9.8, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 3.98 (br s, 2H), 2.95 - 2.85 (m, 1H), 1.25 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 6H). Step B: 4-fluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylaniline A solution of 2-bromo-4-fluoro-6-isopropylaniline (5.60 g, 24.13 mmol) in dry 1,4- dioxane (200 mL) was added to a mixture of (2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)boronic acid (3.40 g, 24.13 mmol) and Pd(dppf)Cl2.DCM (1.0 g, 1.225 mmol) followed by a solution of potassium carbonate (13.30 g, 96 mmol) in water (20 mL). The resulting suspension was evacuated and backfilled with N 2 twice before stirring at 95 °C for 1 h. The reaction was diluted with EtOAc (200 mL) and washed with water (250 mL). The organic phase was separated, dried (MgSO4), filtered and directly loaded onto silica for purification. The crude product was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (4.93 g, 79%) as a purple oil. LCMS m/z 249.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.28 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.43 - 7.39 (m, 1H), 7.23 - 7.20 (m, 1H), 6.97 (dd, J = 10.2, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 6.79 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 4.63 (br s, 2H), 3.13 - 3.03 (m, 1H), 1.18 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 6H). Step C: 4-(2-bromo-5-fluoro-3-isopropylphenyl)-2-fluoropyridine To a mixture of 4-fluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylaniline (6.5 g, 24.87 mmol), CuBr (4.91 g, 34.2 mmol) and CuBr2 (0.032 g, 0.143 mmol) was added MeCN (75 mL). The suspension was cooled to 0 °C over 10 min. Neat isopentyl nitrite (4.6 mL, 34.2 mmol) was added to the solution dropwise and then the reaction mixture was left to stir at 50 °C for 2 h. The reaction mixture was left to cool to RT, filtered through a pad of Celite ® and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-15% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (4.98 g, 53%) as a pink solid. LCMS m/z 312.1, 314.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.34 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.44 - 7.36 (m, 2H), 7.28 (s, 1H), 7.24 (dd, J = 8.5, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.40 (p, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 1.25 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 6H). Step D: tert-butyl 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)aceta te 4-(2-Bromo-5-fluoro-3-isopropylphenyl)-2-fluoropyridine (2.46 g, 7.88 mmol) and XPhos (0.752 g, 1.577 mmol) were suspended in dry THF (5 mL). The mixture was degassed (N2) for 5 min, then evacuated and back-filled with N2 (x 3), then Pd2(dba)3 (0.722 g, 0.789 mmol) was added and the reaction evacuated and back-filled with N 2 (x 3). (2-(tert-Butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)zinc(II) bromide (0.41 M in THF) (57.7 mL, 23.66 mmol) was added and the reaction stirred at reflux for 3 h. The reaction was diluted with MTBE (200 mL) and filtered. The filtrate was washed with brine (200 mL), dried using a phase separator and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-30% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (2.44 g, 80%) as a yellow oil. LCMS m/z 348.5 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.33 (d, J = 5.9 Hz, 1H), 7.32-7.26 (m, 2H), 7.11-7.09 (m, 1H), 7.00 (dd, J = 8.8, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 2.50 (s, 2H), 3.12-3.05 (m, 1H), 1.34 (s, 9H), 1.20 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 6H). Intermediate B5: methyl 2-(4-fluoro-2-isopropyl-6-(2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridin-4-yl)- phenyl)acetate Step A: 2-(4-fluoro-2-isopropyl-6-(2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridin-4-yl)phe nyl)acetic acid A mixture of 2-(4-fluoro-2-isopropyl-6-(2-methoxypyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acet ic acid (2.2 g, 7.25 mmol) in dioxane and aq 1 M HCl (15 mL) was heated at 70 °C for 5 h, conc HCl (0.5 mL) added and heated for a further 48 h. A further portion of conc HCl (1 mL) was added, and the mixture was heated at 70 °C for 48 h. The mixture was cooled, filtered and washed with water (5 mL). The solid was evaporated from MeOH (2 x 20 mL) and dried to afford the title compound (1.00 g, 46%) as an off-white solid. LCMS m/z 288.2 (M-H)-(ES-). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 12.40 (br s, 1H), 11.76 (br s, 1H), 7.43 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 1H), 7.22 (dd, J = 10.5, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 6.90 (dd, J = 8.9, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 6.17 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 6.07 (dd, J = 6.6, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 3.54 (s, 2H), 3.07-2.96 (m, 1H), 1.18 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 6H). Step B: methyl 2-(4-fluoro-2-isopropyl-6-(2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridin-4-yl)phe nyl)- acetate AcCl (3 mL, 42.2 mmol) was added dropwise to MeOH (20 mL) cooled with an ice bath. The mixture was allowed to warm to RT, then 2-(4-fluoro-2-isopropyl-6-(2-oxo-1,2- dihydropyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid (990 mg, 3.42 mmol) was added and the mixture stirred for 24 h. The solvent was evaporated, and the residue purified by FC (0- 10% MeOH/DCM) to afford the title compound (1.04 g, 98%) as a white powder. LCMS m/z 303.8 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 7.86-7.78 (br m, 1H), 7.12 (dd, J = 10.1, 2.6 Hz, 1H), 6.88 - 6.76 (m, 2H), 6.72-6.64 (br m, 1H), 3.70 (s, 3H), 3.60 (s, 2H), 3.10 - 3.01 (m, 1H), 1.25 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Intermediate B6: 2-(2-cyclopropyl-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid Step A: methyl 2-(2-chloro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetate A solution of potassium carbonate (33.0 g, 240 mmol) in water (36 mL) was added to a solution of methyl 2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)acetate (13.0 g, 59 mmol), (2-fluoropyridin-4- yl)boronic acid (8.40 g, 59 mmol), XPhos (2.80 g, 5.9 mmol) and Pd 2 (dba) 3 (2.70 g, 2.95 mmol) in anhydrous 1,4-dioxane (365 mL) and the suspension was evacuated and backfilled with N2 three times whilst stirring at 60 °C, then the reaction was stirred at 90 °C for 1.5 h. The solvent was removed and the resultant liquor was diluted with EtOAc (200 mL) and washed with water (200 mL) and brine (200 mL). The organic phase was separated, dried (MgSO4) and filtered. The crude product was purified by FC (0-20% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford methyl 2-(2-chloro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)- phenyl)acetate (4.8 g, 17 mmol, 28%) as a pale yellow solid . Fractions containing methyl 2-(2,6-bis(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetate and methyl 2-(2-chloro-6-(2- fluoropyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetate were re-purified by FC (0-20% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford methyl 2-(2-chloro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetate as an off-white solid (1.63 g). In total 6.43 g (39%) of title compound were obtained. 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 8.27 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 7.50 (dd, J = 8.1, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.33 (t, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.16 (m, 2H), 6.93 – 6.89 (m, 1H), 3.72 (s, 3H), 3.68 (s, 2H). Step B: methyl 2-(2-cyclopropyl-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetate A suspension of methyl 2-(2-chloro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetate (2.00 g, 7.15 mmol), potassium phosphate (5.46 g, 25.7 mmol), cyclopropylboronic acid (921 mg, 10.7 mmol) and tricyclohexylphosphane (100 mg, 358 µmol) in toluene (50 mL) and water (8 mL) was degassed with N 2 (5 min), then evacuated and back-filled with N 2 (3 x). Palladium (II) acetate (80.3 mg, 358 µmol) was added and the reaction mixture was refluxed for 18 h. The reaction was allowed to cool to RT before dilution with EtOAc (200 mL), washed with water (200 mL) then brine (100 mL) followed by removal of the solvent under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (0.56 g, 23%) as a pale yellow oil. 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 8.24 (d, J = 5.1, 1H), 7.29 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.19 – 7.14 (m, 2H), 7.07 (dd, J = 7.6, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 6.94 – 6.92 (m, 1H), 3.75 (s, 2H), 3.68 (s, 3H), 1.86 (m, J = 8.5, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 0.99 – 0.93 (m, 2H), 0.72 – 0.66 (m, 2H). Step C: 2-(2-cyclopropyl-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid To a stirred solution of methyl 2-(2-cyclopropyl-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetate (580 mg, 2.03 mmol) in dry 1,4-dioxane (10 mL) was added 2M aq NaOH (2 mL) The reaction mixture was stirred for 3.5 h at 90 °C. The solution was acidified to ~ pH 2 then diluted with EtOAc (25 mL) and transferred into a separatory funnel. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (25 mL), dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-70% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (440 mg, 64%) as a pale yellow oil. 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 8.26 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.31 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.21 – 7.14 (m, 2H), 7.08 (dd, J = 7.6, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 6.93 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 3.81 (s, 2H), 1.90 (ddd, J = 13.9, 8.5, 5.5 Hz, 1H), 1.03 – 0.98 (m, 2H), 0.74 – 0.70 (m, 2H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Intermediate B7: tert-butyl 2-(3,4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropyl- phenyl)acetate Step A: 4,5-difluoro-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)aniline To a solution of 2-bromo-4,5-difluoroaniline (10 g, 48 mmol), 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-2- (prop-1-en-2-yl)-1,3,2-dioxaborolane (8.1 g, 48 mmol) and PdCl 2 (dppf).DCM (2.0 g, 2.4 mmol) in anhydrous 1,4-dioxane (200 mL) was added a solution of K 2 CO 3 (20 g, 0.14 mol) in water (20 mL) and the resulting suspension was evacuated and backfilled with N2 twice before stirring at 100 °C for 3 h. The reaction mixture was partitioned between EtOAc (20 mL) and water (20 mL). The organic phase was separated, the aqueous was further extracted with EtOAc (20 mL), the organic phases were combined, dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by FC (0-30% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (5.65 g, 57%) as a pale pink oil. LCMS m/z 170.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 6.95 (dd, J = 11.8, 9.2 Hz, 1H), 6.60 (dd, J = 13.3, 7.5 Hz, 1H), 5.27 – 5.23 (m, 1H), 5.02 – 4.97 (m, 1H), 4.95 (s, 2H), 1.97 (s, 3H). Step B: 4,5-difluoro-2-isopropylaniline 4,5-difluoro-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)aniline (5.65 g, 33.4 mmol) and Pd/C (10%) (1.8 g, 10 wt%, 1.67 mmol) were suspended in EtOH (70 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred at RT under 5 atm H 2 for 6 h. The reaction mixture was filtered through a glass fibre filter and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford the title compound (5.21 g, 82%) as a light purple oil. LCMS m/z 172.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 6.99 (dd, J = 12.6, 9.2 Hz, 1H), 6.59 (dd, J = 13.1, 7.6 Hz, 1H), 5.43 (s, 2H), 2.96 – 2.86 (m, 1H), 1.11 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 6H). Step C: 2-bromo-3,4-difluoro-6-isopropylaniline Prepared according to the general procedure of 2-bromo-4-fluoro-6-isopropylaniline (Intermediate B4, Step A) from 4,5-difluoro-2-isopropylaniline and NBS to afford the title compound (6.8 g, 83%) as a purple oil. LCMS m/z 250.1/252.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.10 (dd, J = 12.0, 8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.20 (s, 2H), 3.05 (sept, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 1.13 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 6H). Step D: 3,4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylaniline Prepared according to the general procedure of 4,5-difluoro-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)aniline (Intermediate B7, Step A) from 2-bromo-3,4-difluoro-6-isopropylaniline and 2- fluoropyridine-4-boronic acid to afford the title compound (5.82 g, 76%) as an orange oil. LCMS m/z 267.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.35 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.34 (d, J = 4.5 Hz, 1H), 7.22 (s, 1H), 7.13 (dd, J = 12.2, 9.0 Hz, 1H), 4.75 (s, 2H), 3.12 – 2.97 (m, 1H), 1.16 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 6H). Step E: 4-(2-bromo-5,6-difluoro-3-isopropylphenyl)-2-fluoropyridine Prepared according to the general procedure of 4-(2-bromo-5-fluoro-3-isopropyl- phenyl)-2-fluoropyridine (Intermediate B4, Step C) from 3,4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro- pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylaniline to afford the title compound (4.52 g, 60%) as a light pink solid. LCMS m/z 330.1/332.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.41 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.69 (dd, J = 12.0, 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.44 – 7.41 (m, 1H), 7.36 (s, 1H), 1.23 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 6H). One proton obscured by water signal. Step F: tert-butyl 2-(3,4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)a cetate Prepared according to the general procedure of tert-butyl 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-fluoro- pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetate (Intermediate B4, Step D) from 4-(2- bromo-5,6-difluoro-3-isopropylphenyl)-2-fluoropyridine and (2-isopropoxy-2- oxoethyl)zinc(II) bromide to afford the title compound (4.41 g, 83%) as an orange oil. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.39 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.53 (dd, J = 12.3, 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.16 (s, 1H), 3.47 – 3.36 (m, 2H), 3.11 – 3.01 (m, 1H), 1.31 (s, 9H), 1.19 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 6H). Intermediate B8: tert-butyl 2-(3,4-difluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2-isopropyl- phenyl)acetate Step A: 4,5-difluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)aniline Prepared according to the general procedure of 4,5-difluoro-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)aniline (Intermediate B7, Step A) from 2-bromo-4,5-difluoroaniline and 2-fluoropyridine- 4-boronic acid to afford the title compound (6.91 g, 63%) as a pale orange solid. LCMS m/z 225.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.27 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.42 (dt, J = 5.2, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.25 – 7.17 (m, 2H), 6.74 (dd, J = 13.2, 7.4 Hz, 1H), 5.33 (s, 2H). Step B: 2-bromo-3,4-difluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)aniline Prepared according to the general procedure of 2-bromo-4-fluoro-6-isopropylaniline (Intermediate B4, Step A) from 4,5-difluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)aniline and NBS to afford the title compound (7.72 g, 79%) as a brown solid. LCMS m/z 303.0/305.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.31 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.42 – 7.38 (m, 1H), 7.32 (dd, J = 10.9, 8.7 Hz, 1H), 7.25 – 7.20 (m, 1H), 5.32 (br s, 2H). Step C: 3,4-difluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)anil ine Prepared according to the general procedure of 4,5-difluoro-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)aniline (Intermediate B7, Step A) from 2-bromo-3,4-difluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)- aniline and isopropenylboronic acid pinacol ester to afford the title compound (7.11 g, 95%) as a pale orange solid. LCMS m/z 265.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.28 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.44 – 7.39 (m, 1H), 7.26 – 7.21 (m, 1H), 7.17 (dd, J = 11.2, 8.8 Hz, 1H), 5.54 – 5.50 (m, 1H), 5.11 – 5.06 (m, 1H), 4.74 (s, 2H), 2.00 (s, 3H). Step D: 3,4-difluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2-isopropylaniline Prepared according to the general procedure of 4,5-difluoro-2-isopropylaniline (Intermediate B7, Step B) from 3,4-difluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2-(prop-1-en- 2-yl)aniline to afford the title compound (6.52 g, 97%) as an orange oil. LCMS m/z 267.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.27 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (dt, J = 5.2, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.22 – 7.16 (m, 1H), 7.02 (dd, J = 11.0, 8.8 Hz, 1H), 4.90 (s, 2H), 3.27 (p, J = 7.1 Hz, 1H), 1.29 (dd, J = 7.0, 1.6 Hz, 6H). Step E: 4-(2-bromo-4,5-difluoro-3-isopropylphenyl)-2-fluoropyridine Prepared according to the general procedure of 4-(2-bromo-5-fluoro-3-isopropyl- phenyl)-2-fluoropyridine (Intermediate B4, Step C) from 3,4-difluoro-6-(2-fluoro- pyridin-4-yl)-2-isopropylaniline to afford the title compound (4.52 g, 60%) as a pale yellow oil. LCMS m/z 330.1/332.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.34 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.56 (dd, J = 10.6, 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.40 (dt, J = 5.1, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.27 (s, 1H), 3.63 (tt, J = 8.2, 6.3 Hz, 1H), 1.36 (dd, J = 7.1, 1.7 Hz, 6H). Step F: tert-butyl 2-(3,4-difluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2-isopropylphenyl)a cetate Prepared according to the general procedure of tert-butyl 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-fluoro- pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetate (Intermediate B4, Step D) from 4-(2- bromo-4,5-difluoro-3-isopropylphenyl)-2-fluoropyridine and (2-isopropoxy-2- oxoethyl)zinc(II) bromide to afford the title compound (5.62 g, 88%) as an orange oil. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.33 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (dd, J = 10.6, 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.27 – 7.22 (m, 1H), 7.07 (s, 1H), 3.50 (s, 2H), 3.12 (p, J = 6.9 Hz, 1H), 1.37 (s, 9H), 1.34 – 1.29 (m, 6H). Intermediate B9: 5-(2-bromo-3-isopropylphenyl)-3-chloropyridazine Step A: 2-chloro-6-(prop-1-en-2-yl)aniline To a solution of 2,6-dichloroaniline (40 g, 247 mmol) in dioxane (400 mL) and H 2 O (40 mL) was added potassium trifluoro(prop-1-en-2-yl)borate (38.4 g, 259 mmol), K2CO3 (68.2 g, 494 mmol) and Pd(dppf)Cl2.DCM (10.1 g, 12.3 mmol) under N2. The mixture was warmed to 90 °C and stirred at 90 °C for 12 h. The reaction mixture was quenched with H 2 O (300 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (300 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (300 mL x 2), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 1:0 to 1:0) to give the title compound (25 g, 60.4%) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 168.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 7.14 (dd, 1H), 8.90 (dd, 1H), 6.57 (t, 1H), 5.28 (t, 1H), 4.99 (d, 1H), 4.84 (br s, 2H), 2.00 (s, 3H). Step B: 2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)-6-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan -2-yl)aniline To a solution of 2-chloro-6-(prop-1-en-2-yl)aniline (15 g, 89.5 mmol), 4,4,4',4',5,5,5',5'- octamethyl-2,2'-bi(1,3,2-dioxaborolane) (34.1 g, 134 mmol) and AcOK (26.4 g, 268 mmol) in dioxane (250 mL) was added XPhos (3.41 g, 7.16 mmol) and Pd 2 (dba) 3 (3.28 g, 3.58 mmol) at 20 °C under N2. The reaction mixture was warmed to 100 °C and stirred at 100 °C for 12 h. The reaction mixture was quenched with H 2 O (300 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (300 mL x 3). The organic phases were washed with brine (300 mL x 2), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 1:0 to 100:1) to give the title compound (23 g, 76.3%) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 260.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.33 (dd, 1H), 7.00 (dd, 1H), 6.51 (t, 1H), 5.23 (t, 1H), 5.18 (br s, 2H), 4.93 (s, 1H), 1.99 (s, 3H), 1.29 (s, 12H). Step C: 5-(2-amino-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)phenyl)pyridazin-3-ol To a solution of 2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)-6-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan -2-yl)- aniline (3 g, 11.6 mmol) and 5-chloropyridazin-3-ol (1.51 g, 11.6 mmol) in dioxane (30 mL) and H 2 O (4 mL) was added Pd(dppf)Cl 2 .DCM (473 mg, 579 µmol) and K 2 CO 3 (3.20 g, 23.2 mmol) under N2. The reaction mixture was heated to 100 °C and stirred at 100 °C for 1 h. The reaction mixture was quenched with H 2 O (80 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (80 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (80 mL x 2), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 2:1 to 1:1) to give the title compound (2.1 g, 72.6%) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 228.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 12.98 (br s, 1H), 7.90 (d, 1H), 7.04-6.98 (m, 2H), 6.81 (s, 1H), 6.68 (t, 1H), 5.30 (d, 1H), 5.00 (d, 1H), 4.76 (br s, 2H), 2.02 (s, 3H). Step D: 5-(2-amino-3-isopropylphenyl)pyridazin-3-ol To a solution of 5-(2-amino-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)phenyl)pyridazin-3-ol (2.1 g, 9.24 mmol) in MeOH (25 mL) was added Pd/C (0.1 g, 10 wt% on charcoal) under N2. The suspension was degassed under reduced pressure and purged with H 2 several times. The reaction mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 36 h under H 2 (15 psi). The reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuum to give the title compound (1.9 g, 89.7%) as a green solid. LCMS: m/z 230.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 12.94 (br s, 1H), 7.87 (d, 1H), 7.12 (d, 1H), 6.90 (t, 1H), 6.78 (d, 1H), 6.67 (t, 1H), 4.89 (br s, 2H), 3.10-3.02 (m, 1H), 1.17 (d, 6H). Step E: 5-(2-bromo-3-isopropylphenyl)pyridazin-3-ol To a solution of 5-(2-amino-3-isopropylphenyl)pyridazin-3-ol (1.3 g, 5.67 mmol) in MeCN (26 mL) was added a solution of HBr (3.87 g, 17.7 mmol, 37 wt% in AcOH) in H 2 O (2.6 mL) at 0 °C, followed by a solution of NaNO2 (469 mg, 6.80 mmol) in H 2 O (2.6 mL) at 0 °C. Then the resulting mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 0.5 h. To the above solution was added CuBr (976 mg, 6.80 mmol) and CuBr 2 (507 mg, 2.27 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 14 h. The reaction mixture was quenched with H 2 O (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (50 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (50 mL x 2), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 3:1 to 2:1) to give the title compound (1.2 g, 72.2%) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 295.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 13.17 (br s, 1H), 7.91 (s, 1H), 7.51-7.44 (m, 2H), 7.32-7.25 (m, 1H), 6.83 (s, 1H), 3.43-3.37 (m, 1H), 1.31 (d, 6H). Step F: 5-(2-bromo-3-isopropylphenyl)-3-chloropyridazine A solution of 5-(2-bromo-3-isopropylphenyl)pyridazin-3-ol (1.2 g, 4.09 mmol) in POCl3 (19.8 g, 129 mmol) was heated to 80 °C and stirred at 80 °C for 1 h. The reaction mixture was slowly quenched with H 2 O (150 mL) at 20 °C. The mixture was adjusted to pH=7 with solid NaOH at 25 °C and then extracted with EtOAc (150 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (150 mL x 2), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 8:1 to 5:1) to give the title compound (1 g, 78.4%) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 312.9 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) d 9.19 (s, 1H), 7.57 (d, 1H), 7.46-7.40 (m, 2H), 7.13-7.10 (m, 1H), 3.54- 3.47 (m, 1H), 1.30 (d, 6 H). Intermediate B10: tert-butyl 2-(4-cyano-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropyl- phenyl)acetate Step A: 4-amino-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)benzonitrile To a solution of 4-amino-3-bromobenzonitrile (6 g, 30.5 mmol) in dioxane (60 mL) and H 2 O (12 mL) was added potassium trifluoro(prop-1-en-2-yl)borate (5.41 g, 36.5 mmol), Pd(dppf)Cl 2 .DCM (1.24 g, 1.52 mmol) and Na 2 CO 3 (6.46 g, 60.9 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 90 °C for 12 h under N2. The reaction mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (150 mL × 3). The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 30:1 to 10:1) to give the title compound (4 g, 82.5% yield, 99.3% purity on LCMS) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 159.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.35-7.28 (m, 2H), 6.67 (d, 1H), 5.37 (d, 1H), 5.09 (s, 1H), 4.33 (br s, 2H), 2.05 (s, 3H). Step B: 4-amino-3-isopropylbenzonitrile To a solution of 4-amino-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)benzonitrile (4 g, 25.3 mmol) in MeOH (50 mL) was added Pd/C (0.5 g, 10% purity loading on active carbon) under N2. The mixture was degassed in vacuum and purged with H 2 several times. The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 12 h under H 2 (15 psi). The reaction mixture was filtered through the celite and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuum to give the title compound (4 g, 98.7% yield) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 161.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 7.40 (d, 1H), 7.30 (d, 1H), 6.65 (d, 1H), 4.13 (br s, 2H), 2.86-2.79 (m, 1H), 1.27 (d, 6H). Step C: 4-amino-3-bromo-5-isopropylbenzonitrile To a solution of 4-amino-3-isopropylbenzonitrile (4 g, 25.0 mmol) in MeCN (50 mL) was added NBS (4.67 g, 26.2 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 1 h, then quenched with sat aq Na 2 SO 3 (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (100 mL × 3). The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 5:1 to 3:1) to give the title compound (5.4 g, 90.5% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 240.8 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): 7.60 (d, 1H), 7.34 (d, 1H), 4.70 (br s, 2H), 2.97-2.78 (m, 1H), 1.28 (d, 6H). Step D: 4-amino-3-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-5-isopropylbenzonitrile To a solution of 4-amino-3-bromo-5-isopropylbenzonitrile (4.9 g, 20.5 mmol) and (2- fluoropyridin-4-yl)boronic acid (3.03 g, 21.5 mmol) in dioxane (10 mL) and H 2 O (2 mL) was added Pd(dppf)Cl2.DCM (837 mg, 1.02 mmol) and Na2CO3 (4.34 g, 41.0 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 90 °C for 12 h under N2. The reaction mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (150 mL × 3). The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 10:1 to 3:1) to give the title compound (5 g, 95.6% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 256.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.35 (d, 1H), 7.47 (d, 1H), 7.28-7.26 (m, 2H), 7.03 (s, 1H), 4.31 (br s, 2H), 2.90-2.84 (m, 1H), 1.32 (d, 6H). Step E: 4-bromo-3-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-5-isopropylbenzonitrile To a solution of 4-amino-3-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-5-isopropylbenzonitrile (5 g, 19.6 mmol) in MeCN (100 mL) was added HBr (73.7 mmol, 10 mL, 40% purity in H 2 O) in H 2 O (10 mL) at 0 °C. Then a solution of NaNO2 (1.62 g, 23.5 mmol) in H 2 O (10 mL) was added. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 30 min, then CuBr2 (2.19 g, 9.79 mmol) and CuBr (140 mg, 979 µmol) were added. The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 2 h, then quenched with sat aq Na 2 SO 3 (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (150 mL × 3). The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 30: 1 to 10:1) to give the title compound (5.9 g, 94.4% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 319.2, 321.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.33 (d, 1H), 7.63 (d, 1H), 7.38 (d, 1H), 7.18 (dd, 1H), 6.94 (s, 1H), 3.56-3.50 (m, 1H), 1.32 (d, 6H). Step F: tert-butyl 2-(4-cyano-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetat e To a solution of 4-bromo-3-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-5-isopropylbenzonitrile (5.8 g, 18.2 mmol) and palladium; tri-tert-butylphosphane (464 mg, 909 µmol) in THF (50 mL) was added (2-(tert-butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)zinc(II) bromide (0.51 M in THF, 107 mL) under N 2 . The mixture was stirred at 70 °C for 2 h, then quenched with water (150 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (200 mL × 3). The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% HCl)-MeCN) to give the title compound (4 g, 54.6% yield, 97% purity on LCMS, HCl salt) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 355.4 (M-HCl+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): d 8.29 (d, 1H), 7.81 (d, 1H), 7.49 (d, 1H), 7.28-7.26 (m, 1H), 7.05 (s, 1H), 3.64 (s, 2H), 3.25-3.14 (m, 1H), 1.41 (s, 9H), 1.30 (d, 6H). HCl proton not observed. Intermediate B11: tert-butyl 2-(4-(difluoromethoxy)-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6- isopropylphenyl)acetate Step A: 2-bromo-4-(difluoromethoxy)aniline To a solution of 4-(difluoromethoxy)aniline (20 g, 126 mmol) in MeCN (200 mL) was added dropwise a solution of NBS (20.1 g, 113 mmol) in MeCN (200 mL) at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 3 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with H 2 O (250 mL) and extracted with DCM (250 mL × 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (250 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 200:1 to 20:1) to give the title compound (24 g, 80.2% yield) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 238.03 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 7.25 (s, 1H), 6.94 (dd, 1H), 6.74 (d, 1H), 6.38 (t, 1H), 4.10 (br s, 2H). Step B: 4-(difluoromethoxy)-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)aniline To a solution of 2-bromo-4-(difluoromethoxy)aniline (10 g, 42.0 mmol) and potassium trifluoro(prop-1-en-2-yl)borate (6.84 g, 46.2 mmol) in dioxane (200 mL) and H 2 O (40 mL) were added Pd(dppf)Cl2.DCM (3.43 g, 4.20 mmol) and Na2CO3 (11.1 g, 105 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 95 °C for 12 h under N2. The reaction mixture was diluted with H 2 O (300 mL) and extracted with DCM (300 mL × 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (300 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 1:0 to 20:1) to give the title compound (7 g, 83.7% yield) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 200.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 6.84 (d, 2H), 6.64 (d, 1H), 6.39 (t, 1H), 5.32 (s, 1H), 5.08 (s, 1H), 3.80 (br s, 2H), 2.06 (s, 3H). Step C: 4-(difluoromethoxy)-2-isopropylaniline To a solution of 4-(difluoromethoxy)-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)aniline (7 g, 35.1 mmol) in MeOH (200 mL) was added Pd/C (2 g, 10% purity loading on active carbon) under N2. The mixture was degassed under vacuum and purged three times with H 2 . The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 12 h under H 2 (15 psi). The reaction mixture was filtered and diluted with H 2 O (300 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (300 mL × 2). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (300 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 1:0 to 10:1) to give the title compound (7 g, 99.0% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 202.1(M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 6.92 (d, 1H), 6.82 (dd, 1H), 6.60 (d, 1H), 6.39 (t, 1H), 3.52 (br s, 2H), 2.92-2.85 (m, 1H), 1.25 (d, 6H). Step D: 2-bromo-4-(difluoromethoxy)-6-isopropylaniline To a solution of 4-(difluoromethoxy)-2-isopropylaniline (6.9 g, 34.3 mmol) in MeCN (300 mL) was added dropwise a solution of NBS (6.1 g, 34.3 mmol) in MeCN (300 mL) at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 3 h. The reaction solution was diluted with H 2 O (300ml) and extracted with DCM (300 mL × 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (300 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 100:1 to 10:1) to give the title compound (9 g, 93.7% yield) as a grey oil. LCMS: m/z 280.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.15 (d, 1H), 6.91 (d, 1H), 6.38 (t, 1H), 4.12 (br s, 2H), 2.93-2.86 (m, 1H), 1.25 (d, 6H). Step E: 4-(difluoromethoxy)-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylanil ine To a solution of (2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)boronic acid (4.70 g, 33.4 mmol) and 2-bromo-4- (difluoromethoxy)-6-isopropylaniline (8.5 g, 30.4 mmol) in H 2 O (60 mL) and dioxane (240 mL) were added Pd(dppf)Cl 2 .DCM (2.48 g, 3.03 mmol) and Na 2 CO 3 (8.04 g, 75.9 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 95 °C for 12 h under N2, then diluted with H 2 O (600 mL) and extracted with DCM (600 mL × 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (600 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 20:1 to 10:1) to give the title compound (8.2 g, 91.2% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 296.9 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.31 (d, 1H), 7.31 (d, 1H), 7.05 (s, 1H), 7.02 (d, 1H), 7.80 (d, 1H), 6.43 (t, 1H), 3.76 (br s, 2H), 2.95-2.88 (m, 1H), 1.28 (d, 6H). Step F: 4-(2-bromo-5-(difluoromethoxy)-3-isopropylphenyl)-2-fluoropy ridine To a solution of 4-(difluoromethoxy)-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylanil ine (7.5 g, 25.3 mmol) in MeCN (200 mL) was added 3-methylbutyl nitrite (3.56 g, 30.4 mmol) at 0 °C, followed by CuBr (4.36 g, 30.4 mmol) at 0 °C. Then the resulting mixture was stirred at 60 °C for 1 h, then quenched with sat aq NaHCO3 (300 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (300 mL × 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (300 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 1:0 to 10:1) to give the title compound (5 g, 54.8% yield) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 361.8 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.29 (d, 1H), 7.20 (dd, 1H), 7.14 (d, 1H), 6.94 (s, 1H), 6.90 (d, 1H), 6.54 (t, 1H), 3.54-3.46 (m, 1H), 1.28 (d, 6H). Step G: tert-butyl 2-(4-(difluoromethoxy)-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylp henyl)- acetate To a solution of 4-(2-bromo-5-(difluoromethoxy)-3-isopropylphenyl)-2-fluoropy ridine (2 g, 5.55 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added dicyclohexyl-[2-(2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl)- phenyl]phosphane (265 mg, 555 µmol) and Pd2(dba)3 (254 mg, 278 µmol) under N2. (2- (tert-butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)zinc(II) bromide (0.5 M in THF, 36.2 mL) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred at 70 °C for 12 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with sat aq NaHCO 3 (20 mL) and extracted with DCM (20 mL × 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (20 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 95:5 to 95:5) to give the title compound (2.1 g, 95.6% yield) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 396.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.38 (d, 1H), 7.31 (s, 2H), 7.04 (s, 1H), 6.94 (s, 1H), 6.65 (t, 1H), 3.58 (s, 2H), 3.24-3.18 (m, 1H), 1.55 (s, 9H), 1.38 (d, 6H). Intermediate B12: tert-butyl 2-(4-cyano-3-fluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2- isopropylphenyl)acetate Step A: 4-amino-5-bromo-2-fluorobenzonitrile To a solution of 4-amino-2-fluorobenzonitrile (7 g, 51.4 mmol) in MeCN (200 mL) was added NBS (9.15 g, 51.4 mmol) in portions at 25 °C. Then the solution was stirred at 50 °C for 3 h. The solution was quenched with H 2 O (30 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (30 mL x 2). The organic phases were washed with brine (40 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 5:1 to 4:1) to give the title compound (10.8 g, 97.7% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 216.8 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.61 (d, 1H), 6.52 (d, 1H), 4.82 (br s, 2H). Step B: 4-amino-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)benzonitrile To a solution of 4-amino-5-bromo-2-fluorobenzonitrile (6 g, 27.9 mmol) and (2-fluoro- pyridin-4-yl)boronic acid (3.93 g, 27.9 mmol) in dioxane (100 mL) and H 2 O (20 mL) was added Pd(dppf)Cl 2 .DCM (1.14 g, 1.40 mmol) and Na 2 CO 3 (7.39 g, 69.8 mmol) under N2. The solution was stirred at 100 °C for 2 h under N2, then quenched with H 2 O (200 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (200 mL x 2). The organic phases were washed with brine (400 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 2:1 to 1:1) to give the title compound (6.3 g, 97.7% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 232.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): d 8.29 (d, 1H), 7.44 (d, 1H), 7.38 (dd, 1H), 7.17 (s, 1H), 6.64 (d, 1H). Two exchangeable protons not observed. Step C: 4-amino-3-bromo-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)benzonitril e To a solution of 4-amino-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)benzonitrile (6 g, 26.0 mmol) in MeCN (120 mL) was added NBS (4.62 g, 26.0 mmol) and the solution was stirred at 25 o C for 1 h. The solution was quenched with sat aq Na2SO3 (10 mL) and extracted with DCM (10 mL x 3). The organic phases were washed with brine (15 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was triturated with a mixture (PE : EtOAc, 3:1, 50 mL) to give the title compound (8 g, 99.4% yield) as a grey solid. LCMS: m/z 312.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ): d 8.29 (d, 1H), 7.59 (d, 1H), 7.37 (dd, 1H), 7.23 (s, 1H), 6.53 (br s, 2H). Step D: 4-amino-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl) benzonitrile To a solution of 4-amino-3-bromo-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)benzonitril e (8 g, 25.8 mmol) in dioxane (150 mL) and H 2 O (30 mL) was added potassium trifluoro- (prop-1-en-2-yl)borate (4.96 g, 33.5 mmol), Na 2 CO 3 (6.84 g, 64.5 mmol) and Pd(dppf)Cl2.DCM (1.05 g, 1.29 mmol) under N2. The mixture was stirred at 100 °C for 3 h. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 1:1) to give the title compound (6.1 g, 87.2% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 271.9 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.27 (d, 1H), 7.19-7.17 (m, 2H), 6.94 (s, 1H), 5.50 (s, 1H), 5.09 (s, 1H), 4.53 (br s, 2H), 2.01 (s, 3H). Step E: 4-amino-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-3-isopropylbenzoni trile To a solution of 4-amino-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl) - benzonitrile (4 g, 14.8 mmol) in MeOH (30 mL) and EtOAc (30 mL) was added Rh/Al 2 O 3 (30 mg) under N 2 . The mixture was stirred at 35 °C for 48 h under H 2 (15 psi). The mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 8:1 to 5:1) to give the title compound (2.2 g, 54.6% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 274.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.34 (d, 1H), 7.24 (dd, 1H), 7.17 (d, 1H), 6.99 (s, 1H), 4.44 (br s, 2H), 3.11-3.04 (m, 1H), 1.43 (dd, 6H). Step F: 4-bromo-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-3-isopropylbenzoni trile To a solution of 4-amino-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-3-isopropylbenzoni trile (2.1 g, 7.68 mmol) in MeCN (40 mL) was added a solution of HBr (7.00 mL, 51.6 mmol, 40% purity in H 2 O) in H 2 O (4 mL) at 0 °C, followed by a solution of NaNO2 (636 mg, 9.22 mmol) in H 2 O (4 mL) at 0 o C. The resulting mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 45 min, then CuBr2 (858 mg, 3.84 mmol) and CuBr (55 mg, 384 µmol) were added and the resulting mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 1 h. The mixture was quenched with H 2 O (30 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (20 mL x 3). The organic phases were washed with brine (40 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 33:1 to 26:1) to give the title compound (1.62 g, 62.5% yield) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 336.9 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.33 (d, 1H), 7.38 (dd, 1H), 7.14 (d, 1H), 6.91 (s, 1H), 3.75-3.68 (m, 1H), 1.43 (dd, 6H). Step G: tert-butyl 2-(4-cyano-3-fluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2-isopropylphen yl)- acetate To a solution of 4-bromo-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-3-isopropylbenzoni trile (1.6 g, 4.75 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was added palladium; tri-tert-butylphosphane (121 mg, 237 µmol) and (2-(tert-butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)zinc(II) bromide (0.5 M in THF, 47.5 mL) under N2. The solution was stirred at 70 °C for 1 h, then the mixture was quenched with sat aq NH 4 Cl (30 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (50 mL). The organic phase was washed with brine (30 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (0.6 g, 34.0% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 373.1 (M+H) + (ES+). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.30 (d, 1H), 7.34 (dd, 1H), 7.11 (dd, 1H), 6.89 (s, 1H), 3.51 (s, 2H), 3.14-3.09 (m, 1H), 1.48 (s, 9H), 1.41 (dd, 6H). Intermediate B13: tert-butyl 2-(4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-fluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4- yl)-2-isopropylphenyl)acetate Step A: 2-bromo-4-(difluoromethoxy)-5-fluoroaniline To a solution of 4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-fluoroaniline (4 g, 22.6 mmol) in MeCN (40 mL) was added NBS (4.22 g, 23.7 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 2 h, then poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (150 mL × 3). The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 30:1 to 10:1) to give the title compound (5.5 g, 95.1% yield) as red oil. LCMS: m/z 258.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.32 (d, 1H), 6.60-6.24 (m, 2H), 4.15 (br s, 2H). Step B: 4-(difluoromethoxy)-5-fluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)aniline To a solution of 2-bromo-4-(difluoromethoxy)-5-fluoroaniline (5.5 g, 19.5 mmol, 90.8% purity) in dioxane (80 mL) and H 2 O (16 mL) was added Pd(dppf)Cl2.DCM (796 mg, 975 mmol), Na2CO3 (4.13 g, 39.0 mmol) and (2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)boronic acid (2.89 g, 20.5 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 90 °C for 12 h under N 2 , then poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (200 mL × 3). The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 20:1 to 5:1) to give the title compound (5.1 g, 96.1% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 273.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.32 (d, 1H), 7.29-7.27 (m, 1H), 7.07-6.98 (m, 2H), 6.57 (s, 1H), 6.47 (t, 1H), 3.90 (br s, 2H). Step C: 2-bromo-4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-fluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl )aniline To a solution of 4-(difluoromethoxy)-5-fluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)aniline (6.1 g, 22.4 mmol) in MeCN (5 mL) was added NBS (4.19 g, 23.5 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 2 h, then concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 10:1 to 5:1) to give the title compound (7.8 g, 99.1% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 351.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.34 (d, 1H), 7.29-7.27 (m, 1H), 7.05 (s, 1H), 7.03 (s, 1H), 6.49 (t, 1H), 4.38 (br s, 2H). Step D: 4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-fluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2-(pro p-1-en-2-yl)- aniline To a solution of 2-bromo-4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-fluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl )aniline (7.5 g, 21.4 mmol) in dioxane (80 mL) and H 2 O (16 mL) was added Pd(dppf)Cl 2 .DCM (872 mg, 1.07 mmol), Na 2 CO 3 (6.79 g, 64.1 mmol) and potassium trifluoro(prop-1-en-2- yl)borate (3.79 g, 25.6 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 100 °C for 12 h under N2, then poured into water (200 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (200 mL × 3). The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 10:1 to 4:1) to give the title compound (6 g, 90.0% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 313.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.31 (d, 1H), 7.31 (d, 1H), 7.05 (s, 1H), 6.96 (d, 1H), 6.48 (t, 1H), 5.54 (t, 1H), 5.15 (s, 1H), 4.04 (br s, 2H), 2.09 (s, 3H). Step E: 4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-fluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2-isop ropylaniline To a solution of 4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-fluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2-(pro p-1-en-2- yl)aniline (6 g, 19.2 mmol) in MeOH (200 mL) was added Pd/C (600 mg, 10% loading on active carbon) under N2. The suspension was degassed in vacuum and purged with H 2 several times. The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 12 h under H 2 (15 psi). The reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuum to give the title compound (5.8 g, 96.1% yield) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 315.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.31 (d, 1H), 7.27-7.26 (m, 1H), 7.02 (d, 1H), 6.88 (d, 1H), 6.46 (t, 1H), 3.86 (br s, 2H), 3.15-3.09 (m, 1H), 1.41 (dd, 6H). Step F: 4-(2-bromo-5-(difluoromethoxy)-4-fluoro-3-isopropylphenyl)-2 -fluoropyridine To a solution of 4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-fluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2-isop ropyl- aniline (5.8 g, 18.5 mmol) in MeCN (100 mL) was added CuBr 2 (4.95 g, 22.2 mmol), CuBr (265 mg, 1.85 mmol) and isopentyl nitrite (3.24 g, 27.7 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 50 °C for 0.5 h, then quenched with 1N aq HCl (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (100 mL × 3). The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 10:1 to 4:1) to give the title compound (6.5 g, 92.0% yield, 98.8% purity on LCMS) as colourless oil. LCMS: m/z 378.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.29 (d, 1H), 7.18-7.16 (m, 1H), 7.05 (d, 1H), 6.93 (s, 1H), 6.57 (t, 1H), 3.74-3.64 (m, 1H), 1.41 (dd, 6H). Step G: tert-butyl 2-(4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-fluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2- isopropylphenyl)acetate To a solution of 4-(2-bromo-5-(difluoromethoxy)-4-fluoro-3-isopropylphenyl)-2 - fluoropyridine (6 g, 15.9 mmol), Pd 2 (dba) 3 (726 mg, 793 mmol) and XPhos (756 mg, 1.59 mmol) in THF (60 mL) was added (2-(tert-butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)zinc(II) bromide (0.51 M in THF, 93.3 mL). The mixture was stirred at 70 °C for 2 h under N2, then quenched with sat aq NH4Cl (200 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (200 mL × 3). The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (0.1% TFA) to give the title compound (6 g, 91.47% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 414.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.27 (d, 1H), 7.15-7.13 (m, 1H), 6.97 (d, 1H), 6.91 (s, 1H), 6.56 (t, 1H), 3.44 (s, 2H), 3.13-3.03 (m, 1H), 1.46 (s, 9H), 1.39 (d, 6H). Intermediate B14: 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)aceti c acid To a solution of tert-butyl 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)- acetate (Intermediate B4) (4.0 g, 11.5 mmol) in DCM (20 mL) was added TFA (270 mmol, 20 mL). The reaction solution was stirred at 20 °C for 12 h, then concentrated in vacuum to give the title compound (4.0 g, crude, TFA salt) as a red solid. LCMS: m/z 292.1 (M-TFA+H) + (ES + ). Intermediate B15: tert-butyl 2-(2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropyl-4-(methoxy- methyl)phenyl)acetate Step A: methyl 4-amino-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)benzoate To a solution of methyl 4-amino-3-bromobenzoate (4.0 g, 17.4 mmol) in dioxane (80 mL) and H 2 O (16 mL) was added potassium trifluoro(prop-1-en-2-yl)borate (5.15 g, 34.8 mmol), K2CO3 (7.21 g, 52.2 mmol) and Pd(dppf)Cl2.DCM (1.42 g, 1.74 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 95 °C for 3 h under N2. Water (100 mL) and EtOAc (100 mL) were added into the reaction mixture and the mixture was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (100 mL × 2). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 1:0 to 10:1) to give the title compound (2.8 g, 83.4% yield, 99.0% purity on LCMS) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 192.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 7.76-7.74 (m, 2H), 6.66 (dd, 1H), 5.34 (dd, 1H), 5.08 (d, 1H), 4.27 (br s, 2H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 2.08 (s, 3H). Step B: methyl 4-amino-3-isopropylbenzoate To a solution of methyl 4-amino-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)benzoate (6.5 g, 34.0 mmol) in MeOH (120 mL) was added Pd/C (600 mg, 10% purity loaded on active carbon) under N 2 . The mixture was degassed in vacuum and purged with H 2 several times. The mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 12 h under H 2 (15 psi). The reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 1:0 to 2:1) to give the title compound (4.7 g, 70.7% yield, 98.8% purity on LCMS) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 194.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 7.85 (d, 1H), 7.73 (dd, 1H), 6.64 (d, 1H), 4.09 (br s, 2H), 3.87 (s, 3H), 2.91-2.79 (m, 1H), 1.29 (d, 6H). Step C: methyl 4-amino-3-bromo-5-isopropylbenzoate To a solution of methyl 4-amino-3-isopropylbenzoate (4.7 g, 24.3 mmol) in MeCN (80 mL) was added NBS (4.33 g, 24.3 mmol) in portions at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 2 h. Water (50 mL) and EtOAc (50 mL) were added into the reaction mixture and the mixture was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (50 mL × 2). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 1:0 to 10:1) to give the title compound (6.2 g, 92.6% yield, 98.9% purity on LCMS) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 272.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.03 (d, 1H), 7.78 (d, 1H), 4.60 (br s, 2H), 3.87 (s, 3H), 2.91-2.82 (m, 1H) and 1.30 (d, 6H). Step D: methyl 4-amino-3-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-5-isopropylbenzoate To a solution of methyl 4-amino-3-bromo-5-isopropylbenzoate (5.7 g, 21.0 mmol) in dioxane (110 mL) and H 2 O (22 mL) was added (2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)boronic acid (3.54 g, 25.1 mmol), Pd(dppf)Cl2.DCM (1.71 g, 2.09 mmol) and K2CO3 (8.68 g, 62.8 mmol). After the addition, the reaction mixture was stirred at 100 °C for 3 h under N2. Water (100 mL) and EtOAc (100 mL) were added into the reaction mixture and the mixture was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (100mL × 2). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 1:0 to 3:1) to give the title compound (5.7 g, 91.6% yield, 97.0% purity on LCMS) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 289.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.31 (d, 1H), 7.91 (d, 1H), 7.69 (d, 1H), 7.34-7.30 (m, 1H), 7.06 (s, 1H), 4.26 (br s, 2H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 2.93-2.86 (m, 1H), 1.34 (d, 6H). Step E: methyl 4-bromo-3-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-5-isopropylbenzoate To a solution of methyl 4-amino-3-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-5-isopropylbenzoate (4.7 g, 16.3 mmol) in MeCN (20 mL) was added CuBr (2.81 g, 19.6 mmol), CuBr 2 (364 mg, 1.63 mmol) and isopentyl nitrite (2.86 g, 24.5 mmol) at 25 °C. After the addition, the reaction mixture was stirred at 50 °C for 0.5 h. Water (200 mL) and EtOAc (200 mL) were added into the reaction mixture and the mixture was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (200 mL × 2). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 1:0 to 5:1) to give the title compound (4.3 g, 73.3% yield, 97.9% purity on LCMS). LCMS: m/z 351.9 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.30 (d, 1H), 8.02 (d, 1H), 7.76 (d, 1H), 7.22-7.20 (m, 1H), 6.97 (t, 1H), 3.94 (s, 3H), 3.59-3.49 (m, 1H), 1.33 (d, 6H). Step F: (4-bromo-3-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-5-isopropylphenyl)methanol To a solution of methyl 4-bromo-3-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-5-isopropylbenzoate (4.6 g, 13.1 mmol) in MeOH (100 mL) was added NaBH4 (4.94 g, 131 mmol) at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 60 °C for 24 h, then cooled to RT, slowly poured into cold sat aq NH 4 Cl (500 mL), and extracted with EtOAc (200 mL × 2). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 1:0 to 5:1) to give the title compound (3.6 g, 82.8% yield, 97.4% purity on LCMS) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 323.9 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.26 (d, 1H), 7.37 (d, 1H), 7.21 (dd, 1H), 7.12 (d, 1H), 6.95 (t, 1H), 4.72 (s, 2H), 3.57-3.47 (m, 1H), 1.30 (d, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step G: 4-(2-bromo-3-isopropyl-5-(methoxymethyl)phenyl)-2-fluoropyri dine To a solution of (4-bromo-3-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-5-isopropylphenyl)methanol (2.5 g, 7.71 mmol) in DMF (25 mL) was added Ag2O (1.79 g, 7.71 mmol) and MeI (1.44 mL, 23.1 mmol) at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 12 h, then poured into water (30 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (40 mL × 3). The organic layers were washed with sat aq NaCl (20 mL × 3), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 30:1 to 10:1) to give the title compound (2 g, 76.7% yield) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 338.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.26 (d, 1H), 7.32 (d, 1H), 7.21 (d, 1H), 7.08 (d, 1H), 6.96 (s, 1H), 4.45 (s, 2H), 3.54-3.42 (m, 4H), 1.30 (d, 6 H). Step H: tert-butyl 2-(2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropyl-4-(methoxymethyl)phe nyl)- acetate To a solution of 4-(2-bromo-3-isopropyl-5-(methoxymethyl)phenyl)-2-fluoropyri dine (2 g, 5.91 mmol), Pd2(dba)3 (271 mg, 296 mmol) and XPhos (282 mg, 591 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added (2-(tert-butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)zinc(II) bromide (0.5 M in THF, 34.8 mL). The mixture was stirred at 70 °C for 12 h under N 2 , then quenched with sat aq NH 4 Cl (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (50 mL × 3). The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 30:1 to 15:1) to give the title compound (1.4 g, 63.4% yield, 100% purity on LCMS) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 374.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.23 (d, 1H), 7.36 (d, 1H), 7.18 (d, 1H), 7.03 (d, 1H), 6.94 (s, 1H), 4.46 (s, 2H), 3.48 (s, 2H), 3.43 (s, 3H), 3.13-3.06 (m, 1H), 1.44 (s, 9H), 1.27 (d, 6H). Intermediate B16: tert-butyl 2-(3-fluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2-isopropyl-4- (methoxymethyl)phenyl)acetate Step A: methyl 4-amino-5-bromo-2-fluorobenzoate To a solution of methyl 4-amino-2-fluorobenzoate (24.5 g, 145 mmol) in MeCN (250 mL) was added dropwise a solution of NBS (23.2 g, 130 mmol) in MeCN (250 mL) at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 12 h, then diluted with H 2 O (500 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (500 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (500 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 100:1 to 10:1) to give the title compound (12.5 g, 34.8% yield) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 250.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.04 (d, 1H), 6.46 (d, 1H), 4.60 (br s, 2H) and 3.88 (s, 3H). Step B: methyl 4-amino-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)benzoate To a solution of methyl 4-amino-5-bromo-2-fluorobenzoate (12 g, 48.4 mmol) and (2- fluoropyridin-4-yl)boronic acid (7.50 g, 53.2 mmol) in dioxane (200 mL) and H 2 O (50 mL) were added Na2CO3 (12.8 g, 121 mmol) and Pd(dppf)Cl2.DCM (3.95 g, 4.84 mmol) under N2. The mixture was stirred at 95 °C for 12 h, then diluted with H 2 O (300 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (300 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (300 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 3:1 to 0:1) to give the title compound (10 g, 78.23% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 264.9 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.29 (d, 1H), 7.74 (d, 1H), 7.27-7.25 (m, 1H), 7.01 (s, 1H), 6.46 (d, 1H), 4.32 (br s, 2H), 3.88 (s, 3H). Step C: methyl 4-amino-3-bromo-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)benzoate To a solution of methyl 4-amino-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)benzoate (10 g, 37.9 mmol) in DCM (200 mL) and DMF (50 mL) was added NBS (8.08 g, 45.4 mmol) at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 3 h, then washed with H 2 O (200 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (200 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (200 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The crude product was triturated with EtOAc (50 mL) to give the title compound (9 g, 69.3% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 344.8 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.33 (d, 1H), 7.72 (d, 1H), 7.28-7.25 (m, 1H), 7.01 (s, 1H), 4.82 (br s, 2H), 3.89 (s, 3H). Step D: methyl 4-amino-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl) benzoate To a solution of methyl 4-amino-3-bromo-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)benzoate (8 g, 23.3 mmol) and potassium trifluoro(prop-1-en-2-yl)borate (5.18 g, 35.0 mmol) in dioxane (200 mL) and H 2 O (40 mL) were added Pd(dppf)Cl 2 .DCM (1.90 g, 2.33 mmol) and Na 2 CO 3 (6.18 g, 58.3 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 95 °C for 12 h under N2, then washed with sat aq NaHCO3 (300 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (300 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (300 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 3:1 to 0:1) to give the title compound (6.5 g, 91.6% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 305.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.24 (d, 1H), 7.61 (d, 1H), 7.22 (dd, 1H), 6.98 (s, 1H), 5.46 (d, 1H), 5.05 (s, 1H), 4.42 (br s, 2H), 3.81 (s, 3H), 2.00 (s, 3H). Step E: methyl 4-amino-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-3-isopropylbenzoat e To a solution of methyl 4-amino-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl) - benzoate (5.7 g, 18.7 mmol) in MeOH (100 mL) and EtOAc (100 mL) was added Pd/C (0.6 g, 10% purity loaded on active carbon) under N2. The suspension was degassed under vacuum and purged with H 2 three times. The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 12 h under H 2 (15 psi), then diluted with EtOAc (200 mL) and filtered through Celite. The filtrate was diluted with H 2 O (300 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (300 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (300 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 4:1 to 3:1) to give the title compound (5.74 g, 100% yield) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 307.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.31 (d, 1H), 7.59 (d, 1H), 7.28 (s, 1H), 7.02 (s, 1H), 4.33 (br s, 2H), 3.88 (s, 3H) 3.11-3.07 (m, 1H), 1.32 (d, 6H). Step F: methyl 4-bromo-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-3-isopropylbenzoat e To a solution of methyl 4-amino-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-3-isopropylbenzoat e (5 g, 16.3 mmol) in MeCN (50 mL) was added isopentyl nitrite (2.29 g, 19.6 mmol) at 0 °C, followed by CuBr (2.81 g, 19.6 mmol) at 0 °C. The resulting mixture was stirred at 60 °C for 3 h, then diluted with H 2 O (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (100 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 5:1 to 4:1) to give the title compound (3.3 g, 54.6% yield) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 371.9 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.30 (d, 1H), 7.68 (d, 1H), 7.19 (dd, 1H), 6.94 (s, 1H), 3.94 (s, 3H), 3.75-3.70 (m, 1H), 1.26 (d, 6H). Step G: methyl 4-(2-(tert-butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4 -yl)-3- isopropylbenzoate To a solution of methyl 4-bromo-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-3-isopropylbenzoat e (2.7 g, 7.29 mmol) in THF (30 mL) was added palladium; tri-tert-butylphosphane (373 mg, 729 µmol) under N2. Then (2-(tert-butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)zinc(II) bromide (0.5 M in THF, 43.76 mL) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred at 70 °C for 20 min. The reaction mixture was quenched with sat aq NaHCO3 (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (50 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 90:1 to 80:1) to give the title compound (2.8 g, 94.7% yield) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 406.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.26 (d, 1H), 7.65 (d, 1H), 7.15 (d, 1H), 6.92 (s, 1H), 3.93 (s, 3H), 3.50 (s, 2H), 3.15-3.08 (m, 1H), 1.45 (s, 9H), 1.40 (d, 6 H). Step H: tert-butyl 2-(3-fluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-iso propyl- phenyl)acetate To a mixture of methyl 4-(2-(tert-butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)-2-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4 - yl)-3-isopropylbenzoate (2.3 g, 5.67 mmol) in MeOH (30 mL) was added NaBH4 (1.07 g, 28.4 mmol) at 25 °C under N 2 . The reaction mixture was stirred at 60 °C for 12 h, then quenched with 0.5 M aq HCl (40 mL), and extracted with EtOAc (40 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (40 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 10:1 to 5:1) to give the title compound (0.5 g, 23.4% yield) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 378.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.25 (d, 1H), 7.18-7.14 (m, 2H), 6.91 (s, 1H), 4.79 (s, 2H), 3.47 (s, 2H), 3.11-3.05 (m, 1H), 1.45 (s, 9H), 1.38 (s, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step I: tert-butyl 2-(3-fluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2-isopropyl-4-(methoxym ethyl)- phenyl)acetate To a solution of tert-butyl 2-(3-fluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)-2- isopropylphenyl)acetate (0.55 g, 1.46 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was added NaH (117 mg, 2.91 mmol, 60% purity in mineral oil) at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 20 min, then methyl iodide (414 mg, 2.91 mmol) was added at 25 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 3 h, then quenched with H 2 O (20 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (20 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (20 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 20:1 to 10:1) to give the title compound (0.48 g, 84.2% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 392.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.25 (d, 1H), 7.17-7.11 (m, 2H), 6.92 (s, 1H), 4.55 (s, 2H), 3.50 (s, 2H), 3.48 (s, 3H), 3.10-3.04 (m, 1H), 1.45 (s, 9H), 1.37 (d, 6H). Intermediate B17: methyl 2-(4-fluoro-2-isopropyl-6-(2-(((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)- oxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetate Step A: 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-hydroxypyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acet ic acid To a solution of 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)aceti c acid (Intermediate B14) (4.5 g, 11.1 mmol, TFA salt) in H 2 O (100 mL) was added NaOH (8.88 g, 222 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 80 °C for 24 h, adjusted to pH 7 with 1M aq HCl, then concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (1.9 g, 59.2% yield) as a light yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 290.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6): d 7.43 (d, 1H), 7.21 (dd, 1H), 6.89 (dd, 1H), 6.16 (s, 1H), 6.07 (dd, 1H), 3.54 (s, 2H), 3.03-2.99 (m, 1H), 1.18 (d, 6H). Two exchangeable protons not observed. Step B: methyl 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-hydroxypyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acet ate A solution of 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-hydroxypyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acet ic acid (1.9 g, 6.57 mmol) and conc H 2 SO 4 (1.05 mL, 19.7 mmol) in MeOH (140 mL) was stirred at 50 °C for 12 h. The mixture was adjusted to pH 7 with sat aq NaOH, then concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (1.97 g, 98.9% yield) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 304.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6): d 7.43 (d, 1H), 7.23 (dd, 1H), 6.92 (dd, 1H), 6.14 (s, 1H), 6.04 (dd, 1H), 3.64 (s, 2H), 3.59 (s, 3H), 3.01-2.98 (m, 1H), 1.17 (d, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step C: methyl 2-(4-fluoro-2-isopropyl-6-(2-(((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)oxy )pyridin-4- yl)phenyl)acetate To a solution of methyl 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-hydroxypyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)- acetate (1.4 g, 4.62 mmol) in DCM (20 mL) was added TEA (1.87 g, 18.5 mmol) and Tf 2 O (1.95 g, 6.92 mmol) at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 12 h, then quenched with 1M aq HCl (10 mL) and extracted with DCM (15 mL x 2). The organic phases were concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 30:1 to 20:1) to give the title compound (1.6 g, 79.6% yield) as a colourless oil. LCMS: m/z 436.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.44 (d, 1H), 7.36 (dd, 1H), 7.19 (s, 1H), 7.14 (dd, 1H), 6.78 (dd, 1H), 3.67 (s, 3H), 3.52 (s, 2H), 3.07-3.04 (m, 1H), 1.23 (d, 6H). Intermediate C1: 2-(2-(2-((5-(5-((dimethylamino)methyl)-3-sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazo l- 1-yl)pentyl)oxy)pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid Step A: 2-(2-(2-((5-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-5-((dimet hylamino)- methyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pentyl)oxy)pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropyl phenyl)acetic acid 5-((Dimethylamino)methyl)-1-(5-hydroxypentyl)-N,N-bis(4-meth oxybenzyl)-1H- pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A3) (416 mg, 0.784 mmol) was dissolved in THF (5 mL) and treated with NaH (60 wt% dispersion in mineral oil, 32 mg, 0.80 mmol). The reaction was stirred at RT for 1 h, then cooled to 0 °C.2-(2-(2- Fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate B1) (214 mg, 0.784 mmol) was added and the reaction allowed to warm to RT and stirred for 3 h. The reaction was diluted with brine (30 mL), extracted with EtOAc (2 x 30 mL), dried (phase separator) and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0- 10% (0.7 M ammonia/MeOH)/DCM) to afford the title compound (360 mg, 47%) as a grey solid. LCMS m/z 784.3 (M+H) + (ES + ); 782.3 (M-H)- (ES-). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.16 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.41-7.38 (m, 1H), 7.32 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.04-6.98 (m, 5H), 6.87 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 6.82-6.87 (m, 4H), 6.64 (s, 1H), 6.58 (s, 1H), 4.27 (t, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 4.25-4.16 (m, 6H), 3.70 (s, 6H), 3.50 (s, 2H), 3.47 (s, 2H), 3.04 (sept, J = 6.6 Hz, 1H), 2.15 (s, 6H), 1.85 (p, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.76 (p, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.48-1.36 (m, 2H), 1.19 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step B: 2-(2-(2-((5-(5-((dimethylamino)methyl)-3-sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazo l-1-yl)pentyl)- oxy)pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid A solution of 2-(2-(2-((5-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-5-((dimet hyl- amino)methyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pentyl)oxy)pyridin-4-yl)-6-iso propylphenyl)acetic acid (360 mg, 0.367 mmol) in TFA (5 mL) was stirred at RT for 18 h. The mixture was diluted with MeOH (10 mL) and filtered. The resulting filtrate was concentrated in vacuo, re-dissolved in MeOH (5 mL) and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound (250 mg, 95%) as a yellow oil. LCMS m/z 544.2 (M + H) + (ES + ); 542.1 (M-H)- (ES-). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 10.08 (br s, 1H), 8.18 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.54 (br s, 2H), 7.44- 7.39 (m, 1H), 7.34 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.04 (dd, J = 7.5, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 6.88 (dd, J = 5.2, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 6.85 (s, 1H), 6.68-6.65 (m, 1H), 4.53 (s, 2H), 4.32-4.23 (m, 4H), 3.17 (s, 2H), 3.04 (sept, J = 6.7 Hz, 1H), 2.81 (s, 6H), 1.92-1.71 (m, 4H), 1.44 (p, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 1.20 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 6H). The following intermediates were synthesised following the general procedure for Intermediate C1, from the intermediate compounds indicated in the ‘From’ column:

Intermediate C6: 2-(5-(2-(2-(4-fluoro-3-sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2- methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-yl)acetic acid KO t Bu (172 mg, 1.529 mmol) was added to a solution of tert-butyl 2-(5-(2-fluoro- pyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-yl)acetate (Intermediate B3) (250 mg, 0.764 mmol) and 4-fluoro-1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxy benzyl)- 1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A4) (365 mg, 0.764 mmol) in THF (12 mL) at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at RT for 48 h before additional KO t Bu (56 mg, 0.766 mmol) was added and stirred for 4 h. The mixture was diluted with water (10 mL) and DCM (10 mL). The aqueous phase was extracted with DCM (3 x 10 mL) and the combined organic phases were dried (MgSO 4 ) and concentrated in vacuo. TFA (5 mL) was added to the residue and stirred at RT for 16 h. The mixture was concentrated in vacuo. MeOH (2 mL) was added and the mixture evaporated in vacuo. The crude was purified by FC (0-40% MeOH/DCM) to afford the title compound (187 mg, 50%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 489.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.26 (d, J = 4.6 Hz, 1H), 8.16 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.70 (s, 2H), 7.22 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.03 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.91 (dd, J = 5.3, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 6.68 (s, 1H), 4.53 (s, 2H), 3.46 (s, 2H), 2.94 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.83 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.05 (p, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 1.63 (s, 6H). The following intermediates ‘Int.’ were synthesised following the general procedure for Intermediate C6, from the intermediate compounds indicated in the ‘From’ column:

Intermediate C11: 2-(2-(2-(3-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-5-sulfamoylphenethoxy)- pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid Step A: 2-(2-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-5-(2-hydroxyp ropan-2-yl)- phenethoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid 3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-5-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methox ybenzyl)benzene- sulfonamide (Intermediate A7) (0.5 g, 1.00 mmol) and 2-(2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6- isopropylphenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate B1) (0.274 g, 1.00 mmol) were dissolved in THF (20 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. NaH (60% dispersion in mineral oil) (0.120 g, 3.00 mmol) was then added and the reaction was stirred for 10 min at this temperature before warming to RT and stirring for 5 h. The mixture was then diluted with EtOAc (50 mL) and acidified to pH < 3 with 1 M HCl. The organic layer was separated and the aqueous layer re-extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic layer was then dried (phase separator), and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (268 mg, 32%) as a pale yellow oil. LCMS m/z 753.5 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.18 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.80 - 7.76 (m, 1H), 7.71 - 7.67 (m, 1H), 7.61 - 7.57 (m, 1H), 7.40 (dd, J = 7.9, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 6.94 (dd, J = 7.5, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 6.93 - 6.90 (m, 4H), 6.88 (dd, J = 5.2, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.77 - 6.72 (m, 4H), 6.63 (s, 1H), 4.52 (t, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H), 4.16 (s, 4H), 4.14 - 4.08 (m, 1H), 3.68 (s, 6H), 3.47 (s, 2H), 3.15 (t, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H), 3.09 - 3.00 (m, 1H), 1.42 (s, 6H), 1.19 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step B: 2-(2-(2-(3-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-5-sulfamoylphenethoxy)pyri din-4-yl)-6- isopropylphenyl)acetic acid 2-(2-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-5-(2-hydroxyp ropan-2-yl)- phenethoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid (268 mg, 0.356 mmol) was dissolved in MeCN (6 mL). A solution of CAN (976 mg, 1.780 mmol) in water (2 mL) was added portionwise over 5 min. The orange mixture was stirred for 2 h. H 2 O (5 mL) and DCM (20 mL) was added and the organic phase was separated, washed with brine (10 mL), dried using a phase separator, and concentrated in vacuo to give a yellow oil. The crude product was purified by FC (0-10% MeOH/DCM) to afford the title compound (58 mg, 32%) as a clear colourless oil. LCMS m/z 513.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.23 - 8.17 (m, 1H), 7.84 (s, 1H), 7.64 (d, J = 1.9 Hz, 1H), 7.61 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.40 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.36 - 7.26 (m, 3H), 7.03 (d, J = 7.1 Hz, 1H), 6.90 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 6.69 (s, 1H), 4.53 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H), 3.50 (s, 2H), 3.15 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 3.05 (s, 1H), 1.44 (s, 6H), 1.19 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 6H). Two exchangeable protons not observed. Intermediate C17: 2-(5-(2-(3-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-5-sulfamoylphenethoxy)- pyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-yl)acetic acid Step A: tert-butyl 2-(5-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-5-(2-hydroxy- propan-2-yl)phenethoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4- yl)acetate 3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-5-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methox ybenzyl)benzene- sulfonamide (Intermediate A7) (0.4 g, 0.801 mmol) and tert-butyl 2-(5-(2-fluoro- pyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-yl)acetate (Intermediate B3) (0.26 g, 0.801 mmol) were dissolved in THF (7 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. Sodium hydride (60% dispersion in mineral oil) (0.096 g, 2.402 mmol) was then added and the reaction was stirred for 10 min at this temperature before warming to RT and stirring for 24 h. The mixture was then diluted EtOAc (50 mL), washed with brine (50 mL), dried (phase separator), and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (245 mg, 34.5%) as a pink oil. LCMS m/z 807.7 (M+H) + (ES + ); 805.8 (M-H)- (ES-). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.18 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H), 7.78 (t, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.68 (t, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.58 (t, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.19 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 6.96-6.88 (m, 5H), 6.85 (dd, J = 5.3, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 6.76-6.70 (m, 4H), 6.60-6.57 (m, 1H), 5.26 (s, 1H), 4.52 (t, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 4.15 (s, 4H), 3.68 (s, 6H), 3.40 (s, 2H), 3.14 (t, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 2.93 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.82 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.03 (p, J - 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.42 (s, 6H), 1.32 (s, 9H). Step B: 2-(5-(2-(3-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-5-sulfamoylphenethoxy)pyri din-4-yl)-2,3- dihydro-1H-inden-4-yl)acetic acid tert-Butyl 2-(5-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-5-(2-hydroxyp ropan-2-yl)- phenethoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-yl)acetate (245 mg, 0.304 mmol) was dissolved in MeCN (6 mL). A solution of CAN (832 mg, 1.518 mmol) in water (2 mL) was added portion-wise over 5 min. The orange mixture was stirred for 2 h. Water (5 mL) and DCM (20 mL) were added and the organic phase was separated, washed with brine (10 mL), dried using a phase separator, and concentrated in vacuo to give a yellow oil. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford tert-butyl 2-(5-(2-(3-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-5-sulfamoylphenethoxy)pyri din-4-yl)- 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-yl)acetate (135 mg, 78%) as a clear colourless oil. This was dissolved in a 2:1 mixture of TFA and water (4 mL) and stirred at RT for 20 h. The reaction was concentrated in vacuo. The resulting residue was suspended in toluene (2 mL) then concentrated in vacuo (2 x), to afford the title compound (120 mg, 72%) as a light brown solid. LCMS m/z 511.5 (M+H) + (ES + ); 509.2 (M-H)- (ES-). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.18 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.84 (t, J = 1.9 Hz, 1H), 7.66-7.59 (m, 2H), 7.33-7.28 (m, 2H), 7.21 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 7.02 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 6.90 (dd, J = 5.2, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.70 (s, 1H), 4.53 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H), 3.44 (s, 2H), 3.14 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H), 2.93 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.82 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.04 (p, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.44 (s, 6H). Two exchangeable protons not observed. Intermediate C26: 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-(4-fluoro-3-sulfamoylphenethoxy)pyridin-4-y l)- 6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid Step A: methyl 2-(2-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluorophene thoxy)- pyridin-4-yl)-4-fluoro-6-isopropylphenyl)acetate

DIAD (300 µL, 1.543 mmol) was added to a mixture of 2-fluoro-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)- N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)benzenesulfonamide (Intermediate A16) (540 mg, 1.18 mmol), methyl 2-(4-fluoro-2-isopropyl-6-(2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridin-4-yl)phe nyl)- acetate (Intermediate B5) (300 mg, 0.989 mmol) and PPh 3 (400 mg, 1.53 mmol) in THF (15 mL) at RT. After 7 h a further portion of PPh 3 (400 mg, 1.53 mmol) and DIAD (300 µL, 1.543 mmol) were added, stirred for 24 h then partitioned between TBME (80 mL) and water (50 mL), the organic layer separated, dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated. The crude product was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (554 mg, 45%) as a gum. 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 8.15 (dd, J = 5.2, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 7.86 (dd, J = 6.8, 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.52 - 7.47 (m, 1H), 7.12 (dd, J = 9.9, 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.06 (dd, J = 10.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 7.00 - 6.95 (m, 4H), 6.81 (dd, J = 5.2, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.78 - 6.73 (m, 4H), 6.71 (dd, J = 8.5, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 6.64 - 6.62 (m, 1H), 4.58 (t, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 4.34 (s, 4H), 3.78 (s, 6H), 3.66 (s, 3H), 3.54 (s, 2H), 3.14 (t, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 3.08 - 3.00 (m, 1H), 1.24 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 6H). Step B: 2-(2-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluorophene thoxy)pyridin- 4-yl)-4-fluoro-6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid A mixture of methyl 2-(2-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro- phenethoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-fluoro-6-isopropylphenyl)acetate (700 mg, 0.564 mmol) in THF (5 mL), water (1 mL) and aq 1 M NaOH (800 µL, 0.800 mmol) was stirred at RT for 24 h. A further portion of aq 1 M NaOH (800 µL, 0.800 mmol) was added and the mixture heated at 50 °C for 24 h, cooled to RT, MeOH (1 mL) added and stirred for 4 days. After heating the solution at 50 °C for 6 h, the mixture was cooled, the organic solvent evaporated and the residue taken to pH 6 with aq 1 M HCl and extracted with TBME (2 x 15 mL). The organic layer was dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered, evaporated and the residue purified by FC (0-60% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (345 mg, 67%) as a gum. LCMS m/z 729.35 (M-H)-(ES-). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 12.46 (s, 1H), 8.20 (dd, J = 5.2, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 7.72 (dd, J = 7.0, 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.68 - 7.63 (m, 1H), 7.36 (dd, J = 10.5, 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.23 (dd, J = 10.5, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 6.99 - 6.93 (m, 4H), 6.87 (dd, J = 5.2, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.81 (dd, J = 8.9, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 6.79 - 6.73 (m, 4H), 6.64 (s, 1H), 4.52 (t, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 4.26 (s, 4H), 3.69 (s, 6H), 3.43 (s, 2H), 3.11 (t, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 3.02 (sept, J = 6.5 Hz, 1H), 1.19 - 1.17 (d, J = 6.5Hz, 6H). Step C: 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-(4-fluoro-3-sulfamoylphenethoxy)pyridin-4-y l)-6-isopropyl- phenyl)acetic acid To a vial containing 2-(2-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro- phenethoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-fluoro-6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid (300 mg, 0.39 mmol) was added TFA (5.0 mL). The reaction mixture was left to stir at RT for 2 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0- 10% MeOH/DCM) to afford the title compound (194 mg, 96%) as a colourless solid. LCMS m/z 491.2 (M+H) + (ES + ); 489.7 (M-H)- (ES-). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.21 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.74 (dd, J = 7.1, 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.62 (s, 2H), 7.58 (ddd, J = 7.6, 4.7, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (dd, J = 10.2, 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.23 (dd, J = 10.5, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 6.94 – 6.87 (m, 2H), 6.68 (s, 1H), 4.50 (t, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H), 3.47 (s, 2H), 3.11 (t, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H), 3.03 (p, J = 6.5 Hz, 1H), 1.18 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Intermediate C39: 2-(2-(2-(2-(5-(dimethylcarbamoyl)-4-fluoro-3-sulfamoyl-1H- pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-fluoro-6-isopr opylphenyl)acetic acid Step A: 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1-(1-((4-(2-(2-(tert-b utoxy)-2- oxoethyl)-5-fluoro-3-isopropylphenyl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy)-2-met hylpropan-2-yl)-4- fluoro-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid To a solution of 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-1-(1-hydroxy- 2- methylpropan-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid (Intermediate A25) (0.280 g, 537 µmol) in THF (6 mL) at 0 °C was added sodium hydride (60 wt% dispersion in mineral oil) (64.4 mg, 1.61 mmol) and the reaction left to stir for 15 min. tert-Butyl 2-(4-fluoro- 2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetate (Intermediate B4) (187 mg, 537 µmol) was then added to the reaction mixture, which was then warmed to RT and stirred for 16 h. The reaction was quenched with water and then the pH adjusted to £3 with 1 M aq HCl. The mixture was then extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL), the organics passed through a phase separator and then concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (15-100% MeCN (0.1% formic acid)/water (0.1% formic acid)) to afford the title compound (0.135 g, 29%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 849.7 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.19 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.22 (dd, J = 10.4, 2.7 Hz, 1H), 7.00 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 4H), 6.88 (dd, J = 5.1, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.76 (m, 5H), 6.53 (s, 1H), 4.79 (s, 2H), 4.20 (s, 4H), 3.68 (s, 6H), 3.36 (s, 2H), 3.05 – 2.89 (m, 1H), 1.71 (s, 6H), 1.28 (d, J = 1.3 Hz, 9H), 1.16 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step B: 2-(2-(2-(2-(5-(dimethylcarbamoyl)-4-fluoro-3-sulfamoyl-1H-py razol-1-yl)-2- methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-fluoro-6-isopropylphenyl)aceti c acid To a solution of 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1-(1-((4-(2-(2-(tert-b utoxy)- 2-oxoethyl)-5-fluoro-3-isopropylphenyl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy)-2-m ethylpropan-2-yl)-4- fluoro-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid (0.234 g, 276 µmol) in DMF (3 mL) was added DIPEA (35.6 mg, 276 µmol) and HATU (115 mg, 303 µmol). The reaction was stirred at RT for 10 min and then dimethylamine hydrochloride (24.7 mg, 303 µmol) was added. The reaction was then heated at 80 °C for 65 h. The reaction was diluted with EtOAc (20 mL) and washed with water (50 mL) and then brine (3 x 50 mL). The organics were then passed through a phase separator and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane). The isolated material was taken up in TFA (5 mL) and stirred for 16 h at RT. The reaction was then concentrated in vacuo and the resulting crude product was purified by FC (0-8%MeOH/DCM) to afford the title compound (0.09 g, 50%) as a pale yellow glass. LCMS m/z 580.5 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 12.46 (s, 1H), 8.22 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.85 (s, 2H), 7.23 (dd, J = 10.5, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 6.95 – 6.87 (m, 2H), 6.67 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 3.66 – 3.37 (m, 4H), 3.07 – 2.96 (m, 1H), 2.92 (s, 3H), 2.85 (s, 3H), 1.66 (s, 6H), 1.21 – 1.13 (m, 6H). Intermediate C40: 2-(2-(2-(2-(6-ethyl-3-sulfamoyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazo lo- [3,4-c]pyridin-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-fluoro- 6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid CO 2 H N F O O N N H 2 N S O N Step A: tert-butyl 2-(2-(2-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4,5,6,7- tetrahydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridin-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)p yridin-4-yl)-4-fluoro-6- isopropylphenyl)acetate 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-4 ,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H- pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-sulfonamide (375 mg, 729 µmol) (Intermediate A26) and tert-butyl 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)aceta te (253 mg, 729 µmol) (Intermediate B4) were combined under N 2 then dissolved in THF (7 mL). The mixture was cooled to 0 °C then sodium hydride (60 wt% in mineral oil) (87 mg, 2.19 mmol) was added. The reaction was allowed to warm to RT and stirred for 16 h. The mixture was quenched with water (30 mL), transferred to a separating funnel and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgSO 4 , filtered then concentrated in vacuo onto silica. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) then flushed with 10% MeOH (0.7 M NH3) in DCM to afford the title compound (515 mg, 80%) as a flocculent white solid. LCMS m/z 842.1 (M)+ (ES+). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.19 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.23 (dd, J = 10.5, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 6.96 – 6.90 (m, 4H), 6.88 (dd, J = 5.2, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 6.80 – 6.71 (m, 5H), 6.61 (s, 1H), 4.55 (s, 2H), 4.13 (s, 4H), 4.04 (d, J = 2.7 Hz, 2H), 3.68 (s, 6H), 3.39 (s, 2H), 3.00 (m, 1H), 2.74 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 2H), 1.64 (s, 6H), 1.31 (s, 9H), 1.17 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 6H). One CH 2 under DMSO peak, one exchangeable proton not observed. Step B: tert-butyl 2-(2-(2-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-6-ethyl-4, 5,6,7- tetrahydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridin-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)p yridin-4-yl)-4-fluoro-6- isopropylphenyl)acetate tert-Butyl 2-(2-(2-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4,5,6,7-te trahydro-1H- pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridin-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4 -fluoro-6-isopropyl- phenyl)acetate (515 mg, 612 µmol) and Pd/C (10 wt%) (65.1 mg, 61.2 µmol) were combined and purged by evacuating and back-filling with N2 (x 3). MeCN (4 mL) and EtOH (2 mL) were added then the mixture was placed under H 2 (5 bar) for 16 h. The mixture was filtered through a glass fibre filter disc and rinsed with EtOH (20 mL) followed by the removal of solvents in vacuo to afford the title compound (502 mg, 85%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 870.1 (M) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.19 (dd, J = 5.3, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 7.24 (dd, J = 10.5, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 6.97 – 6.92 (m, 4H), 6.89 (dd, J = 5.2, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 6.80 – 6.71 (m, 5H), 6.59 (dd, J = 1.5, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 4.59 (s, 2H), 4.14 (s, 4H), 3.79 (s, 2H), 3.68 (s, 6H), 3.40 (s, 2H), 3.01 (p, J = 6.7 Hz, 1H), 2.61 – 2.51 (m, 6H), 1.67 (s, 6H), 1.31 (s, 9H), 1.18 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 6H), 1.05 (m, 3H). Step C: 2-(2-(2-(2-(6-ethyl-3-sulfamoyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazo lo[3,4-c]- pyridin-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-fluoro-6-isopr opylphenyl)acetic acid

tert-Butyl 2-(2-(2-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-6-ethyl-4, 5,6,7- tetrahydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridin-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)p yridin-4-yl)-4-fluoro-6- isopropylphenyl)acetate (0.487 g, 560 µmol) was dissolved in TFA (5 mL) and stirred at RT for 6 h. The mixture was then concentrated to dryness, co-evaporated with toluene (10 mL) twice to dryness and purified by FC (0-10% (0.7 M ammonia/MeOH)/DCM) to afford the title compound (514 mg, 96%) as a sticky colourless foam. LCMS m/z 574.5 (M+H) + (ES + ); 572.4 (M-H)- (ES-). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 9.98 (s, 1H), 8.24 – 8.17 (m, 1H), 7.58 (s, 2H), 7.25 (dd, J = 10.5, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 6.94 (dd, J = 5.2, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 6.91 (dd, J = 8.9, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 6.79 – 6.78 (m, 1H), 4.90 (d, J = 14.9 Hz, 1H), 4.61 – 4.45 (m, 3H), 3.80 – 3.54 (m, 2H), 3.48 (s, 2H), 3.40 – 3.19 (m, 2H), 3.08 – 2.84 (m, 3H), 1.70 (d, J = 4.0 Hz, 6H), 1.30 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H), 1.18 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 6H). 19 F NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d -115.08 (t, J = 9.8 Hz). Intermediate C41: 2-(2-(2-(2-(5-(dimethylcarbamoyl)-3-sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-y l)- 2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-fluoro-6-isopropylphenyl)ace tic acid Step A: 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1-(1-((4-(2-(2-(tert-b utoxy)-2- oxoethyl)-5-fluoro-3-isopropylphenyl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy)-2-met hylpropan-2-yl)-1H- pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid, formic acid salt

Prepared according to the general procedure of 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)- sulfamoyl)-1-(1-((4-(2-(2-(tert-butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)-5-fluoro -3-isopropylphenyl)- pyridin-2-yl)oxy)-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-4-fluoro-1H-pyrazole- 5-carboxylic acid (Intermediate C39, Step A) from potassium 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)- sulfamoyl)-1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-c arboxylate (Intermediate A27) and tert-butyl 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropyl- phenyl)acetate (Intermediate B4) to afford the title compound (0.88 g, 41%) as a thick orange oil. LCMS m/z 831.7 (M+H- formic acid) + (ES + ). 1H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 14.19 – 12.49 (m, 1H), 8.18 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 8.13 (s, 1H), 7.22 (dd, J = 10.5, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 7.05 (s, 1H), 6.99 – 6.91 (m, 4H), 6.87 (dd, J = 5.2, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 6.77 – 6.70 (m, 5H), 6.51 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 1H), 4.85 (s, 2H), 4.14 (s, 4H), 3.67 (s, 6H), 3.37 (s, 2H), d 3.04 – 2.94 (m, 1H), 1.77 (s, 6H), 1.29 (s, 9H), 1.17 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step B: tert-butyl 2-(2-(2-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-5-(dimethy l- carbamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4- fluoro-6-isopropyl- phenyl)acetate To a solution of 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1-(1-((4-(2-(2-(tert-b utoxy)- 2-oxoethyl)-5-fluoro-3-isopropylphenyl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy)-2-m ethylpropan-2-yl)-1H- pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid, formic acid salt (0.88 g, 0.93 mmol) in DMF (3 mL) was added DIPEA (0.65 mL, 3.7 mmol), dimethylamine hydrochloride (84 mg, 1.0 mmol) and HATU (0.39 g, 1.0 mmol). The reaction was stirred at RT for 4 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with EtOAc (20 mL) and washed with water (50 mL) and then brine (3 x 50 mL). The organics were then passed through a phase separator and concentrated to dryness. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (0.60 g, 60%) as a pale yellow glass. LCMS m/z 859.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.22 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.23 (dd, J = 10.5, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 6.97 – 6.92 (m, 4H), 6.90 (dd, J = 5.2, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 6.85 (s, 1H), 6.80 – 6.73 (m, 5H), 6.56 (s, 1H), 4.66 (s, 2H), 4.15 (s, 4H), 3.67 (s, 6H), 3.38 (s, 2H), 3.05 – 2.95 (m, 1H), 2.92 (s, 3H), 2.81 (s, 3H), 1.66 (s, 6H), 1.30 (s, 9H), 1.21 – 1.12 (m, 6H). 19 F NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d -114.90 (t, J = 9.5 Hz). Step C: 2-(2-(2-(2-(5-(dimethylcarbamoyl)-3-sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-y l)-2- methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-fluoro-6-isopropylphenyl)aceti c acid tert-Butyl 2-(2-(2-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-5-(dimethy lcarbamoyl)- 1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-fluoro-6-is opropylphenyl)acetate (558 mg, 650 µmol) was dissolved in TFA (5 mL) and stirred at RT for 24 h. The reaction was concentrated in vacuo and the resulting residue purified by FC (0-10% MeOH/DCM) to afford the title compound (326 mg, 88%) as a clear colourless oil. LCMS m/z 562.4 (M+H)+ (ES + ); 560.3 (M-H)- (ES-). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 12.47 (br s, 1H), 8.22 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.52 (s, 2H), 7.22 (dd, J = 10.6, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 6.95-6.87 (m, 2H), 6.69 (s, 1H), 6.66 (s, 1H), 4.65 (s, 2H), 3.47 (s, 2H), 3.07-2.99 (m, 1H), 2.89 (s, 3H), 2.81 (s, 3H), 1.68 (s, 6H), 1.18 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 6H). Intermediate C43: 2-(2-isopropyl-6-(2-((5-(5-sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pentyl) - oxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid Step A: 2-(2-(2-((5-(5-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazo l-1-yl)pentyl)- oxy)pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid To a solution of 1-(5-hydroxypentyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-5- sulfonamide (Intermediate A28) (500 mg, 1.06 mmol) and 2-(2-(2-fluoropyridin-4- yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate B1) (288 mg, 1.06 mmol) in THF (6 mL) was added NaH (127 mg, 60 wt% in mineral oil, 3.17 mmol) at 0°C. Then the mixture was stirred at 40°C for 12 h. The mixture was poured into MeOH (100 mL) slowly, then concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (0.54 g, 70.8%) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 727.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 8.21 (d, 1H), 7.57 (d, 1H), 7.40-7.39 (m, 1H), 7.35 (t, 1H), 7.08 (d, 1H), 7.00 (d, 4H), 6.86-6.82 (m, 5H), 6.55 (d, 1H), 6.54 (d, 1H), 4.38-4.30 (m, 8H), 3.80 (s, 6H), 3.62 (s, 2H), 3.17-3.13 (m, 1H), 1.99-1.96 (m, 2H), 1.82-1.77 (m, 2H), 1.53- 1.50 (m, 2H), 1.28 (d, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step B: 2-(2-isopropyl-6-(2-((5-(5-sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pentyl) oxy)pyridin-4-yl)- phenyl)acetic acid To a solution of 2-(2-(2-((5-(5-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazo l-1-yl)- pentyl)oxy)pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid (700 mg, 0.96 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) was added TFA (7.70 g, 67.5 mmol) at 20°C. Then the mixture was stirred at 20°C for 12 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was triturated with MeOH (100 mL), filtered and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 3:1 to 1:1) to give the title compound (430 mg, 91.8%) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 487.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 8.12 (d, 1H), 7.44 (d, 1H), 7.32-7.29 (m, 2H), 7.01-6.99 (m, 1H), 6.79 (d, 1H), 6.66 (s, 2H), 5.79 (br s, 2H), 4.34 (t, 2H), 4.22 (t, 2H), 3.52 (s, 2H), 3.05- 3.02 (m, 1H), 1.98-1.93 (m, 2H), 1.75-1.72 (m, 2H), 1.43-1.41 (m, 2H), 1.22 (d, 6H). One excahnegable proton not observed. Intermediate C44: 2-(2-isopropyl-6-(6-(2-(3-sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethoxy)- pyridazin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid Step A: 1-(2-((5-(2-bromo-3-isopropylphenyl)pyridazin-3-yl)oxy)ethyl )-N,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide To a solution of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3- sulfonamide (Intermediate A2) (640 mg, 1.48 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was added NaH (89 mg, 2.22 mmol, 60 wt% in mineral oil) at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 0.5 h. Then to the above mixture was added 5-(2-bromo-3-isopropylphenyl)-3- chloropyridazine (Intermediate B9) (462 mg, 1.48 mmol) at 0 °C. The resulting mixture was warmed to 20 °C and stirred at 20 °C for 15 h. The reaction mixture was quenched with H 2 O (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (50 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (50 mL x 2), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 2:1 to 1:1) to give the title compound (850 mg, 81.1%) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 708.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.97 (d, 1H), 8.09 (d, 1H), 7.54-7.46 (m, 2H), 7.23-7.20 (m, 2H), 6.96 (m, 4H), 6.75 (m, 5H), 4.91 (t, 2H), 4.74 (t, 2H), 4.16 (s, 4H), 3.68 (s, 6H), 3.41- 3.36 (m, 1H), 1.24 (d, 6H). Step B: (2-(tert-butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)zinc(II) bromide A mixture of zinc (3.35 g, 51.3 mmol) in 1M HCl aqueous solution (50 mL) was stirred at 20 °C for 0.5 h. The mixture was filtered and the filter cake was dried to give activated zinc. To a mixture of activated zinc (2.5 g) and chloro(trimethyl)silane (139 mg, 1.28 mmol) in THF (30 mL) was added tert-butyl 2-bromoacetate (2.5 g, 12.82 mmol) dropwise at 50 °C under N2. The mixture was stirred at 50 °C for 1 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to 20 °C to give the title compound (3.34 g, theoretical amount) in THF (30 mL) as a colourless liquid. Step C: tert-butyl 2-(2-(6-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol -1- yl)ethoxy)pyridazin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetate To a solution of 1-(2-((5-(2-bromo-3-isopropylphenyl)pyridazin-3-yl)oxy)ethyl )-N,N- bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (800 mg, 1.13 mmol) in THF (10 mL) at 25 °C was added the above THF solution of (2-(tert-butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)zinc(II) bromide (0.427 M, 13.3 mL), XPhos (54 mg, 113 µmol) and Pd 2 (dba) 3 (52 mg, 56.6 µmol) under N2. The reaction mixture was stirred at 70 °C for 2 h. The reaction mixture was quenched with H 2 O (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (50 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (50 ml x 2), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 1:2 to 1:3) to give the title compound (700 mg, 83.3%) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 742.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.84 (d, 1H), 8.05 (d, 1H), 7.46 (d, 1H), 7.37 (t, 1H), 7.07-7.03 (m, 2H), 6.95 (d, 4H), 6.74 (d, 4H), 6.72 (d, 1H), 4.89 (t, 2H), 4.72 (t, 2H), 4.16 (s, 4H), 3.67 (s, 6H), 3.50 (s, 2H), 3.11-3.03 (m, 1H), 1.30 (s, 9H), 1.19 (d, 6H). Step D: 2-(2-isopropyl-6-(6-(2-(3-sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethoxy)p yridazin-4-yl)- phenyl)acetic acid To a solution of tert-butyl 2-(2-(6-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H- pyrazol-1-yl)ethoxy)pyridazin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetat e (700 mg, 944 µmol) in DCM (7 mL) was added TFA (7 mL). The mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 12 h. The reaction mixture was treated with MeOH (20 mL) and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 1:3 to 0:1 and then DCM : MeOH, 1:0 to 10:1) to give the title compound (300 mg, 71.4%) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 446.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 12.54 (br s, 1H), 8.85 (d, 1H), 7.96 (d, 1H), 7.48-7.35 (m, 4H), 7.12-7.08 (m, 2H), 6.60 (d, 1H), 4.87 (t, 2H), 4.67 (t, 2H), 2.53 (s, 2H), 3.12-3.04 (m, 1H), 1.19 (d, 6H). Intermediate C46: 2-(4-cyano-2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-methyl-2-(4-sulfamoyl-1H- pyrazol-1-yl)propoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid Step A: tert-butyl 2-(2-(2-(2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol -1- yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-cyano-6-isopropylphenyl) acetate To a solution of tert-butyl 2-(4-cyano-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)- acetate (Intermediate B10) (0.5 g, 1.28 mmol, HCl salt) in THF (10 mL) was added NaH (169 mg, 4.23 mmol, 60% purity in mineral oil) and 1-(1-hydroxy-2- methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-su lfonamide (Intermediate A9) (648 mg, 1.41 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 2 h under N2, then quenched with sat aq NH4Cl (30 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (50 mL × 3). The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (0.1% TFA) to give the title compound (0.8 g, 69.9% yield, 97.8% purity on LCMS) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 794.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.16 (d, 1H), 7.77 (s, 1H), 7.65 (s, 1H), 7.62 (d, 1H), 7.22 (d, 1H), 7.07 (d, 4H), 6.84-6.73 (m, 5H), 6.59 (s, 1H), 4.58 (s, 2H), 4.22 (s, 4H), 3.78 (s, 6H), 3.50 (s, 2H), 3.09-3.06 (m, 1H), 1.60 (s, 6H), 1.42 (s, 9H), 1.26 (d, 6H). Step B: 2-(4-cyano-2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-methyl-2-(4-sulfamoyl-1H-pyra zol-1-yl)- propoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid To a solution of tert-butyl 2-(2-(2-(2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H- pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-cyano-6-isopro pylphenyl)acetate (1 g, 1.26 mmol) in DCM (1 mL) was added TFA (135 mmol, 10 mL). The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 12 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (0.1% TFA) to give the title compound (0.55 g, 87.8% yield, 100% purity on LCMS) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 498.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): d 8.35-8.24 (m, 2H), 7.86 (s, 1H), 7.78 (s, 1H), 7.54-7.51 (m, 1H), 7.38-7.29 (m, 2H), 4.68 (s, 2H), 3.71 (s, 2H), 3.25-3.20 (m, 1H), 1.77 (s, 6H), 1.30 (d, 6H). Three exchangeable protons not observed. Intermediate C47: 2-(4-(difluoromethoxy)-2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-methyl-2-(4- sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)propoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid Step A: tert-butyl 2-(2-(2-(2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol -1- yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-(difluoromethoxy)-6-isop ropylphenyl)acetate To a mixture of 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1 H- pyrazole-4-sulfonamide (Intermediate A9) (930 mg, 2.02 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added NaH (202 mg, 5.06 mmol, 60% purity in mineral oil) in one portion at 25 °C under N2. The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 15 min, then tert-butyl 2-(4-(difluoro- methoxy)-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetate (Intermediate B11) (0.8 g, 2.02 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added at 25 °C under N 2 . The reaction mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 12 h, then quenched with 0.5 M aq HCl (30 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (30 mL × 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (30 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 5:1 to 4:1) to give the title compound (1.3 g, 77.0% yield) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 835.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.13 (d, 1H), 7.75 (s, 1H), 7.64 (s, 1H), 7.08-7.05 (m, 5H), 6.83 (d, 1H), 6.79-6.75 (m, 5H), 6.61 (s, 1H), 6.49 (t, 1H), 4.56 (s, 2H), 4.21 (s, 4H), 3.76 (s, 6H), 3.24 (s, 2H), 3.09-3.03 (m, 1H), 1.69 (s, 6H), 1.39 (s, 9H), 1.23 (d, 6H). Step B: 2-(4-(difluoromethoxy)-2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-methyl-2-(4-sulfa moyl-1H- pyrazol-1-yl)propoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid

A mixture of tert-butyl 2-(2-(2-(2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H- pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-(difluorometho xy)-6-isopropylphenyl)- acetate (1.3 g, 1.56 mmol) in DCM (7 mL) and TFA (94.5 mmol, 7 mL) was stirred at 25 °C for 12 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuum and the residue was treated with MeCN (3 mL), then filtered to obtain the filtrate. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuum and the residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (0.5 g, 59.6% yield) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 539.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). Intermediate C48: 2-(4-cyano-3-fluoro-2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-methyl-2-(4-sulfamoy l- 1H-pyrazol-1-yl)propoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid Step A: tert-butyl 2-(6-(2-(2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol -1- yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-cyano-3-fluoro-2-isoprop ylphenyl)acetate To a solution of 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1 H- pyrazole-4-sulfonamide (Intermediate A9) (583 mg, 1.27 mmol) in THF (30 mL) was added NaH (145 mg, 3.63 mmol, 60% purity in mineral oil) in portions at 0 o C. The solution was stirred at 0 °C for 0.5 h, then tert-butyl 2-(4-cyano-3-fluoro-6-(2-fluoro- pyridin-4-yl)-2-isopropylphenyl)acetate (Intermediate B12) (450 mg, 1.21 mmol) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 2 h. The mixture was quenched with EtOH (10 mL) and the mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (0.61 g, 54.5% yield, TFA salt) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 812.3 (M-TFA+H) + (ES+). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.15 (d, 1H), 7.77 (s, 1H), 7.65 (s, 1H), 7.20 (d, 1H), 7.07 (d, 4H), 6.83-6.76 (m, 5H), 6.55 (s, 1H), 4.57 (s, 2H), 4.25 (s, 4H), 3.78 (s, 6H), 3.47 (s, 2H), 3.09-3.05 (m, 1H), 1.69 (s, 6H), 1.42 (s, 9H), 1.36 (d, 6H). TFA proton not observed. Step B: 2-(4-cyano-3-fluoro-2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-methyl-2-(4-sulfamoy l-1H-pyrazol-1- yl)propoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid A solution of tert-butyl 2-(6-(2-(2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H- pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-cyano-3-fluoro -2-isopropylphenyl)- acetate (0.6 g, 648 µmol, TFA salt) in DCM (3 mL) and TFA (2.63 mL, 35.5 mmol) was stirred at 25 °C for 2 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuum and the residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% HCl)-MeCN) to give the title compound (350 mg, 97.9% yield, HCl salt) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 516.2 (M-HCl+H) + (ES+). 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): d 8.29-8.26 (m, 2H), 7.79 (s, 1H), 7.59 (d, 1H), 7.19 (dd, 1H), 7.14 (s, 1H), 4.72 (s, 2H), 3.70 (s, 2H), 2.25-2.28 (m, 1 H), 1.77 (s, 6H), 1.40 (dd, 6H). Three exchangeable protons and HCl proton not observed. Intermediate C49: 2-(4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-fluoro-2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-methyl-2 - (4-sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)propoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)ace tic acid Step A: tert-butyl 2-(6-(2-(2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol -1- yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-fluo ro-2-isopropylphenyl)- acetate To a solution of tert-butyl 2-(4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-fluoro-6-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2- isopropylphenyl)acetate (Intermediate B13) (0.5 g, 1.21 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was added NaH (145 mg, 3.63 mmol, 60% purity in mineral oil) and 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methyl- propan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonam ide (Intermediate A9) (556 mg, 1.21 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 1 h, then quenched with MeOH (10 mL) and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (0.1% TFA) to give the title compound (0.7 g, 67.5% yield, 99.5% purity on LCMS) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 853.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.15 (d, 1H), 7.74 (s, 1H), 7.65 (s, 1H), 7.08 (d, 4H), 6.91-6.84 (m, 2H), 6.77 (d, 4H), 6.63 (s, 1H), 6.52 (t, 1H), 4.54 (s, 2H), 4.22 (s, 4H), 3.77 (s, 6H), 3.41 (s, 2H), 3.10-3.00 (m, 1H), 2.45 (s, 6H), 1.43 (s, 9H), 1.37 (d, 6H). Step B: 2-(4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-fluoro-2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-methyl-2 -(4-sulfamoyl- 1H-pyrazol-1-yl)propoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid

To a solution of tert-butyl 2-(6-(2-(2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H- pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-(difluorometho xy)-3-fluoro-2- isopropylphenyl)acetate (0.7 g, 821 µmol) in DCM (7 mL) was added TFA (94.5 mmol, 7 mL). The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 2 h, then concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (0.1% TFA) to give the title compound (0.4 g, 72.2% yield, 99.3% purity on LCMS, TFA salt) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 557.4 (M-TFA+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD3OD): d 8.24 (s, 1H), 8.16 (d, 1H), 7.80 (s, 1H), 7.07-7.00 (m, 1H), 6.95- 6.93 (m, 1H), 6.76-6.74 (m, 2H), 4.66 (s, 2H), 3.55 (s, 2H), 3.20-3.12 (m, 1H), 1.75 (s, 6H), 1.39 (d, 6H). Three exchangeable protons and TFA proton not observed. Intermediate C50: 2-(2-(2-(2-(4-(dimethylcarbamoyl)-3-sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1- yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-fluoro-6-isopropylphenyl )acetic acid Step A: 2-(2-(2-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-(dimethy lcarbamoyl)- 1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-fluoro-6-is opropylphenyl)acetic acid To a solution of 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1-(1-hydroxy-2-methyl- propan-2-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide (Intermediate A29) (0.5 g, 942 µmol) in THF (30 mL) was added NaH (113 mg, 2.83 mmol, 60% purity in mineral oil) in portions at 0 °C under N2. Then 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6- isopropylphenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate B14) (382 mg, 942 µmol, TFA salt) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at 40 °C for 6 h. The mixture was quenched with EtOH (30 mL) at 0 °C, then concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.05% HCl)-MeCN) to give the title compound (0.57 g, 72.2% yield, HCl salt) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 802.1 (M-HCl+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.13 (d, 1H), 7.85 (s, 1H), 7.00-6.97 (m, 5H), 6.86-6.81 (m, 2H), 6.81-6.67 (m, 5H), 4.44 (s, 2H), 4.23 (s, 4H), 3.73 (s, 6H), 3.23 (s, 2H), 3.13-3.10 (m, 1H), 3.01 (s, 3H), 2.98 (s, 3H), 1.69 (s, 6H), 1.15 (d, 6H). One exchangeable proton and HCl proton not observed. Step B: 2-(2-(2-(2-(4-(dimethylcarbamoyl)-3-sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-y l)-2- methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-fluoro-6-isopropylphenyl)aceti c acid A solution of 2-(2-(2-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-(dimethy l- carbamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4- fluoro-6-isopropyl- phenyl)acetic acid (0.55 g, 656 µmol, HCl salt) in TFA (3 mL) and DCM (3 mL) was stirred at 25 °C for 12 h. The solution was concentrated in vacuum and the residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (345 mg, 77.8% yield, TFA salt) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 562.2 (M-TFA+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.22 (d, 1H), 7.74 (s, 1H), 7.08 (dd, 1H), 6.91 (d, 1H), 6.74 (dd, 1H), 6.08 (s, 1H), 5.67 (br s, 2H), 4.43 (s, 2H), 3.33 (s, 2H), 3.13-3.05 (m, 7H), 1.80 (s, 6H), 1.24 (d, 6H). One exchangeable proton and TFA proton not observed. Intermediate C51: 2-(2-isopropyl-4-(methoxymethyl)-6-(2-(2-methyl-2-(4- sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)propoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid Step A: tert-butyl 2-(2-(2-(2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol -1- yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropyl-4-(methoxymeth yl)phenyl)acetate To a solution of tert-butyl 2-(2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropyl-4-(methoxymethyl)- phenyl)acetate (Intermediate B15) (0.5 g, 1.34 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was added NaH (161 mg, 4.02 mmol, 60% purity in mineral oil) and 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methyl- propan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonam ide (Intermediate A9) (615 mg, 1.34 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 12 h under N 2 , then quenched with sat aq NH 4 Cl (10 mL) and extracted with DCM (20 mL × 3). The organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (0.8 g, 72.8% yield, 99% purity on LCMS) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 813.6 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD3OD): d 8.14 (d, 1H), 8.05 (s, 1H), 7.68 (s, 1H), 7.38 (d, 1H), 7.00 (dd, 4H), 6.92 (s, 1H), 6.90 (d, 1H), 6.72 (dd, 4H), 6.65 (s, 1H), 4.57 (s, 2H), 4.42 (s, 2H), 4.17 (s, 4H), 3.74 (s, 6H), 3.49 (s, 2H), 3.37 (s, 3H), 3.14-3.06 (m, 1H), 1.73 (s, 6H), 1.39 (s, 9H), 1.26 (d, 6 H). Step B: 2-(2-isopropyl-4-(methoxymethyl)-6-(2-(2-methyl-2-(4-sulfamo yl-1H-pyrazol- 1-yl)propoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid To a solution of tert-butyl 2-(2-(2-(2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H- pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropyl-4-(m ethoxymethyl)phenyl)- acetate (0.8 g, 984 mmol) in DCM (10 mL) was added TFA (10 mL, 135 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 12 h, then concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (0.4 g, 77.9% yield, 99% purity on LCMS) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 517.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD3OD): d 8.23 (s, 1H), 8.15 (d, 1H), 7.79 (s, 1H), 7.40 (d, 1H), 7.02 (s, 1H), 7.01 (d, 1H), 6.85 (s, 1H), 4.62 (s, 2H), 4.47 (s, 2H), 3.58 (s, 2H), 3.40 (s, 3H), 3.15-3.06 (m, 1H), 1.74 (s, 6H), 1.26 (d, 6H). Three exchangeable protons not observed. Intermediate C52: 2-(3-fluoro-2-isopropyl-4-(methoxymethyl)-6-(2-(2-methyl-2-( 4- sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)propoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid Step A: tert-butyl 2-(6-(2-(2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol -1- yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-3-fluoro-2-isopropyl-4-(me thoxymethyl)phenyl)- acetate To a mixture of 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1 H- pyrazole-4-sulfonamide (Intermediate A9) (564 mg, 1.23 mmol) in THF (2 mL) was added NaH (123 mg, 3.07 mmol, 60% purity in mineral oil) at 25 °C under N 2 . The reaction mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 15 min, then tert-butyl 2-(3-fluoro-6-(2- fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2-isopropyl-4-(methoxymethyl)phenyl)acet ate (Intermediate B16) (0.48 g, 1.23 mmol) was added at 25 °C under N 2 . The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 12 h, then quenched with 0.5 M aq HCl (10 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (10 mL × 3). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (10 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (0.8 g, 78.5% yield) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 832.6 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.17 (s, 1H), 7.72 (s, 1H), 7.64 (s, 1H), 7.20-7.10 (m, 5H), 7.00-6.97 (m, 1H), 6.79-6.75 (m, 5H), 4.60 (d, 2H), 4.50 (s, 2H), 4.25 (s, 4H), 3.75 (s, 6H), 3.44 (s, 2H), 3.42 (s, 3H), 3.08-3.03 (m, 1H), 1.70 (s, 6H), 1.45 (s, 9H), 1.35 (d, 6H). Step B: 2-(3-fluoro-2-isopropyl-4-(methoxymethyl)-6-(2-(2-methyl-2-( 4-sulfamoyl-1H- pyrazol-1-yl)propoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid To a solution of tert-butyl 2-(6-(2-(2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H- pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-3-fluoro-2-isopr opyl-4-(methoxymethyl)- phenyl)acetate (0.7 g, 842 µmol) in DCM (6 mL) was added TFA (6 mL, 81.0 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 12 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuum and the residue was treated with MeCN (5 mL) and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (0.32 g, 71.1% yield) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 535.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.26 (d, 1H), 8.17 (s, 1H), 7.78 (s, 1H), 7.15-7.10 (m, 2H), 6.88 (s, 1H), 4.55 (s, 2H), 4.51 (s, 2H), 3.53 (s, 2H), 3.46 (s, 3H), 3.08-3.03 (m, 1H), 1.70 (s, 6H), 1.40 (d, 6H). Three exchangeable protons not observed. Intermediate C53: 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-(2-(4-fluoro-5-((4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)- methyl)-3-sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin -4-yl)-6-isopropyl- phenyl)acetic acid Step A: 2-(2-(2-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-5 -((4-methyl- piperazin-1-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyri din-4-yl)-4-fluoro-6- isopropylphenyl)acetic acid To a solution of 4-fluoro-1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxy - benzyl)-5-((4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sul fonamide (Intermediate A30) (320 mg, 455 µmol, TFA salt) in THF (10 mL) was added NaH (46 mg, 1.14 mmol, 60% purity in mineral oil) at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 0.5 h, then 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)aceti c acid (Intermediate B14) (96 mg, 327 µmol, TFA salt) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 0.5 h. The mixture was heated to 50 °C for 12 h, then cooled to 20 °C and additional NaH (64 mg, 1.59 mmol, 60% purity in mineral oil) and 2-(4- fluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate B14) (184 mg, 455 µmol, TFA salt) were added. The reaction mixture was stirred at 50 °C for 24 h, then quenched with MeOH (5 mL) and adjusted to pH=7 with 1M HCl. The mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (200 mg, 45.1% yield, TFA salt) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 861.4 (M-TFA+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 +D 2 O): d 8.11 (d, 1H), 7.15 (dd, 1H), 6.88 (d, 4H), 6.83 (dd, 1H), 6.69 (d, 4H), 6.59 (dd, 1H), 6.50 (s, 1H), 4.65 (s, 2H), 4.08 (s, 4H), 3.65-3.60 (m, 8H), 3.36-3.31 (m, 4H), 2.96-2.84 (m, 5H), 2.74 (s, 3H), 2.38-2.30 (m, 2H), 1.69 (s, 6H), 1.11 (d, 6H). One exchangeable proton and TFA proton not observed. Step B: 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-(2-(4-fluoro-5-((4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)met hyl)-3-sulfamoyl- 1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylph enyl)acetic acid To a solution 2-(2-(2-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-5 -((4- methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropox y)pyridin-4-yl)-4- fluoro-6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid (200 mg, 205 µmol, TFA salt) in DCM (3 mL) was added TFA (4.62 g, 40.5 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 12 h, then treated with MeOH (3 mL), filtered and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (134 mg, 88.9% yield, TFA salt) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 621.2 (M-TFA+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6): d 12.5 (br s, 1H), 9.44 (br s, 1H), 8.20 (d, 1H), 7.71 (s, 2H), 7.24 (dd, 1H), 6.95-6.90 (m, 2H), 6.69 (s, 1H), 4.70 (s, 2H), 3.46 (s, 2H), 3.39 (d, 2H), 3.05- 2.99 (m, 1H), 2.94-2.88 (m, 2H), 2.87-2.81 (m, 2H), 2.75 (s, 3H), 2.38-2.32 (m, 2H), 1.73 (s, 6H), 1.18 (d, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Intermediate C54: 1-(1-((4-(2-(carboxymethyl)-5-fluoro-3-isopropylphenyl)pyrid in- 2-yl)oxy)-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-4-fluoro-3-sulfamoyl-1H-pyraz ole-5-carboxylic acid Step A: 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1-(1-((4-(2-(carboxyme thyl)-5-fluoro- 3-isopropylphenyl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy)-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-4-f luoro-1H-pyrazole-5- carboxylic acid To a solution of 4-fluoro-1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxy - benzyl)-5-(4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulf onamide (Intermediate A31) (250 mg, 348 µmol, TFA salt) in THF (15 mL) was added NaH (35 mg, 871 µmol, 60% purity in mineral oil) at 0 °C in portions under N2. The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 30 min, then 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropyl- phenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate B14) (112 mg, 275 µmol, TFA salt) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 1 h. The mixture was quenched with 1M aq HCl (10 mL) at 0 °C and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (0.16 g, 57.9% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 793.5 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6): d 8.17 (d, 1H), 7.21 (dd, 1H), 7.01 (d, 4H), 6.88 (dd, 1H), 6.75 (d, 4H), 6.71 (dd, 1H), 6.58 (s, 1H), 4.80 (s, 2H), 4.24 (s, 4H), 3.69 (s, 6H), 3.40 (s, 2H), 3.01-2.98 (m, 1H), 1.73 (s, 6H), 1.17 (d, 6H). Two exchangeable protons not observed. Step B: 1-(1-((4-(2-(carboxymethyl)-5-fluoro-3-isopropylphenyl)pyrid in-2-yl)oxy)-2- methylpropan-2-yl)-4-fluoro-3-sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carbox ylic acid A solution of 3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1-(1-((4-(2-(carboxyme thyl)-5- fluoro-3-isopropylphenyl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy)-2-methylpropan-2- yl)-4-fluoro-1H- pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid (160 mg, 202 µmol) in DCM (3 mL) and TFA (3 mL) was stirred at 25 o C for 1 h. The mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (0.13 g, 96.6% yield, TFA salt) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 553.3 (M-TFA+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): d 8.11 (d, 1H), 7.13 (dd, 1H), 6.94 (dd, 1H), 6.81 (dd, 1H), 6.73 (s, 1H), 4.91 (s, 2H), 3.54 (s, 2H), 3.14-3.11 (m, 1H), 1.78 (s, 6H), 1.24 (d, 6H). Four exchangeable protons and TFA proton not observed. Intermediate C55: 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-(2-(4-fluoro-5-(morpholinomethyl)-3- sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-6-i sopropylphenyl)acetic acid Step A: 2-(2-(2-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-5 -(morpholino- methyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-flu oro-6-isopropylphenyl)- acetic acid To a solution of 4-fluoro-1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxy - benzyl)-5-(morpholinomethyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A32) (0.3 g, 520 µmol) in THF (3 mL) was added NaH (73 mg, 1.82 mmol, 60% purity in mineral oil) at 0 °C under N2. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 0.5 h, then a solution of 2-(4- fluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate B14) (232 mg, 572 µmol, TFA salt) in THF (1 mL) was added to the mixture at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 12 h under N2, then quenched with 0.5 M aq HCl and extracted with EtOAc (50 mL × 2). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% NH3.H 2 O)-MeCN) to give the title compound (0.15 g, 34.0% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 848.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.23 (d, 1H), 7.12-7.09 (m, 5H), 6.96 (d, 1H), 6.88 (s, 1H), 6.80- 6.76 (m, 5H), 4.71 (s, 2H), 4.37 (s, 4H), 4.31 (s, 2H), 3.99-3.96 (m, 4H), 3.77 (s, 6H), 3.52 (s, 2H), 3.39-3.20 (m, 3H), 3.11-3.05 (m, 2H), 1.84 (s, 6H), 1.26 (d, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step B: 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-(2-(4-fluoro-5-(morpholinomethyl)-3-sulfamo yl-1H-pyrazol-1- yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid To a solution of 2-(2-(2-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-5 - (morpholinomethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin- 4-yl)-4-fluoro-6- isopropylphenyl)acetic acid (150 mg, 177 µmol) in DCM (3 mL) was added TFA (6.00 mL, 81.0 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 12 h, then concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (0.1 g, 78.3% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 608.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6): d 8.20 (d, 1H), 7.71 (s, 2H), 7.23 (dd, 1H), 6.93-6.88 (m, 2H), 6.67 (s, 1H), 4.73 (s, 2H), 3.55 (s, 3H), 3.51-3.41 (m, 7H), 3.04-2.99 (m, 1H), 2.35-2.33 (m, 2H), 1.73 (s, 6H), 1.18 (d, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Intermediate C56: 2-(4-fluoro-2-isopropyl-6-(2-((2-methyl-2-(4-sulfamoyl-1H- pyrazol-1-yl)propyl)amino)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid Step A: 2-(2-(2-((2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazo l-1-yl)-2- methylpropyl)amino)pyridin-4-yl)-4-fluoro-6-isopropylphenyl) acetic acid To a solution of 1-(1-amino-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H- pyrazole-4-sulfonamide (Intermediate A33) (700 mg, 1.41 mmol, HCl salt) in 2- methylbutan-2-ol (20 mL) was added methyl 2-(4-fluoro-2-isopropyl-6-(2-(((trifluoro- methyl)sulfonyl)oxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetate (Intermediate B17) (616 mg, 1.41 mmol), LiHMDS (1 M in THF, 2.83 mL) and [2-(2-aminophenyl)phenyl]-methyl- sulfonyloxy-palladium; di-tert-butyl-[2-(2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl)phenyl]phosphane (112 mg, 141 µmol) at 25 °C under N2. The mixture was stirred at 90 °C for 12 h, then quenched with 1M aq HCl (3 mL) and concentrated in vaccum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (0.12 g, 11.6% yield) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 730.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): d 7.90 (s, 1H), 7.82 (d, 1H), 7.64 (s, 1H), 7.23 (dd, 1H), 7.11 (d, 4H), 6.89-6.78 (m, 7H), 4.21 (s, 4H), 3.85 (s, 2H), 3.75 (s, 6H), 3.57 (s, 2H), 3.17-3.14 (m, 1H), 1.66 (s, 6H), 1.26 (d, 6H). Two exchangeable protons not observed. Step B: 2-(4-fluoro-2-isopropyl-6-(2-((2-methyl-2-(4-sulfamoyl-1H-py razol-1-yl)- propyl)amino)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid A solution of 2-(2-(2-((2-(4-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazo l-1-yl)-2- methylpropyl)amino)pyridin-4-yl)-4-fluoro-6-isopropylphenyl) acetic acid (100 mg, 137 µmol) in DCM (0.5 mL) and TFA (0.5 mL) was stirred at 25 °C for 1 h. The solution was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give the title compound (82 mg, 99.2% yield, TFA salt) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 490.3 (M-TFA+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.94-7.90 (m, 2H), 7.72 (s, 1H), 6.96 (dd, 1H), 6.66 (dd, 1H), 6.51 (dd, 1H), 6.05 (s, 1H), 4.64-4.61 (m, 1H), 3.72 (d, 2H), 3.40 (s, 2H), 3.22-3.01 (m, 1H), 1.64 (s, 6H), 1.25 (d, 6H). Three exchangeable protons not observed. Intermediate D1: 2-(2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-(methyl(1-sulfamoylpiperidin-3-yl)ami no)- ethoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid Step A: 2-(2-(2-(2,2-diethoxyethoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl) acetic acid To a solution of 2,2-diethoxyethanol (1.47 g, 11.0 mmol) in DMF (40 mL) was added NaH (439 mg, 11.0 mmol, 60% purity in mineral oil) in portions at 0°C under N2. Then to the above solution was added 2-(2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate B1) (1.00 g, 3.66 mmol) in portions and the resulting mixture was stirred at 40°C for 3 h. The mixture was quenched with H 2 O (60 mL) and then extracted with EtOAc (2 x 40 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (2 x 50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum to give the title compound (1.3 g, crude) as a colourless oil. LCMS: m/z 388.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.14 (d, 1H), 7.39-7.32 (m, 2H), 7.05 (d, 1H), 6.86 (d, 1H), 6.75 (s, 1H), 4.89 (t, 1H), 4.40 (d, 2H), 3.78-3.72 (m, 4H), 3.67 (s, 2H), 3.11-3.04 (m, 1H), 1.26- 1.22 (m, 12H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step B: 2-(2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-oxoethoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid To a solution of 2-(2-(2-(2,2-diethoxyethoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl) acetic acid (1.10 g, 2.84 mmol) in dioxane (21 mL) and H 2 O (30 mL) was added conc H 2 SO4 (1.11 g, 11.4 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at 80°C for 4 h. The reaction mixture was adjusted to pH 7 with sat aq Na 2 CO 3 solution. The reaction mixtutre was concentrated in vacuum to remove most of the dioxane. The aqueous layer was purified directly by reverse phase flash chromatography (0.1% TFA in H 2 O-MeCN) to give the title compound (1.12 g, 84.6% yield over two steps, TFA salt) as a light yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 314.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD3OD): d 8.58 (d, 1H), 7.60-7.54 (m, 2H), 7.46-7.33 (m, 1H), 7.17 (d, 1H), 6.95-6.71 (m, 1H), 4.93-4.90 (m, 2H), 3.67 (s, 2H), 3.31-3.11 (m, 1H), 1.28-1.25 (m, 6H). Two protons not observed. TFA proton not observed. Step C: 2-(2-(2-(2-((1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)piperidin-3-yl)(methyl)a mino)ethoxy)- pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid To a solution of 2-(2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-oxoethoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid (330 mg, 772 µmol, TFA salt) in MeOH (2 mL) and AcOH (0.01 mL) was added tert-butyl 3- (methylamino)piperidine-1-carboxylate (248 mg, 1.16 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at 25°C for 30 min. To above mixture was added NaBH 3 CN (146 mg, 2.32 mmol) and the resulting mixture was stirred at 25°C for 1 h. The mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (0.1% TFA in H 2 O-MeCN) to give the title compound (0.3 g, 62.1%, di-TFA salt) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 512.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.24 (d, 1H), 7.43-7.32 (m, 2H), 7.05-6.95 (m, 3H), 4.80-4.75 (m, 2H), 4.51-4.45 (m, 1H), 4.02-3.95 (m, 1H), 3.68-3.57 (m, 4H), 3.34-3.30 (m, 1H), 3.14- 3.10 (m, 1H), 3.02-2.76 (m, 5H), 2.31-2.28 (m, 1H), 1.88-1.85 (m, 1H), 1.73-1.61 (m, 1H), 1.59-1.54 (m, 1H), 1.43 (s, 9H), 1.26 (d, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. TFA protons not observed. Step D: methyl 2-(2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-(methyl(piperidin-3-yl)amino)ethoxy)p yridin-4- yl)phenyl)acetate To a solution of 2-(2-(2-(2-((1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)piperidin-3-yl)(methyl)a mino)- ethoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylphenyl)acetic acid (0.3 g, 479 µmol, di-TFA salt) in MeOH (20 mL) was added conc H 2 SO4 (47 mg, 479 µmol). Then the mixture was stirred at 60°C for 12 h. The mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (0.1% TFA in H 2 O-MeCN) to give the title compound (0.3 g, 81.5%, tri-TFA salt) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 426.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 8.14 (d, 1H), 7.39-7.33 (m, 2H), 7.02 (d, 1H), 6.96 (d, 1H), 6.79 (s, 1H), 4.74 (s, 2H), 4.11-4.02 (m, 1H), 3.66-3.60 (m, 8H), 3.51-3.25 (m, 2H), 3.06-3.01 (m, 1H), 3.01-2.91 (m, 4H), 2.30-2.28 (m, 1H), 2.15-1.77 (m, 3H), 1.24 (d, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. TFA protons not observed. Step E: methyl 2-(2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-(methyl(1-sulfamoylpiperidin-3-yl)ami no)- ethoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetate To a solution of methyl 2-(2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-(methyl(piperidin-3-yl)amino)ethoxy)- pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetate (0.25 g, 326 µmol, tri-TFA salt) in dioxane (5 mL) was added DIPEA (168 mg, 1.30 mmol) and sulfuric diamide (188 mg, 1.95 mmol). Then the solution was stirred at 110°C for 2 h under microwave irradiation. The solution was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (0.1% TFA in H 2 O-MeCN) to give the title compound (90 mg, 37.7%, di-TFA salt) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 505.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD3OD): d 8.21 (d, 1H), 7.43-7.35 (m, 2H), 7.04 (d, 1H), 6.98 (dd, 1H), 6.84 (s, 1H), 4.79-4.74 (m, 2H), 3.69-3.54 (m, 9H), 3.30-3.27 (m, 2H), 3.10-3.05 (m, 5H), 2.07-1.78 (m, 4H), 1.24 (d, 6H). Two exchangeable protons not observed. TFA protons not observed. Step F: 2-(2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-(methyl(1-sulfamoylpiperidin-3-yl)ami no)ethoxy)- pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid To a solution of methyl 2-(2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-(methyl(1-sulfamoylpiperidin-3-yl)- amino)ethoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetate (90 mg, 123 µmol, di-TFA salt) in MeOH (3 mL) and H 2 O (2 mL) was added LiOH•H 2 O (21 mg, 491 µmol) and the solution was stirred at 40 °C for 3 h. The solution was adjusted to pH = 7 with 1 M HCl and the mixture was concentrated in vacuum to remove most of the methanol. The aqueous layer was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (0.1% TFA in H 2 O-MeCN) to give the title compound (85 mg, 96.3%, di-TFA salt) as a colourless oil. LCMS: m/z 491.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.19 (d, 1H), 7.53-7.27 (m, 2H), 7.04 (d, 1H), 6.95 (dd, 1H), 6.83 (s, 1H), 4.73 (s, 2H), 3.69-3.58 (m, 7H), 3.27-3.22 (m, 1H), 3.19-2.81 (m, 5H), 1.90-1.65 (m, 4H), 1.26-1.22 (m, 6H). Three exchangeable protons not observed. TFA protons not observed. Preparation of Examples Example 1: 16,16-dimethyl-6-(propan-2-yl)-18-oxa-11l⁶-thia-10,15,20,2 4-tetraaza- tetracyclo[17.3.1.1 12,15 .0 2,7 ]tetracosa-1(22),2(7),3,5,12(24),13,19(23),20-octaene- 9,11,11- trione DMAP (70.8 mg, 0.580 mmol) and EDC (111 mg, 0.580 mmol) were added to a solution of 2-(2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-methyl-2-(3-sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl )propoxy)pyridin-4- yl)phenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate C2) (137 mg, 0.290 mmol) in DMF (2 mL) and the reaction was stirred at RT for 18 h. The crude product was purified by acidic prep- HPLC (50-80% MeCN in water) to afford the title compound (10.78 mg, 8%) as a flocculent white solid. LCMS m/z 455.2 (M+H) + (ES + ); 453.2 (M-H)- (ES-). 1H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 11.93 (s, 1H), 8.22 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 8.03 (s, 1H), 7.38 - 7.32 (m, 1H), 7.29 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.94 - 6.90 (m, 1H), 6.88 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 6.71 (s, 1H), 5.73 (s, 1H), 4.50 (s, 2H), 3.41 - 3.35 (m, 2H), 2.97 - 2.92 (m, 1H), 1.66 (s, 6H), 1.17 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 6H). The following examples ‘Ex’ were synthesised following the general procedure for Example 1, from the intermediate compounds indicated in the ‘From’ column:

Example 6: 16-fluoro-19,19-dimethyl-21-oxa-14l⁶-thia-13,18,23,27- tetraazapentacyclo[20.3.1.1 15,18 .0 2,10 .0 5,9 ]heptacosa-1(25),2,4,9,15(27),16,22(26),23- octaene-12,14,14-trione 2-(5-(2-(2-(4-Fluoro-3-sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpr opoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-2,3- dihydro-1H-inden-4-yl)acetic acid (Intermediate C6) (45 mg, 0.092 mmol) was dissolved in NMP (2 mL), to which was added HATU (52 mg, 0.137 mmol) and DIPEA (48 µL, 0.275 mmol). The reaction was stirred at RT for 18 h. The mixture was purified by basic prep HPLC (20-50% MeCN in water) to afford the title compound (8 mg, 18%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 471.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 12.12 (s, 1H), 8.28 (d, J = 4.2 Hz, 1H), 8.20 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.19 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 6.90 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 6.86 (dd, J = 5.2, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 5.85 (s, 1H), 4.53 (s, 2H), 3.38 (s, 2H), 2.93 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.80 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.03 (p, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.63 (s, 6H). Example 17: 17-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-22-oxa-14l⁶-thia-13,24-diazapent acyclo- [21.3.1.1 15,19 .0 2,10 .0 5,9 ]octacosa-1(26),2,4,9,15,17,19(28),23(27),24-nonaene-1 2,14,14- trione CDI (57 mg, 0.352 mmol) was dissolved in MeCN (10 mL), to which was added 2-(5-(2- (3-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-5-sulfamoylphenethoxy)pyridin-4-yl )-2,3-dihydro-1H- inden-4-yl)acetic acid (Intermediate C17) (192 mg, 0.377 mmol). The mixture was stirred at RT for 1 h. DBU (53 µL, 0.355 mmol) in MeCN (10 mL) was then added and the mixture was stirred at RT for 24 h. The reaction was concentrated in vacuo and the resulting residue purified by acidic prep HPLC (35-65% MeCN in water) to afford the title compound (6 mg, 3%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 493.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) d 7.97-7.87 (m, 2H), 7.85-7.73 (m, 2H), 7.47 (s, 1H), 7.29 (s, 1H), 7.06 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 6.69 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 6.46 (br s, 1H), 5.00-4.79 (m, 2H), 3.77- 3.65 (m, 2H), 3.14 (t, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H), 3.04 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.93 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.18 (p, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.60 (s, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. The following examples ‘Ex’ were synthesised following the general procedure for Example 17, from the intermediate compounds indicated in the ‘From’ column:

Example 30: 14-cyclopropyl-4-fluoro-6-(propan-2-yl)-19-oxa-11l⁶-thia-1 0,21- diazatetracyclo[18.3.1.11 2,16 .0 2,7 ]pentacosa-1(23),2(7),3,5,12(25),13,15,20(24),21- nonaene-9,11,11-trione 2-(2-(2-(3-cyclopropyl-5-sulfamoylphenethoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4 -fluoro-6-isopropyl- phenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate C30) (150 mg, 293 µmol) was dissolved in DMF (2 mL), to which was added DMAP (107 mg, 878 µmol) and DIC (111 mg, 0.14 mL, 878 µmol). The mixture was stirred at RT for 48 h. The reaction was diluted with 1 M aq HCl (15 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (25 mL). The organic layer was washed with brine (2 x 25 mL), dried using a phase separator and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (30 mg, 20%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 495.5 (M+H) + (ES + ); 493.4 (M-H)- (ES-). 1H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 11.91 (br s, 1H), 8.22 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.43-7.34 (m, 2H), 7.20 (dd, J = 10.6, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 6.96-6.77 (m, 3H), 6.00 (s, 1H), 4.71 (br s, 2H), 3.52 (br s, 2H), 3.06 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, 2H), 2.99-2.88 (m, 1H), 2.09-2.01 (m, 1H), 1.17 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 6H), 1.06-1.00 (m, 2H), 0.78-0.70 (m, 2H). The following examples ‘Ex.’ were synthesised following the general procedure for Example 30, from the intermediate compounds indicated in the ‘From’ column:

Example 43: 6-(propan-2-yl)-22-oxa-11l⁶-thia-10,15,16,24-tetraazatetra cyclo- [21.3.1.0 2,7 .0 12,16 ]heptacosa-1(26),2(7),3,5,12,14,23(27),24-octaene-9,11 ,11-trione To a solution of 2-(2-isopropyl-6-(2-((5-(5-sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pentyl) oxy)- pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate C43) (330 mg, 678 µmol) in THF (20 mL) was added TEA (275 mg, 2.71 mmol) and BOP (600 mg, 1.36 mmol) at 20°C. The mixture was stirred for 0.5 h. Then DMAP (331 mg, 2.71 mmol) was added into the mixture and the resulting mixture was stirred at 20°C for 1 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC (column: Waters Xbridge C18, 150mm x 25mm x 5µm; mobile phase: [A: water (10mM NH4HCO3), B: MeCN]; B%: 15%-45%, 9 min) to give the title compound (42.8 mg, 13.4%) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 469.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD3OD) d 8.12 (d, 1H), 7.47 (d, 1H), 7.37 (d, 1H), 7.29 (t, 1H), 7.04 (d, 1H), 6.86 (d, 1H), 6.82 (dd, 1H), 6.61 (t, 1H), 4.44 (t, 2H), 4.37 (t, 2H), 3.55 (s, 2H), 3.14- 3.09 (m, 1H), 1.98-1.95 (m, 2H), 1.75-1.72 (m, 2H), 1.57-1.53 (m, 2H), 1.27 (d, 6 H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Example 44: 6-(propan-2-yl)-18-oxa-11l⁶-thia-10,15,20,21,24-pentaazate tracyclo- [17.3.1.1 12,15 .0 2,7 ]tetracosa-1(22),2(7),3,5,12(24),13,19(23),20-octaene- 9,11,11-trione To a solution of 2-(2-isopropyl-6-(6-(2-(3-sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethoxy)p yridazin- 4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate C44) (200 mg, 449 µmol) in THF (15 mL) was added TEA (182 mg, 1.80 mmol) and BOP (398 mg, 898 µmol) at 20 °C. The mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 1 h, then DMAP (219 mg, 1.80 mmol) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 1 h. The reaction mixture was adjusted to pH 7 with TFA, and then the mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC (column: Phenomenex Gemini-NX C18, 75mm x 30mm x 3µm; mobile phase: [A: water (0.1%TFA); B: MeCN]; B%: 38%-48%, 7 min), and then by prep-HPLC (column: Waters Xbridge C18, 150mm x 50mm x 10µm; mobile phase: [A: water (10mM NH4HCO3); B: MeCN]; B%: 10%-40%, 10 min) to give the title compound (8.82 mg, 4.59% yield, 99.8% purity by HPLC) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 428.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 +D 2 O) d 8.77 (s, 1H), 7.89 (s, 1H), 7.38 (d, 1H), 7.32 (t, 1H), 7.69 (d, 1H), 6.62 (s, 1H), 6.42 (s, 1H), 4.92 (t, 2H), 4.55 (t, 2H), 3.42 (s, 2H), 3.00-2.90 (m, 1H), 1.15 (d, 6 H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Example 45: 17-methyl-6-(propan-2-yl)-20-oxa-11l⁶-thia-10,12,17,22-tet raaza- tetracyclo[19.3.1.1 12,16 .0 2,7 ]hexacosa-1(24),2(7),3,5,21(25),22-hexaene-9,11,11-tri one To a solution of 2-(2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-(methyl(1-sulfamoylpiperidin-3-yl)ami no)- ethoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate D1) (85 mg, 118 µmol, di-TFA salt) in DCM (40 mL) was added TEA (36 mg, 355 µmol) and BOP (78 mg,177 µmol). The resulting mixture was stirred at 25°C for 1 h. To the mixture was added DMAP (43 mg, 355 µmol) and the mixture was stirred at 25°C for 10 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (0.1% TFA in H 2 O-MeCN) and then by prep-HPLC (column: Waters Xbridge C18, 150mm x 25mm x 5µm; mobile phase: [A: water (10mM NH 4 HCO 3 ), B: MeCN]; B%: 18%-48%, 10 min) to give the title compound (39.2 mg, 70.1% yield, 100% purity on LCMS) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 473.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): d 8.21 (d, 1H), 7.43-7.33 (m, 2H), 7.07 (d, 1H), 6.90 (d, 1H), 6.62 (s, 1H), 4.58-4.39 (m, 2H), 3.91-3.86 (m, 1H), 3.69-3.66 (m, 1H), 3.53-3.48 (m, 2H), 3.17- 3.08 (m, 2H), 3.01-2.97 (m, 2H), 2.84 (t, 1H), 2.69 (t, 1H), 2.51 (s, 3H), 2.11-2.04 (m, 1H), 1.85-1.80 (m, 1H), 1.66-1.50 (m, 2H), 1.26 (d, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Example 46: 6-isopropyl-16,16-dimethyl-9,11,11-trioxo-18-oxa-11l 6 -thia-10,14,15,20- tetrazatetra-cyclo[17.3.1.1 12,15 .0 2,7 ]tetracosa-1(23),2(7),3,5,12(24),13,19,21-octaene-4- carbonitrile To a solution of 2-(4-cyano-2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-methyl-2-(4-sulfamoyl-1H-pyra zol-1- yl)propoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate C46) (0.55 g, 1.11 mmol) in DCM (50 mL) was added TEA (447 mg, 4.42 mmol) and BOP (978 mg, 2.21 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 1 h and then DMAP (540 mg, 4.42 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at 25 °C for another 1 h, then concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (0.1% TFA) and then purified by prep-HPLC (column: Waters Xbridge C18, 150mm x 50mm x 10µm; mobile phase: [A: water (10mM NH4HCO3), B: MeCN]; B%: 10%-40%, 11 min) to give the title compound (114.14 mg, 21.0% yield, 97.7% purity on LCMS) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 480.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): d 8.14 (d, 1H), 7.92 (d, 1H), 7.72 (s, 1H), 7.64 (d, 1H), 7.34 (d, 1H), 6.75 (d, 1H), 6.50 (s, 1H), 4.68-4.55 (m, 2H), 3.69 (s, 2H), 3.18-3.10 (m, 1H), 1.76 (s, 6H), 1.27 (d, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Example 47: 4-(difluoromethoxy)-6-isopropyl-16,16-dimethyl-11,11-dioxo-1 8-oxa- 11l 6 -thia-10,14,15,20-tetrazatetracyclo[17.3.1.1 12,15 .0 2,7 ]tetracosa-1(23),2(7),3,5,12(24), 13,19,21-octaen-9-one To a solution of 2-(4-(difluoromethoxy)-2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-methyl-2-(4-sulfa moyl- 1H-pyrazol-1-yl)propoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate C47) (0.5 g, 928 mmol) in DCM (10 mL) was added dropwise TEA (376 mg, 3.71 mmol) and BOP (821 mg, 1.86 mmol) at 25 °C. After addition, the mixture was stirred at this temperature for 1 h, and then DMAP (454 mg, 3.71 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture at 25 °C. The resulting mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 20 min, then concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) and then purified by prep-HPLC (column: Waters Xbridge C18, 150mm x 25mm x 5mm; mobile phase: [A: water (10mM NH4HCO3), B: MeCN]; B%: 16%-46%, 10 min) to give the title compound (150 mg, 30.4% yield, 98% purity on HPLC) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 521.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 8.04 (d, 1H), 7.97 (d, 1H), 7.72 (s, 1H), 7.12 (d, 1H), 6.80 (d, 1H), 6.72 (s, 1H), 6.54 (t, 1H), 6.50 (s, 1H), 4.63 (s, 2H), 3.62 (s, 2H), 3.07-3.01 (m, 1H), 1.74 (s, 6H), 1.27 (d, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Example 48: 5-fluoro-6-isopropyl-16,16-dimethyl-9,11,11-trioxo-18-oxa-11 l 6 -thia- 10,14,15,20-tetrazatetracyclo[17.3.1.1 12,15 .0 2,7 ]tetracosa-1(23),2(7),3,5,12(24),13,19,21- octaene-4-carbonitrile To a solution of 2-(4-cyano-3-fluoro-2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-methyl-2-(4-sulfamoy l-1H- pyrazol-1-yl)propoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate C48) (0.35 g, 634 µmol, HCl salt) in DCM (100 mL) was added TEA (257 mg, 2.54 mmol) and BOP (561 mg, 1.27 mmol). The solution was stirred at 25 °C for 1 h, then DMAP (232 mg, 1.90 mmol) was added and the solution was stirred at 25 °C for another 1 h. The solution was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) and then prep-HPLC (column: Waters Xbridge C18, 150mm x 25mm x 5µm; mobile phase: [A: water (10mM NH4HCO3), B: MeCN]; B%: 17%-47%, 9 min) to give the title compound (122 mg, 38.3% yield, 99.5% purity on LCMS) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 498.1 (M+H) + (ES+). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ): d 11.85 (br s, 1H), 8.10 (s, 1H), 8.00 (d, 1H), 7.68 (s, 1H), 7.60 (d, 1H), 6.86 (s, 1H), 6.33 (s, 1H), 4.59 (s, 2H), 3.67 (s, 2H), 3.21-3.18 (m, 1H), 1.69 (s, 6H), 1.28 (d, 6H). Example 49: 4-(difluoromethoxy)-5-fluoro-6-isopropyl-16,16-dimethyl-11,1 1-dioxo- 18-oxa-11l 6 -thia-10,14,15,20-tetrazatetracyclo[17.3.1.1 12,15 .0 2,7 ]tetracosa-1(23),2(7),3,5, 12(24),13,19,21-octaen-9-one To a solution of 2-(4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-fluoro-2-isopropyl-6-(2-(2-methyl-2 -(4- sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)propoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate C49) (0.4 g, 592 µmol, 99.3% purity, TFA salt) in DCM (100 mL) was added BOP (524 mg, 1.18 mmol) and TEA (240 mg, 2.37 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 1 h, then concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (0.1% TFA) and then purified by prep-HPLC (column: Waters Xbridge C18, 150mm x 50mm x 10µm; mobile phase: [A: water (10mM NH4HCO3), B: MeCN]; B%: 18%-48%, 10 min) to give the title compound (115 mg, 35.4% yield, 98.7% purity on LCMS) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 539.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD3OD): d 8.22 (s, 1H), 7.97 (d, 1H), 7.68 (s, 1H), 6.95 (d, 1H), 6.68 (m, 1H), 6.76 (d, 1H), 6.51 (s, 1H), 4.60 (s, 2H), 3.54 (s, 2H), 3.17-3.14 (m, 1H), 1.79 (s, 6H), 1.39 (d, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Example 50: 4-fluoro-6-isopropyl-N,N,16,16-tetramethyl-9,11,11-trioxo-18 -oxa-11l 6 - thia-10,15,20,24-tetrazatetracyclo[17.3.1.1 12,15 .0 2,7 ]tetracosa-1(23),2(7),3,5,12(24),13,19, 21-octaene-13-carboxamide To a solution of 2-(2-(2-(2-(4-(dimethylcarbamoyl)-3-sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-y l)-2- methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-4-fluoro-6-isopropylphenyl)aceti c acid (Intermediate C50) (150 mg, 222 µmol, TFA salt) in DCM (60 mL) was added TEA (84 mg, 833 µmol) and BOP (147 mg, 333 µmol), and then the mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 1 h. To the mixture was added DMAP (102 mg, 833 µmol) and the resulting mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 12 h. The reaction mixture was quenched with H 2 O (10 mL) and then adjusted with 0.5 M aq HCl to pH 6. The layers were separated and the organic phase was washed with brine (30 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC (column: Phenomenex Gemini NX- C18, 75mm x 30mm x 3µm; mobile phase: [A: water (10mM NH 4 HCO 3 ), B: MeCN]; B%: 14%-44%, 8 min) to give the title compound (65.1 mg, 53.9% yield, 100% purity on LCMS) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 544.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): d 8.17 (d, 1H), 8.02 (s, 1H), 7.09 (d, 1H), 6.86 (d, 1H), 6.75 (d, 1H), 6.33 (s, 1H), 4.65 (s, 2H), 3.42 (s, 2H), 3.05-2.97 (m, 7H), 1.71 (s, 6H), 1.23 (d, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Example 51: 6-isopropyl-4-(methoxymethyl)-16,16-dimethyl-11,11-dioxo-18- oxa-11l 6 - thia-10,14,15,20-tetrazatetracyclo[17.3.1.1 12,15 .0 2,7 ]tetracosa-1(23),2(7),3,5,12(24),13,19, 21-octaen-9-one To a solution of 2-(2-isopropyl-4-(methoxymethyl)-6-(2-(2-methyl-2-(4-sulfamo yl-1H- pyrazol-1-yl)propoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate C51) (0.4 g, 774 mmol) in DCM (50 mL) was added TEA (431.0 mL, 3.10 mmol) and BOP (685 mg, 1.55 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 1 h, then DMAP (378 mg, 3.10 mmol) was added. The resulting mixture was stirred at 25 °C for another 1 h, then concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) and then purified by prep-HPLC (column: Waters Xbridge C18, 150mm x 25mm x 5mm; mobile phase: [A: water (10mM NH4HCO3), B: MeCN]; B%: 7%-43%, 9 min) to give the title compound (133 mg, 34.0% yield, 99% purity on LCMS) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 499.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): d 8.16 (s, 1H), 7.89 (d, 1H), 7.66 (s, 1H), 7.35 (s, 1H), 6.94 (s, 1H), 6.73 (d, 1H), 6.50 (s, 1H), 4.61 (s, 2H), 4.45 (s, 2H), 3.60 (s, 2H), 3.38 (s, 3H), 3.11-3.04 (m, 1H), 1.77 (s, 6H), 1.25 (d, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Example 52: 5-fluoro-6-isopropyl-4-(methoxymethyl)-16,16-dimethyl-11,11- dioxo-18- oxa-11l 6 -thia-10,14,15,20-tetrazatetracyclo[17.3.1.1 12,15 .0 2,7 ]tetracosa-1(23),2(7),3,5, 12(24),13,19,21-octaen-9-one To a solution of 2-(3-fluoro-2-isopropyl-4-(methoxymethyl)-6-(2-(2-methyl-2-( 4- sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)propoxy)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate C52) (320 mg, 599 µmol) in DCM (5 mL) was added dropwise TEA (242 mg, 2.39 mmol) and BOP (529 mg, 1.20 mmol) at 25 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 1 h, then DMAP (146 mg, 1.20 mmol) was added at 25 °C and the resulting mixture was stirred for 1 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) then prep-HPLC (column: Phenomenex Gemini-NX C18, 75mm x 30mm x 3µm; mobile phase: [A: water (10mM NH 4 HCO 3 ), B: MeCN]; B%: 12%-42%, 8 min) to give the title compound (98.9 mg, 31.9% yield) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 517.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6): d 8.10 (s, 1H), 7.97 (d, 1H), 7.65 (s, 1H), 7.00 (d, 1H), 6.80-6.75 (m, 1H), 6.33 (s, 1H), 4.55 (s, 2H), 4.43 (s, 2H), 3.49 (s, 2H), 3.30 (s, 3H), 3.10-3.03 (m, 1H), 1.68 (s, 6H), 1.26 (d, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Example 53: 4,13-difluoro-6-isopropyl-16,16-dimethyl-14-[(4-methylpipera zin-1-yl)- methyl]-11,11-dioxo-18-oxa-11l 6 -thia-10,15,20,24-tetrazatetracyclo[17.3.1.1 12,15 .0 2,7 ]- tetracosa-1(23),2(7),3,5,12(24),13,19,21-octaen-9-one

To a solution of 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-(2-(4-fluoro-5-((4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)met hyl)-3- sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-6-i sopropylphenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate C53) (120 mg, 163 µmol, TFA salt) in THF (15 mL) was added TEA (66 mg, 653 µmol) and BOP (144 mg, 327 µmol). The mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 1 h, then DMAP (80 mg, 653 µmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 2 h, then concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) and then prep-HPLC (column: Phenomenex Gemini-NX C18, 75mm x 30mm x 3µm; mobile phase: [A: water (10mM NH 4 HCO 3 ), B: MeCN]; B%: 18%-48%, 8 min) to give the title compound (9.12 mg, 9.26% yield, 99.9% purity on HPLC) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 603.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 12.22 (br s, 1H), 7.97 (s, 1H), 7.05 (dd, 1H), 6.77 (s, 1H), 6.69 (dd, 1H), 6.40 (s, 1H), 3.83-3.58 (m, 6H), 3.13-2.80 (m, 12H), 1.80 (s, 6H), 1.24 (d, 6H). Example 54: 4,13-difluoro-6-isopropyl-16,16-dimethyl-14-(4-methylpiperaz ine-1- carbonyl)-11,11-dioxo-18-oxa-11l 6 -thia-10,15,20,24-tetrazatetracyclo[17.3.1.1 12,15 .0 2,7 ]- tetracosa-1(23),2(7),3,5,12(24),13,19,21-octaen-9-one To a solution of 1-(1-((4-(2-(carboxymethyl)-5-fluoro-3-isopropylphenyl)pyrid in-2-yl)- oxy)-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-4-fluoro-3-sulfamoyl-1H-pyrazole-5 -carboxylic acid (Intermediate C54) (0.13 g, 235 µmol) in DCM (40 mL) was added TEA (95 mg, 941 µmol) and BOP (208 mg, 471 µmol). The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 1 h, then DMAP (86 mg, 706 µmol) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred for another 1 h to achieve cyclisation. To the mixture was added TEA (45 mg, 449 µmol) and BOP (199 mg, 449 µmol) and the mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 10 min. Next 1-methyl- piperazine (45 mg, 449 µmol) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 20 min, then concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) and further purified by prep-HPLC (column: Waters Xbridge C18, 150mm x 25mm x 5µm; mobile phase: [A: water (10mM NH4HCO3), B: MeCN]; B%: 10%-43%, 9 min) to give the title compound (27.3 mg, 19.3% yield, 98.1% purity on LCMS) as a white a solid. LCMS: m/z 617.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD3OD): d 8.19 (d, 1H), 7.09-7.06 (m, 1H), 6.88 (dd, 1H), 6.74-6.72 (m, 1H), 6.22 (s, 1H), 4.99-4.91 (m, 1H), 4.28-4.25 (m, 1H), 3.88-3.60 (m, 5H), 3.29-3.08 (m, 2H), 2.75-2.69 (m, 4H), 2.45 (s, 3H), 1.78-1.73 (m, 3H), 1.62-1.60 (m, 3H), 1.27-1.21 (m, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Example 55: 4,13-difluoro-6-isopropyl-16,16-dimethyl-14-(morpholinomethy l)-11,11- dioxo-18-oxa-11l 6 -thia-10,15,20,24-tetrazatetracyclo[17.3.1.1 12,15 .0 2,7 ]tetracosa- 1(23),2(7),3,5,12(24),13,19,21-octaen-9-one To a solution of 2-(4-fluoro-2-(2-(2-(4-fluoro-5-(morpholinomethyl)-3-sulfamo yl-1H- pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methylpropoxy)pyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylpheny l)acetic acid (Intermediate C55) (0.1 g, 165 µmol) in THF (15 mL) was added TEA (67 mg, 658 µmol) and BOP (146 mg, 329 µmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 0.5 h, then DMAP (80 mg, 658 µmol) was added. The resulting mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 12 h, then concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC (column: Phenomenex Gemini-NX C18, 75mm x 30mm x 3µm; mobile phase: [A: water (10mM NH4HCO3); B: MeCN]; B%: 16%-46%, 8min) to give the title compound (15.8 mg, 16.0% yield) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 590.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD3OD): d 8.14 (d, 1H), 7.09 (dd, 1H), 6.85 (d, 1H), 6.74 (dd, 1H), 6.24 (s, 1H), 4.81-4.75 (m, 2H), 3.69-3.66 (m, 4H), 3.62-3.59 (m, 2H), 3.50-3.45 (m, 2H), 3.10- 3.00 (m, 1H), 2.50-2.41 (m, 4H), 1.81 (s, 6H), 1.24 (d, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Example 56: 4-fluoro-6-isopropyl-16,16-dimethyl-11,11-dioxo-11l 6 -thia-10,14,15,18, 20-pentazatetracyclo[17.3.1.1 12,15 .0 2,7 ]tetracosa-1(23),2(7),3,5,12(24),13,19,21-octaen-9- one To a solution of 2-(4-fluoro-2-isopropyl-6-(2-((2-methyl-2-(4-sulfamoyl-1H-py razol-1- yl)propyl)amino)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)acetic acid (Intermediate C56) (0.08 g, 133 µmol, TFA salt) in DCM (40 mL) was added TEA (40 mg, 398 µmol) and BOP (117 mg, 265 µmol). The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 1 h, then DMAP (49 mg, 398 µmol) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred for another 0.5 h. The mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by reverse phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) and then prep-HPLC (column: Phenomenex Gemini-NX C18, 75mm x 30mm x 3µm; mobile phase: [A: water (10mM NH4HCO3), B: MeCN]; B%: 10%-40%, 8 min) to give the title compound (19.62 mg, 31.3% yield, 99.7% purity on LCMS) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 472.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD3CN): d 7.96 (s, 1H), 7.80 (d, 1H), 7.65 (s, 1H), 7.09 (dd, 1H), 6.68 (dd, 1H), 6.31 (dd, 1H), 5.74 (br s, 1H), 5.37 (br s, 1H), 3.67-3.58 (m, 4H), 3.15-3.09 (m, 1H), 1.65 (s, 6H), 1.21 (d, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Examples – biological studies NLRP3 and Pyroptosis It is well established that the activation of NLRP3 leads to cell pyroptosis and this feature plays an important part in the manifestation of clinical disease (Yan-gang Liu et al., Cell Death & Disease, 2017, 8(2), e2579; Alexander Wree et al., Hepatology, 2014, 59(3), 898-910; Alex Baldwin et al., Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2016, 59(5), 1691- 1710; Ema Ozaki et al., Journal of Inflammation Research, 2015, 8, 15-27; Zhen Xie & Gang Zhao, Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation, 2014, 1(2), 60-65; Mattia Cocco et al., Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2014, 57(24), 10366-10382; T. Satoh et al., Cell Death & Disease, 2013, 4, e644). Therefore, it is anticipated that inhibitors of NLRP3 will block pyroptosis, as well as the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1b) from the cell. THP-1 Cells: Culture and Preparation THP-1 cells (ATCC # TIB-202) were grown in RPMI containing L-glutamine (Gibco #11835) supplemented with 1mM sodium pyruvate (Sigma # S8636) and penicillin (100units/ml) / streptomycin (0.1mg/ml) (Sigma # P4333) in 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) (Sigma # F0804). The cells were routinely passaged and grown to confluency (~10 6 cells/ml). On the day of the experiment, THP-1 cells were harvested and resuspended into RPMI medium (without FBS). The cells were then counted and viability (>90%) checked by Trypan blue (Sigma # T8154). Appropriate dilutions were made to give a concentration of 625,000cells/ml. To this diluted cell solution was added LPS (Sigma # L4524) to give a 1µg/ml Final Assay Concentration (FAC).40µl of the final preparation was aliquoted into each well of a 96-well plate. The plate thus prepared was used for compound screening. THP-1 Cells Pyroptosis Assay The following method step-by-step assay was followed for compound screening. 1. Seed THP-1 cells (25,000cells/well) containing 1.0µg/ml LPS in 40µl of RPMI medium (without FBS) in 96-well, black walled, clear bottom cell culture plates coated with poly-D-lysine (VWR # 734-0317) 2. Add 5µl compound (8 points half-log dilution, with 10µM top dose) or vehicle (DMSO 0.1% FAC) to the appropriate wells 3. Incubate for 3hrs at 37°C, 5% CO2 4. Add 5µl nigericin (Sigma # N7143) (FAC 5µM) to all wells 5. Incubate for 1hr at 37°C, 5% CO 2 6. At the end of the incubation period, spin plates at 300xg for 3mins and remove supernatant 7. Then add 50µl of resazurin (Sigma # R7017) (FAC 100 µM resazurin in RPMI medium without FBS) and incubate plates for a further 1-2hrs at 37°C and 5% CO 2 8. Plates were read in an Envision reader at Ex 560nm and Em 590nm 9. IC50 data is fitted to a non-linear regression equation (log inhibitor vs response- variable slope 4-parameters) 96-well Plate Map The results of the pyroptosis assay are summarised in Table 1 below as THP IC 50 . Human Whole Blood IL-1b Release Assay For systemic delivery, the ability to inhibit NLRP3 when the compounds are present within the bloodstream is of great importance. For this reason, the NLRP3 inhibitory activity of a number of compounds in human whole blood was investigated in accordance with the following protocol. Human whole blood in Li-heparin tubes was obtained from healthy donors from a volunteer donor panel. 1. Plate out 80µl of whole blood containing 1µg/ml of LPS in 96-well, clear bottom cell culture plate (Corning # 3585) 2. Add 10µl compound (8 points half-log dilution with 10µM top dose) or vehicle (DMSO 0.1% FAC) to the appropriate wells 3. Incubate for 3hrs at 37°C, 5% CO2 4. Add 10µl nigericin (Sigma # N7143) (10µM FAC) to all wells 5. Incubate for 1hr at 37°C, 5% CO 2 6. At the end of the incubation period, spin plates at 300xg for 5mins to pellet cells and remove 20µl of supernatant and add to 96-well v-bottom plates for IL-1b analysis (note: these plates containing the supernatants can be stored at -80°C to be analysed at a later date) 7. IL-1b was measured according to the manufacturer protocol (Perkin Elmer- AlphaLisa IL-1 Kit AL220F-5000) 8. IC 50 data is fitted to a non-linear regression equation (log inhibitor vs response- variable slope 4-parameters) The results of the human whole blood assay are summarised in Table 1 below as HWB IC 50 . Table 1: NLRP3 inhibitory activity (£0.1µM = ‘+++++’, £0.5µM = ‘++++’, £1 µM = ‘+++’, £5 µM = ‘++’, £10 µM = ‘+’, not determined = ‘ND’). As is evident from the results presented in Table 1, surprisingly in spite of the structural differences versus the prior art compounds, the compounds of the invention show high levels of NLRP3 inhibitory activity in the pyroptosis assay and in the human whole blood assay. It will be understood that the present invention has been described above by way of example only. The examples are not intended to limit the scope of the invention. Various modifications and embodiments can be made without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention, which is defined by the following claims only.